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Sample records for male mealworm beetles

  1. Female Choice Reveals Terminal Investment in Male Mealworm Beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a Repeated Activation of the Immune System

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, MJ; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  2. Quantity estimation based on numerical cues in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor

    Pau eCarazo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a biologically relevant experimental procedure to ask whether mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor are spontaneously capable of assessing quantities based on numerical cues. Like other insect species, mealworm beetles adjust their reproductive behaviour (i.e. investment in mate guarding according to the perceived risk of sperm competition (i.e. probability that a female will mate with another male. To test whether males have the ability to estimate numerosity based on numerical cues, we staged matings between virgin females and virgin males in which we varied the number of rival males the experimental male had access to immediately preceding mating as a cue to sperm competition risk (from 1 to 4. Rival males were presented sequentially, and we controlled for continuous cues by ensuring that males in all treatments were exposed to the same amount of male-male contact. Males exhibited a marked increase in the time they devoted to mate guarding in response to an increase in the number of different rival males they were exposed to. Since males could not rely on continuous cues we conclude that they kept a running tally of the number of individuals they encountered serially, which meets the requirements of the basic ordinality and cardinality principles of proto-counting. Our results thus offer good evidence of ‘true’ numerosity estimation or quantity estimation and, along with recent studies in honey-bees, suggest that vertebrates and invertebrates share similar core systems of non-verbal numerical representation.

  3. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Modulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields on duration of mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor metamorphosis stage].

    Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.

  7. Trade-off between cellular immunity and life span in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor

    Indrikis KRAMS, Janīna DAUKŠTE, Inese KIVLENIECE, Ants KAASIK, Tatjana KRAMA, Todd M. REEBERG, Markus J. RANTALA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a nonspecific, cellular response through which insects defend themselves against multicellular pathogens. During this immune reaction, haemocytes recognize an object as foreign and cause other haemocytes to aggregate and form a capsule around the object, often consisting of melanized cells. The process of melanisation is accompanied by the formation of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species, which can kill not only pathogens but also host cells. In this study we tested whether the encapsulation response is costly in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor. We found a negative relationship between the duration of implantation via a nylon monofilament and remaining life span. We also found a negative relationship between the strength of immune response and remaining life span, suggesting that cellular immunity is costly in T. molitor, and that there is a trade-off between immune response and remaining life span. However, this relationship disappeared at 31-32 hours of implantation at 25 ± 2℃. As the disappearance of a relationship between duration of implantation and lifespan coincided with the highest values of encapsulation response, we concluded that the beetles stopped investment in the production of melanotic cells, as the implant, a synthetic parasite, was fully isolated from the host’s tissues [Current Zoology 59 (3: 340–346, 2013].

  8. Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae.

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of stereoisomers of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae through dietary exposure was investigated. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method that use a ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulosetris-Tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] chromatography column was applied to carry out chiral separation of the stereoisomers. Wheat bran was spiked with racemic epoxiconazole at two dose levels of 20mg/kg and 2mg/kg (dry weight) to feed T. molitor larvae. The results showed that both the doses of epoxiconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor larvae rapidly at the initial stages. There was a significant trend of stereoselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-epoxiconazole in the 20mg/kg dose. The stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation in the 2mg/kg dosage was not obvious compared to the 20mg/kg group. Results of excretion indicated an active excretion is an important pathway for the larvae to eliminate epoxiconazole which was a passive transport process with non stereoselectivity. The faster elimination might be the reason for the low accumulation of epoxiconazole, as measured by bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "Trans-generational immune priming": specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-06-07

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph.

  10. ‘Trans-generational immune priming’: specific enhancement of the antimicrobial immune response in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Moret, Yannick

    2006-01-01

    Encounters with parasites and pathogens are often unpredictable in time. However, experience of an infection may provide the host with reliable cues about the future risk of infection for the host itself or for its progeny. If the parental environment predicts the quality of the progeny's environment, then parents may further enhance their net reproductive success by differentially providing their offspring with phenotypes to cope with potential hazards such as pathogen infection. Here, I test for the occurrence of such an adaptive transgenerational phenotypic plasticity in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. A pathogenic environment was mimicked by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides for two generations of insects. I found that parental challenge enhanced offspring immunity through the inducible production of antimicrobial peptides in the haemolymph. PMID:16777729

  11. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle

    Dubuffet, Aurore; Zanchi, Caroline; Boutet, Gwendoline; Moreau, Jérôme; Teixeira, Maria; Moret, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called “Trans-generational immune priming” (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations. PMID:26430786

  12. Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle.

    Aurore Dubuffet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called "Trans-generational immune priming" (TGIP are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.

  13. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): cuticular melanization is an indicator of investment in immunity.

    Barnes, A I; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2000-01-01

    If there are costs involved with the maintenance of pathogen resistance, then higher investment in this trait is expected when the risk of pathogenesis is high. One situation in which the risk of pathogenesis is elevated is at increased conspecific density. This paper reports the results of a study of density-dependent polyphenism in pathogen resistance and immune function in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Beetles reared at high larval densities showed lower mortality when exposed to a generalist entomopathogenic fungus and a higher degree of cuticular melanization than those reared solitarily. The degree of cuticular melanization was a strong indicator of resistance, with darker beetles being more resistant than lighter ones regardless of rearing density. No differences were found between rearing densities in the levels of phenoloxidase, an enzyme key to the insect immune response. The results show that pathogen resistance is phenotypically plastic in T. molitor, suggesting that the maintenance of this trait is costly. PMID:10687824

  14. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium and zinc in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae exposed to metal-contaminated flour.

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Świątek, Zuzanna

    2016-11-01

    By studying the internal compartmentalization of metals in different subcellular fractions we are able to better understand the mechanisms of metal accumulation in organisms and the transfer of metals through trophic chains. We investigated the internal compartmentalization of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae by breeding them in flour contaminated with either Cd at 100, 300 and 600mgkg(-1), or Zn at 1000 and 2000mgkg(-1). We separated the cellular components of the larvae into 3 fractions: the S1 or cytosolic fraction containing organelles, heat-sensitive and heat-stable proteins, the S2 or cellular debris fraction and the G or metal-rich granule fraction. The concentration of Cd and Zn in each fraction was measured at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of being fed the flour. The concentration of Cd in the flour affected the concentration of Cd measured in each larval subcellular fraction (p≤0.0001), while the concentration of Zn in the flour only affected the Zn concentration in the S2 and G fractions (p≤0.02). Both Cd and Zn concentrations in mealworms remained relatively constant during the exposure (days 7, 14 and 21) in all three fractions, but the Cd concentrations were much higher than those found in larvae before the exposure (day 0). The concentration of Cd in the flour, however, did not affect the percentage of Cd in the S1 fraction. The contribution of Cd in the G fraction to the total Cd amount was similar (30-40%) in all Cd treatments. The percentage of Zn in all three fractions was not affected by the concentration of Zn in the flour and the relative contributions of each subcellular fraction to the total burden of Zn remained generally constant for both control and treated larvae. In general, larvae sequestered approximately 30% of Cd and Zn in the S1 fraction, which is important for the transport of metals to higher trophic levels in a food web. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  16. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  17. Endocrine disruption of sexual selection by an estrogenic herbicide in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    McCallum, Malcolm L; Matlock, Makensey; Treas, Justin; Safi, Barroq; Sanson, Wendy; McCallum, Jamie L

    2013-12-01

    The role that endocrine disruption could play in sexual selection remains relatively untested, and although estrogens occur in insects, little information exists about their biological role in insect reproduction. Atrazine is a commonly applied herbicide that mimics estrogen in vertebrates. Tenebrio molitor were raised from egg to adult under a gradation of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures and a non-treated control. Atrazine was delivered in the drinking water ad libitum. Female T. molitor were provided with a choice between unrelated males raised under three levels of atrazine exposures. Female preference for males demonstrated a non-monotonic inverted U-shaped response to atrazine exposure. There was no significant difference between the control and the high exposure to atrazine. Excluding the control, female preference increased as exposure concentration increased. These results have important repercussions for nonlethal effects of endocrine disruption on populations, their capacity to interfere with sexual selection, and the role of estrogen in pheromone communication among insects.

  18. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae).

    Neupert, Susanne; Marciniak, Pawel; Köhler, Rene; Nachman, Ronald J; Suh, Charles P-C; Predel, Reinhard

    2018-03-01

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs. With the differential processing of the CAPA-precursor in Z. atratus we found a perfect example of completely different products cleaved from a single neuropeptide precursor in different cells. The CAPA precursor in abdominal ganglia of this species yields primarily periviscerokinins (PVKs) whereas processing of the same precursor in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion results in CAPA-tryptoPK and a novel CAPA-PK. Particularly important was the detection of that CAPA-PK which has never been observed in the CNS of insects before. The three different types of CAPA peptides (CAPA-tryptoPK, CAPA-PK, PVK) each represent potential ligands which activate different receptors. In contrast to the processing of the CAPA precursor from Z. atratus, no indications of a differential processing of the CAPA precursor were found in A. g. grandis. These data suggest that rapid evolutionary changes regarding the processing of CAPA precursors were still going on when the different beetle lineages diverged. The sequence of the single known PVK of A. g. grandis occupies a special position within the known PVKs of insects and might serve asa basis to develop lineage-specific peptidomimetics capable of disrupting physiological processes regulated by PVKs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  20. THE ALLEGED OCCURRENCE OF ADRENALIN IN THE MEALWORM

    Gregerman, Robert I.; Wald, George

    1952-01-01

    Wense has reported the isolation of crystalline adrenalin from larvae of the beetle Tenebrio molitor. An attempt to repeat his procedures failed to yield any evidence of adrenalin. Analysis of mealworm extracts by paper chromatography and colorimetric means also yielded no indication of adrenalin, though adrenalin added to mealworms can be detected by these procedures in amounts less than 1 mg. per 100 gm. Mealworm extracts reveal on the paper chromatogram the presence of two other orthodiphenols, neither of which appears to be dopa but which may be 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, compounds recently isolated elsewhere from this organism. PMID:14898031

  1. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  2. Meet the Mealworms

    Staller, Teena

    2005-01-01

    Engaging fourth-grade students in hands-on science was easy when a container of mealworms arrived the second week of school. The author's naturally curious students immediately began asking questions, and soon they were eagerly investigating animal characteristics and behavior. But, the journey did not stop there. After students tested mealworms…

  3. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  4. Rapid diversification of male genitalia and mating strategies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

    Takami, Y; Sota, T

    2007-07-01

    We analysed evolutionary diversification and covariation in male genitalia and four mating traits related to sexual selection, i.e. testis size, spermatophore size, copulation duration and post-copulatory guarding duration, in Ohomopterus ground beetles using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Male genital size and mating duration have evolved more rapidly than body size and the other traits studied. Male genital size was negatively correlated with copulation duration, suggesting that elongated male genitalia may enable decreased time investment in a single copulation because it is more effective at facilitating spermatophore deposition. Male genital size was positively correlated with spermatophore size, suggesting coevolution between offensive and defensive male mating tactics because the elongated male genitalia may be advantageous in displacement of rivals' plug-like spermatophores, and decreased mating duration may intensify sperm competition. Thus, the remarkable diversity of male genitalia in Ohomopterus may have been facilitated by the interplay between inter- and intrasexual selection processes.

  5. Rhinoceros beetles suffer male-biased predation by mammalian and avian predators.

    Kojima, Wataru; Sugiura, Shinji; Makihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-03-01

    Male sexually-selected traits often impose an increased risk of predation on their bearers, causing male-biased predation. We investigated whether males of the sap-feeding Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus were more susceptible to predation than females by comparing the morphology of beetles caught in bait traps with the remains of beetles found on the ground. The males of this species are larger than the females and have a horn on the head. We found that predation pressure was greater for males than for females, and that larger individuals of both sexes were more vulnerable to predation. We identified two predators, the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides and jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos, by monitoring sap-site trees with infrared video cameras. Raccoon dogs visited sap-site trees at night, while crows came after daybreak. The highest frequency of visits by both predators was observed in the first half of August, which matches the peak season of T. dichotomus. Raccoon dogs often left bite marks on the remains of prey, whereas crows did not. Bite marks were found on most of the remains collected at two distant localities, which suggested that predation by raccoon dogs is common. Size- and sex-dependent differences in the conspicuousness and active period of T. dichotomus probably explain these biased predation patterns. Our results suggest that having a large horn/body is costly in terms of the increased risk of predation. Predation cost may act as a stabilizing selection pressure against the further exaggeration of male sexual traits.

  6. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  7. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  8. BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, THE "BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS." BY MAKING CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS AND PERFORMING SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, THE CHILDREN LEARN HOW TO APPROACH A PROBLEM, HOW TO INTERPRET AND EVALUATE DATA, AND, IN GENERAL, HOW TO CONDUCT A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. THE MATERIALS HAVE…

  9. Female burying beetles benefit from male desertion: sexual conflict and counter-adaptation over parental investment.

    Giuseppe Boncoraglio

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.

  10. Female Burying Beetles Benefit from Male Desertion: Sexual Conflict and Counter-Adaptation over Parental Investment

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence. PMID:22355390

  11. Male mate recognition via cuticular hydrocarbons facilitates sexual isolation between sympatric leaf beetle sister species.

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Huai-Jun; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Jie; Li, Wen-Zhu; Nie, Rui-E; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Chemical signals in insects have been documented to play an important role in mate recognition, and divergence in chemical signals can often cause sexual isolation between closely related species or populations within species. We investigated the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), short distance chemical signals, in male mate recognition between the two sympatric elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and Pyrrhaltaaenescens. Mating experiments demonstrated that strong sexual isolation between the two species was driven by CHCs divergence. Males preferred to mate with conspecific females with intact conspecific CHCs or conspecific CHCs reapplied after removal. Males also preferred heterospecific females that were treated with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis showed that the CHC profiles differ significantly between species. In P. maculicollis dimethyl-branched alkanes between C29 and C35 account for the majority of the saturated alkanes while the CHC profile of P. aenescens mostly consisted of monomethyl-branched alkanes between C22 and C29. Additionally, some compounds, such as 12,18-diMeC32, 12,18-diMeC34, are unique to P. maculicollis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Weliton D Silva

    Full Text Available We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard, a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  14. QTL for the species-specific male and female genital morphologies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

    Sasabe, Masataka; Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2010-12-01

    Animals with internal fertilization often exhibit marked diversification in genital morphology among closely related species. However, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying genital evolution is still limited. We constructed genetic linkage maps and analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for F(2) hybrids of two closely related species of the carabid beetles Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) maiyasanus, which show matching male and female genital shapes within species, but marked differences in genital morphologies between species. The linkage maps comprised both amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Composite interval mapping to detect QTL for three traits of male copulatory piece (length, width, weight) and two traits for female vaginal appendix (length, width) resulted in the detection of one to five significant QTL for each trait. The QTL explained large proportions of phenotypic variance. Thus, the interspecific difference in the genital morphologies appeared to be determined by relatively small numbers of genes with large genetic effects. QTL of different traits for the same or different sexes co-occurred on five of eight linkage groups with significant QTL; in particular, three QTL for different male and female genital traits occurred almost at the same position. Each of the male genital traits showed uniform signs of additive genetic effects, suggesting that directional selection has led to species-specific morphologies. However, the signs of additive genetic effects in each female genital trait were not uniform, suggesting that coevolution between sexes is not necessarily concerted. This result requires further assessment because the sample size of F(2) females was small. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A new biological recovery approach for PHA using mealworm, Tenebrio molitor.

    Murugan, Paramasivam; Han, Lizhu; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2016-12-10

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection increases the value of nuptial gifts, and hence male reproductive success, in the Hymenolepis diminuta-Tenebrio molitor association.

    Hurd, Hilary; Ardin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During copulation, male insects pass accessory gland components to the female with the spermatophore. These gifts can affect female reproductive behaviour, ovulation and oviposition. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, mated with males infected with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, produced significantly more offspring than those mated with uninfected males. There is a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity in the male and reproductive output in the female. Infection results in a significant increase in bean-shaped accessory gland (BAG) size. We suggest that infected males pass superior nuptial gifts to females and discuss the confounding effects of infection in male and female beetles upon overall fitness costs of infection for the host and the likelihood that the parasite is manipulating host investment in reproduction. PMID:14667373

  17. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  18. Effects of weak electromagnetic irradiation on various types of behavior in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Sheiman, I M; Kreshchenko, N D

    2010-10-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic irradiation on simple forms of behavior were studied using adult Tenebrio molitor mealworms. The beetles' motor behavior was studied in conditions of different motivations, i.e., positive (food) and negative (avoidance of light), in otherwise identical experimental conditions. The beetles had to navigate a defined space to reach their target - potato or cover from light. Experiments consisted of one trial per day for five days. Target attainment time was measured in groups of beetles. Behavior in both cases developed as follows: an initial orientation reaction appeared and was followed by adaptation to the apparatus. Exposure to weak electromagnetic irradiation led to increases in the response time at the initial stages of the experiments. The effects of irradiation were seasonal in nature and differed in the two types of behavior.

  19. Pass the Mealworms, Please: Using Mealworms to Develop Science Process Skills

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Bailer, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Mealworms, yum yum! Insects are an exciting way for middle school students to acquire science process skills. A teacher eating a mealworm will certainly capture the attention of students, and explaining the common practice of insect eating among people in other countries is a great way to include culture in a science lesson. This article provides…

  20. Interdisciplinary Outdoor Education, Behavior of Mealworms.

    Knaack, Janey

    This manual is intended for use by second grade teachers as a guide for 35 activities for the study of the behavior of mealworms. The activities are intended to help instill in pupils a joy and excitement for inquiry and experimentation, plus an appreciation and understanding of basic scientific methods. Introductory subject material includes a…

  1. Senescence in immune priming and attractiveness in a beetle.

    Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, M J; Krams, I

    2012-07-01

    Age-related decline in immune activity is referred to as immunosenescence and has been observed for both the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and the innate immune system of invertebrates. Because maintaining a basic level of immune defence and mounting an immune response is costly, optimal investment in immune function should vary over a wide range of individual states such as the individual's age. In this study, we tested whether the immune response and immunological priming within individuals become less efficient with age using mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as a model organism. We also tested whether ageing and immunological priming affected the odours produced by males. We found that young males of T. molitor were capable of mounting an immune response a sterile nylon monofilament implant with the potential to exhibit a simple form of immune memory through mechanisms of immune priming. Older males did not increase their immune response to a second immune challenge, which negatively affected their sexual attractiveness and remaining life span. Our results indicate that the immune system of older males in T. molitor is less effective, suggesting complex evolutionary trade-offs between ageing, immune response and sexual attractiveness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  3. Mealworms for Food: A Water Footprint Perspective

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have explored the possibility of substituting traditional meat products with an alternative source of protein (insects in order to reduce human pressure on water. Insects, in fact, could represent a good alternative source of quality proteins and nutrients and they are already a very popular component of the diet of one third of the world’s population in approximately 80% of countries. In the study, we have taken into account only two species of edible insects (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio mealworms, because they are already commercially produced even in Western countries, and for this reason it is possible to find specific data in literature about their diets. We have used the water footprint (WF as a reliable indicator to calculate the volume of water required for production and to compare different products. The final aim of the work is, in fact, to evaluate the WF of the production of edible insects with a focus on water consumption associated with protein content, in order to make a comparison with other animal protein sources. We have demonstrated that, from a freshwater resource perspective, it is more efficient to obtain protein through mealworms rather than other traditional farmed animals.

  4. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  5. Is mealworm or shrimp allergy indicative for food allergy to insects?

    Broekman, H.C.H.P.; Knulst, A.C.; Jong, G. de; Gaspari, M.; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Houben, G.F.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a

  6. Transmission of Salmonella to broilers by contaminated larval and adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Roche, A J; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Fairchild, B D; Hinkle, N C

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit marker Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to nonchallenged pen mates. In trial 1, day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged with 4 larval or 4 adult beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 72 h. In addition, chicks were gavaged with the marker Salmonella in saline solution. These chicks were then placed into pens to serve as challenged broilers. In trial 2, all pens received 2 challenged chicks that were gavaged with larvae or beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 24 h and then removed from the inoculated feed for a period of 7 d. At 3 wk of age, cecal samples from the marker Salmonella-challenged broilers and from 5 pen mates in trial 1, or 10 pen mates in trial 2, were evaluated for the presence of the marker Salmonella in their ceca, and at 6 wk of age, all remaining pen mates were sampled. To monitor the presence of the marker Salmonella within pens, stepped-on drag swab litter samples were taken weekly. For the Salmonella-saline pens, 29 to 33% of the broilers that had been challenged and 10 to 55% of the pen mates were positive at 3 wk of age, and only 2 to 6% had positive ceca at 6 wk. For the pens challenged with adult beetles, 0 to 57% of the challenged broilers and 20 to 40% of the pen mates had positive ceca at 3 wk, and 4 to 7% were positive at 6 wk. The pens challenged with larvae had the greatest percentage of marker Salmonella-positive broilers; 25 to 33% of the challenged broilers and 45 to 58% of pen mates were positive at 3 wk, and 11 to 27% were positive at 6 wk. These results demonstrated that ingestion of larval or adult beetles contaminated with a marker Salmonella could be a significant vector for transmission to broilers.

  7. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  8. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  9. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  10. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  11. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  12. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Male Sterilization and Structure of the Male Reproductive Accessory Glands of the Khapra Beetle Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    Abdel-Kawy, F.K.; El-Naggar, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the male reproductive ability of Trogoderma Granarium Everts as regards to sterilization and structural changes in the accessory glands due to gamma radiation were studied. The reproductive ability of males irradiated as full grown pupae and mated with normal females was dose-dependent. A dose 100 Gy increased sterility of males to about 61.1%, while 200 Gy dose sterilized males completely. The number of eggs per mated female was significantly different from the control. The number of eggs decreased from 51.1 at 50 Gy to 5.9 at 200 Gy. Eclosion and deformity of males irradiated from 50 to 200 Gy seemed to be less affected as compared to the reproductive ability. When full grown male pupae were irradiated with the sterilizing dose, a considerable effect on the structure of accessory glands was observed. The dose 200 Gy caused lysis and damage of all type of secretory cells. The secretory epithelial cells showed abnormal appearance and became separated from each other. The cytoplasm was often shrunk, leaving spaces. The muscular sheaths surrounding the gland and lining its lumen were shrunk and damaged in some parts. The mitochondria and golgi bodies were completely lost. The multi microvilli lining the lumen of the gland disappeared. The basement membrane became loose and acquired irregular appearance in most parts. Intercellular microtubules disappeared completely. The gland generally was greatly damaged and lost its normal structure

  13. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    König, Kerstin; Seeger, Lucy; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group.

  14. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Kerstin König

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group.

  15. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  16. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  17. Rapid biodegradation of plastics by mealworms (larvae of Tenebrio molitor) brings hope to solve wasteplastic pollution

    Wu, W.; Yang, S.; Brandon, A. M.; Yang, Y.; Flanagan, J. A.; Fan, H. Q.; Cai, S. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Din, L. Y.; Daliang, N.; Yang, J.; Ren, J.; Tao, H. C.; Phillips, D.; Ren, N. Q.; Zhou, J.; Waymouth, R.; Criddle, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pollution of waste plastics in soil, river, ocean, landfill and potentially groundwater has been a major environment concern for decades. They include polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE) and others. Plastic particles could penetrate into groundwater and become potential threats to our groundwater Our recent research demonstrated that mealworm (larvae of Tenebrio molitor ), which are commercially used as animal and bird food and insect protein, can biodegrade PS and convert it to CO2 up within 48% within 12-14 hrs in mealworm gut. PS degradation was performed initially via depolymerization and then degradation within the mealworm guts. Gut microbiota plays a major role in PS biodegradation because the degradation is nearly completely inhibited when mealworms were fed with antibiotics. Physical and chemical analysis as well 13C labeled tests confirmed the biodegradation and mineralization of PS. The generality of plastic eating behavior of mealworms and biodegradation has been observed by testing mealworms from 11 different sources in China and the USA. All of the mealworms tested consume PS although at different relative rates. At ambient temperature (20-24 oC), the average daily consumption rate of PS ranged from 0.01 to 0.3 mg per 100 mealworms when fed PS alone. The mealworms also consumed low density polyethylene (LDPE) foam as sole diet. When mealworms were fed PS alone, the consumption rate and total amount consumed increased slightly as a function of temperature from 20 to 30 oC. Supplementing the diet with normal food (bran) enhanced the PS consumption rate and the total PS mass consumed. Microbial community analysis indicated that the microbial structure changed significantly after the diet was switched from normal food bran to PS or PS plus bran. PS-degrading bacterial strains have isolated and characterized. Our discoveries brings hopes to prevent or solve potential microplastics threats to groundwater.

  18. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  19. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  20. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  1. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Endogenous egg immune defenses in the yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    Jacobs, Chris G C; Gallagher, Joe D; Evison, Sophie E F; Heckel, David G; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    In order to survive microbe encounters, insects rely on both physical barriers as well as local and systemic immune responses. Most research focusses on adult or larval defenses however, whereas insect eggs are also in need of protection. Lately, the defense of eggs against microbes has received an increasing amount of attention, be it through endogenous egg defenses, trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) or parental investment. Here we studied the endogenous immune response in eggs and adults of Tenebrio molitor. We show that many immune genes are induced in both adults and eggs. Furthermore, we show that eggs reach comparable levels of immune gene expression as adults. These findings show that the eggs of Tenebrio are capable of an impressive endogenous immune response, and indicate that such inducible egg defenses are likely common in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  4. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  5. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  6. Mate Choice and Copulation Frequency in the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus quadripunctatus (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Effect of Male Body Size and Presence of a Rival

    Seizi Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that there exists a competition between males for mating and that females prefer males with elaborate male traits. Further, such traits are considered to be synonymous with high quality in terms of benefits to females. The number and duration of copulations and the frequency of mate refusal between large and small Nicrophorus quadripunctatus males were examined both for single males and for two males competing. The number of copulations was not affected by the size of the male or by the presence of a rival, but there was a significant interaction such that large males increased their number of copulations when a small rival was present. Copulation duration was not affected by male size but was shortened by a rival male. Females rejected copulation attempts of small males more often than of large males, whether the males were alone or paired with a rival. These results suggest that large males have two advantages: they win contests between males and are preferred by females.

  7. Suitability of microwave drying for mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) as alternative to freeze drying: Impact on nutritional quality and colour.

    Lenaerts, S; Van Der Borght, M; Callens, A; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-07-15

    Freeze drying represents the current practice to stabilize mealworms, even though it is an energy demanding technique. Therefore, it was examined in the present study whether microwave drying could be a proper alternative. To this end, the impact of both drying techniques on the proximate composition, vitamin B 12 content, fatty acid profile, oxidation status and colour parameters of mealworms was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of the application of vacuum during microwave drying was studied. The different drying technologies resulted in small differences in the proximate composition, while the vitamin B 12 content was only reduced by microwave drying. The fat fraction of freeze dried mealworms showed a higher oxidation status than the fat of microwave dried mealworms. Application of a vacuum during the microwave drying process did not appear to offer advantages. This research shows that for mealworms microwave drying can be a proper alternative to freeze drying. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interplay between behavioural thermoregulation and immune response in mealworms.

    Catalán, Tamara P; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Since the preferential body temperature should positively correlate with physiological performance, behavioural fever should enhance an organism's immune response under an immune challenge. Here we have studied the preferential body temperature (T(p)) and its consequences on immune response performance after an immune challenge in larvae of Tenebrio molitor. We evaluated T(p) and immune responses of larvae following a challenge with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we studied the correlation between T(p) and two immune traits, namely antibacterial and phenoloxidase (PO) activities. Larvae that were immune challenged with higher LPS concentrations (C(50) and C(100)) preferred in average, warmer temperatures than did larvae challenged with lower concentrations (C(0) and C(25)). T(p) of C(25)-C(100) (challenged)-mealworms was 2.3°C higher than of C(0) (control) larvae. At lower LPS concentration immune challenge (C(0) and C(25)) antibacterial activity correlated positively with T(p), but at C(50) and C(100) correlation was lose. PO activity was higher at higher LPS concentration, but its magnitude of response did not correlate with T(p) Our data suggest that behavioural fever may have a positive effect on host performance by enhancing antibacterial response under a low pathogen load situation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel case of mealworm-induced occupational rhinitis in a school teacher.

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard

    2002-01-01

    A 47-year-old African American female elementary schoolteacher presented with itchy, watery eyes, rhinorrhea, postnasal drainage, and nasal congestion complicated by recurrent epistaxis for 2 months. She had similar symptoms the previous year from September to May but was symptom free during the summer. Her symptoms began within 1 hour after entering the classroom and improved in the evening at home, on weekends, and vacation. She denied symptoms around dust, freshly cut grass, or pets and had no prior history of underlying allergic rhinitis and asthma. She had a 20-pack-a-year smoking history but quit 1 1/2 years ago. A detailed history of her classroom environment revealed the presence of mealworms that were used to teach the children about life cycles. Physical exam revealed swollen, erythematous nasal turbinates but was otherwise unremarkable. Prick skin testing was positive for oak tree, grasses, feathers, and cockroaches. Mealworm whole body extracts were prepared using standard methodology. Titration intracutaneous skin testing revealed a positive reaction at a 1:1000 concentration associated with a large delayed reaction 8 hours later that persisted for 24 hours. Specific nasal provocation using acoustic rhinometry revealed a dose response change in nasal volume (48% decrease at 1:100; 53% decrease at 1:50) and cross-sectional area (32% decrease at 1:100; 48% decrease at 1:50) in response to mealworm challenge compared with a saline control. Removal of the mealworms from the classroom resulted in complete relief of her symptoms. This is the first reported case of mealworm-induced rhinitis in a schoolteacher. Because mealworm demonstrations are now part of the standard curriculum in public school elementary classrooms in Ohio, it is important that school administrators recognize the sensitizing nature of these insects and their potential for causing allergic rhinitis and asthma in the workplace.

  10. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  11. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  12. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    MALISZEWSKA, Justyna; TĘGOWSKA, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  13. Effect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758).

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Poelaert, Christine; Ernens, Marjorie; Liotta, Marisa; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Tyteca, Eva; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Bindelle, Jérôme; Francis, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. red flour beetle

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  15. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-01-01

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  16. Cloning and baculovirus expression of a desiccation stress gene from the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Walker, V K

    1996-02-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding a novel desiccation stress protein (dsp28) found in the hemolymph of the common yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been determined. The sequence encodes a 225 amino acid protein containing a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Dsp28 shows no significant similarity to any known nucleic acid or protein sequence. Levels of dsp28 mRNA were found to increase approx 5-fold following desiccation. Dsp28 cDNA has been cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the expressed protein was compared to native dsp28. Both dsp28 expressed by recombinant baculovirus and native dsp28 are glycosylated and N-terminally processed. Although dsp28 is induced by cold in addition to desiccation stress, it does not contribute to the freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) observed in Tenebrio hemolymph.

  17. Limonene: attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an Eastern white pine seed orchard in Western North Carolina

    Daniel R. Miller

    2007-01-01

    I report on the attraction of the white pine cone beetle, Canophthorus coniperda (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to traps baited with the host monoterpene limonene in western North Carolina. Both (+)- and (-)-limonene attracted male and female cone beetles to Japenese beetle traps in an eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. seed...

  18. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  19. Isolation of proteolytic bacteria from mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) exoskeletons to produce chitinous material.

    da Silva, Fernanda Kerche Paes; Brück, Dieter W; Brück, Wolfram M

    2017-09-15

    The use of insects as a source of protein is becoming an important factor for feeding an increasing population. After protein extraction for food use, the insect exoskeleton may offer the possibility for the production of added value products. Here, the aim was to isolate bacteria from the surface of farmed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758) for the production of chitinous material from insect exoskeletons using microbial fermentation. Isolates were screened for proteases and acid production that may aid deproteination and demineralisation of insects through fermentation to produce chitin. Selected isolates were used single-step (isolated bacteria only) or two-step fermentations with Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM 20174). Two-step fermentations with isolates from mealworm exoskeletons resulted in a demineralisation of 97.9 and 98.5% from deproteinated mealworm fractions. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that crude chitin was produced. However, further optimisation is needed before the process can be upscaled. This is, to our knowledge, the first report using microbial fermentation for the extraction of chitin from insects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Welfare of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding with regard to nutrition value and food safety

    Anna Adámková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock welfare is an important condition for obtaining high-quality and safe food. According to the legislation edible insects are classified as livestock; and for this reason it is necessary to comply with the edible insect welfare conditions. This article focuses on selected welfare conditions for mealworm (Tenebrio molitor breeding, with special focus on the fat content influenced by different breeding temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 28 °C. Maximum fat content 24.56% was observed at 23 °C. To obtain maximum fat content this appears to be the optimal breeding temperature. Another evaluated aspect was the nutritional stress and a way of killing, and their impact on fat content, which showed to decrease with the nutrient stress. The most decline was detected towards the end of the observation period. The analysis showed that in terms of preservation of the fat content, the best way is killing by freezing, due to the metabolism slowdown. We also analysed the content of heavy metals in a mealworm larvae using cyclic voltammetry with subsequent evaluation. In the measured sample concentrations of heavy metals did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration of heavy metals in this commodity. From this point of view mealworm appears to be a safe food.

  1. Revision of the rhinoceros beetle genus Oryctophileurus Kolbe with description of a new species, the male of O. varicosus Prell, and notes on biogeography (Scarabaeoidea, Dynastinae, Phileurini).

    Perger, Robert; Grossi, Paschoal Coelho

    2013-01-01

    The genus Oryctophileurus is reviewed and its validity is supported by a combination of the following apomorphic characters: a single cephalic horn with lateral carina, pronotal cavity with ocellate punctures and two teeth or tubercles close behind the anterior pronotal margin. The male of Oryctophileurus varicosus Prell, 1934, is described for the first time. A new species, Oryctophileurus guerrai Perger & Grossi sp. n., from subhumid Tucuman-Bolivian forest in the Southern Bolivian Andes is described. The new species is distinguished from its closest relative, O. armicollis Prell, 1911, by a narrower distance between the inner teeth of the dorsal pronotal protuberances and a reduced area of weakly developed ocellate punctures above the posterolateral pronotal margin. The occurrence of Oryctophileurus species in areas of endemism along the eastern slope of the tropical Andes suggests that these populations represent biogeographic "relicts", and the discovery of Oryctophileurus guerrai sp. n. in the southern Bolivian Andes suggests that this area is underrated with respect to insect diversity and endemism.

  2. Revision of the rhinoceros beetle genus Oryctophileurus Kolbe with description of a new species, the male of O. varicosus Prell, and notes on biogeography (Scarabaeoidea, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Robert Perger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Oryctophileurus is reviewed and its validity is supported by a combination of the following apomorphic characters: a single cephalic horn with lateral carina, pronotal cavity with ocellate punctures and two teeth or tubercles close behind the anterior pronotal margin. The male of Oryctophileurus varicosus Prell, 1934, is described for the first time. A new species, Oryctophileurus guerrai Perger & Grossi sp. n., from subhumid Tucuman-Bolivian forest in the Southern Bolivian Andes is described. The new species is distinguished from its closest relative, O. armicollis Prell, 1911, by a narrower distance between the inner teeth of the dorsal pronotal protuberances and a reduced area of weakly developed ocellate punctures above the posterolateral pronotal margin. The occurrence of Oryctophileurus species in areas of endemism along the eastern slope of the tropical Andes suggests that these populations represent biogeographic “relicts”, and the discovery of Oryctophileurus guerrai sp. n. in the southern Bolivian Andes suggests that this area is underrated with respect to insect diversity and endemism.

  3. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  4. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  5. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  6. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  7. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  8. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  9. Evaluations of sampling methods for darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) in the litter of turkey and broiler houses.

    Safrit, R D; Axtell, R C

    1984-12-01

    Materials placed on the litter in turkey and broiler houses were evaluated as sampling devices for the larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm or darkling beetle). Insects harbored in, on, and between pieces of the materials were counted after 1-week exposure. Pan traps consisting of two stacked pieces of 1.3-cm thick foil-covered polyisocyanurate insulation (Celotex) placed under a protective metal pan staked to the litter surface was a more effective sampling device than pan traps using thicker (5 cm) Celotex, 3.8 cm thick polystyrene (Styrofoam), or two stacked pieces of wood. A tube trap consisting of rolled fluted corrugated cardboard inserted in a section of polyvinyl chloride pipe was as effective a sampling device as the two pieces of Celotex in a pan trap and was more convenient to use. Six pieces of corrugated cardboard stacked under a pan caught larger numbers of beetle larvae and adults but was awkward to handle and impractical. Placement of sampling devices in the major subhabitats (open center, near walls, near feeders, and near waterers) in turkey and broiler houses affected catches of beetle larvae and adults. The open center area was satisfactory and most convenient.

  10. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  11. Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)

    Broekhoven, van S.; Mota Gutierrez, J.; Rijk, de T.C.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Insects could provide an alternative and more sustainable source of animal protein compared to conventional livestock. Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) can be grown on diets composed of organic by-products. However, these diets could be contaminated with mycotoxins. Thus far, little is

  12. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from the cuticle of pharate larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor are more soluble at low temperatures than at higher temperatures, a behaviour characteristic of hydrophobic proteins. When the temperature of an unfractionated cuticular extract is raised from 4 to 25...... undergo plasticization during and/or immediately after ecdysis....

  13. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  15. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  16. The bacterial biota of laboratory-reared edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.): From feed to frass.

    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Pasquini, Marina; Riolo, Paola; Ruschioni, Sara; Isidoro, Nunzio; Loreto, Nino; Franciosi, Elena; Tuohy, Kieran; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Foglini, Martina; Gabucci, Claudia; Tonucci, Franco; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2018-05-02

    Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) was assessed through qualitative real-time PCR assays. Microbial viable counts highlighted low microbial contamination of the wheatmeal, whereas larvae and frass were characterized by high loads of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and several species of mesophilic aerobes. Spore-forming bacteria were detected to a lesser extent in all the samples. The combined molecular approach used to profile the microbiota confirmed the low microbial contamination of wheatmeal and allowed the detection of Enterobacter spp., Erwinia spp., Enterococcus spp. and Lactococcus spp. as dominant genera in both larvae and frass. Moreover, Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., and Xenorhabdus spp. were found to be in the minority. Entomoplasmatales (including Spiroplasma spp.) constituted a major fraction of the microbiota of one batch of larvae. From the real-time PCR assays, no sample was positive for either C. burnetii or STEC, whereas P. aeruginosa was detected in one sample of frass. Based on the overall results, two sources of microbial contamination were hypothesized, namely feeding with wheatmeal and vertical transmission of microorganisms from mother to offspring. Since mealworms are expected to be eaten as a whole, the overall outcomes collected in this laboratory study discourage the consumption of fresh mealworm larvae. Moreover, microbial loads and the absence of potential pathogens

  17. The effectiveness of the biodegradation of raw and processed polystyrene by mealworms

    Leluk, Karol; Hanus-Lorenz, Beata; Rybak, Justyna; Bożek, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    In our studies biodegradation of four variants of polystyrene was performed. We tested: raw material (PS), processed polystyrene (PSr), building insulation material (EPS) and food packaging boxes (PSp). Materials were characterized by means melt flow ratio (MFR), shore hardness and gloss. The biochemical assessment of macromolecules (proteins, lipids and sugars) in the mealworms organisms fed with tested forms of polystyrene allowed us to set how efficient and beneficial the biodegradation of types of polystyrene is. We also evaluated the variability of bacterial community in larval guts by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on the bacterial DNA of 16S rRNA genes amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results suggest that EPS and PSp polystyrene are the most digestible for T. molitor larvae. The metabolic degradation of polystyrene is probably strictly connected with the changes in biodiversity of gut bacteria.

  18. Sustainable farming of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor for the production of food and feed.

    Grau, Thorben; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-09-26

    The farming of edible insects is an alternative strategy for the production of protein-rich food and feed with a low ecological footprint. The industrial production of insect-derived protein is more cost-effective and energy-efficient than livestock farming or aquaculture. The mealworm Tenebrio molitor is economically among the most important species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein. Here, we review the mass rearing of this species and its conversion into food and feed, focusing on challenges such as the contamination of food/feed products with bacteria from the insect gut and the risk of rapidly spreading pathogens and parasites. We propose solutions to prevent the outbreak of infections among farmed insects without reliance on antibiotics. Transgenerational immune priming and probiotic bacteria may provide alternative strategies for sustainable insect farming.

  19. The effectiveness of the biodegradation of raw and processed polystyrene by mealworms

    Leluk Karol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our studies biodegradation of four variants of polystyrene was performed. We tested: raw material (PS, processed polystyrene (PSr, building insulation material (EPS and food packaging boxes (PSp. Materials were characterized by means melt flow ratio (MFR, shore hardness and gloss. The biochemical assessment of macromolecules (proteins, lipids and sugars in the mealworms organisms fed with tested forms of polystyrene allowed us to set how efficient and beneficial the biodegradation of types of polystyrene is. We also evaluated the variability of bacterial community in larval guts by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE on the bacterial DNA of 16S rRNA genes amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results suggest that EPS and PSp polystyrene are the most digestible for T. molitor larvae. The metabolic degradation of polystyrene is probably strictly connected with the changes in biodiversity of gut bacteria.

  20. Occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistances in commercialized ready-to-eat mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.).

    Osimani, Andrea; Cardinali, Federica; Aquilanti, Lucia; Garofalo, Cristiana; Roncolini, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-12-18

    The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable determinants conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin, beta-lactams, and aminoglycosides in 40 samples of commercialized edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) purchased from European Union (EU) and non-EU producers. A high prevalence of tet(K) was observed in all of the samples assayed, with percentages of PCR-based positivity that ranged from 80% (samples from Thailand) to 100% (samples from the Netherlands, Belgium and France). For macrolides, erm(B) prevailed, being detected in 57.5% of the samples assayed, whereas erm(A) and erm(C) were detected with lower frequencies. Genes for resistance to vancomycin were only detected in samples produced in France and Belgium, with 90% and 10% of the samples being positive for vanA, respectively. Beta-lactamase genes were found with low occurrence, whereas the gene aac-aph, conferring high resistance to aminoglycosides, was found in 40% of the samples produced in the Netherlands and Belgium and 20% of the samples produced in Thailand. The results of Principal Coordinate Analysis and Principal Component Analysis depicted a clean separation of the samples collected from the four producers based on the distribution of the 12 AR determinants considered. Given the growing interest on the use of mealworms as a novel protein source, AR detection frequencies found in the present study suggest further investigation into the use of antibiotics during rearing of this insect species and more extensive studies focused on the factors that can affect the diffusion of transferable ARs in the production chain. Until such studies are completed, prudent use of antibiotics during rearing of edible insects is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein. PMID:23284661

  3. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  4. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  5. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans ? A Life Cycle Assessment

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  6. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  7. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium everts

    Makee, H.; Saour, G.

    2002-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on all developmental stages of khapra beetle was examined. The results showed that when higher doses were applied and immature stages were treated the developmental time, larval and pupal mortality and adults' deformation were increased. Whereas, the fecundity and fertility of the emerged adults resulted from the treatment of immature stages, were increased when old eggs, larvae and pupae were treated with low doses. When newly emerged adults were irradiated the longevity of the male and the female was not affected, while the fecundity and fertility were declined especially when high doses were applied. The female of khapra beetle was more radiosensitive than the male, regardless of the applied dose or/and the treated developmental stage. (author)

  9. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  10. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  11. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  12. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  13. Effects of hydrogen fluoride fumigation of bean plants on the growth, development, and reproduction of the Mexican bean beetle

    Weinstein, L H; McCune, D C; Mancini, J F; van Leuken, P

    1973-01-01

    The growth and behavior of Mexican bean beetle populations on control and hydrogen fluoride-fumigated bean plants (P. vulgaris L.) were investigated to assess the effects of such fumigation on beetle growth, development and reproduction. Beetles that were cultured on HF-fumigated plants were generally lighter than controls, although the occurrence and magnitude of this effect depended upon stage of development, age, and sex of the adult beetle and the number of generations of culture on HF-fumigated plants. A consistently decreased mass of larvae cultured on HF-fumigated tissue pupated and enclosed three to six days later than controls, and the adults commenced reproductive activity with the same lag in time. Beetles cultured on the fumigated plants also contained greater amounts of fluoride than the controls, and the fluoride content of females was greater than that of males on both HF-fumigated and control plants. Beetles raised on fumigated plants laid fewer egg masses and fewer eggs per mass, although when the first generation was repeated at a later date there was no significant effect. Feeding activity was reduced in both larval and adult stages in beetles cultured on the fumigated plants, and adults showed less flight activity than controls. A difference in color of the elytra was also noted; beetles on HF-fumigated plants were paler than controls.

  14. Microbial dynamics during production of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) for human consumption at industrial scale.

    Wynants, E; Crauwels, S; Verreth, C; Gianotten, N; Lievens, B; Claes, J; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the microbial dynamics during an industrial production cyle of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus), sold for human consumption, were characterised. The microbial numbers as well as the microbial diversity were generally higher for the substrate, existing of remaining feed, faeces and exuviae, than for the larvae. Most of the species-level operational taxonomic units, identified using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, that were present in the feed were also detected in the larvae and vice versa. However, bacterial diversity decreased in the larvae during rearing. These results suggested that the feed is an important determinant of the insect bacterial community, but that some bacterial species show a competitive advantage inside the insect gut and become dominant. A blanching treatment of the larvae after harvest reduced most microbial counts, but the number of aerobic endospores remained at 4.0 log cfu/g. Whereas food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus or coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected in our study, fungal isolates corresponding to the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium were recovered. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that mycotoxins were present. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbial dynamics and food safety aspects during the production of edible insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  16. Current brood size and residual reproductive value predict brood desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    Ward, R. J. S.; Cotter, S. C.; Kilner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that offspring desertion can be an adaptive reproductive strategy, in which parents forgo the costly care of an unprofitable current brood to save resources for future reproduction. In the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, parents commonly abandon their offspring to the care of others, resulting in female-only care, male-only care, brood parasitism, and the care of offspring sired by satellite males. Furthermore, when there is biparental care, males routin...

  17. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  18. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  19. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  20. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  1. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    A Volpato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%, TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%, or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at concentrations up to 10 and 50% of TTO, respectively. No larvicidal or insecticidal effect of TTO nanoparticles was observed. Terpinen-4-ol showed insecticidal and larvicidal effect at concentrations higher than 25%. The evaluation of TTO effect on soil organisms was performed by standard ecotoxicological tests (ISO with the springtail species Folsomia candida. Only TTO was used for ecotoxicological tests in doses of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil. TTO had no negative effects on F. candida survival or reproduction. Therefore, it was concluded that M. alternifolia oil may be a new alternative for control of the lesser mealworm.

  4. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    Kôji Sasakawa

    Full Text Available Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae; currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky, was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C. The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide.

  5. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  6. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First contact pheromone identified for a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae

    Annie E. Spikes; Matthew A. Paschen; Jocelyn G. Miller; Jardel A. Moreira; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the reproductive behavior of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae. Mallodon dasystomus (Say), the hardwood stump borer, is a widely distributed prionine that is native to the southern U.S. Here, we explored the chemically-mediated mating behavior of M dasystomus, and tested the hypothesis that males recognize...

  8. Influence of ambient humidity on the attachment ability of ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata)

    Heepe, L.; Wolff, J. O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2016-01-01

    at 60% humidity. This relationship was found both in female and male beetles, despite of a deviating structure of adhesive setae and a significant difference in forces between sexes. These findings demonstrate that not only dry adhesive setae are affected by ambient humidity, but also setae that stick...

  9. What do dung beetles eat?

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle...... that of elephant and rhino (40-58%) was available to selective feeders. 3. Nitrogen concentrations were high - and C/N ratios low - in most types of bulk dung compared with the average food of terrestrial detritivores or herbivores. Exceptions were elephant and rhino dung with low nitrogen concentrations and high...... C/N ratios. 4. Estimated C/N ratios of 13-39 in bulk dung (sheep-elephant) were decreased by selective feeding to 7.3-12.6 in the ingested material. In assimilated food, ratios are probably only 5-7, as most assimilable nitrogen and carbon may be of microbial origin. If so, the assimilable food...

  10. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    -aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing...... to locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer...... the time in locomotion, average velocity, and path length and by increasing the turning rate and frequency of stops. Females responded similarly at the two highest doses, whereas their locomotor behavior was not significantly different from the control group at the lowest dimethoate dose, suggesting a sex...

  12. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  13. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  14. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  15. Carcass Fungistasis of the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope (Coleoptera: Silphidae

    Wenbe Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigated the fungistatic effects of the anal secretions of Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope on mouse carcasses. The diversity of fungi on carcasses was investigated in five different experimental conditions that corresponded to stages of the burial process. The inhibition of fungal growth on carcasses that were treated by mature beetles before burial was lost when identically treated carcasses were washed with distilled water. Compared with control carcasses, carcasses that were prepared, buried, and subsequently guarded by mature breeding pairs of beetles exhibited the greatest inhibition of fungal growth. No significant difference in fungistasis was observed between the 3.5 g and the 18 to 22 g guarded carcasses. We used the growth of the predominant species of fungi on the control carcasses, Trichoderma sp., as a biological indicator to examine differences in the fungistatic efficiency of anal secretions between sexually mature and immature adults and between genders. The anal secretions of sexually mature beetles inhibited the growth of Trichoderma sp., whereas the secretions of immature beetles did not. The secretions of sexually mature females displayed significantly greater inhibition of the growth of Trichoderma sp. than those of sexually mature males, possibly reflecting a division of labor in burying beetle reproduction.

  16. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  17. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone.

    Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas; Svensson, Glenn P; Tolasch, Till; Francke, Wittko

    2003-03-01

    Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli) is an endangered scarab beetle living in hollow trees. It has mainly been known for its characteristic odor, typically described as a fruity, peachlike or plumlike aroma. The odor emanating from a single beetle can sometimes be perceived from a distance of several meters. In this paper, we show that the characteristic odor from O. eremita is caused by the compound (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone, released in large quantities mainly or exclusively by male beetles. Antennae from male and female beetles responded in a similar way to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone in electroantennographic recordings. Field trapping experiments showed that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone is a pheromone attracting female beetles. Lactones similar to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone are frequently used as female-released sex pheromones by phytophagous scarabs. This is, however, the first evidence of a lactone used as a male-produced pheromone in scarab beetles. We propose that the strong signal from males is a sexually selected trait used to compete for females and matings. The signal could work within trees but also act as a guide to tree hollows, which are an essential resource for O. eremita. Males may, thus, attract females dispersing from their natal tree by advertising a suitable habitat. This signal could also be exploited by other males searching for tree hollows or for females, which would explain the catch of several males in our traps.

  18. A nuptially transmitted Ichthyosproean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional...

  19. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  1. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  2. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  3. Spatial displacement of release point can enhance activity of an attractant pheromone synergist of a bark beetle.

    Brian Sullivan; Kenji Mori

    2009-01-01

    Flight responses of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to widely-spaced (>130 m) traps baited with pine volatiles (in turpentine) and the female-produced pheromone component frontalin were enhanced when a bait containing the male pheromone component (+)-endo-brevicomin was attached...

  4. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  7. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  8. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  9. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5–7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1–4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. (author)

  10. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  12. Identification, molecular cloning and expression analysis of a HORMA domain containing Autophagy-related gene 13 (ATG13 from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Jung Hee eLee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a process that is necessary during starvation as it replenishes metabolic precursors by eliminating damaged organelles. Autophagy is mediated by more than 35 autophagy-related (Atg proteins that manifest in the nucleation, elongation, and curving of autophagosome membrane. We isolated a homolog of an ATG13 gene from the transcriptome database of the larva of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (designated as TmATG13. The sequence analysis showed that TmATG13 cDNA comprises of 1,176 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 391 amino acids. Analyses of the structure-specific features of TmAtg13 showed an intrinsically disordered middle and C-terminal region, rich in regulatory phosphorylation sites. The N-terminal Atg13 domain show a HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2 fold containing conserved amino acid residues across the Atg13 orthologs in insects. qRT-PCR revealed that TmATG13 was expressed ubiquitously in all the developmental stages of insect. TmATG13 mRNA expression was high in fat body and gut of the larval and adult stages of the insect. During ovary development and maturation, the TmATG13 transcripts showed high expression until six days of development, followed by a significant decline. The prospective functions mediated by TmAtg13 during autophagy will be clarified by further studies in the near future.

  13. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  14. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  15. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  16. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  17. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Czarniewska, Elżbieta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Gabała, Elżbieta; Kuczer, Mariola

    2014-01-30

    The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and viability of follicular cells, and

  18. The natural insect peptide Neb-colloostatin induces ovarian atresia and apoptosis in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    2014-01-01

    Background The injection of Neb-colloostatin into T. molitor females causes gonadoinhibitory effects on ovarian development. This peptide inhibits intercellular space formation (patency) in follicular epithelium and results in slowed vitellogenesis, delayed ovulation, reduced number of eggs laid and presumably cell death in the terminal follicles. However, as does the form of cell death in the terminal follicle, the mode of action of Neb-colloostatin remains unknown. Results We tested Neb-colloostatin for a sterilizing effect on females of Tenebrio molitor. We report that injection of nanomolar doses of Neb-colloostatin induce ovarian follicle atresia in 4-day old females during their first gonadotropic cycle. Light microscope observations revealed morphological changes in the ovary: after Neb-colloostatin injection the terminal oocytes are significantly smaller and elicit massive follicle resorption, but the control terminal follicles possess translucent ooplasm in oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis. A patency is visible in follicular epithelium of the control vitellogenic oocytes, whereas peptide injection inhibits intercellular space formation and, in consequence, inhibits vitellogenesis. Confocal and electron microscope examination showed that peptide injection causes changes in the morphology indicating death of follicular cells. We observed F-actin cytoskeleton disorganization, induction of caspase activity, changes in chromatin organization and autophagic vacuole formation. Moreover, the apical cytoplasm of follicular cells is filled with numerous free ribosomes, probably indicating a higher demand for protein biosynthesis, especially in preparation for autophagic vacuole formation. On the other hand, the process of polyribosomes formation is inhibited, indicating the contributing effect of this hormone. Conclusion Neb-colloostatin induces atresia in the mealworm ovary. Degeneration of T. molitor follicles includes changes in morphology and

  19. The role of doublesex in the evolution of exaggerated horns in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle.

    Ito, Yuta; Harigai, Ayane; Nakata, Moe; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio; Oba, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-06-01

    Male-specific exaggerated horns are an evolutionary novelty and have diverged rapidly via intrasexual selection. Here, we investigated the function of the conserved sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) using RNA interference (RNAi). Our results show that the sex-specific T. dichotomus dsx isoforms have an antagonistic function for head horn formation and only the male isoform has a role for thoracic horn formation. These results indicate that the novel sex-specific regulation of dsx during horn morphogenesis might have been the key evolutionary developmental event at the transition from sexually monomorphic to sexually dimorphic horns.

  20. Preliminary study on the gamma radiation on the furniture carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipes LeConte (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    Hamad, B.Sh.; Khalaf, M.Z.; Jumaa, H.M.; Yasseen, N.H.; Al-Taweel, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary study on the possibility of using gamma radiation to induce sexual sterility in males of the furniture carpet beetle A. Flavipes was carried out as a part of programme aiming to use SIT in controlling this pest. Results indicated that the induction of complete sterility in males was occurred by irradiated them as adults (24 hours old) by 100, 130 and 150 Gy. Furthermore, Results also showed that there was reducing in average number eggs laid by female that mated with irradiated male in comparison with females that matted with normal males

  1. Aggregation pheromone of coconut rhinoceros beetle,Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Hallett, R H; Perez, A L; Gries, G; Gries, R; Pierce, H D; Yue, J; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M; Borden, J H

    1995-10-01

    Male coconut rhinoceros beetles,Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), produce three sex-specific compounds, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, ethyl 4-methylheptanoate, and 4-methyloctanoic acid, the first of which is an aggregation pheromone. Synthesis of these compounds involving conjugate addition of organocuprates to ethyl acrylate is reported. In field trapping experiments, (4S)-ethyl 4-methyloctanoate and the racemic mixture were equally attractive and 10 times more effective in attracting beetles than ethyl chrysanthemumate, a previously recommended attractant. Ethyl 4-methylheptanoate was as attractive as ethyl chrysanthemumate and more attractive than 4-methyloctanoic acid, but further studies are required before it can be classed as an aggregation pheromone. Compared to ethyl 4-methyloctanoate alone, combinations of the three male-produced compounds did not increase attraction, whereas addition of freshly rotting oil palm fruit bunches to pheromone-baited traps significantly enhanced attraction. With increasing dose, captures ofO. rhinoceros increased, but doses of 6, 9, and 18 mg/day were competitive with 30 mg/day lures. Newly designed vane traps were more effective in capturing beetles than were barrier or pitfall traps. Results of this study indicate that there is potential for using ethyl 4-methyloctanoate in operational programs to controlO. rhinoceros in oil palm plantations.

  2. Heightened condition-dependent growth of sexually selected weapons in the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Johns, A; Gotoh, H; McCullough, E L; Emlen, D J; Lavine, L C

    2014-10-01

    The exaggerated weapons and ornaments of sexual selection are condition-dependent traits that often grow to exaggerated proportions. The horns of male rhinoceros beetles are extremely sensitive to the larval nutritional environment and are used by rival males in combat over access to females. In contrast to horns, other parts of the body, such as wings, eyes, and legs, scale proportionally with body size, whereas others, such as males' external genitalia, are invariant with body size, regardless of nutrition. We document how body parts of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, exhibit plasticity and constraint in response to nutritional condition. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of condition-dependent and condition-independent traits in animals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fitness consequences of social network position in a wild population of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus).

    Formica, Vincent A; Wood, C W; Larsen, W B; Butterfield, R E; Augat, M E; Hougen, H Y; Brodie, E D

    2012-01-01

    Social networks describe the pattern of intraspecific interactions within a population. An individual's position in a social network often is expected to influence its fitness, but only a few studies have examined this relationship in natural populations. We investigated the fitness consequences of network position in a wild beetle population. Copulation success of male beetles positively covaried with strength (a measure of network centrality) and negatively covaried with clustering coefficient (CC) (a measure of cliquishness). Further analysis using mediation path models suggested that the activity level of individuals drove the relationships between strength and fitness almost entirely. In contrast, selection on CC was not explained by individual behaviours. Although our data suggest that social network position can experience strong sexual selection, it is also clear that the relationships between fitness and some network metrics merely reflect variation in individual-level behaviours. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  5. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  6. BEETLE - A modular electronics family for robotics

    Dickens, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of applications. A family of modular electronic elements is proposed to address this need. The Beautiful Embedded Electronic Logic Element (BEETLE) family of boards is designed to be compact, low cost, robust, reusable and easy to program. This allows the boards...

  7. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  8. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  9. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  10. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  11. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  12. Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles.

    Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing strong selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature. Using fourteen isofemale lines, we measured sex-specific reductions in fitness components, genotype-by-environment interactions and the strength of selection (variance in fitness) in the juvenile and adult stage. As predicted, variance in fitness increased with stress, was consistently greater in males than females for adult reproductive success (implying strong sexual selection), but was similar in the sexes in terms of juvenile survival across all levels of stress. Although genetic variance in fitness increased in magnitude under severe stress, heritability decreased and particularly so in males. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness were common but specific to the type of stress, sex and life stage, suggesting that new environments may change the relative alignment and strength of selection in males and females. Our study thus exemplifies how environmental stress can influence the relative forces of natural and sexual selection, as well as concomitant changes in genetic variance in fitness, which are predicted to have consequences for rates of adaptation in sexual populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue...

  14. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  17. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  18. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in a speciose flower beetle clade (Hopliini: Scarabaeidae

    Jonathan F. Colville

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism is examined in a speciose South African monkey beetle clade. We test whether feeding and mating at a fixed site (embedding guild is associated with greater levels of sexual dimorphism and possibly sexual selection than species using unpredictable feeding resources (non-embedding guild. Sexual dimorphism was measured using a point scoring system for hind leg and colour across the two feeding guilds for >50% of the regional fauna. Quantification of hind leg dimorphism using a scoring system and allometric scaling were used to identify traits subject to sexual selection. Feeding guild had a significant effect on hind leg dimorphism, with embedders having high and non-embedders low scores. The sessile and defendable distribution of females on stable platform flowers may favour contests and associated hind leg weaponry. In contrast, degree of colour dimorphism between the sexes was not associated with any particular feeding guild, and may serve to reduce male conflict and combat. Embedder males had high proportions (∼76% of species with positive allometric slopes for almost all hind leg traits. For male non-embedders, only ∼37% of species showed positive scaling relationships. Phylogenetic data, in conjunction with behavioural data on the function of leg weaponry and visual signalling among males is needed to better understand the link between sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in the radiation of the monkey beetles.

  19. Mechanical limits to maximum weapon size in a giant rhinoceros beetle.

    McCullough, Erin L

    2014-07-07

    The horns of giant rhinoceros beetles are a classic example of the elaborate morphologies that can result from sexual selection. Theory predicts that sexual traits will evolve to be increasingly exaggerated until survival costs balance the reproductive benefits of further trait elaboration. In Trypoxylus dichotomus, long horns confer a competitive advantage to males, yet previous studies have found that they do not incur survival costs. It is therefore unlikely that horn size is limited by the theoretical cost-benefit equilibrium. However, males sometimes fight vigorously enough to break their horns, so mechanical limits may set an upper bound on horn size. Here, I tested this mechanical limit hypothesis by measuring safety factors across the full range of horn sizes. Safety factors were calculated as the ratio between the force required to break a horn and the maximum force exerted on a horn during a typical fight. I found that safety factors decrease with increasing horn length, indicating that the risk of breakage is indeed highest for the longest horns. Structural failure of oversized horns may therefore oppose the continued exaggeration of horn length driven by male-male competition and set a mechanical limit on the maximum size of rhinoceros beetle horns. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Males of a strongly polygynous species consume more poisonous food than females.

    Carolina Bravo

    Full Text Available We present evidence of a possible case of self-medication in a lekking bird, the great bustard Otis tarda. Great bustards consumed blister beetles (Meloidae, in spite of the fact that they contain cantharidin, a highly toxic compound that is lethal in moderate doses. In addition to anthelminthic properties, cantharidin was effective against gastrointestinal bacteria that cause sexually-transmitted diseases. Although both sexes consumed blister beetles during the mating season, only males selected them among all available insects, and ingested more and larger beetles than females. The male-biased consumption suggests that males could use cantharidin to reduce their parasite load and increase their sexual attractiveness. This plausibly explains the intense cloaca display males perform to approaching females, and the meticulous inspection females conduct of the male's cloaca, a behaviour only observed in this and another similar species of the bustard family. A white, clean cloaca with no infection symptoms (e.g., diarrhoea is an honest signal of both, resistance to cantharidin and absence of parasites, and represents a reliable indicator of the male quality to the extremely choosy females. Our results do not definitely prove, but certainly strongly suggest that cantharidin, obtained by consumption of blister beetles, acts in great bustards as an oral anti-microbial and pathogen-limiting compound, and that males ingest these poisonous insects to increase their mating success, pointing out that self-medication might have been overlooked as a sexually-selected mechanism enhancing male fitness.

  1. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  2. Aggregation pheromones for monitoring the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) in Jerukwangi Village, Jepara, Indonesia

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Lutfiana, J. E.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Susilowati, E.; Slamet, M.

    2018-03-01

    Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is the most serious pest of coconut plantations in Indonesia. Jerukwangi Village is O. rhinoceros attacked one of the coconuts producing villages with more than 75% of the coconut plant population O. rhinoceros. The study aimed to monitor the population and analyze the sex ratio of O. rhinoceros that were attracted to aggregation pheromones in the field. Aggregation pheromones is a chemical compound containing Ethyl 4-methyl octanoate. The pheromone compounds were placed in traps (buckets), hung 2 meters above the ground. The traps were observed, and the beetles trapped were counted every week. In 12 weeks of monitoring, the traps captured 101 insects consist of 90.1% O. rhinoceros and 9.9% other insect species (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Xylotrupes gideon). This result indicates the high population of O. rhinoceros in the field. Aggregation pheromone is useful for attracting females. Rhinoceros by 61% and the males by 39%. The advantage of research is it can be used in integrated pest management (IPM) packages for monitoring of beetle population, and removal of beetles.

  3. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    Zhong-Shi Zhou

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP, water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r, net reproductive rate (R 0 and finite rate of increase (λ of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates.

  4. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  5. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  6. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    Ian A Warren

    Full Text Available Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  7. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  8. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  9. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  10. The introduction of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio Molitor L.) into BLSS as a source of animal protein for humans: experiments and modeling

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong; Ruo Zhao, Zhi

    2012-07-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure and the efficiency of material cycling. In this study, an analysis and demonstration on the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was presented. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetables was studied. Moreover, a process for straw fermentation was selected. T. molitor was fed on wheat bran for the first 10 days, and then gradually, fermented straw was added. Old leaves of Chinese cabbage were used as supplementary feedstuff. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on this diet survived and grew normally, their fresh and dry weight achieved 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet, respectively. The bioconversion rate of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the conventional diet group. The protein and fat contents were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh, respectively. Through the processes of anaerobic fermentation and mealworm consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor has the potential to be utilized as plant cultivation substrate after certain treatment. Stoichiometric modeling of BLSS containing T. molitor was also conducted.

  11. Parachordodes tegonotus n. sp. (Gordioidea: Nematomorpha), a hairworm parasite of ground beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera), with a summary of gordiid parasites of carabids.

    Poinar, George; Rykken, Jessica; LaBonte, Jim

    2004-06-01

    A new species of hairworm, Parachordodes tegonotus n. sp. (Gordioidea: Nematomorpha) is described from three species of ground beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera) from the state of Oregon. This is the first record of Parachordodes Camerano parasitising carabid beetles in North America. Diagnostic characters for the new species include size, colour, the nature and arrangement of the areoles, and the character, shape and extant of ornamentation on the ventral surface of the male tail. Encysted hairworm larvae found in the internal tissues of mayfly and caddisfly larvae at the type-locality were presumed to be those of P. tegonotus, indicating an indirect life-cycle involving paratenic hosts. A worldwide host list shows that some 70 species of ground beetles have been documented as developmental hosts to hairworms belonging to at least five genera, namely Gordius, Parachordodes, Dacochordodes, Gordionus and Paragordionus.

  12. Asteraceae - an evaluation of hutchinsons beetle-daisy hypothesis

    Midgley, JJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available repel the beetles. However in this review of plant mimicry worldwide, it is considered an exceptionally intriguing example of Batesian mimicry. Despite the fact there still appears to be a dearth of information on the interaction between beetle...

  13. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  14. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  15. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  16. Hidden in Plain sight: synthetic pheromone misleads beetles, protects trees

    Paul Meznarich; Robert Progar

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, pine forests throughout much of the western United States have been ravaged by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This bark beetle is native to the United States and has been responsible for massive tree kills in the past. The current outbreak, however, has been notably severe and wide ranging and the effects have been more dramatic...

  17. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  18. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  19. 78 FR 27853 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio

    2013-05-13

    ...-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the Asian... to prevent the artificial spread of the Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

  20. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  1. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  2. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the fitness component of the pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis

    Abdelrahman, A.M.; Aboulnasr, A.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.; Haiba, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with the fines components of the F 1 generation of pulse beetle, callosobruchus chinensis, developed from adults irradiated (as newly emerged adults) with higher doses and fractionation of sterilizing doses. The results obtained show a gradual decrease in egg production and hatchability. The dosages caused complete sterility in females and males respectively, shortening the life span of developed adults. The dose 200,000 rad caused immediate death to the irradiated adults. Fractionation of the sterilizing dose had no effect on either longevity or the percent of egg hatchability

  4. Winklerites serbicus, a new endogean species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini from southeastern Serbia

    Ćurčić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new endogean bembidiine ground beetle species, Winklerites serbicus sp. n., from a cave in the southeastern part of Serbia is both described and diagnosed. Male and female genital structures and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new species is clearly distinct from its closest congeners. Fifteen species of the genus so far known are arranged in six groups. The new species is both endemic and relict, inhabiting southeastern Serbia only. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038 i br. 47007

  5. Sexual dimorphism and allometry in the sphecophilous rove beetle Triacrus dilatus

    Maxwell H. Marlowe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rove beetle Triacrus dilatus is found in the Atlantic forest of South America and lives in the refuse piles of the paper wasp Agelaia vicina. Adults of T. dilatus are among the largest rove beetles, frequently measuring over 3 cm, and exhibit remarkable variation in body size. To examine sexual dimorphism and allometric relationships we measured the length of the left mandible, ocular distance and elytra. We were interested in determining if there are quantifiable differences between sexes, if there are major and minor forms within each sex and if males exhibit mandibular allometry. For all variables, a t-test was run to determine if there were significant differences between the sexes. Linear regressions were run to examine if there were significant relationships between the different measurements. A heterogeneity of slopes test was used to determine if there were significant differences between males and females. Our results indicated that males had significantly larger mandibles and ocular distances than females, but the overall body length was not significantly different between the sexes. Unlike most insects, both sexes showed positive linear allometric relationships for mandible length and head size (as measured by the ocular distance. We found no evidence of major and minor forms in either sex.

  6. Sexual dimorphism and allometry in the sphecophilous rove beetle Triacrus dilatus.

    Marlowe, Maxwell H; Murphy, Cheryl A; Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2015-01-01

    The rove beetle Triacrus dilatus is found in the Atlantic forest of South America and lives in the refuse piles of the paper wasp Agelaia vicina. Adults of T. dilatus are among the largest rove beetles, frequently measuring over 3 cm, and exhibit remarkable variation in body size. To examine sexual dimorphism and allometric relationships we measured the length of the left mandible, ocular distance and elytra. We were interested in determining if there are quantifiable differences between sexes, if there are major and minor forms within each sex and if males exhibit mandibular allometry. For all variables, a t-test was run to determine if there were significant differences between the sexes. Linear regressions were run to examine if there were significant relationships between the different measurements. A heterogeneity of slopes test was used to determine if there were significant differences between males and females. Our results indicated that males had significantly larger mandibles and ocular distances than females, but the overall body length was not significantly different between the sexes. Unlike most insects, both sexes showed positive linear allometric relationships for mandible length and head size (as measured by the ocular distance). We found no evidence of major and minor forms in either sex.

  7. Mealworms in the Classroom.

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which the life-cycle of an insect is studied. Provides information on the purchase and care of the animal and directions for student observations. Questions and activities are included. (RT)

  8. The role of juvenile hormone in immune function and pheromone production trade-offs: a test of the immunocompetence handicap principle.

    Rantala, Markus J; Vainikka, Anssi; Kortet, Raine

    2003-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis postulates that secondary sexual traits are honest signals of mate quality because the hormones (e.g. testosterone) needed to develop secondary sexual traits have immunosuppressive effects. The best support for predictions arising from the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis so far comes from studies of insects, although they lack male-specific hormones such as testosterone. In our previous studies, we found that female mealworm beetles prefer pheromones of immunocompetent males. Here, we tested how juvenile hormone (JH) affects male investment in secondary sexual characteristics and immune functions in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. We injected male mealworm beetles with JH (type III) and found that injection increased the attractiveness of male pheromones but simultaneously suppressed immune functions (phenoloxidase activity and encapsulation). Our results suggest that JH, which is involved in the control of reproduction and morphogenesis, also plays a central role in the regulation of a trade-off between the immune system and sexual advertisement in insects. Thus, the results reflect a general mechanism by which the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis may work in insects. PMID:14613612

  9. Niche separation of pollen beetle parasitoids

    Josef eBerger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Species with similar resource requirements are commonly assumed to competitively exclude each other, unless they differentiate their ecological niches. Hence, parasitoid wasps that use the same host species need to find some way to avoid competition. The aim of this study was to identify the role of volatile cues from oilseed rape plants and the larval host in niche separation between three coexisting parasitoid species. We examined how Phradis interstitialis, Phradis morionellus and Tersilochus heterocerus, sympatric parasitoids of Brassicogethes aeneus, differ in their abundances, distribution on buds and flowers, and oviposition behavior in the field. Furthermore, we tested their preferences for odours from uninfested and infested oilseed rape plants in the bud and flowering stage, and their preferences for odours from three developmental stages of pollen beetle larvae in a two-choice olfactometer bioassay.P. interstitialis was active in the field early in the season, preferred odours of infested buds versus uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only pollen beetle eggs, while P. morionellus was active late in the season, preferred odours of infested buds as well as odours of infested flowers over uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only larvae. T. heterocerus was active throughout the season, and preferred odours of infested flowers over uninfested. Neither Phradis species were attracted to larval odours, whereas T. heterocerus was attracted to odours from first-instar pollen beetle larvae both in the absence of plant odours, and when presented simultaneously with uninfested plant odour.This suggests that the two Phradis species are separated on a temporal scale and that they parasitize different host stages, while the larval parasitoids P. morionellus and T. heterocerus are separated by choice of microhabitat. The former oviposits into larvae in buds, and the latter in flowers.

  10. Cloning, expression analysis, and RNA interference study of a HORMA domain containing autophagy-related gene 13 (ATG13) from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Lee, Jung Hee; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Park, Ki Beom; Tindwa, Hamisi; Seo, Gi Won; Chandrasekar, Raman; Lee, Yong Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a process that is necessary during starvation, as it replenishes metabolic precursors by eliminating damaged organelles. Autophagy is mediated by more than 35 autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that participate in the nucleation, elongation, and curving of the autophagosome membrane. In a pursuit to address the role of autophagy during development and immune resistance of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, we screened ATG gene sequences from the whole-larva transcriptome database. We identified a homolog of ATG13 gene in T. molitor (designated as TmATG13) that comprises a cDNA of 1176 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 391 amino acids. Analyses of the structure-specific features of TmAtg13 showed an intrinsically disordered middle and C-terminal region that was rich in regulatory phosphorylation sites. The N-terminal Atg13 domain had a HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) fold containing amino acid residues conserved across the Atg13 insect orthologs. A quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that TmATG13 was expressed ubiquitously during all developmental stages of the insect. TmATG13 mRNA expression was high in the fat body and gut of the larval and adult stages of the insect. The TmATG13 transcripts were expressed at a high level until 6 days of ovarian development, followed by a significant decline. Silencing of ATG13 transcripts in T. molitor larvae showed a reduced survivability of 39 and 38% in response to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Furthermore, the role of TmAtg13 in initiating autophagy as a part of the host cell autophagic complex of the host cells against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is currently under study and will be critical to unfold the structure-function relationships. PMID:26136688

  11. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  13. A cure for the blues: opsin duplication and subfunctionalization for short-wavelength sensitivity in jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Lord, Nathan P; Plimpton, Rebecca L; Sharkey, Camilla R; Suvorov, Anton; Lelito, Jonathan P; Willardson, Barry M; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-05-18

    Arthropods have received much attention as a model for studying opsin evolution in invertebrates. Yet, relatively few studies have investigated the diversity of opsin proteins that underlie spectral sensitivity of the visual pigments within the diverse beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Previous work has demonstrated that beetles appear to lack the short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) opsin class that typically confers sensitivity to the "blue" region of the light spectrum. However, this is contrary to established physiological data in a number of Coleoptera. To explore potential adaptations at the molecular level that may compensate for the loss of the SWS opsin, we carried out an exploration of the opsin proteins within a group of beetles (Buprestidae) where short-wave sensitivity has been demonstrated. RNA-seq data were generated to identify opsin proteins from nine taxa comprising six buprestid species (including three male/female pairs) across four subfamilies. Structural analyses of recovered opsins were conducted and compared to opsin sequences in other insects across the main opsin classes-ultraviolet, short-wavelength, and long-wavelength. All nine buprestids were found to express two opsin copies in each of the ultraviolet and long-wavelength classes, contrary to the single copies recovered in all other molecular studies of adult beetle opsin expression. No SWS opsin class was recovered. Furthermore, the male Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer-EAB) expressed a third LWS opsin at low levels that is presumed to be a larval copy. Subsequent homology and structural analyses identified multiple amino acid substitutions in the UVS and LWS copies that could confer short-wavelength sensitivity. This work is the first to compare expressed opsin genes against known electrophysiological data that demonstrate multiple peak sensitivities in Coleoptera. We report the first instance of opsin duplication in adult beetles, which occurs in both the UVS and LWS opsin classes

  14. Observed shifts in the contact zone between two forms of the diving beetle Hydroporus memnonius are consistent with predictions from sexual conflict

    David T. Bilton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict drives both inter- and intrasexual dimorphisms in many diving beetles, where male persistence and female resistance traits co-evolve in an antagonistic manner. To date most studies have focussed on species where rough and smooth females and their associated males typically co-occur within populations, where phenotype matching between morphs may maintain forms as stable polymorphisms. The Palaearctic diving beetle Hydroporus memnonius is characterised by having dimorphic (rough var. castaneus and smooth, shining females and associated males which differ in persistence traits; the two forms being largely distributed parapatrically. In this species, instead of mating trade-offs between morphs, males associated with castaneus females should have a mating advantage with both this form and shining females, due to their increased persistence abilities on either cuticular surface. This may be expected to lead to the replacement of the shining form with castaneus in areas where the two come into contact. Using data collected over a thirty year period, we show that this process of population replacement is indeed occurring, castaneus having expanded significantly at the expense of the shining female form. Whilst populations of both forms close to the contact zone appear to differ in their thermal physiology, these differences are minor and suggest that the expansion of castaneus is not linked to climatic warming in recent decades. Instead we argue that the observed spread of castaneus and its associated male may result from the dynamics of sexually antagonistic coevolution in this beetle.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  17. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Biro, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  18. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  19. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  20. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  1. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  3. Field evaluation of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and ethanol as attractants for the cerambycid beetle pest of vineyards, Xylotrechus arvicola.

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Sánchez-Maíllo, Esteban; Peláez, Horacio J; González-Núñez, Manuel; Hall, David R; Casquero, Pedro A

    2017-08-01

    The beetle Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest of vineyards in the Iberian Peninsula. In previous work, the male beetles, but not females, were shown to produce (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, and female beetles were attracted to this compound in a laboratory bioassay. In this study, release rates of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone from different dispensers were measured in the laboratory, and the attractiveness of these to X. arvicola adults was determined in trapping tests in three traditional wine-growing regions in Spain. As a result of laboratory experiments, for field experiments 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone was formulated as 100 μL in a polyethylene sachet (50 mm × 50 mm × 250 µm), and ethanol was formulated as 1 mL in a polyethylene press-seal bag (76 mm × 57 mm ×50 µm). Field catches were similar at all three study sites. Catches in traps baited with 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone alone were not significantly different from those in unbaited control traps, but catches in traps baited with 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and ethanol in separate sachets, with 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and ethanol in the same sachet or with ethanol alone were significantly greater than those in control traps. These results confirm that the beetles are attracted to ethanol, and the addition of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone does not seem to make any difference. Attraction of females for the male-produced compound (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone has been observed in laboratory but not in field experiments. Traps baited with ethanol are highly attractive to both sexes of adults of X. arvicola, and these can be used for improved monitoring of the adult emergence and for population control by mass trapping. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  5. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  6. Role of temperature on growth and metabolic rate in the tenebrionid beetles Alphitobius diaperinus and Tenebrio molitor.

    Bjørge, Julie Dahl; Overgaard, Johannes; Malte, Hans; Gianotten, Natasja; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2018-03-10

    Insects are increasingly used as a dietary source for food and feed and it is therefore important to understand how rearing conditions affect growth and development of these agricultural animals. Temperature is arguably the most important factor affecting metabolism and growth rate in insects. Here, we investigated how rearing temperature affected growth rate, growth efficiency and macronutrient composition in two species of edible beetle larvae: Alphitobius diaperinus and Tenebrio molitor. Growth rates of both species were quantified at temperatures ranging from 15.2 to 38.0 °C after which we measured protein and lipid content of the different treatment groups. Metabolic rate was measured in a similar temperature range by measuring the rate of O 2 consumption (V·O 2 ) and CO 2 production (V·CO 2 ) using repeated measures closed respirometry. Using these measurements, we calculated the growth efficiency of mealworms by relating the energy assimilation rate to the metabolic rate. Maximum daily growth rates were 18.3% and 16.6% at 31 °C, for A. diaperinus and T. molitor respectively, and we found that A. diaperinus was better at maintaining growth at high temperatures while T. molitor had superior growth at lower temperatures. Both species had highest efficiencies of energy assimilation in the temperature range of 23.3-31.0 °C, with values close to 2 J assimilated/J metabolised in A. diaperinus and around 4 J assimilated/J metabolised in T. molitor. Compared to "conventional" terrestrial livestock, both species of insects were characterised by high growth rates and very high energy conversion efficiency at most experimental temperatures. For A. diaperinus, lipid content was approximately 30% of dry mass and protein content approximately 50% of dry mass across most temperatures. Temperature had a greater influence on the body composition of T. molitor. At 31.0 °C the lipid and protein content was measured to 47.4% and 37.9%, respectively but lipid

  7. Sex Ratio Bias Leads to the Evolution of Sex Role Reversal in Honey Locust Beetles.

    Fritzsche, Karoline; Booksmythe, Isobel; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-09-26

    The reversal of conventional sex roles was enigmatic to Darwin, who suggested that it may evolve when sex ratios are female biased [1]. Here we present direct evidence confirming Darwin's hypothesis. We investigated mating system evolution in a sex-role-reversed beetle (Megabruchidius dorsalis) using experimental evolution under manipulated sex ratios and food regimes. In female-biased populations, where reproductive competition among females was intensified, females evolved to be more attractive and the sex roles became more reversed. Interestingly, female-specific mating behavior evolved more rapidly than male-specific mating behavior. We show that sexual selection due to reproductive competition can be strong in females and can target much the same traits as in males of species with conventional mating systems. Our study highlights two central points: the role of ecology in directing sexual selection and the role that females play in mating system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  9. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  10. Effect of food factor on microevolution of Colorado beetle

    N. А. Ryabchenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many-sided research of interaction of Colorado beetle and fodder plant (potato, nightshade sweetly-bitter defines the role of the plants as guiding factor of microevolutional processes in pest population.

  11. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  12. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  13. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  14. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Seasonal dynamics and micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles

    Stefano Mammola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypogean beetles generally live in stable environments, characterized by constant temperature and high relative humidity. Changes in the underground microclimatic conditions generally induce local migrations of the beetles through the hypogean environment in search of suitable microhabitats. We studied the seasonal dynamics and the micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles - Sphodropsis ghilianii (Coleoptera, Carabidae and Dellabeffaella roccae (Coleoptera, Cholevidae - in the hypogean complex of Pugnetto (Graian Alps, Italy. We surveyed the two species for one year, using baited pitfall traps and measuring temperature and humidity along the two main caves. We used logistic regression mixed models (GLMMs to relate the presence of the two species to several variables, namely microclimate (seasonality, temperature, and humidity, subjacency and cave length. In addition, we tested the attractive power of the bait on the two species. The thermic optimum for S. ghilianii was found to be around 7°C, with an increasing probability of finding the species in the vicinity of the cave entrance during summer, autumn and spring. The species migrates inside the cave in winter, in response to the drop in the mean daily temperature and in the relative humidity occurring in the outer parts of the cave. On the contrary, D. roccae showed a significant preference for the deeper sections of the cave, characterized by an almost constant temperature of 9°C in air saturated with water vapour. Males and females individuals of both species were found to be equally affected by the environmental variables included in the analysis. We also provided information on the life history of the two species and methodological insights about the use of the bait in the traps

  16. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang

    2017-06-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  17. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans

    Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

    2013-11-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

  18. Microbial counts of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from different rearing companies and different production batches.

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-02-02

    The rising interest in insects for human consumption and the changing regulations in Europe require a profound insight into the food safety of insects reared and sold in Western society. The microbial quality of edible insects has only been studied occasionally. This study aimed at generating an overview of intrinsic parameters (pH, water activity and moisture content) and microbial quality of fresh mealworm larvae and crickets for several rearing companies and for several batches per rearer. In total, 21 batches obtained from 7 rearing companies were subjected to analysis of intrinsic parameters, a range of plate counts and presence-absence tests for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The microbial counts of the fresh insects were generally high. Different rearing batches from a single rearing company showed differences in microbial counts which could not be explained by variations in intrinsic properties. The largest variations were found in numbers of bacterial endospores, psychrotrophs and fungi. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples. Altogether, our study shows that large variations were found between batches from individual rearers. As a consequence, no overall differences between rearers could be observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  20. Polyandry produces sexy sons at the cost of daughters in red flour beetles.

    Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

    2002-02-22

    Female mating with multiple males within a single fertile period is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Female insects are particularly promiscuous. It is not clear why females mate with multiple partners despite several potential costs, such as expenditure of time and energy, reduced lifespan, risk of predation and contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Female red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) obtain sufficient sperm from a single insemination to retain fertility for several months. Nonetheless they copulate repeatedly within minutes with different males despite no direct fitness benefits from this behaviour. One hypothesis is that females mate with multiple partners to provide indirect benefits via enhanced offspring fitness. To test this hypothesis, we compared the relative fitness of F(1) offspring from females mated with single males and multiple males (2, 4, 8, or 16 partners), under the condition of relatively high intraspecific competition. We found that a female mating with 16 males enhanced the relative fitness of F(1) males (in two out of three trials) but reduced F(1) females' fitness (in two independent trials) in comparison with singly mated females. We also determined whether several important fitness correlates were affected by polyandry. We found that F(1) males from mothers with 16 partners inseminated more females than F(1) males from mothers with a single partner. The viability of the eggs sired or produced by F(1) males and females from highly polyandrous mothers was also increased under conditions of low intra-specific competition. Thus, the effects of polyandry on F(1) offspring fitness depend on environmental conditions. Our results demonstrated a fitness trade-off between male and female offspring from polyandrous mothers in a competitive environment. The mechanisms and biological significance of this unique phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  2. Revision of Hemiquedius Casey (Staphylinidae, Staphylininae and a review of beetles dependent on beavers and muskrats in North America

    Adam Brunke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on newly discovered characters on the male genitalia, external morphology and an accumulation of ecological data, we revise the single member of the genus Hemiquedius. Two new species, H. infinitus Brunke & Smetana, sp. n. and H. castoris Brunke & Smetana, sp. n., from eastern North America are described, and H. ferox (LeConte, restricted to peninsular Florida, is re-described. Hemiquedius castoris is strongly associated with the microhabitats provided by nest materials of the North American beaver and muskrat. A key to the three species of Hemiquedius is provided and diagnostic characters are illustrated. We also review the beetles known to be obligate associates of beavers and muskrats, and discuss the potential role of these keystone vertebrates in beetle evolution and distribution. Based on nest-associated beetles and their closest living relatives, beaver and muskrat lodges may extend distributions northward by moderating winters, promote sympatric speciation and act as refugia against extinction of lineages on a broader timescale. Further research into these potential impacts by ecologists and evolutionary biologists is encouraged.

  3. Comparison of chemical attractants against dung beetles and application for rangeland and animal health

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) play a major role in nutrient cycling, soil aeration, and biological control of pests and parasites that breed in manure. Habitat fragmentation, pesticide usage, and conventional agricultural practices threaten dung beetle diversity, and their conservation is ...

  4. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  5. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles.

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  6. Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles : acomparison of four deciduous species

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Johansson, Helena; Jansson, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Many wood-dwelling beetles rely on old hollow trees. In Europe, oaks are known to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna, while less is known regarding other broad-leaved tree species. Furthermore, the extent to which saproxylic insect species have specialised on different tree species remains unknown. In this study, we sampled beetles through pitfall traps and window traps in four different tree species in a landscape with many old oaks. We recorded 242 saproxylic beetle species of w...

  7. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    G. M. Nahibasheva; A. A. Bagomaev; R. A. Musaeva

    2008-01-01

    For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  8. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    G. M. Nahibasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  9. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  10. Identification of Sex Pheromones and Sex Pheromone Mimics for Two North American Click Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Genus Cardiophorus Esch.

    Serrano, Jacqueline M; Collignon, R Maxwell; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2018-04-01

    To date, all known or suspected pheromones of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) have been identified solely from species native to Europe and Asia; reports of identifications from North American species dating from the 1970s have since proven to be incorrect. While conducting bioassays of pheromones of a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), we serendipitously discovered that males of Cardiophorus tenebrosus L. and Cardiophorus edwardsi Horn were specifically attracted to the cerambycid pheromone fuscumol acetate, (E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-yl acetate, suggesting that this compound might also be a sex pheromone for the two Cardiophorus species. Further field bioassays and electrophysiological assays with the enantiomers of fuscumol acetate determined that males were specifically attracted by the (R)-enantiomer. However, subsequent analyses of extracts of volatiles from female C. tenebrosus and C. edwardsi showed that the females actually produced a different compound, which was identified as (3R,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-6,10-dodecadienoic acid methyl ester (methyl (3R,6E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate). In field trials, both the racemate and the (R)-enantiomer of the pheromone attracted similar numbers of male beetles, suggesting that the (S)-enantiomer was not interfering with responses to the insect-produced (R)-enantiomer. This report constitutes the first conclusive identification of sex pheromones for any North American click beetle species. Possible reasons for the strong and specific attraction of males to fuscumol acetate, which is markedly different in structure to the actual pheromone, are discussed.

  11. Flight patterns and sex ratio of beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae

    Larissa Simões Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dynastinae is one of the most representative subfamilies of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeoidea and has considerable ecological importance due mainly to interactions with plants of the families Araceae and Annonaceae. This relationship has led to the evolution of nocturnal activity patterns, which are influenced by environmental conditions. In the present study, abiotic factors were investigated to comprehend the influence on the flight patterns and identify the sex ratio of beetles from this subfamily. A study was conducted at Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti in northeastern Brazil between December 2010 and November 2011. Thirteen species of Dynastinae were identified, most of which were from the genus Cyclocephala. Abundance and richness were greater in the dry season. Six species exhibited peak flight activity at specific periods of the night. More females than males were recorded for Cyclocephala distincta and C. paraguayensis. The present findings suggest that rainfall reduces the flight activity of these beetles and different time schedules may be related to mating behavior, foraging behavior and the avoidance of interspecific resource competition.

  12. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  13. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  14. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  16. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  18. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests

    Taichi Iida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae, on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae, carrion beetles (Silphidae, and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site and lakeshore areas (control site and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region.

  19. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    2010-12-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and... are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle... prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States. As a...

  20. 77 FR 22663 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts

    2012-04-17

    ...-0128] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts AGENCY: Animal and Plant... adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB... INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis), an insect native to China...

  1. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    2012-05-30

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY...: We are amending the Asian longhorned beetle regulations to make changes to the list of quarantined... the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States and to...

  2. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  3. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  4. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  5. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  6. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  7. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  9. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  10. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  11. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  12. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the communities...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters......The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  14. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  15. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights. Keywords: Lighting, Coleoptera, Light pollution, Insects, Ultraviolet

  16. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  17. Gamma irradiation effects on larval and pupal stages on the saw toothed grain beetle oryzaephilus

    Younes, M.W.; Ahmed, M.Y.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation from Co 60 on larval and pupal stages of the saw-toothed grain beetle. Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. were determined. Larval and pupal sensitivity depended on age at treatment, the older the larvae or pupae, the less susceptible. No adults emerged in the 10- to 12-day larvae and 4-day old pupae when irradiated at 10 and 100 Krad. respectively. Irradiation of larvae and pupae especially at high doses, resulted in reduced percent adult emergence in incomplete emergence, and in structural deformities. The percentage sterility for both sexes at each dosage used were determined. Males and females irradiated asl-d and 4-d-old pupae, then mated with normal unmated adults of the opposite sex laid infertile eggs when irradiated at 12 Krad. Adult mortality from irradiated pupae (1- or 4-d-old) was increased with the increase of the dose

  18. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  19. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  20. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  1. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  2. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  3. TROPHIC RELATIONS OF LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE OF THE URALS

    Z. I. Tyumaseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the study of the trophic relations of the lady beetles living in the Urals. The study allocates three ecological groups depending on the peculiarities of the beetles and larvae nutrition: phytophages, micetophages, and entomophages-predators. We have revealed 66 species of lady birds-predators and two species-phytophages: Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827. In the group of obligatory micetophages in the Urals we registered the representatives of the tribe Halyziini, it is Halyzia sedecimguttata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  4. Inter- and Intrapopulation Variation of the Pheromone, Ipsdienol Produced by Male Pine Engravers Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden; K.N. Slessor

    1989-01-01

    We determined the chirality of ipsdienol in individual male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say), from New York, California, and two localities in British Columbia (BC). Both quantity and chirality of ipsdienol varied significantly between and within populations of I. pini . Beetles from California and southeastern BC produced...

  5. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in the rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae

    Mohammad Shahbaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is expected to drive phenotypic differences between conspecific male and females, a widespread phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. At the same time, individuals may exhibit some degree of intra-sexual variation. We examined the sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in different body parts of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae, a cosmopolitan rove beetle commonly found on carrion. Male C. maxillosus had significantly wider head and pronotum, longer mandibles, and more distant eyes than females. The head width was positively correlated to mandible length, which may reflect stronger adductor muscles and higher bite force in larger individuals. The allometry of traits can be examined by plotting the logarithms of that specific trait against the logarithm of body size and determining the slope (b of the regression line. Isometry occurs when b=1, i.e. the ratio of given traits to body size remains constant across individuals. Negative allometry occurs when b1, so that larger individuals have disproportionately larger traits. A positive allometry was found in head width (b=1.32, mandible length (b=2.28, and ocular distance (b=1.49 of males. Our results show that, particularly head size, mandible length and ocular distance are probably under sexual selection in males, while traits such as eye size are isometric to body size. The potential role of these traits in male-male combat as well as female attractiveness has been frequently documented in different insect taxa. The striking similarities in patterns of sexual dimorphism among independently evolved insects indicate that common evolutionary force(s are probably at work.

  7. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  8. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  9. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  10. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  11. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    Mgina

    collection of epigaeic (ground-dwelling) invertebrates (Southwood and Henderson,. 2000). It has been widely used for sampling carabid beetles in biodiversity inventories. (Niemela et al. 1994, Davies 2000, Nyundo. 2002), population and community ecology. (Greenslade 1968, Refseth, 1980,. Niemela1988, Niemela et al.

  12. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  13. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  14. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  15. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  16. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  17. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64 ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  18. Gut bacteria of bark and wood boring beetles

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Yasmin Cardoza; Italo Delalibera; Patrick Schloss; Jo Handelsman; Kier Klepzig; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles are known to have complex associations with a variety of microorganisms (Paine and others 1987; Ayres and others 2000; Six and Klepzig 2004). However, most of our knowledge involves fungi, particularly external species. In contrast, we know very little about their associations with bacterial gut symbionts (Bridges 1981). Similarly, work with wood...

  19. Performance of Asian longhorned beetle among tree species

    Kelli Hoover; Scott Ludwig; James Sellmer; Deborah McCullough; Laura Lazarus

    2003-01-01

    Two procedures were evaluated for assessing susceptibility of a variety of tree species to Anoplophora glabripennis. In the first procedure, adult beetles were caged with a section of sugar maple, northern red oak, white oak, honeylocust, eastern cottonwood, sycamore or tulip poplar wood and allowed to oviposit.

  20. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  1. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  2. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  3. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  4. Bark beetle management after a mass attack - some Swiss experiences

    B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...

  5. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  6. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  7. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  8. Quantifying beetle-macrofungal associations in a temperate biodiversity hot spot.

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2018-01-29

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are often among the most abundant and diverse insects that feed on sporocarps of macrofungi, but little is known regarding their relative specialism or generalism in most communities. We surveyed >9000 sporocarps in montane hardwood forest in the Appalachian Mountains (USA) to characterize associations of mycophagous beetles and macrofungi. We used traditional metrics and network analyses to quantify relationships between sporocarp traits (mass, age, persistence, and toughness) and assemblages of adult beetles, drawing from >50 000 beetles collected over two survey years. Strict-sense specificity was rare in these associations: most beetle species were found on multiple fungal genera, and most fungi hosted multiple beetle species. Sporocarp age and fresh mass were positively associated with beetle diversity in fungi with ephemeral sporocarps (here including 12 genera of Agaricales and Russulales), but sporocarp persistence was not. In Polyporales, beetle diversity was greater in softer sporocarps than in tough or woody sporocarps. The increase of beetle diversity in aging sporocarps could not be attributed to increases in sporocarp mass or sampling point in the growing season, suggesting that age-related changes in chemistry or structure may support increasingly diverse beetle communities. Interaction networks differed as a function of sporocarp age, revealing that community-wide measures of generalism (i.e., network connectance) and evenness (i.e., variance in normalized degree) change as sporocarps mature and senesce. Beetles observed on Agaricales and Russulales with more persistent sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth (i.e., were more host-specific) than those on less persistent sporocarps, and beetles on Polyporales with tougher sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth than those on soft sporocarps. In addition to providing a large-scale evaluation of sporocarp use by adult beetles in this temperate biodiversity hot spot, this

  9. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  10. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  11. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  12. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  13. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Semiochemicals on the Attraction of an Ambrosia Beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to Quercivorol.

    Byers, John A; Maoz, Yonatan; Wakarchuk, David; Fefer, Daniela; Levi Zada, Anat

    2018-04-17

    The Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) species complex includes the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), an ambrosia beetle infesting avocado limbs, Persea americana Mill. Synthetic quercivorol, a monoterpene alcohol, is known to attract females (males are flightless) over a range of release rates spanning three orders of magnitude. The upper release dose was extended 10-fold using sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 1× (0.126 mg/day), 10×, and 108× relative rates to obtain a dose-response curve fitting a kinetic formation function. Naturally infested limbs of living avocado trees were wrapped with netting to exclude the possibility of catching emerging beetles on the encircling sticky traps. The results indicate PSHB are significantly attracted to infested limbs. Ethanol released over a 64-fold range (lowest rate of 7.5 mg/day) was moderately inhibitory of PSHB attraction to 1× quercivorol. β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol did not appear to affect attraction at the rates tested. A field test of potential inhibitors of 1× quercivorol was done using ~1 mg/day releases of monoterpene ketones: (-)-(S)-verbenone, (+)-(R)-verbenone, 3-methyl-2-cyclo-hexen-1-one (MCH or seudenone), piperitone, (+)-(S)-carvone, and racemic cryptone. Only piperitone and the two enantiomers of verbenone were strongly inhibitory. A blend of piperitone and verbenone tested together at different distances (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m) from a 1× quercivorol baited sticky trap became increasingly ineffective in inhibiting the attractant as separation distance increased. Due to the relatively short-range repellency (attraction radii, EAR, and circular EARc are estimated for the quercivorol baits released at 1×, 10× and 108× rates. Push-pull simulations of moving beetles were performed in 1 ha plots with 2, 4, or 16 traps of 10× EARc and 400 trees (0, 1, or 3 inhibitors per tree) of which ten had an infested limb (EARc = 0.5 m). The simulations indicate that push

  15. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  16. Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph.

    Sarah E J Arnold

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless, more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies.

  17. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Dacke Marie; Nørgaard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  19. Solar radiation as a factor influencing the raid spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) during spring swarming

    Mezei, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of spruce bark beetle in nature reserve Fabova hola Mountain in the Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains at an altitude of 1.100-1.440 meters was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains was affected by two windstorms (2004 and 2007) followed by a gradation of bark beetles. This article has examined the dependence between amount of solar radiation and trapping of spruce bark beetle into pheromone traps.

  20. Seasonal flight patterns of the Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Sweden

    Öhrn, Petter

    2012-01-01

    The major bark beetle threat to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Eurasia is the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Beetles cause damage after population build-up in defenseless trees. To minimize attacks, timely removal of these trees is important. This is practiced by clearing of wind throws and sanitation felling. Thus, knowledge about the region-specific flight pattern and voltinism of I. typographus is necessary for efficient pest management. This thesis focuses on the ...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  2. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  3. Anatomical organization of the brain of a diurnal and a nocturnal dung beetle.

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Dacke, Marie; Heinze, Stanley; El Jundi, Basil

    2017-06-01

    To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology. Although there is already some knowledge emerging concerning how celestial cues are processed in the dung beetle brain, little is known about its general neural layout. Mapping the neuropils of the dung beetle brain is thus a prerequisite to understand the neuronal network that underlies celestial compass orientation. Here, we describe and compare the brains of a day-active and a night-active dung beetle species based on immunostainings against synapsin and serotonin. We also provide 3D reconstructions for all brain areas and many of the fiber bundles in the brain of the day-active dung beetle. Comparison of neuropil structures between the two dung beetle species revealed differences that reflect adaptations to different light conditions. Altogether, our results provide a reference framework for future studies on the neuroethology of insects in general and dung beetles in particular. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  5. The night and day of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in the Serra do Japi, Brazil: elytra colour related to daily activity

    Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 387 dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were surveyed at the Serra do Japi, in the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, with four baited pitfall traps during the months of December, 1998, and January, 1999 during eight 24 hour cycles. A total of 30 species were identified and temporal variation in activity patterns among the species shows a specialization in the use of food resources: 9 species were classified as nocturnal and 13 as diurnal. The daily activity pattern of dung beetles does not necessarily correspond to the taxonomic classification, but is strongly related to the colouring of species, determined by predominant elytra colour: nocturnal species have 89 % more chances of being black as opposed to colourful. Black nocturnal species might have evolved as an interspecific adaptation to avoid predation (cryptic colouring. Among the colourful diurnal dung beetles, measure of body length of each species shows that development of bright colouring was more often found in medium to large species, which suggests that colouring evolved as a response to intraspecific pressures, important in agonistic encounters among males.

  6. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  7. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  8. Ultrastructure and morphology of antennal sensilla of the adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp.

    Li-Mei Song

    Full Text Available The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera, have been examined. Five types of sensilla on the antennae were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Sensilla placodea and elongated s. placodea are the most abundant types of sensilla, distributing only on the flagellum. Both these types of sensilla carry multiple pore systems with a typical function as chemoreceptors. Three types of s. coeloconica (Type I-III were also identified, with the characterization of the pit-in-pit style, and carrying pegs externally different from each other. Our data indicated that both type I and type II of s. coleconica contain two bipolar neurons, while the type III of s. coleconica contains three dendrites in the peg. Two sensory dendrites in the former two sensilla are tightly embedded inside the dendrite sheath, with no space left for sensilla lymph. There are no specific morphological differences in the antennal sensilla observed between males and females, except that the males have longer antennae and more sensilla than the females.

  9. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  10. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

    1996-01-01

    The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  11. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae

    Matthew R. Moore

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1 the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2 diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3 economic importance in agroecosystems; 4 natural enemies of these beetles; 5 use as food by humans; 6 the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7 fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8 generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe’s genera.

  12. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles

    Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  13. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    Moore, Matthew R; Cave, Ronald D; Branham, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1) the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2) diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3) economic importance in agroecosystems; 4) natural enemies of these beetles; 5) use as food by humans; 6) the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7) fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8) generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe's genera.

  14. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  15. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  16. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  17. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  18. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  19. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  20. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  1. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  2. doublesex alters aggressiveness as a function of social context and sex in the polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Beckers, Oliver M; Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P

    2017-10-01

    Despite sharing nearly the same genome, individuals within the same species can vary drastically in both morphology and behaviour as a function of developmental stage, sex or developmental plasticity. Thus, regulatory processes must exist that enable the stage-, sex- or environment-specific expression of traits and their integration during ontogeny, yet exactly how trait complexes are co-regulated and integrated is poorly understood. In this study, we explore the developmental genetic basis of the regulation and integration of environment-dependent sexual dimorphism in behaviour and morphology in the horn-polyphenic dung beetle Onthophagus taurus through the experimental manipulation of the transcription factor doublesex (dsx). The gene dsx plays a profound role in the developmental regulation of morphological differences between sexes as well as alternative male morphs by inhibiting horn formation in females but enabling nutrition-responsive horn growth in males. Specifically, we investigated whether experimental downregulation of dsx expression affects male and female aggressive and courtship behaviours in two social contexts: interactions between individuals of the same sex and interactions between males and females. We find that dsx downregulation significantly alters aggressiveness in both males and females, yet does so differently for both sexes as a function of social context: dsx RNAi males exhibited elevated aggression towards males but showed reduced aggression towards females, whereas dsx RNAi females became more aggressive towards males, while their aggressiveness towards other females was unaffected. Moreover, we document unexpectedly high levels of female aggression independent of dsx treatment in both wild-type and control-injected individuals. Lastly, we found no effects of dsx RNAi on courtship and mating behaviours. We discuss the role of dsx in the regulation of sex-specific and plastic behaviours, the unexpectedly high levels of aggression of

  3. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  4. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  5. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  6. Antibiotic-producing bacteria from stag beetle mycangia.

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Hirai, Yuuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2015-02-01

    The search for new antibiotics or antifungal agents is crucial for the chemotherapies of infectious diseases. The limited resource of soil bacteria makes it difficult to discover such new drug candidate. We, therefore, focused on another bacterial resource than soil bacteria, the microbial flora of insect species. In the present study, we isolated 40 strains of bacteria and fungi from the mycangia of three species of stag beetle, Dorcus hopei binodulosus, Dorcus rectus, and Dorcus titanus pilifer. We identified those species with their ribosomal DNA sequences, and revealed that Klebsiella spp. are the most frequent symbiont in the stag beetle mycangia. We examined whether these microorganisms produce antibiotics against a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, or a fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Culture supernatants from 33, 29, or 18 strains showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, or C. neoformans, respectively. These findings suggest that bacteria present in the mycangia of stag beetles are useful resources for screening novel antibiotics.

  7. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  8. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  9. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  10. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on sperm activity, sperm viability and adult competitiveness of the pulse beetle Collosobruchus Chinensis L

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Abdel-Nasr, A.E.; Abdel-Rahman, A.M.; Haiba, I.M.H.

    1984-01-01

    When mature pupae of callosobruchus chinensis L. were treated with 7 krad, the resulting adults were sterile. Replacing normal males by irradiate ones in the normal population, decreases the egg hatchability. Hatchability decreased from 88.23% in the 1st 3 days to 32.44% after replacing normal males by sterile ones (in the 2nd 3 days). Insemination by normal males could approximately nullify insemination by irradiated males, as the egg hatchability increased from zero to 37.79% even after replacing the irradiated males by normal ones. Percent egg infertility of the eggs produced from newly emerged virgin females mated with sterile males was 100%. When males irradiated (1) with 7 krad as fully grown pupae were confined with unirradiated (U) males and females (1:1:1 ratio), infertility of the resulting eggs were 44.98%. The competitiveness value of irradiated males was 0.54. Males and females both treated as fully grown pupae with a sterilizing dose (7 krad) and confined with U males and U females at a 1 male :1 female :U male : female ratio caused 55.77% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1 or 10:10:1:1, the infertility reached 91.27% and 100.0% respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than expected for the ratios 1:1:1:1 and 5:5:1:1, but it was exceeded with the highest ratio used (10:10:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00 i.e., the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones. These results indicated that irradiation with 7 krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of adults. Also, the release of 1 males together with 1 female could give good results in controlling a population of the pulse beetle in an autocidal control program; and therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary

  12. Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles

    Rick G. Kelsey; D. Gallego; F.J. Sánchez-Garcia; J.A. Pajares

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality from temperature-driven drought is occurring in forests around the world, often in conjunction with bark beetle outbreaks when carbon allocation to tree defense declines. Physiological metrics for detecting stressed trees with enhanced vulnerability prior to bark beetle attacks remain elusive. Ethanol, water, monoterpene concentrations, and composition...

  13. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  14. Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn.

    Steckel, Sandy; Stewart, S D; Tindall, K V

    2013-10-01

    Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is an emerging silk-feeding insect found in fields in the lower Corn Belt and Midsouthern United States. Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate how silk clipping in corn affects pollination and yield parameters. Manually clipping silks once daily had modest effects on yield parameters. Sustained clipping by either manually clipping silks three times per day or by caging Japanese beetles onto ears affected total kernel weight if it occurred during early silking (R1 growth stage). Manually clipping silks three times per day for the first 5 d of silking affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Caged beetles fed on silks and, depending on the number of beetles caged per ear, reduced the number of kernels per ear. Caging eight beetles per ear significantly reduced total kernel weight compared with noninfested ears. Drought stress before anthesis appeared to magnify the impact of silk clipping by Japanese beetles. There was evidence of some compensation for reduced pollination by increasing the size of pollinated kernels within the ear. Our results showed that it requires sustained silk clipping during the first week of silking to have substantial impacts on pollination and yield parameters, at least under good growing conditions. Some states recommend treating for Japanese beetle when three Japanese beetles per ear are found, silks are clipped to < 13 mm, and pollination is < 50% complete, and that recommendation appears to be adequate.

  15. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  16. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  17. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  18. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  19. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  20. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  1. Alternative timing of carbaryl treatments for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle

    Christopher J. Fettig; A.Steve Munson; Kenneth E. Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl is regarded among the most effective, economically viable, and ecologically-compatible insecticides available for protecting conifers from bark beetle attack in the western United States. Treatments are typically applied in spring prior to initiation of bark beetle flight for that year. We evaluated the efficacy of spring and fall applications for protecting...

  2. Bearing selection in ball-rolling dung beetles: is it constant?

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable burial site. In this study, we investigate how individual diurnal dung beetles, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus, select the compass bearing of their straight-line rolls. In particular, we examine whether roll bearings are constant with respect to geographic cues, celestial cues, or other environmental cues (such as wind direction). Our results reveal that the roll bearings taken by individual beetles are not constant with respect to geographic or celestial references. Environmental cues appear to have some influence over bearing selection, although the relationship is not strong. Furthermore, the variance in roll bearing that we observe is not affected by the presence or absence of other beetles. Thus, rather than being constant for individual beetles, bearing selection varies each time a beetle makes a ball and rolls it away from the dung pile. This strategy allows beetles to make an efficient escape from the dung pile while minimizing the chance of encountering competition.

  3. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  4. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper

    Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper was investigated. Gamma ray at a dose of 62 Gy completely killed eggs and larvae of the beetles. Some pupae survived at 540 Gy, but all pupae were killed at 1076 Gy. (author)

  6. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  7. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  8. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  9. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  10. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  11. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  12. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  13. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  14. 76 FR 1337 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York

    2011-01-10

    .... APHIS-2009-0014] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian..., MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB...

  15. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GROUND BEETLES OF GUMBETOVSKY DISTRICT OF DAGHESTAN REPUBLIC

    G. M. NAKHIBASHEVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground beetles of the Gumbetovskiy area are studied. For the first time for the territory there are defined 95 species of the beetles related to 28 genus. Bioecological features of the species are presented and the analysis of the received materials is lead.

  16. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  17. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  18. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  19. A trial of direct control of pine engraver beetles on a small logging unit

    W. L. Jackson

    1960-01-01

    Laboratory tests and small-scale field trials have shown the insecticide lindane to be highly toxic to pine engraver beetles. On the basis of that information, the insecticide was applied to fresh logging slash heavily infested with pine engraver beetles at Challenge Experimental Forest in 1959. Costs were reasonable and no insurmountable problems were encountered....

  20. Approaches to control diseases vectored by ambrosia beetles in avocado and other American Lauraceae

    Invasive ambrosia beetles and the plant pathogenic fungi they vector represent a significant challenge to North American agriculture, native and landscape trees. Ambrosia beetles encompass a range of insect species and they vector a diverse set of plant pathogenic fungi. Our lab has taken several bi...

  1. Cloning and characterization of luciferase from a Fijian luminous click beetle.

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Luminous click beetle is distributed almost exclusively in Central and South America with a single genus in Melanesia. Among these click beetles, the description of Melanesian species has been fragmentary, and its luciferase gene and phylogenetic relation to other click beetles still remain uncertain. We collected a living luminous click beetle, Photophorus jansonii in Fiji. It emits green-yellow light from two spots on the pronotum and has no ventral luminous organ. Here, we cloned a luciferase gene from this insect by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity of ~85% to the luciferases derived from other click beetle species. The luciferase of the Fijian click beetle was produced as a recombinant protein to characterize its biochemical properties. The Km for D-luciferin and ATP were 173 and 270 μm, respectively. The luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm, which was in the range of green-yellow light as seen in the luminous spot of the living Fijian click beetle. The Fijian click beetle luciferase was assigned to the Elateridae clade by a phylogenetic analysis, but it made a clearly different branch from Pyrophorus group examined in this study. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  3. A contact anti-aphrodisiac pheromone supplied by the spermatophore in the rove beetle Aleochara curtula: mode of transfer and evolutionary significance

    Schlechter-Helas, Jerry; Schmitt, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    By reducing the attractiveness of their mating partner via an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone, males can prevent a remating of the female and thus reduce the risk of sperm competition. For females, the main benefit from allowing the chemical manipulation of their attractiveness is probably the avoidance of sexual harassments from rival males. While mating plugs generally constitute a physical barrier which hinders male mating attempts, chemical manipulations must trustfully inform the responding male of the female's reluctance to mate; otherwise, it would be beneficial to ignore the repellent information. In our experiments, males of the polyandrous rove beetle Aleochara curtula chemically manipulated the attractiveness of their mating partner. Coincident with the deposition of a spermatophore into the female genital chamber, an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone was transferred and readily spread onto the female surface, where it was subsequently perceived by rival males via parameres, the claspers of the male genitalia. Males aborted contact with the mated female to avoid further time- and energy-consuming elements of the mating sequence. The chemical mode of action was demonstrated inter alia by spicing virgin females with spermatophore extracts. The action of the anti-aphrodisiac correlated with the persistence of the spermatophore in the female genital chamber and corresponded to the length of stay of the mated female at a carcass, where the density of rival males is highest. The ensuing benefits for all three parties involved in this communication system, which render this post-copulatory mate guarding strategy evolutionary stable, are discussed.

  4. New records of water beetles (Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae from Montenegro (SE Europe

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The water beetle fauna of Montenegro is still poorly known. In the catalog dealing with water beetles (Hydrochantares and Palpicornia in Yugoslavia Gueorguiev (1971 gives a list of 116 water beetle species from Montenegro. Mikšić (1977 reported the presence of six water beetles species from the Ulcinj area. In the present paper, 19 water beetle species (Coleoptera Hydradephaga are reported, five of which are new for the fauna of Montenegro. All specimens have been deposited in the zoological collection of the department of Biology (Podgorica. In list of the species, we give the locality, the date of sampling, the total number of individuals and the names of collectors.

  5. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. A comparison of outbreak dynamics of the spruce bark beetle in Sweden and the mountain pine beetle in Canada (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Kärvemo, Simon; Schroeder, Leif Martin

    2010-01-01

    The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and the North American mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) may kill millions of trees during outbreak periods. Both species have also experienced large outbreaks in recent years. But the magnitude of the outbreaks of D. ponderosae is much larger. In this review we compare the outbreak history of I. typographus in Sweden with D. ponderosae in British Columbia in Canada. We also discuss some possible explanations for the difference in...

  7. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae described from NE Thailand

    Olof Bistrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae. It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, H. diversipunctatus sp. n. and H. globosus sp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality “Khon Kaen” (a city and province. Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  8. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males......It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  9. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  10. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of Carpophilus sayi, a nitidulid vector of oak wilt disease, and pheromonal comparison with Carpophilus lugubris

    Robert J. Bartelt; John F. Kyhl; Angie K. Ambourn; Jennifer Juzwik; Steven J. Seybold

    2004-01-01

    Carpophilus sayi, a nitidulid beetle vector of the oak wilt fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, was shown to have a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Six male-specific chemicals were identified from collections of volatiles. The two major compounds were (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5-dimethyl-7-ethyl-2,4,6,8- undecatetraene and (2E,4E,6E,8E...

  11. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  12. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability...... to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example...

  13. Fluorescence of the 'fire-chaser' beetle Melanophila acuminata

    Israelowitz, Meir; Rizvi, Syed H.W.; Schroeder, Herbert P. von

    2007-01-01

    Melanophila acuminata beetles are attracted to forest fires over long distances by a pair of specialized infrared sensory organs. To date, there is no knowledge of their ability to detect or emit fluorescent radiation. We studied the Melanophila acuminata infrared sensory organs histologically and by using fluorescent microscopy, acoustic-optic tunable filter microscopy, and two-photon microscopy to identify fluorescence. We found fluorescent absorption at radiation wavelengths of 480 nm and emission at 570 nm. The functional role of this novel fluorescence is, as of yet, unknown but may be applied to species classification, identification and behavioral studies

  14. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  15. Trilobite spines and beetle horns: sexual selection in the Palaeozoic?

    Knell, Robert J; Fortey, Richard A

    2005-06-22

    Raphiophorid trilobites commonly bore median cephalic protuberances such as spines or bulbs, showing a remarkable variety of form. It is unlikely that their primary function was for protection or in hydrodynamics. A case is made that they were secondary sexual features, by comparison with similar morphological structures developed on rhinoceros beetles and other arthropods. This interpretation is supported by four lines of evidence: their ontogeny, their diversity, the existence of plausible examples of sexual dimorphs in some cases and the fact that they show positive allometry.

  16. Javorella, a new genus of endemic ground beetles (Trechini, Carabidae, Coleoptera from west and southwest Serbia

    Ćurčić Srećko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of cave ground beetles (Javorella javorensis n. gen. n. sp has been described from the Pećina pod Kapilijama Cave, village Trudovo, nr. Nova Varoš, southwestern Serbia. This new genus is clearly distinct from all other genera in many important respects such as: the presence of unfunctional flattened reduced eyes, the presence of 10-14 depigmented ommatidia, the presence of a pigmented oval eye border, the presence of deep and complete frontal furrows (but shallow and less visible in their posterior thirds, the presence of completely smooth cheeks, the presence of distinct furrows on fore tibias along their length, the ratio of the length/breadth of the first article of protarsomere in male; the presence of 2 elytral discal setae, the specific position of humeral setae and the unique shape of the copulatory piece. This new genus comprises also an additional species, J. suvoborensis (Pavićević and Popović, described elsewhere from the Pećina u Brezacima Cave, village Brezaci, Rajac, Mt. Suvobor, near Valjevo, western Serbia. The two species clearly differ in many important respects; the new genus and its members belong to an old and separate phyletic lineage, distinct from all other existing species groups. Additionally, these forms are relic and endemic to Serbian caves.

  17. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  18. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  19. Diurnal dung beetles use the intensity gradient and the polarization pattern of the sky for orientation.

    el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2014-07-01

    To escape competition at the dung pile, a ball-rolling dung beetle forms a piece of dung into a ball and rolls it away. To ensure their efficient escape from the dung pile, beetles rely on a 'celestial compass' to move along a straight path. Here, we analyzed the reliability of different skylight cues for this compass and found that dung beetles rely not only on the sun but also on the skylight polarization pattern. Moreover, we show the first evidence of an insect using the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Using a polarizer, we manipulated skylight so that the polarization pattern appeared to turn by 90 deg. The beetles then changed their bearing close to the expected 90 deg. This behavior was abolished if the sun was visible to the beetle, suggesting that polarized light is hierarchically subordinate to the sun. When the sky was depolarized and the sun was invisible, the beetles could still move along straight paths. Therefore, we analyzed the use of the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Artificial rotation of the intensity pattern by 180 deg caused beetles to orient in the opposite direction. This light-intensity cue was also found to be subordinate to the sun and could play a role in disambiguating the polarization signal, especially at low sun elevations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  1. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  2. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  3. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  4. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae Beetles from Iran

    Mahsa Sadat Makki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52% of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  5. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  6. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier, 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae

    Robert Acciavatti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl. A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl and B. ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, B. bellorum, and B. philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, B. rawlinsi, B. iviei, and B. youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are B. darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and B. davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with B. viridicollis (Dejean and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie & Hopp may represent a distinct species

  7. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  8. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  9. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  10. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles.

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-07-16

    In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic. The differences in

  11. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut.

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H

    1990-03-01

    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  12. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  13. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  14. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  15. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  16. Quantitative separation of bone and muscle radioactivity in small rodents using Dermestid beetles

    Walburg, H.E.; Eisele, G.R.; Mraz, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Dermestid beetles, which feed on dead animals, to separate muscle and bone radioactivity in small rodent carcasses was studied. Eviscerated carcasses of mice injected with 1μCi 95 Nb 48hr before killing were placed in jars with adult beetle larvae. Within 3 weeks the skeletons were completely free of muscle. Losses of radioactivity were acceptably small. The actual muscle activity was measured by counting activity in beetles, larvae and excreta, and compared with estimated values. Dermestid digestion has proved to be effective for small carcasses, where size precludes other methods of separation, and is in current use in studies of tissue localization of radionuclides. (author)

  17. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Dacke Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to

  18. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-07-18

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  19. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Fungal volatiles: Semiochemicals for stored-product beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).

    Pierce, A M; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1991-03-01

    Responses by five species of cucujid grain beetles (mixed-sex adults) to various volatiles were assessed by means of a two-choice, pitfall olfactometer. The test volatiles were short-chain alcohols and ketones known to be produced by fungi. Both racemic and chiral 1-octen-3-ols were strong attractants forCryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), as had been found previously forOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.),O. mercator (Fauvel), andAhasverus advena (Waltl). 3-Methylbutanol was another good attractant for these four cucujids, and it was the only test compound to whichCathartus quadricollis (Guér.) responded positively. 1-Octen-3-one, racemic 3-octanol, and 3-octanone showed various degrees of attractiveness for the former four species of cucujids.O. surinamensis was the only species of test beetle to show much positive response to 2-phenylethanol and ethanol. ForO. mercator andO. surinamensis, 3-methylbutanol enhanced positive response to their respective cucujolide aggregation pheromones.

  2. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20% are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect.

  3. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  4. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Weber, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  5. Taxonomic notes on Amarodytes duponti (Aubé, 1838 (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini with redescription of male genitalia

    Benetti, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The male genitalia of the water beetle Amarodytes duponti (Aubé, 1838 are described and illustrated. The species was collectedin small pools of rainwater on the margins of a river. A. duponti is distinguished from other species of the genus by the presence of bi-segmented parameres. This species is related to Bidessodes Régimbart, Hypodessus Guignot and Tepuidessus Spangler.

  6. Isolation and extreme sex-specific expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, following feeding on the phloem of host ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Huber, D P W; Erickson, M L; Leutenegger, C M; Bohlmann, J; Seybold, S J

    2007-06-01

    We have identified cDNAs and characterized the expression of 13 novel cytochrome P450 genes of potential importance in host colonization and reproduction by the California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus. Twelve are of the Cyp4 family and one is of the Cyp9 family. Following feeding on host Pinus ponderosa phloem, bark beetle transcript levels of several of the Cyp4 genes increased or decreased in males only or in both sexes. In one instance (IparaCyp4A5) transcript accumulated significantly in females, but declined significantly in males. The Cyp9 gene (Cyp9T1) transcript levels in males were > 85 000 x higher at 8 h and > 25 000 x higher at 24 h after feeding compared with nonfed controls. Transcript levels in females were approximately 150 x higher at 24 h compared with nonfed controls. Cyp4G27 transcript was present constitutively regardless of sex or feeding and served as a better housekeeping gene than beta-actin or 18S rRNA for the real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression patterns of Cyp4AY1, Cyp4BG1, and, especially, Cyp9T1 in males suggest roles for these genes in male-specific aggregation pheromone production. The differential transcript accumulation patterns of these bark beetle P450s provide insight into ecological interactions of I. paraconfusus with its host pines.

  7. Genetic constraints and sexual dimorphism in immune defense

    Rolff, Jens; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Coltman, David W.

    2005-01-01

    The absence of continued evolutionary change despite the presence of genetic variation and directional selection is very common. Genetic correlations between traits can reduce the evolvability of traits. One intriguing example might be found in a sexual conflict over sexually dimorphic traits......: a common genetic architecture constrains the response to selection on a trait subjected to sexually asymmetric selection pressures. Here we show that males and females of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor differ in the quantitative genetic architecture of four traits related to immune defense...

  8. Gamma irradiation effects on the adult stage, mating competitiveness and sperm activity of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Salem, Y.S.; El-Kady, E.A.; Gharib, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation dosages between 4 and 22 Krad on the adult stage of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F. were studied. Adult females were more sensitive to the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation than were males. Males of R. Dominica irradiated (I) as full grown pupae with 20 Krad were sterile. Males treated similarly and confined with unirradiated (U) males and females at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 42.2% of the eggs produced to be infertile; increasing the ratio 20:1:1 caused 97.1% infertile eggs. Males and females both treated with a sterilizing dose (20 Krad) as pupae and confined with U adults at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 43.3% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1 (I:U:U), the percentage infertility reached 83.8, 93.9 and 100.0% respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1 and 10:10:1:1 but was exceeded with the highest ratio used (15:15:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00. Replacing U male by I male decreased the egg hatchability, which indicates that I male were able to negate previous insemination by U male. Insemination by U female could nullify insemination by I males

  9. A survey of beetles (Coleoptera from the tundra surrounding the Nunalleq archaeological site, Quinhagak, southwestern Alaska

    Véronique Forbes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of beetles conducted in the vicinity of the archaeological site of Nunalleq, a pre-contact (16th-17th century AD indigenous forager settlement located near the modern Yup’ik village of Quinhagak, in the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, southwestern Alaska. Records and habitat data are reported for 74 beetle taxa collected in tundra, riparian, aquatic and anthropogenic environments from a region of Alaska that has been poorly studied by entomologists. This includes the first mainland Alaskan record for the byrrhid Simplocaria metallica (Sturm. Beyond improving our knowledge of the local beetle fauna’s diversity and ecology, this survey provides the basis for comparisons between modern and sub-fossil beetle assemblages from Nunalleq and Quinhagak.

  10. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  11. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  12. Biannual monitoring of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility in Danish pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) populations

    Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    ) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...

  13. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  14. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on

  15. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  17. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  18. Rove beetles (Coleoptera Staphylilnidae) in neotropical riverine landscapes: characterising their distribution.

    Gutierrez Chacon, C.; Del Carmen Zuniga, M.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Chara, J.; Giraldo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. The diversity and ecology of Staphylinidae in the Neotropical region has been poorly investigated, especially in riverine landscapes where these beetles are among the dominant organisms. Therefore, the relation between the occurrence of Staphylinidae and environmental variables was investigated

  19. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide

  20. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing...... as well as posterior predictive distributions. In particular, we implement path sampling combined with perfect simulation for autologistic models while formally addressing the posterior propriety under an improper uniform prior. Our data analysis results suggest that red turpentine beetle colonization...... is associated with a higher likelihood of pine engraver bark beetle colonization and that pine engraver bark beetle colonization is associated with higher likelihood of red pine tree mortality, whereas there is no direct association between red turpentine beetle colonization and red pine tree mortality...

  1. Nutritional valuse of edible coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio and Alphitobius diaperinus reared reared in the Czech Republic

    Anna Adámková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects have gained the status of highly nutritious food with high protein and fat content. However, nutritional value of insects is not constant. It could be affected by species, developmental stage, rearing technology, nutrition or sex. This study's goal is to determine the protein and fat contents of three edible beetle species (giant mealworm - larvae of Zophobas morio, mealworm - larvae of Tenebrio molitor and, lesser mealworm - larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus bred in the Czech Republic. Based on the obtained results, all investigated species could be considered as a reasonable source of lipids and two of them (mealworm and lesser mealworm are also an excellent source of protein. Crude protein content of mealworm (630 g. kg-1 DM was found to be higher than in other studies. The investigated species of lesser mealworm contained 600 g of crude protein/kg DM, which was equal to the results of other authors. Most authors report a higher content of nitrogen in the giant mealworm than were the values measured by this experiment (390 g.kg-1 DM. The lipid content in the tested samples was found in a range of 170 - 390 g.kg-1 DM. The highest lipid content was found in the larvae of giant mealworm and the lowest lipid content was found in the larvae of mealworm. The determined fat content of lesser mealworms was 290 g.kg-1. The fatty acid profiles of all samples were also determined.

  2. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman : foliar feeding on wine grapes in Virginia

    Boucher, T. Jude

    1986-01-01

    The natural infestation level for 1985 of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia failed to reduce berry quality, yield or shoot growth in a commercial vineyard. Intensive postveraison foliage feeding by Japanese beetle resulted 1n fruit with lower soluble solids and higher total titratable acidity at harvest, but did not affect pH, sugar per berry, berry weight, yield, leaves per vine or shoot length. Intensive previraison feeding a...

  3. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  4. Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding

    Andreev, D.; Breilid, H.; Kirkendall, L.; Brun, Luc-Olivier; French-Constant, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The coffee berry borer beetle #Hypothenemus hampei$ (Ferrari) (#Curculionidae$ : #Scolytinae$) is the major insect pest of coffee and has spread to most of the coffee-growing countries of the world. This beetle also displays an usual life cycle, with regular sibling mating. This regular inbreeding and the population bottlenecks occuring on colonization of new regions should lead to low levels of genetic diversity. We were therefore interested in determining the level of nucleotide variation i...

  5. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  6. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  7. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  8. [Characteristics of wintering in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in forest ecosystems of the East European Plain].

    Griuntal', S Iu

    2000-01-01

    Specific features of wintering of the ground beetles in three habitats (litter, soil, and bark of fallen trees and stumps) were comparatively studied in the forests of forest-steppe (Voronezh District) and subzone of broad-leaved-spruce forests (Moscow District). The main mass of ground beetles is concentrated in the upper 10-cm soil layer, irrespective of the type of watering (automorphous or hydromorphous soils). Wintering under the bark is a facultative feature of the most species occurring in these biocoenoses.

  9. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    Anita Giglio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  10. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  11. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  12. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

    2000-12-01

    The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study.

  13. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproduction strategy of alluvial ground beetles

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetle...

  14. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Contrasting needs of grassland dwellers: habitat preferences of endangered steppe beetles (Coleoptera)

    Čížek, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 281-293 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : blister beetle * carpathian basin * darkling beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7523m513164v7l3/

  16. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  17. Comparison of sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern and northern populations of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    Liu, Xing-Ping; Tu, Xiao-Yun; He, Hai-Min; Chen, Chao; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the genetic divergence and reproductive incompatibility between closely related species and/or populations is often viewed as an important step toward speciation. In this study, sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern XS population and the northern TA population of the polyandrous cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi was investigated by testing their mating preferences, mating latency, copulation duration, and reproductive performances of post-mating. In choice mating experiments, the percentages of matings were significantly higher in intra-population crosses than in inter-population crosses. Both isolation index (I) and index of pair sexual isolation (IPSI ) indicated partial mating incompatibility or assortative mating in crosses between the two different geographical populations. In single pair mating experiments, XS females in inter-population crosses mated significantly later and copulated significantly shorter than those in intra-population crosses. However, TA females in inter-population crosses mated significantly earlier and copulated longer than those in intra-population crosses, suggesting that larger XS males may enhance heterotypic mating. The lifetime fecundity was highest in XS homotypic matings, lowest in TA homotypic matings, and intermediate in heterotypic matings between their parents. The inter-population crosses resulted in significantly lower egg hatching rate and shorter female longevity than intra-population crosses. These results demonstrated that there exist some incompatibilities in premating, postmating-prezygotic, and postzygotic stages between the southern XS population and northern TA population of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Food consumption in ground beetles is limited under hypoxic conditions in response to ad libitum feeding, but not restricted feeding.

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2018-02-09

    Habitats on land with low oxygen availability provide unique niches inhabited by numerous species. The occupation of such hypoxic niches by animals is hypothesized to come at a cost linked to the limitations of aerobic metabolism and thus energy budget but may also provide benefits through physical protection from predators and parasitoids or reduced competition for food. We investigated the effects of hypoxic conditions on standard metabolic rate (SMR) and specific dynamic action (SDA) in male Carabus nemoralis. SMR and SDA were determined under three manipulated oxygen availabilities: 7, 14 and 21% O 2 and two feeding regimes: limited or ad libitum food consumption. In both hypoxic conditions, C. nemoralis was able to maintain SMR at levels similar to those in normoxia. When the meal size was limited, SDA duration did not differ among the oxygen availability conditions, but SDA was smaller under hypoxic conditions than at normoxic levels. The relative cost of digestion was significantly higher in normoxia than in hypoxia, but it did not affect net energy intake. In contrast, when offered a large meal to simulate ad libitum food conditions, beetles reduced their food consumption and net energy gain by 30% under hypoxia. Oxygen availability may influence the consumed prey size: the hypoxic condition did not limit net energy gain when the beetles fed on a small meal but did when they fed on a large meal. The results indicate that meal size is an important variable in determining differences in physiological costs and whole animal energy budgets at different concentrations of environmental oxygen levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diapause in the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Bean, Daniel W; Wang, Tammy; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W

    2007-06-01

    The tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata Brullé deserticola Chen, was collected in northwestern China and has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Characteristics of diapause and reproductive development in D. elongata were examined to improve management as a biocontrol agent. Under long days, 16:8 (L:D) h, males began to emit aggregation pheromone within 2-3 d of adult emergence, mating occurred, and females oviposited within 7 d of adult emergence. Under short days, 12:12 (L:D) h, males did not emit pheromone, mating did not occur, and both males and females entered reproductive diapause marked by inconspicuous gonads and hypertrophied fat body. Ovaries of diapausing females lacked vitellogenic oocytes, and the ovarioles were clear and narrow, whereas reproductive females had enlarged ovaries with two to three yellow oocytes per ovariole. Diapausing males had thin, transparent accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts, whereas reproductive males had thick white accessory glands and white opaque ejaculatory ducts. Sensitivity to diapause-inducing photoperiods extended into the adult stage. Reproductive females ceased oviposition, resorbed oocytes, and entered diapause when switched from long to short days. Diapause-destined insects ceased feeding and entered the leaf litter 10-20 d after adult emergence, whereas reproductive insects remained on the plants and fed for at least 30 d. Reproductive insects exhibited dispersal behaviors, such as attempted flights, whereas diapause-destined insects did not show dispersal behaviors. Information gained from these studies will be used to better manage populations in the field and to improve rearing and storage in the laboratory.

  20. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  1. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  2. Plant signals during beetle (Scolytus multistriatus) feeding in American elm (Ulmus americana Planch).

    Saremba, Brett M; Tymm, Fiona J M; Baethke, Kathy; Rheault, Mark R; Sherif, Sherif M; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2017-05-04

    American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by several species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms. A colony of Scolytus multistriatus was established from wild-caught beetles and beetles were co-incubated with susceptible or resistant American elm varieties in a controlled environment chamber. Beetles burrowed into the auxillary meristems of the young elm shoots. The trees responded to the beetle damage by a series of spikes in the concentration of plant growth regulating compounds, melatonin, serotonin, and jasmonic acid. Spikes in melatonin and serotonin represented a 7,000-fold increase over resting levels. Spikes in jasmonic acid were about 10-fold higher than resting levels with one very large spike observed. Differences were noted between susceptible and resistant elms that provide new understanding of plant defenses.

  3. Specialized proteinine rove beetles shed light on insect-fungal associations in the Cretaceous.

    Cai, Chenyang; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K; Leschen, Richard A B; Huang, Diying

    2016-12-28

    Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib. nov.) of the extant rove beetle subfamily Proteininae (Staphylinidae) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The mouthparts of this beetle have a markedly enlarged protruding galea bearing an apparent spore brush, a specialized structure we infer was used to scrape spores off surfaces and direct them into the mouth, as in multiple modern spore-feeding beetles. Considering the long evolutionary history of Fungi, the Mid-Cretaceous beetles likely fed on ancient Basidiomycota and/or Ascomycota fungi or spore-producing organisms such as slime moulds (Myxomycetes). The discovery of the first Mesozoic proteinine illustrates the antiquity of the subfamily, and suggests that ancestral Proteininae were already diverse and widespread in Pangaea before the supercontinent broke up. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  6. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  7. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  8. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  9. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

    Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  10. Acorn consumption improves the immune response of the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO content, phenoloxidase (PO activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness.

  11. Olfactory receptor neuron responses of a longhorned beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), to pheromone, host, and non-host volatiles.

    MacKay, Colin A; Sweeney, Jon D; Hillier, N Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Longhorn wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) use olfactory cues to find mates and hosts for oviposition. Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) is an invasive longhorned wood-boring beetle originating from Europe that has been established in Nova Scotia, Canada, since at least 1990. This study used single sensillum recordings (SSR) to determine the response of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antennal sensilla of male and female T. fuscum to different kinds of olfactory cues, namely host volatiles, non-host volatiles, the aggregation pheromone of T. fuscum (fuscumol), and an aggregation pheromone emitted by other species of longhorn beetles (3-hydroxyhexan-2-one). Each compound had been previously shown to elicit antennal activity in T. fuscum using electroantennography or had been shown to elicit behavioral activity in T. fuscum or other cerambycids. There have been very few SSR studies done on cerambycids, and ours is the first to compare response profiles of pheromone components as well as host and non-host volatiles. Based on SSR studies with other insects, we predicted we would find ORNs that responded to the pheromone alone (pheromone-specialists), as well as ORNs that responded only to host or non-host volatiles, i.e., separation of olfactory cue perception at the ORN level. Also, because male T. fuscum emerge earlier than females and are the pheromone-emitting sex, we predicted that the number of pheromone-sensitive ORNs would be greater in females than males. We found 140 ORNs housed within 97 sensilla that responded to at least one of the 13 compounds. Fuscumol-specific ORNs made up 15% (21/140) of all recordings, but contrary to our prediction, an additional 22 ORNs (16%) responded to fuscumol plus at least one other compound; in total, fuscumol elicited a response from 43/140 (31%) of ORNs with fuscumol-specific ORNs accounting for half of these. Thus, our prediction that pheromone reception would be segregated on specialist ORNs was only partially

  12. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  13. Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae reflects biotope disturbance

    Langraf Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5 and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6 (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3 with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1, a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4 and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7 (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3, where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

  14. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  15. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  16. Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus: genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viability.

    Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females.

  17. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  18. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  19. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  20. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  2. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  3. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  5. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  6. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  7. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  8. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  9. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  10. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  11. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  12. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in sourthern Utah.

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; A. Steven Munson

    2004-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), produces the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en- 1-one (MCH) (Rudinsky et al. 1974). MCH has reduced the numbers of spruce beetles attracted to infested logs and synthetic semiochemical lures or reduced colonization rates throughout the beetles range (Kline

  13. Atividade da torta de nim sobre adultos do cascudinho dos aviários em condições de laboratório Activity of neem cake on adults of the lesser mealworm in laboratory

    Victor Michelon Alves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O cascudinho dos aviários é considerado um importante problema mundial no sistema de produção avícola, por infestar os aviários e ser potencial vetor de patógenos às aves e ao ser humano. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar em laboratório a atividade da torta de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae como forma alternativa de controle de Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A torta foi aplicada diretamente no substrato (ração para aves ou cama de aviário na quantidade de 100g m-2 do produto. Foram verificados os efeitos letais e subletais da torta contra adultos do cascudinho dos aviários, sendo eles: ação inseticida, efeito na oviposição, repelência e efeito na alimentação. A utilização de torta de nim pareceu não afetar a sobrevivência dos insetos, porém, a avaliação do efeito repelente, atividade alimentar e oviposição foram influenciados, sendo observada redução de 23% na oviposição e 21% na atividade alimentar.The lesser mealworm is one the most important problem to avian production system, being a potential vector of avian and other animal pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neem cake (Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae as an alternative to control the Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The neem cake was directly applied to substrates at 100g m-2 and were evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects to A. diaperinus adults, as mortality, oviposition, repellent effect and feeding. There was no effect on adult mortality, but were observed reduction of the oviposition (23%, repellent effect, and reduction of insect feeding (21%.

  14. The role of beetle and host volatiles in host colonization in the European oak bark beetle, Scolytus intricatus (Ratzeburg) (Col., Scolytidae)

    Hovorka, Oldřich; Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Knížek, M.; Vrkočová, Pavlína; Koutek, Bohumír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 4 (2005), 221-226 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/97/0037; GA MZe(CZ) QD0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * host colonization * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.703, year: 2005

  15. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  16. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  17. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  18. Attraction of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, to pheromone components of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in an allopatric zone

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to...

  19. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  20. Pheromone Production by an Invasive Bark Beetle Varies with Monoterpene Composition of its Naïve Host.

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-06-01

    The secondary chemistry of host plants can have cascading impacts on the establishment of new insect herbivore populations, their long-term population dynamics, and their invasion potential in novel habitats. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has recently expanded its range into forests of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in western Canada. We investigated whether variations in jack pine monoterpenes affect beetle pheromone production, as the primary components of the beetle's aggregation pheromone, (-)-trans-verbenol and anti-aggregation pheromone (-)-verbenone, are biosynthesized from the host monoterpene α-pinene. Jack pine bolts were collected from five Canadian provinces east of the beetle's current range, live D. ponderosae were introduced into them, and their monoterpene compositions were characterized. Production of (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone emitted by beetles was measured to determine whether pheromone production varies with monoterpene composition of jack pines. Depending on particular ratios of major monoterpenes in host phloem, jack pine could be classified into three monoterpenoid groups characterized by high amounts of (+)-α-pinene, 3-carene, or a more moderate blend of monoterpenes, and beetle pheromone production varied among these groups. Specifically, beetles reared in trees characterized by high (+)-α-pinene produced the most (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone, while beetles in trees characterized by high 3-carene produced the least. Our results indicate that pheromone production by D. ponderosae will remain a significant aspect and important predictor of its survival and persistence in the boreal forest.