WorldWideScience

Sample records for male individual fitness

  1. Reduced genetic variance among high fitness individuals: inferring stabilizing selection on male sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Rundle, Howard D

    2012-10-01

    Directional selection is prevalent in nature, yet phenotypes tend to remain relatively constant, suggesting a limit to trait evolution. However, the genetic basis of this limit is unresolved. Given widespread pleiotropy, opposing selection on a trait may arise from the effects of the underlying alleles on other traits under selection, generating net stabilizing selection on trait genetic variance. These pleiotropic costs of trait exaggeration may arise through any number of other traits, making them hard to detect in phenotypic analyses. Stabilizing selection can be inferred, however, if genetic variance is greater among low- compared to high-fitness individuals. We extend a recently suggested approach to provide a direct test of a difference in genetic variance for a suite of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila serrata. Despite strong directional sexual selection on these traits, genetic variance differed between high- and low-fitness individuals and was greater among the low-fitness males for seven of eight CHCs, significantly more than expected by chance. Univariate tests of a difference in genetic variance were nonsignificant but likely have low power. Our results suggest that further CHC exaggeration in D. serrata in response to sexual selection is limited by pleiotropic costs mediated through other traits. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  3. The benefits of interpersonal regulatory fit for individual goal pursuit.

    Righetti, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Rusbult, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work examines whether individual goal pursuit is influenced by advice and suggestions from interaction partners whose regulatory orientation is perceived to fit (vs. not fit) the individual's orientation. We sought to investigate whether such interpersonal regulatory fit yields

  4. Physical self-concept and physical fitness in elderly individuals.

    Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E

    2011-08-01

    This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. FItness programy a individuální přístup ve fitness

    Rambous, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Souhrn: Tato diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou fitness programů a individuálru'ho přístupu ve fitness centrech. Celé téma zahrnuje rozpracování postupu při vytváření fitness programů a roli osobního trenéra ve fitness. Dále jsou zde uvedeny specifika některých fitness programů a v empirické části pak příklad dvou individuálních fitness programů. Název práce: Fitness programy a individuálnípřístup ve fitness Title: FITNESS PROGRAMS AND INDIVIDUAL CARE IN FITNESS Cíle práce: 1. podrobný p...

  6. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  7. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players

    Leslie Andrews Portes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05. It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.

  8. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  9. Fitness for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired or Deafblind.

    Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of daily physical activity and examples of how individuals who are visually impaired or deaf-blind can access fitness. It describes techniques for running, bicycling, swimming, exercise training in a health club, aerobics, and fitness at home (jumping rope, yoga, and basketball). (Contains references.) (CR)

  10. The Influence of Sexual Orientation on the Perceived Fit of Male Applicants for Both Male- and Female-Typed Jobs

    Heather M. Clarke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. The Influence of Sexual Orientation on the Perceived Fit of Male Applicants for Both Male- and Female-Typed Jobs.

    Clarke, Heather M; Arnold, Kara A

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Mating System Evolution under Strong Pollen Limitation: Evidence of Disruptive Selection through Male and Female Fitness in Clarkia xantiana.

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Geber, Monica A; Pickett-Leonard, Michael; Moeller, David A

    2017-05-01

    Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong. We detected selection through both female and male fitness with reinforcing or noninterfering patterns of selection through the two sex functions. For female fitness, selection favored reduced herkogamy and protandry, traits that promote increased autonomous selfing. For male fitness, selection on petal area was disruptive, with higher trait values conferring greater pollinator attraction and outcross siring success and smaller trait values leading to higher selfed siring success. Combining both female and male fitness, selection on petal area and protandry was disruptive because intermediate phenotypes were less successful as both males and females. Finally, functional relationships among male and female fertility components indicated that selfing resulted in seed discounting and pollen discounting. Under these functional relationships, the evolutionarily stable selfing rate can be intermediate or predominantly selfing or outcrossing, depending on the segregating load of deleterious mutations.

  13. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  14. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J. M.; Noordwijk, A. J. van

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large clutches have a higher fitness than birds with originally small clutches. No evidence was found that fitness was related to the original clutch size, and in this population clutch size is thus not related to the parental capacity to raise offspring. However, offspring from larger original clutches recruited better than their nest mates that came from smaller original clutches. This suggests that early maternal or genetic variation in viability is related to clutch size.

  15. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-08-23

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  16. Patterns of interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness.

    Kulik, Lars; Muniz, Laura; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2012-02-01

    In group living animals, especially among primates, there is consistent evidence that high-ranking males gain a higher reproductive output than low-ranking males. Primate studies have shown that male coalitions and sociality can impact male fitness; however, it remains unclear whether males could potentially increase their fitness by preferentially supporting and socializing with females. Here we investigate patterns of male interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with particular focus on male-female interactions. We combined behavioural observations collected on Cayo Santiago with genetic data analysed for male reproductive output and relatedness. Our results revealed that the ten top-ranking males provided the majority of all male support observed. In contrast to other primates, male rhesus macaques mainly formed all-down coalitions suggesting that coalitions are less likely used to enhance male dominance. Males supporting females during and before their likely conception were not more likely to fertilize those females. We also found no evidence that males preferably support their offspring or other close kin. Interestingly, the most important predictor of male support was sociality, since opponents sharing a higher sociality index with a given male were more likely to be supported. Furthermore, a high sociality index of a given male-female dyad resulted in a higher probability of paternity. Overall, our results strengthen the evidence that sociality affects fitness in male primates, but also suggest that in species in which males queue for dominance, it is less likely that males derive fitness benefits from coalitions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effects of foliar herbivory by insects on the fitness of Raphanus raphanistrum: damage can increase male fitness.

    Strauss, S Y; Conner, J K; Lehtilä, K P

    2001-11-01

    Generally, effects of herbivory on plant fitness have been measured in terms of female reproductive success (seed production). However, male plant fitness, defined as the number of seeds sired by pollen, contributes half of the genes to the next generation and is therefore crucial to the evolution of natural plant populations. This is the first study to examine effects of insect herbivory on both male and female plant reproductive success. Through controlled field and greenhouse experiments and genetic paternity analysis, we found that foliar damage by insects caused a range of responses by plants. In one environment, damaged plants had greater success as male parents than undamaged plants. Neither effects on pollen competitive ability nor pollinator visitation patterns could explain the greater siring success of these damaged plants. Success of damaged plants as male parents appeared to be due primarily to changes in allocation to flowers versus seeds after damage. Damaged plants produced more flowers early in the season, but not more seeds, than undamaged plants. Based on total seed production, male fitness measures from the first third of the season, and flower production, we estimated that damaged and undamaged plants had equal total reproductive success at the end of the season in this environment. In a second, richer environment, damaged and undamaged plants had equal male and female plant fitness, and no traits differed significantly between the treatments. Equal total reproductive success may not be ecologically or evolutionarily equivalent if it is achieved differentially through male versus female fitness. Genes from damaged plants dispersed through pollen may escape attack from herbivores, if such attack is correlated spatially from year to year.

  18. Frequency of anomalies associated with chest deformity in physically fit male candidates reporting for military recruitment

    Haleem, A.; Hanif, M.S.; Majeed, F.A.; Deen, N.U.; Rahim, K.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the frequency of anomalies associated with chest deformity in physical fit male candidates reporting for military recruitment. Study Design: Observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Thoracic Surgery, CMH Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2008 to 31 Dec 2011. Patients and Methods: Normal healthy physically fit young adolescents being recruited for army were scrolled and those exhibiting chest deformity were isolated and subjected to evaluation. Convenience sampling was carried out. All candidates of chest wall deformity thereafter underwent a thorough physical checkup, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. Results: A total of 3735 candidates of chest deformity reported at our center for evaluation over this duration. Single deformity patients 3380 (90.5%), mixed deformity patients 355 (9.5%). We found that none of the candidates had any derangement of the lung function tests or electrocardiographic abnormality despite their deformity. However echocardiography detected an abnormality in 161 (4.3%) individuals who were otherwise asymptomatic. Conclusion: Chest deformity should be excluded before physical tests, in all the male candidates reporting for enrolment. If slightest of doubt exists that a candidate has chest deformity then he should be evaluated with echocardiography to exclude cardiac abnormality. Although the associated frequency is only 4.3% but this can subsequently result in a grave event like death. (author)

  19. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype.

    Herting, Megan M; Keenan, Madison F; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual's genes may influence these relationships.

  20. Individual recognition based on communication behaviour of male fowl.

    Smith, Carolynn L; Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly; Evans, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Correctly directing social behaviour towards a specific individual requires an ability to discriminate between conspecifics. The mechanisms of individual recognition include phenotype matching and familiarity-based recognition. Communication-based recognition is a subset of familiarity-based recognition wherein the classification is based on behavioural or distinctive signalling properties. Male fowl (Gallus gallus) produce a visual display (tidbitting) upon finding food in the presence of a female. Females typically approach displaying males. However, males may tidbit without food. We used the distinctiveness of the visual display and the unreliability of some males to test for communication-based recognition in female fowl. We manipulated the prior experience of the hens with the males to create two classes of males: S(+) wherein the tidbitting signal was paired with a food reward to the female, and S (-) wherein the tidbitting signal occurred without food reward. We then conducted a sequential discrimination test with hens using a live video feed of a familiar male. The results of the discrimination tests revealed that hens discriminated between categories of males based on their signalling behaviour. These results suggest that fowl possess a communication-based recognition system. This is the first demonstration of live-to-video transfer of recognition in any species of bird. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  2. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  3. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  4. Shoulder Injuries in Individuals Who Participate in CrossFit Training

    Summitt, Ryan J.; Cotton, Ryan A.; Kays, Adam C.; Slaven, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit, a sport and fitness program, has become increasingly popular both nationally and internationally. Researchers have recently identified significant improvements in health and wellness due to CrossFit. However, some individuals assert that CrossFit poses an inherent risk of injury, specifically to the shoulder, due to the intensity of training. Currently, there is limited evidence to support this assertion. Hypothesis: Exercises performed during CrossFit do not place the s...

  5. Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls

    Wich, S.A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han de; Schaik, Carel P. van

    2003-01-01

    Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud

  6. Fitness

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  7. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual's Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    Swiderski, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdominal measurement is a "one-size-fits-all" fitness standard. This research determines that a person's waist-to-height ratio is a better measurement than the waist measurement to estimate an individual's fitness level...

  8. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  9. Emotional fit with culture: a predictor of individual differences in relational well-being.

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.

  10. Fitting Markovian binary trees using global and individual demographic data

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Turner, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of branching processes called Markovian binary trees, in which the individuals lifetime and reproduction epochs are modeled using a transient Markovian arrival process (TMAP). We estimate the parameters of the TMAP based on population data containing information on age-specific fertility and mortality rates. Depending on the degree of detail of the available data, a weighted non-linear regression method or a maximum likelihood method is applied. We discuss the optimal choi...

  11. Comparison between Salivary Cortisol Release in Rest and Training Days in Male Fitness Trainee

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim behind the current study was a comparison between salivary cortisol release in rest and training days in male fitness trainers. Methods: In such balanced crossover research, 15 healthy fitness-trained participants (with the mean age, weight and Height of 20.35 ± 1.20 years, 74.15 ± 3.20 kg and 177.30 ± 3.45 cm, respectively who had a four-year-previous experience in fitness exercise were chosen. While performing the research, the subjects were involved in a fitness training. The protocol contained three times of fitness training in a week, which would totally be alternative days of “rest” and “exercise” in the period of training. It means that they did training on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and rested on the other days. To ensure the validity of this study, the participants were selected randomly, in both control and experimental groups. In the meantime, the protocol for fitness exercise was made up of four sets of 15 repetitions utilizing 65% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM. Within each testing time, saliva samples were taken once in two hours for a maximum of 16 hours. In this study, the ANOVA was followed by a Post-hoc LSD test. Also, the significance level was deemed as (P≤0.05. Results: It was shown that there was a statistically significant addition in the salivary cortisol level right away after the fitness exercise session (P ≤ 0.05. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between exercise and control days in the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The present research demonstrated that while there was a significant influence of fitness exercise on cortisol right away after exercise, no statistically significant effect has been observed on the circadian secretion of cortisol in fitness sportsmen.

  12. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISES ON CARDIOPULMONARY FITNESS IN COMPUTER USING SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    P. Chinna Reddemma; Dr. K. Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A sedentary life style is a type of life style with no or irregular physical activity. It is a leading cause for reduced cardio - respiratory fitness and physical activity. The most of the employees working as computer personnel’s for more than five hours in a day is leading to altered physical activity and fitness. To study the effect of aerobic exercise programme on the cardio - respiratory fitness in computer using sedentary individuals. Methods: As per the inclusion criteri...

  13. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    Oyake, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Oda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including s...

  14. Shoulder Injuries in Individuals Who Participate in CrossFit Training.

    Summitt, Ryan J; Cotton, Ryan A; Kays, Adam C; Slaven, Emily J

    CrossFit, a sport and fitness program, has become increasingly popular both nationally and internationally. Researchers have recently identified significant improvements in health and wellness due to CrossFit. However, some individuals assert that CrossFit poses an inherent risk of injury, specifically to the shoulder, due to the intensity of training. Currently, there is limited evidence to support this assertion. Exercises performed during CrossFit do not place the shoulder at greater risk for injury. Injury rates are comparable to other sports of similar intensity. Descriptive survey study. Level 5. An electronic survey was developed and dispersed to approximately 980 individuals who trained in CrossFit gyms. The survey identified demographic data, training characteristics, and the prevalence of injury over a 6-month period in individuals who participated in CrossFit training. A total of 187 (19.1%) individuals completed the survey. Forty-four (23.5%) indicated that they had experienced a shoulder injury during CrossFit training over the previous 6 months. Of those who reported injury, 17 (38.6%) stated that this injury was an exacerbation of a previous injury sustained prior to starting CrossFit. There was no significant relationship between several demographic and training variables and shoulder injury. All shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.94 per 1000 hours training, while "new" shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.18 per 1000 hours training. The most commonly attributed causes of injury were improper form (33.3%) and exacerbation of a previous injury (33.3%). Twenty-five (64.1%) of those who experienced injury reported 1 month or less of training reduction due to the injury. Shoulder injury rates during CrossFit training are comparable to other methods of recreational exercise. Clinicians should be aware of training demands of exercises in CrossFit and modifications for these exercises to safely progress their patients back to participation.

  15. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  16. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students.

    Wengaard, Eivind; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students. Methods : Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm) completed a [Formula: see text] test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations). The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17%) of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue), 224 (67%) appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue) and 56 (17%) appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue). Mean reaction time (RT) and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire. Results : Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher [Formula: see text] was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = -2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011), and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = -2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048). There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli ( F = 1.01, p = 0.397) or of weekly training and stimuli ( F = 0.99, p = 0.405). Conclusion : The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  18. Chronic hepatitis B, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and physical fitness of military males: CHIEF study.

    Chen, Yu-Jung; Chen, Kai-Wen; Shih, Yu-Leung; Su, Fang-Ying; Lin, Yen-Po; Meng, Fan-Chun; Lin, Felicia; Yu, Yun-Shun; Han, Chih-Lu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lin, Jia-Wei; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lin, Gen-Min

    2017-07-07

    To investigate the association of chronic hepatitis B and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with physical fitness in a Taiwanese military male cohort. We made a cross-sectional examination of this association using 3669 young adult military males according to cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events recorded in the Taiwan Armed Forces study. Cases of chronic hepatitis B ( n = 121) were defined by personal history and positive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. Cases of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ( n = 129) were defined by alanine transaminase level > 60 U/L, liver ultrasound finding of steatosis, and absence of viral hepatitis A, B or C infection. All other study participants were defined as unaffected ( n = 3419). Physical fitness was evaluated by performance in 3000-m run, 2-min sit-ups, and 2-min push-ups exercises, with all the procedures standardized by a computerized scoring system. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship. Chronic hepatitis B negatively correlated with 2-min push-up numbers (β = -2.49, P = 0.019) after adjusting for age, service specialty, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, current cigarette smoking, alcohol intake status, serum hemoglobin, and average weekly exercise times. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was borderline positively correlated with 3000-m running time (β = 11.96, P = 0.084) and negatively correlated with 2-min sit-up numbers (β = -1.47, P = 0.040). Chronic hepatitis B viral infection and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affects different physical performances in young adult military males, and future study should determine the underlying mechanism.

  19. Art as an indicator of male fitness: does prenatal testosterone influence artistic ability?

    Crocchiola, Danae

    2014-05-28

    In his groundbreaking research, Geoffrey Miller (1999) suggests that artistic and creative displays are male-predominant behaviors and can be considered to be the result of an evolutionary advantage. The outcomes of several surveys conducted on jazz and rock musicians, contemporary painters, English writers (Miller, 1999), and scientists (Kanazawa, 2000) seem to be consistent with the Millerian hypothesis, showing a predominance of men carrying out these activities, with an output peak corresponding to the most fertile male period and a progressive decline in late maturity. One way to evaluate the sex-related hypothesis of artistic and cultural displays, considered as sexual indicators of male fitness, is to focus on sexually dimorphic traits. One of them, within our species, is the 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D), which is a marker for prenatal testosterone levels. This study combines the Millerian theories on sexual dimorphism in cultural displays with the digit ratio, using it as an indicator of androgen exposure in utero. If androgenic levels are positively correlated with artistic exhibition, both female and male artists should show low 2D:4D ratios. In this experiment we tested the association between 2D:4D and artistic ability by comparing the digit ratios of 50 artists (25 men and 25 women) to the digit ratios of 50 non-artists (25 men and 25 women). Both male and female artists had significantly lower 2D:4D ratios (indicating high testosterone) than male and female controls. These results support the hypothesis that art may represent a sexually selected, typically masculine behavior that advertises the carrier's good genes within a courtship context.

  20. Evolutionary agroecology: individual fitness and population yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Weiner, Jacob; Du, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Xiao-Liang; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-09-01

    Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance. We tested this hypothesis by growing 35 cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in mixtures and monocultures, and analyzing the relationship between population yield in monoculture and individual yield in mixture. The relationship was unimodal, as predicted. The highest-yielding populations were from cultivars that had intermediate fitness, and these produced, on average, 35% higher yields than cultivars with the highest fitness. It is unlikely that plant breeding or genetic engineering can improve traits that natural selection has been optimizing for millions of years, but there is unutilized potential in traits that increase crop yield by decreasing individual fitness. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  3. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    Sara A. Jahnke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3% of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55 to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  6. Aerobic Fitness and Intra-Individual Variability of Neurocognition in Preadolescent Children

    Moore, Robert Davis; Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and neuroelectric intra-individual variability (IIV) in preadolescent children during a task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. The current study further examined whether IIV was moderated by aerobic fitness level. Participants performed a modified flanker task, comprised of congruent and incongruent…

  7. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Incorporating dominant environment into individual fitness promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoners' dilemma game

    Jin, Jiahua; Shen, Chen; Chu, Chen; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In spatial games, each player incorporates its environment into fitness only when its environment is greater than or equal to its payoff. • The mechanism of incorporating dominant environment promotes evolution of cooperation. • The robustness of such a mechanism to promote cooperation is verified for the snowdrift game and the various interaction networks. - Abstract: In spatial evolutionary games, the fitness of each player is usually measured by its inheritance (i.e. the accumulated payoffs by playing the game with its all nearest neighbors), or by the linear combination of its inheritance and its environment (i.e. the average of its all nearest neighbors’ inheritance). However, a rational individual incorporates environment into its fitness to develop itself only when environment is dominant in real life. Here, we redefine the individual fitness as a linear combination of inheritance and environment when environment performs better than inheritance. Multiple Monte Carlo simulation results show that incorporating dominant environment can improve cooperation comparing with the traditional case, and furthermore increasing the proportion of prevailing environment can enhance cooperative level better. These findings indicate that our mechanism enhances the individual ability to adapt environment, and makes the spatial reciprocity more efficient. Besides, we also verify its robustness against different game models and various topology structures.

  9. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. [Photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim individuals].

    Liu, Yun; Zhong, Zhang-cheng; Wang, Xiao-xue; Xie, Jun; Yang, Wen-ying

    2011-03-01

    A field research was conducted on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of dioecious Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals at four key development stages. At vegetative growth stage, the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of male individuals were higher than those of female individuals, and hence, male individuals entered into reproductive growth stage 22 days earlier than female individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, male individuals had higher photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, but slightly lower water use efficiency than female individuals. As the female individuals started to reproductive growth, their photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly lower, while the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher than those of the male individuals. The effects of climate factors on the growth and development of T. kirilowii mainly occurred at its vegetative growth and early reproductive growth stages, and weakened at later reproductive growth stages. Higher temperature and lower relative humidity benefited the growth and development of T. kirilowii, and illumination could enhance the photosynthesis rate of T. kirilowii, especially its male individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, the photosynthesis rate of male individuals increased significantly with increasing illumination, but that of female individuals only had a slight increase, and the transpiration rate of male individuals as well as the photosynthesis rate of female individuals all increased significantly with increasing temperature.

  11. "Cultural fit": individual and societal discrepancies in values, beliefs, and subjective well-being.

    Lu, Luo

    2006-04-01

    The author examined the relationship between cultural values, beliefs, and subjective well-being (SWB) in the context of the "cultural fit" proposition with 3 diverse Chinese samples from Taiwan and Mainland China (N = 581). The author found that beliefs regarding the independent self, the interdependent self, active control, and relationship harmony as forming individual-level culture were consistently related to SWB. Furthermore, the author found that the magnitude of cultural fit was associated with SWB for certain groups of the Chinese people. It is most interesting that the direction of cultural fit regarding independent self was also important for SWB. Specifically, people who endorsed higher independent self but expected lower societal endorsement of such views were better off in SWB than those of the opposite combination.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with selective attention and inhibitory control in healthy male high-school students

    Wengaard, Eivind Johannessen; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V⋅O2max), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male ...

  13. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players.

    Gorostiaga, E M; Granados, C; Ibáñez, J; Izquierdo, M

    2005-04-01

    This study compared physical characteristics (body height, body mass [BM], body fat [BF], and free fatty mass [FFM]), one repetition maximum bench-press (1RM (BP)), jumping explosive strength (VJ), handball throwing velocity, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, and running endurance in two handball male teams: elite team, one of the world's leading teams (EM, n = 15) and amateur team, playing in the Spanish National Second Division (AM, n = 15). EM had similar values in body height, BF, VJ, 5- and 15-m sprint running time and running endurance than AM. However, the EM group gave higher values in BM (95.2 +/- 13 kg vs. 82.4 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 72.4 +/- 7 kg, p vs. 83 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 21.8 +/- 1.6 m . s (-1), p vs. 22.9 +/- 1.4 m . s (-1), p individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) and individual values of ball velocity during a standing throw. Significant correlations were observed in EM, but not in AM, between the individual values of velocity during 3-step running throw and the individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) (r = 0.72, p individual values of power at 100 % of body mass during half-squat actions (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). The present results suggest that more muscular and powerful players are at an advantage in handball. The differences observed in free fatty mass could partly explain the differences observed between groups in absolute maximal strength and muscle power. In EM, higher efficiency in handball throwing velocity may be associated with both upper and lower extremity power output capabilities, whereas in AM this relationship may be different. Endurance capacity does not seem to represent a limitation for elite performance in handball.

  14. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    Kazuaki Oyake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including sixteen individuals with hemiparetic stroke (mean ± SD age, 56.4±7.5 years and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants performed the unilateral arm crank and leg cycle exercise tests to measure oxygen consumption (V˙O2 and heart rate at peak exercise. The V˙O2 at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test was significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group (p<0.001. In the stroke group, the heart rate at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test did not significantly correlate with the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the lower extremity (p=0.137, whereas there was a significant correlation during the leg cycle exercise test (rho = 0.775, p<0.001. The unilateral arm crank exercise test can detect the deterioration of cardiorespiratory fitness independently of lower extremity motor impairment severity in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study is registered with UMIN000014733.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR peak : 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak : 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO 2VT : 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Fisioterapia, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lopes, S.L.B. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Benze, B.G. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Estatística, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Medicina, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HR{sub peak}: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO{sub 2peak}: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO{sub 2VT}: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  17. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Abbott, Jessica K; Innocenti, Paolo; Chippindale, Adam K; Morrow, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  18. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    Bernatowicz Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs. None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  19. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  20. Sexual size dimorphism, canine dimorphism, and male-male competition in primates: where do humans fit in?

    Plavcan, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is generally associated with sexual selection via agonistic male competition in nonhuman primates. These primate models play an important role in understanding the origins and evolution of human behavior. Human size dimorphism is often hypothesized to be associated with high rates of male violence and polygyny. This raises the question of whether human dimorphism and patterns of male violence are inherited from a common ancestor with chimpanzees or are uniquely derived. Here I review patterns of, and causal models for, dimorphism in humans and other primates. While dimorphism in primates is associated with agonistic male mate competition, a variety of factors can affect male and female size, and thereby dimorphism. The causes of human sexual size dimorphism are uncertain, and could involve several non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms, such as mate competition, resource competition, intergroup violence, and female choice. A phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolution of dimorphism, including fossil hominins, indicates that the modern human condition is derived. This suggests that at least some behavioral similarities with Pan associated with dimorphism may have arisen independently, and not directly from a common ancestor.

  1. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  2. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  3. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISES ON CARDIOPULMONARY FITNESS IN COMPUTER USING SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    P. Chinna Reddemma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sedentary life style is a type of life style with no or irregular physical activity. It is a leading cause for reduced cardio - respiratory fitness and physical activity. The most of the employees working as computer personnel’s for more than five hours in a day is leading to altered physical activity and fitness. To study the effect of aerobic exercise programme on the cardio - respiratory fitness in computer using sedentary individuals. Methods: As per the inclusion criteria the thirty subjects were selected for the study, all the selected subjects were given aerobic protocol for 12 weeks. Pre and post therapeutic outcome measures were assessed for Body Mass Index was calculated using weight (kg/ height (m2. Waist- hip ratio was measured using inch tape in centimeters, pre and post therapeutic values of Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, VO2 peak were assessed. Results: According to the data analysis, a significant difference was found between the pre and post test values of Body Mass Index, Waist- hip ratio and Vo2peak in both experimental and control groups (p<0.05, but comparatively more significant changes were found in the experimental rather than the control group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise had significant influence in computer using sedentary individuals. There was a significant change in physical factors like body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and functional factors like vo2peak. Hence, it is concluded that 12weeks of aerobic exercises is effective in improving cardio vascular factors computer using sedentary individuals.

  4. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    McLean Lynn; Robertson Duncan H; Davidson Amanda J; Armstrong Stuart D; Simpson Deborah M; Roberts Sarah A; Beynon Robert J; Hurst Jane L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing...

  5. Reliability and Usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Male and Female Professional Futsal Players

    Valladares-Rodríguez Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT in professional male and female futsal players. Thirteen male (24.4 ± 5.6 years; 174.5 ± 10.3 cm; 70.3 ± 9.9 kg and fourteen female (23.3 ± 4.5 years; 165.8 ± 6.2 cm; 61.7 ± 5.5 kg professional futsal players performed the 30-15IFT on two occasions, separated by 5 days. Maximal intermittent running velocity (VIFT and heart rate at exhaustion (HRpeak data were collected for both tests. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, typical error (TE expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. VIFT demonstrated very good reliability between sessions, both for male (ICC = 0.92 and female (ICC = 0.96 players. As the TE for VIFT and HRpeak was similar to the calculated SWC for both male and female players, the usefulness of the test was rated as “medium”. A change in performance of at least 2 stages in male players, or a change of more than 1 stage in female players could be interpreted as a meaningful change in aerobic futsal fitness. The results of this study demonstrate that the 30-15IFT is both a reliable and useful test for male and female professional futsal players.

  6. Season-to-Season Variations of Physiological Fitness Within a Squad of Professional Male Soccer Players

    Clark, Niall A.; Edwards, Andrew M.; Morton, R. Hugh; Butterly, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS), mid-season (MID), and end-of-season (EOS)). Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1) basic anthropometry, 2) countermovement jump (CMJ) tests 3) a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1). In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general ‘elite’ threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max. Key points Maximal aerobic power remains fairly stable across inter- and intra-season measurements. Anaerobic threshold appears more sensitive of training state confirming our earlier observations. The professional players tended to attain optimal performances at the mid-season interval over the 3 seasons, presumably prior to the development of accumulative fatigue. PMID:24150149

  7. Evolution of postmating reproductive isolation: measuring the fitness effects of chromosomal regions containing hybrid male sterility factors.

    Johnson, N A; Wu, C I

    1993-08-01

    At least six regions of the X chromosome can cause male sterility when introgressed from Drosophila mauritiana into Drosophila simulans. In this article, we present the results of the other fitness effects caused by two X-linked regions that contain hybrid male sterility factors. In both regions, females that are heterozygous for an introgression with such a sterility factor produce substantially-fewer offspring than females heterozygous for an introgression that lacks the sterility factor. Thus, the hybrid male sterility factors, or other genes nearby, have substantial effects on female productivity. In contrast, hybrid male sterility factors have little or no effect on the relative viabilities of either sex. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  9. Algorithm of athletes’ fitness structure individual features’ determination with the help of multidimensional analysis (on example of basketball

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine main laws of determination of athletes’ fitness structure’s individual characteristics with the help of multidimensional analysis (on example of basketball. Material: in the research elite basketball players (n=54 participated. Pedagogic testing included 12 tests, applied in combined teams of Ukraine and Russia. For every test three attempts were given and the best result was registered. The tests were passed during 2-3 training sessions. Results: we worked out general scheme of ways of athletes’ training individualization. For every athlete we determined the groups of leading and secondary factors in individual structure of fitness. The process of athletes’ training shall contain basic and variable components. Basic component was 70% of means in general system of athletes' training. Variable component was 30% of means and implies application of individual training means. Percentage of means in individual programs varies depending on the following: leading factors in fitness individual structure; period of individual dynamic of competition efficiency. In every micro-cycle 30% is assigned for athletes’ individual training: athletes received individual tasks; groups on the base of cluster analysis data were formed, if necessary. Conclusions: when working out individual training programs, development of leading factors in individual factorial structure of athletes’ fitness shall be accented. Application of individual programs, combined with universal individualization methods creates preconditions for rising competition activities’ efficiency.

  10. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  11. Effects of soccer training on health-related physical fitness measures in male adolescents

    Hammami, Amri; Randers, Morten B.; Kasmi, Sofien

    2018-01-01

    , and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion: Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness......, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results......: At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p postural balance. Small-sided games using 6 v 6 or 4 v 4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean: ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion...

  12. National Physical Education Standards: Level of Physical Fitness Male Student Primary School in Malaysia

    Ahmad Hashim; Mohd. Sani Madon; Nur Haziyanti Mohd Khalid; Nelfianty binti Mohd Rashid; Sadzali bin Hassan; Yusop bin Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the level of physical fitness in the development of the National Standards of Physical Education. The study was conducted on 279 primary school boys age 10 years (n = 79), 11 years (n = 94) and 12 years (n = 106) in five randomly selected schools in the state of Perak. FITNESSGRAM was used to test the level of physical fitness among subjects. This includes trunk lift, 90 degree push-ups, modified pull-up, back saver sit and reach and PACER. ANOVA analysis showed a s...

  13. Determination of the effects of playing soccer on physical fitness in individuals with transtibial amputation.

    Guchan, Zehra; Bayramlar, Kezban; Ergun, Nevin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of playing soccer on various components of physical performance such as body composition, muscular endurance, anaerobic power, flexibility, balance, and speed of individuals with transtibial amputation. Twelve amputee football players aged 26.67±7.76 years and twelve sedentary individuals aged 33±6.7 years were involved in this study. Body composition, and isotonic and isometric endurance of trunk muscles were assessed. Vertical jump test, sit-and-reach test, modified Thomas test, Berg Balance Scale, L test, and figure-of-eight walk (F8W) test were used to assess other physical fitness parameters. The Body Mass Index, waist circumference and body fat percentages of the amputee soccer players were significantly lower than the sedentary amputees (Psoccer group (119.33±47.15 s) than the endurance in the control group (26.25±15.96 s) (Psoccer group had significantly higher anaerobic power than those in the control group (Psoccer group (P=0.002), whereas the modified Thomas test, which is also used to measure flexibility, indicated no significant difference among both groups (P>0.05). Balance was higher in the soccer group (P=0.023). The completion period of the F8W test was significantly lower in the soccer group (4.54±0.9 s) than in the control group (7.71±2.25 s) (Psoccer on physical fitness parameters of amputees, but further studies with randomized controlled trials, with larger populations, and with other sport branches should be conducted to motivate all amputees to participate in sports.

  14. Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment

    Komdeur, J; Edelaar, P

    2001-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping at the nest and budding off part of the natal territory have been advanced as strategies to increase fitness in an environment that is saturated with territories. The importance of helping or territory budding as a determinant of lifetime reproductive

  15. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans.

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  16. Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Lin-Jun; Gomes-Silva, Guilherme; Sommer-Trembo, Carolin; Plath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability. Additionally, each focal individual was tested in two different dichotomous mate choice tests in which it could choose between computer-animated stimulus fish of the opposite sex that differed in body size and activity levels, respectively. Personality had different effects on female and male mate choice: females that were larger than average showed stronger preferences for large-bodied males with increasing levels of boldness/activity (i.e., towards more proactive personality types). Males that were larger than average and had higher shoaling tendencies showed stronger preferences for actively swimming females. Size-dependent effects of personality on the strength of preferences for distinct phenotypes of potential mating partners may reflect effects of age/experience (especially in females) and social dominance (especially in males). Previous studies found evidence for assortative mate choice based on personality types or hypothesized the existence of behavioral syndromes of individuals' choosiness across mate choice criteria, possibly including other personality traits. Our present study exemplifies that far more complex patterns of personality-dependent mate choice can emerge in natural systems.

  17. Exercise dependence and the drive for muscularity in male bodybuilders, power lifters, and fitness lifters.

    Hale, Bruce D; Roth, Andrew D; DeLong, Ryan E; Briggs, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have hypothesized differences in exercise dependence and drive for muscularity between bodybuilders and power lifters, while others have not found the predicted differences. This study assessed 146 weight lifters (bodybuilders, n=59; power lifters, n=47; fitness lifters, n=40) on the Exercise Dependence Scale, Bodybuilding Dependence Scale, and the Drive for Muscularity Scale. Results showed that bodybuilders and power lifters were significantly higher than fitness lifters on EDS Total, 7 EDS scales, and the 3 BDS scales. In contrast, power lifters were found to be significantly higher on DMS Total and DMS Behavior scales than bodybuilders. The regression results suggest that exercise dependence may be directly related to the drive for muscularity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Saltz, Julia B

    2013-11-22

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level.

  19. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , the effect of long-term participation in floorball training among male elderly has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 26-month self-organized regular participation in floorball training on cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipids, glucose control...... weekly floorball sessions with 40 min/session over 26-month appear to reduce age-related decline in cardiovascular fitness and glucose control and improve leg bone mineral density, suggesting that long-term participation in floorball training can be considered as a health-enhancing activity......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  20. Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness.

    Ford, L E; Smiseth, P T

    2016-02-01

    In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent's own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort relative to female effort. We tested this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by setting up experimental broods with three different hatching patterns: synchronous, asynchronous and highly asynchronous broods. As predicted, we found that males provided care for longer in asynchronous broods whereas the opposite was true of females. However, we did not find any benefit to females of reducing their duration of care in terms of increased lifespan or reduced mass loss during breeding. We found substantial negative effects of hatching asynchrony on offspring fitness as larval mass was lower and fewer larvae survived to dispersal in highly asynchronous broods compared to synchronous or asynchronous broods. Our results suggest that, even though females can increase male parental effort by hatching their broods more asynchronously, females pay a substantial cost from doing so in terms of reducing offspring growth and survival. Thus, females should be under selection to produce a hatching pattern that provides the best possible trade-off between the benefits of increased male parental effort and the costs due to reduced offspring fitness. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Floral function: effects of traits on pollinators, male and female pollination success, and female fitness across three species of milkweeds (Asclepias).

    La Rosa, Raffica J; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2017-01-01

    Central questions in plant reproductive ecology are whether the functions of floral traits in hermaphrodites create conflict between sexes that could slow evolution, and whether individual floral traits function in pollinator attraction, efficiency, or both. We studied how floral traits affect pollinator visitation and efficiency, and how they affect male and female function and female fitness within and across three Asclepias species that differ in floral morphology. Using separate multiple regressions, we regressed pollen removal, deposition, and fruit number onto six floral traits. We also used path analyses integrating these variables with pollinator visitation data for two of the species to further explore floral function and its effects on fruit production. Most traits affected male pollination success only, and these effects often differed between species. The exception was increased slit length, which increased pollinia insertion in two of the species. There were no interspecific differences in the effects of the traits on female pollination success. All traits except horn reach affected pollination efficiency in at least one species, and horn reach and two hood dimensions were the only traits to affect pollinator attraction, but in just one species. Traits tended to function in only one sex, and more traits affected function through pollinator efficiency than through attraction. There was no significant link between female pollination success and female fitness in any of the three species; this pattern is consistent with fruit production not being limited by pollen deposition. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  3. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  4. Neutral theory for life histories and individual variability in fitness components

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2012-01-01

    in real populations. Of course, (genotypic) vital rates in real populations are expected to differ by small but evolutionarily important amounts among genotypes, but we show that such differences only modestly increase variances in fitness components. We conclude that observed differences in fitness...

  5. The role of individual differences on perceptions of wearable fitness device trust, usability, and motivational impact.

    Rupp, Michael A; Michaelis, Jessica R; McConnell, Daniel S; Smither, Janan A

    2018-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a severe health concern in the United States with fewer than half of all Americans meeting the recommended weekly physical activity guidelines. Although wearable fitness devices can be effective in motivating people to be active, consumers are abandoning this technology soon after purchase. We examined the impact of several user (i.e. personality, age, computer self-efficacy, physical activity level) and device characteristics (trust, usability, and motivational affordances) on the behavioral intentions to use a wearable fitness device. Novice users completed a brief interaction with a fitness device similar to a first purchase experience before completing questionnaires about their interaction. We found computer self-efficacy, physical activity level, as well as personality traits indirectly increased the desire to use a fitness device and influenced the saliency of perceived motivational affordances. Additionally, trust, usability, and perceived motivational affordances were associated with increased intentions to use fitness devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of individual body size and variable thresholds on the incidence of a sneaker male reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon.

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Dodson, Julian J

    2004-01-01

    In the conditional strategy model, divergence in reproductive phenotypes depends on whether the individual's condition is above or below a genetically determined threshold. The relative contribution of the genetic and environmental components that lead to the expression of a reproductive tactic by an individual is not well understood. In the present field study, we determined when condition diverged between males that develop the mature parr phenotype and those that do not in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We also investigated the uniformity of the threshold value in the population. We sampled mature parr and immature males at age one, of the same population at six different sites for four consecutive years. Our study provides an example of the interaction of genotype and environment on the expression of a reproductive tactic. Size was significantly greater for future mature parr than for future immature males as early as 20 days after hatching (emergence), suggesting that there may be a parental effect component in the tactic adopted, since no exogenous feeding takes place before this time. Size advantage at emergence was maintained through the next spring at age one to different degrees depending on the year, thus suggesting the presence of an environmental component of tactic expression. Our results support the contention that within the conditional strategy, the environment faced by a male and his condition at the moment of reproduction consistently predicts neither the environment faced by his offspring nor the fitness they will obtain by expressing the same tactic as their father. Furthermore, higher mean size at a site did not always translate into a higher proportion of mature parr, therefore supporting the hypothesis that thresholds vary across habitats within the same population.

  7. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); A. Ralf (Arwin); R. Aboukhalid (Rachid); N.M. Achakzai (Niaz); T. Anjos (Tania); Q. Ayub (Qasim); J. Balažic (Jože); J. Ballantyne (Jack); D.J. Ballard (David); B. Berger (Burkhard); C. Bobillo (Cecilia); M. Bouabdellah (Mehdi); H. Burri (Helen); T. Capal (Tomas); S. Caratti (Stefano); J. Cárdenas (Jorge); F. Cartault (François); E.F. Carvalho (Elizeu); M. de Carvalho (Margarete); B. Cheng (Baowen); M.D. Coble (Michael); D. Comas (David); D. Corach (Daniel); M. D'Amato (Mauro); S. Davison (Sean); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.C.A. de Ungria (Maria Corazon); R. Decorte (Ronny); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); B.M. Dupuy (Berit); S. Elmrghni (Samir); M. Gliwiński (Mateusz); S.C. Gomes (Sara); L. Grol (Laurens); C. Haas (Cordula); E. Hanson (Erin); J. Henke (Jürgen); L. Henke (Lotte); F. Herrera-Rodríguez (Fabiola); C.R. Hill (Carolyn); G. Holmlund (Gunilla); K. Honda (Katsuya); U.-D. Immel (Uta-Dorothee); S. Inokuchi (Shota); R. Jobling; M. Kaddura (Mahmoud); J.S. Kim (Jong); S.H. Kim (Soon); W. Kim (Wook); T.E. King (Turi); E. Klausriegler (Eva); D. Kling (Daniel); L. Kovačević (Lejla); L. Kovatsi (Leda); P. Krajewski (Paweł); S. Kravchenko (Sergey); M.H.D. Larmuseau (Maarten); E.Y. Lee (Eun Young); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); L.A. Livshits (Ludmila); D. Marjanović (Damir); M. Minarik (Marek); N. Mizuno (Natsuko); H. Moreira (Helena); N. Morling (Niels); M. Mukherjee (Meeta); P. Munier (Patrick); J. Nagaraju (Javaregowda); F. Neuhuber (Franz); S. Nie (Shengjie); P. Nilasitsataporn (Premlaphat); T. Nishi (Takeki); H.H. Oh (Hye); S. Olofsson (Sylvia); V. Onofri (Valerio); J. Palo (Jukka); H. Pamjav (Horolma); W. Parson (Walther); M. Petlach (Michal); C. Phillips (Christopher); R. Ploski (Rafal); S.P.R. Prasad (Samayamantri P.); D. Primorac (Dragan); G.A. Purnomo (Gludhug); J. Purps (Josephine); H. Rangel-Villalobos (Hector); K. Reogonekbała (Krzysztof); B. Rerkamnuaychoke (Budsaba); D.R. Gonzalez (Danel Rey); C. Robino (Carlo); L. Roewer (Lutz); A. de Rosa (Anna); A. Sajantila (Antti); A. Sala (Andrea); J.M. Salvador (Jazelyn); P. Sanz (Paula); C. Schmitt (Christian); A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); D.A. Silva (Dayse); K.-J. Shin (Kyoung-Jin); T. Sijen (Titia); M. Sirker (Miriam); D. Siváková (Daniela); V. Škaro (Vedrana); C. Solano-Matamoros (Carlos); L. Souto (L.); V. Stenzl (Vlastimil); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise); A. Tagliabracci (Adriano); D. Taylor (Duncan); A. Tillmar (Andreas); I.S. Tsybovsky (Iosif); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); D. Vanek (Daniel); A. Völgyi (Antónia); D. Ward (Denise); P. Willemse (Patricia); E.P.H. Yap (Eric); Z-Y. Yong (Ze-Yie); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve

  8. Use of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in identifying cardiovascular risk factors in male brazilian adolescents

    Lilian Messias Sampaio Brito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p678   The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF levels on the prevalence of overweight and high blood pressure levels in adolescents. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 614 boys aged 10-14 years were assessed for height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP. CRF was assessed using a run test (Léger Test and subjects were then grouped according to their CRF level. PA level was assessed through a questionnaire (The Three Day Physical Activity Recall and classified into two groups, namely > 300 minutes of PA/week and < 300 minutes of PA/week. Maturational stage was evaluated according to the development of pubic hair (self-assessment as proposed by Tanner. We used statistical descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses in the total participants and subjects were divided by age. Fifty percent of the sample performed < 300 minutes of PA/week and 67.6% had unsatisfactory CRF levels. There was a higher prevalence of unsatisfactory CRF levels among subjects with altered BMI (overweight, WC (abdominal obesity or BP (high blood pressure for all age groups. PA history, however, did not show any significance. A total of 31% of participants were overweight, 24.8% had abdominal obesity and 15.4% had increased BP. Unsatisfactory CRF levels were found to be a better predictor for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CV risk factors than PA history, regardless of age group.

  9. Fitness ranking of individual mutants drives patterns of epistatic interactions in HIV-1.

    Javier P Martínez

    Full Text Available Fitness interactions between mutations, referred to as epistasis, can strongly impact evolution. For RNA viruses and retroviruses with their high mutation rates, epistasis may be particularly important to overcome fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations and thus could influence the frequency of mutants in a viral population. As human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 resistance to azidothymidine (AZT requires selection of sequential mutations, it is a good system to study the impact of epistasis. Here we present a thorough analysis of a classical AZT-resistance pathway (the 41-215 cluster of HIV-1 variants by fitness measurements in single round infection assays covering physiological drug concentrations ex vivo. The sign and value of epistasis varied and did not predict the epistatic effect on the mutant frequency. This complex behavior is explained by the fitness ranking of the variants that strongly depends on environmental factors, i.e., the presence and absence of drugs and the host cells used. Although some interactions compensate fitness losses, the observed small effect on the relative mutant frequencies suggests that epistasis might be inefficient as a buffering mechanism for fitness losses in vivo. While the use of epistasis-based hypotheses to make general assumptions on the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations is appealing, our data caution their interpretation without further knowledge on the characteristics of the viral mutant spectrum under different environmental conditions.

  10. Effect of individual counseling on physical activity fitness and health: A randomized controlled trial in a workplace setting

    Proper, K.I.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and obesity are major public health problems. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an individual counseling intervention at the workplace on physical activity fitness and health. Counseling content derived from the Patient-centered Assessment and

  11. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  12. The effects of the Nintendo™ Wii Fit on gait, balance, and quality of life in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

    Feinn, Richard; Chui, Kevin; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of virtual reality using the NintendoTM Wii Fit on balance, gait, and quality of life in ambulatory individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Relevance There is a need for continued research to support effective treatment techniques in individuals with iSCI to maximize each individual's potential functional performance. Subjects Five males with a mean age of 58.6 years who had an iSCI and were greater than one-year post injury. Methods An interrupted time series design with three pre-tests over three weeks, a post-test within one week of the intervention, and a four-week follow up. Outcome measures: gait speed, timed up and go (TUG), forward functional reach test (FFRT) and lateral functional reach test (LFRT), RAND SF-36. Intervention consisted of one-hour sessions with varied games using the Nintendo Wii Fit twice per week for seven weeks. Survey data was also collected at post-test. Results There were statistically significant changes found in gait speed and functional reach. The changes were also maintained at the four-week follow up post-test. Survey reports suggested improvements in balance, endurance, and mobility with daily tasks at home. Conclusion All subjects who participated in training with the NintendoTM Wii Fit demonstrated statistically significant improvements in gait speed and functional reach after seven weeks of training. Given the potential positive impact that the NintendoTM Wii Fit has on functional reach and gait speed in patients with iSCI, physical therapists may want to incorporate these activities as part of a rehabilitation program. PMID:25613853

  13. Performance differences between male and female marines on standardized physical fitness tests and combat proxy tasks: identifying the gap.

    Jameson, Jason; Pappa, Leon; McGuire, Brian; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    For decades women have been restricted from direct assignment to certain military occupational specialties such as infantry. These restrictions can limit the advancement of women through the ranks of military leadership. Thus, the purpose of this effort was to identify those physical requirements most likely to serve as barriers for women wanting to enter closed combat arms positions, and to evaluate the quality of existing physical fitness tests as potential measures of assessment of combat readiness. Data were collected from 3 different sites within the US Marine Corps Training and Education Command. All participants (409 male, 379 femaile) were active-duty Marines who recently completed the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT). Participants completed 6 physical tasks: 120-mm tank loading drill, 155-mm artillery round carry, negotiating an obstacle course wall while wearing a fighting load (≈30 lb), pull-ups, deadlift, and clean and press. Overall, there was a high rate of successful completion on the combat proxy tasks (men, ≈80% to 100%; women, ≈70% to 100%), with the notable exception being the clean and press (men, 80%; women, 9%) and pull-ups (men, 16±4; women, 4±2). The PFT and CFT components tasks were also related, strongly in some cases, with performance on combat-related proxy tasks (Spearman's ρ typically ranged from 0.60 to 0.80). Estimates of fat-free mass and VO2max were also strongly related to an overall measure of combat readiness (Spearman's ρ=0.77 and ρ=0.56, respectively). The primary physical obstacle for women is upper body strength. However, some women could successfully complete all of the proxy tasks and thus are physically capable of meeting the demands of closed combat occupations. The fact that some female Marines could complete the most challenging upper body strength tasks suggests that these barriers are not inherent but may be due to a lack of training specificity.

  14. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  15. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, a new insect pest in China.

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  16. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-01-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects’experiences regarding dysphoria into the ‘Onset of gender dysphoria,’ ‘Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,’ and ‘C...

  17. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  18. Usage and perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids among male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait--a cross-sectional study.

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Alabkal, Jarrah R

    2015-08-22

    Considering the recent popularity of bodybuilding and the apparent spread of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use amongst bodybuilding enthusiasts in Kuwait, there is a relative lack of scientific investigation into the use, knowledge and attitudes towards AAS amongst the population at risk of abusing it. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the frequency, knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use amongst male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait. A cross sectional survey utilizing a self-administered questionnaire was used. Information on demographics as well as knowledge and attitude about and towards the use of AAS was included in the questionnaire. Ten fitness centres in Kuwait were randomly selected and questionnaires were distributed to all individuals leaving each centre on randomly selected days and periods of time for each centre. Overall n = 400 questionnaires were distributed. A total of n = 194 questionnaires were returned completed (~49%). Of the responders, 22.7% used AAS. The 19-25 age group had the highest occurrence (46.8%) of first-time AAS use. In contrast with non-users, most (70.5%) of AAS users believed that having an optimally muscular body can only be achieved by using AAS, and a small minority (6.8%) believed that AAS usage would have significant harms to health. Only 18.2% of AAS users had appropriate knowledge regarding the side effects of AAS. Non-users were as much uninformed as AAS users regarding the side effects of AAS. The usage of AAS is high amongst male gym users in Kuwait and is likely to present an additional burden to the health service. An effective initiative to minimize the burden of AAS abuse should focus on changing the attitudes towards AAS rather than spreading awareness of their side effects.

  19. Neural response in obsessive-compulsive washers depends on individual fit of triggers

    Ali eBaioui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD have highly idiosyncratic triggers. To fully understand which role this idiosyncrasy plays in the neurobiological mechanisms behind OCD, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of individualization regarding the applied investigation methods.This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study explores the neural correlates of contamination/washing-related OCD with a highly individualized symptom provocation paradigm. Additionally, it is the first study to directly compare individualized and standardized symptom provocation. MethodsNineteen patients with washing compulsions created individual OCD hierarchies, which later served as instructions to photograph their own individualized stimulus sets. The patients and 19 case-by-case matched healthy controls participated in a symptom provocation fMRI experiment with individualized and standardized stimulus sets created for each patient. ResultsOCD patients compared to healthy controls displayed stronger activation in the basal ganglia (nucleus accumbens, nucleus caudatus, pallidum for individualized symptom provocation. Using standardized symptom provocation, this group comparison led to stronger activation in the nucleus caudatus. The direct comparison of between-group effects for both symptom provocation approaches revealed stronger activation of the orbitofronto-striatal network for individualized symptom provocation.ConclusionsThe present study provides insight into the differential impact of individualized and standardized symptom provocation on the orbitofronto-striatal network of OCD washers. Behavioral and neural responses imply a higher symptom-specificity of individualized symptom provocation.

  20. Impaired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replicative fitness in atypical viremic non-progressor individuals

    Weber, Jan; Gibson, R. M.; Sácká, Lenka; Strunin, Dmytro; Hodek, Jan; Weberová, Jitka; Pávová, Marcela; Alouani, D. J.; Asaad, R.; Rodriguez, B.; Lederman, M. M.; Quinones-Mateu, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, Mar 20 (2017), č. článku 15. ISSN 1742-6405 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11207 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 * replicative fitness * disease progression * viremic non-progressors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2016 https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12981-017-0144-0

  1. WHOQOL-100 Before and After Sex Reassignment Surgery in Brazilian Male-to-Female Transsexual Individuals.

    Cardoso da Silva, Dhiordan; Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Massuda, Raffael; Henriques, Alexandre Annes; Salvador, Jaqueline; Silveira, Esalba; Elias Rosito, Tiago; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    The 100-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-100) evaluates quality of life as a subjective and multidimensional construct. Currently, particularly in Brazil, there are controversies concerning quality of life after sex reassignment surgery (SRS). To assess the impact of surgical interventions on quality of life of 47 Brazilian male-to-female transsexual individuals using the WHOQOL-100. This was a prospective cohort study using the WHOQOL-100 and sociodemographic questions for individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The protocol was used when a transsexual person entered the ambulatory clinic and at least 12 months after SRS. Initially, improvement or worsening of quality of life was assessed using 6 domains and 24 facets. Subsequently, quality of life was assessed for individuals who underwent new surgical interventions and those who did not undergo these procedures 1 year after SRS. The participants showed significant improvement after SRS in domains II (psychological) and IV (social relationships) of the WHOQOL-100. In contrast, domains I (physical health) and III (level of independence) were significantly worse after SRS. Individuals who underwent additional surgery had a decrease in quality of life reflected in domains II and IV. During statistical analysis, all results were controlled for variations in demographic characteristics, without significant results. The WHOQOL-100 is an important instrument to evaluate the quality of life of male-to-female transsexuals during different stages of treatment. SRS promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships. However, even 1 year after SRS, male-to-female transsexuals continue to report problems in physical health and difficulty in recovering their independence. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Stable social relationships between unrelated females increase individual fitness in a cooperative bird.

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J

    2018-04-11

    Social animals often form long-lasting relationships with fellow group members, usually with close kin. In primates, strong social bonds have been associated with increased longevity, offspring survival and reproductive success. However, little is known about the fitness effects of social bonds between non-kin, especially outside of mammals. In this study, we use long-term field research on a cooperatively breeding bird, the greater ani ( Crotophaga major ), to ask whether adult females benefit by remaining in long-term associations with unrelated, co-breeding females. We find that females that have previously nested together synchronize their reproduction more rapidly than those nesting with unfamiliar partners, which leads to lower competition and higher fledging success. Importantly, although previous experience with a co-breeding female influenced reproductive synchrony, the degree of reproductive synchrony did not influence whether co-breeding females remained together in subsequent years, ruling out the alternate hypothesis that highly synchronized females are simply more likely to remain together. These results indicate that switching groups is costly to females, and that social familiarity improves reproductive coordination. Stable social relationships therefore have significant fitness consequences for cooperatively nesting female birds, suggesting that direct benefits alone may favour the evolution of associations between non-relatives and contribute to long-term group stability. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Physical work demands and physical fitness in low social classes--30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann; Søgaard, Karen; Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul

    2011-11-01

    Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness. Thirty-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study of 5249 men aged 40 to 59 years without cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness was estimated using the Åstrand cycling test, and physical work demands determined by two self-reported questions. Among 2707 low social class men, multiple-adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios showed an almost threefold increased risk of IHD mortality among men with high physical work demands and low physical fitness, but not among men with a high physical fitness, referencing men with low physical work demands. These findings among low social class men support that high physical work demands increases the risk of IHD mortality among those with low physical fitness.

  4. IT-adoption and the interaction of task, technology and individuals: a fit framework and a case study

    Iller Carola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors of IT adoption have largely been discussed in the literature. However, existing frameworks (such as TAM or TTF are failing to include one important aspect, the interaction between user and task. Method Based on a literature study and a case study, we developed the FITT framework to help analyse the socio-organisational-technical factors that influence IT adoption in a health care setting. Results Our FITT framework ("Fit between Individuals, Task and Technology" is based on the idea that IT adoption in a clinical environment depends on the fit between the attributes of the individual users (e.g. computer anxiety, motivation, attributes of the technology (e.g. usability, functionality, performance, and attributes of the clinical tasks and processes (e.g. organisation, task complexity. We used this framework in the retrospective analysis of a three-year case study, describing the adoption of a nursing documentation system in various departments in a German University Hospital. We will show how the FITT framework helped analyzing the process of IT adoption during an IT implementation: we were able to describe every found IT adoption problem with regard to the three fit dimensions, and any intervention on the fit can be described with regard to the three objects of the FITT framework (individual, task, technology. We also derive facilitators and barriers to IT adoption of clinical information systems. Conclusion This work should support a better understanding of the reasons for IT adoption failures and therefore enable better prepared and more successful IT introduction projects. We will discuss, however, that from a more epistemological point of view, it may be difficult or even impossible to analyse the complex and interacting factors that predict success or failure of IT projects in a socio-technical environment.

  5. One Size Doesn’t Fit All: Measuring Individual Privacy in Aggregate Genomic Data

    Simmons, Sean; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Even in the aggregate, genomic data can reveal sensitive information about individuals. We present a new model-based measure, PrivMAF, that provides provable privacy guarantees for aggregate data (namely minor allele frequencies) obtained from genomic studies. Unlike many previous measures that have been designed to measure the total privacy lost by all participants in a study, PrivMAF gives an individual privacy measure for each participant in the study, not just an average measure. These individual measures can then be combined to measure the worst case privacy loss in the study. Our measure also allows us to quantify the privacy gains achieved by perturbing the data, either by adding noise or binning. Our findings demonstrate that both perturbation approaches offer significant privacy gains. Moreover, we see that these privacy gains can be achieved while minimizing perturbation (and thus maximizing the utility) relative to stricter notions of privacy, such as differential privacy. We test PrivMAF using genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, providing a more nuanced understanding of the privacy risks involved in an actual genome-wide association studies. Interestingly, our analysis demonstrates that the privacy implications of releasing MAFs from a study can differ greatly from individual to individual. An implementation of our method is available at http://privmaf.csail.mit.edu. PMID:29202050

  6. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen male study

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis. Method: We carried out a 30-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study...

  7. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (Pexercise intensity. CONCLUSION. Change in VO2pk in response to disuse and exercise was highly variable among individuals, even in this tightly controlled study. Loss in lean mass accounts for a significant degree of variability in the CON; however, training induced gains in VO2pk appear unrelated to lean mass or exercise intensity.

  8. Maximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment: practice test effects and test-retest reliability.

    Olivier, Charles; Doré, Jean; Blanchet, Sophie; Brooks, Dina; Richards, Carol L; Martel, Guy; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Maltais, Désirée B

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate, for individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment, (1) the effects of a practice test on peak cardiorespiratory fitness test results; (2) cardiorespiratory fitness test-retest reliability; and (3) the relationship between individual practice test effects and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation center. A convenience sample of 21 persons (men [n=12] and women [n=9]; age range, 48-81y; 44.9±36.2mo poststroke) with cognitive impairments who had sufficient lower limb function to perform the test. Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Test-retest reliability of Vo(2)peak was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC2,1]=.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], .86-.98). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference for the group for Vo(2)peak obtained from 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness tests performed 1 week apart on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (test 2-test 1 difference, -.32ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95% CI, -.69 to 1.33ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P=.512). Individual test-retest differences in Vo(2)peak were, however, positively related to general cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ=.485; Preliably measured in this group without a practice test. General cognitive function, however, may influence the effect of a practice test in that those with lower general cognitive function appear to respond differently to a practice test than those with higher cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A new procedure for automatic fitting of the basilar-membrane input-output function to individual behavioral data

    Kowalewski, Borys; Fereczkowski, Michal; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    system and, potentially, for clinical diagnostics. Computational algorithms are available that mimic the functioning of the nonlinear cochlear processing. One such algorithm is the dual resonance non-linear (DRNL) filterbank [6]. Its parameters can be modified to account for individual hearing loss, e.......g., based on behavioral, temporal masking curves (TMC) data. This approach was used within the framework of the computational auditory signal-processing and perception (CASP) model to account for various aspects of SNHL [4]. However, due to the computational complexity, on-line fitting of the DRNL...

  10. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  11. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  12. Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism.

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2010-04-01

    There are two distinct subtypes of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals: homosexual and nonhomosexual. The relative prevalence of these two subtypes varies dramatically between countries, but no explanation of this variability has yet been proposed. This study examined the hypothesis that the prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism, relative to homosexual MtF transsexualism, would be higher in individualistic countries than in collectivistic countries. I analyzed data from 22 studies of MtF transsexualism, conducted in 16 countries, examining the association between percentage of nonhomosexual participants and Hofstede's (Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2001) Individualism Index (IDV). IDV accounted for 77% of observed variance in the percentage of nonhomosexual MtF participants (r = 0.88, p individualistic countries for socially disruptive gender transitions by nonhomosexual gender dysphoric men, and the availability within many collectivistic countries of socially approved transgender roles for pervasively feminine homosexual gender dysphoric men, are plausible contributors.

  13. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  14. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments.

  15. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments

  16. Fit to father? Online accounts of lifestyle changes and help-seeking on a male infertility board.

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan; Hudson, Nicky

    2018-04-06

    The reproductive realm is routinely viewed as a feminised space requiring women's commitment and labour. By contrast, men's procreative contributions and 'reproductive masculinity' is represented as unproblematic, with men assumed to be fertile across the lifespan. Recent scientific research has, however, cast doubt over these longstanding assumptions, suggesting that a link does exist between 'lifestyle' factors and male fertility. The notion that fertility can be improved with effort (for both women and men) can be located within wider cultural and political shifts which construct individuals as increasingly responsible for acting on health messages and engaging in self-disciplining body projects. Through an exploration of 'lifestyle changes' within a men's online infertility discussion forum board, this paper examines how discourses of individualisation healthism and masculinity are reproduced and interlinked. Our thematic analysis indicates that 'lifestyle work' is construed as crucial for achieving conception - and as a means to demonstrate men's commitment to the dyadic goal of parenthood, which in turn may challenge and extend previous notions of 'reproductive masculinity'. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer: a 42-year follow-up from the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2017-09-01

    Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer and any cause with 42 years and 44 years of follow-up, respectively. Middle-aged, employed and cancer-free Danish men from the prospective Copenhagen Male Study , enrolled in 1970-1971, were included. CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max)) was estimated using a bicycle ergometer test and analysed in multivariable Cox models including conventional risk factors, social class and self-reported physical activity. Death from cancer and all-cause mortality was assessed using Danish national registers. Follow-up was 100% complete. In total, 5131 men were included, mean (SD) age 48.8 (5.4) years. During 44 years of follow-up, 4486 subjects died (87.4%), 1527 (29.8%) from cancer. In multivariable models, CRF was highly significantly inversely associated with death from cancer and all-cause mortality ((HR (95% CI)) 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90) and 0.89 (0.85 to 0.93) per 10 mL/kg/min increase in estimated VO 2 max, respectively). A similar association was seen across specific cancer groups, except death from prostate cancer (1.00 (0.82 to 1.2); p=0.97; n=231). The associations between CRF and outcomes remained essentially unchanged after excluding subjects dying within 10 years (n=377) and 20 years (n=1276) of inclusion. CRF is highly significantly inversely associated with death from cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations are robust for exclusion of subjects dying within 20 years of study inclusion, thereby suggesting a minimal influence of reverse causation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Masculine Voices Predict Well-Being in Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals.

    Watt, Seth O; Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2018-05-01

    Voices convey important social information about an individual's identity, including gender. This is especially relevant to transgender individuals, who cite voice alteration as a primary goal of the gender alignment process. Although the voice is a primary target of testosterone therapy among female-to-male (FTM) trans people, little research has explored the effects of such changes on their psychological well-being. Here, we investigated how FTMs' vocal gender related to their well-being. A total of 77 FTMs (M age  = 25.45 years, SD = 6.77) provided voice samples and completed measures of their well-being and psychological health. An independent group of 32 naïve raters (M age  = 22.16 years, SD = 8.21) subsequently rated the voice samples for masculinity. We found that FTMs whose voices sounded more congruent with their experienced gender (i.e., sounded more masculine) reported greater well-being (better life satisfaction, quality of life, and self-esteem; lower levels of anxiety and depression) than FTMs with less gender congruent (i.e., more feminine) voices (β = .48). The convergence between outwardly perceived vocal gender and gender identity brought about through hormone replacement therapy may therefore support greater well-being for FTMs.

  20. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder.

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-04-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects'experiences regarding dysphoria into the 'Onset of gender dysphoria,' 'Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,' and 'Changes due to receiving medical care.' The subjects reported experiencing great pain and distress because they did not fully understand that they were experiencing dysphoria and could not align their gender identity and their self-identity. All subjects described their experiences of dysphoria as negative. Additionally, all said that the dysphoria was alleviated by a medical intervention such as visiting a gender clinic, receiving a diagnosis and treatment, and changing their physical sex to the sex congruent with their gender identity. The provision of information at the gender clinic and the physical changes achieved by medical intervention exerted a positive effect both mentally and socially on the subjects, who suffered various physical, mental and social problems.

  1. Higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze if the association between sex with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness is independent of physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior in young people. A cross-sectional study involving 729 participants aged 10 to 17 years. Physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior were assessed through a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using 20m shuttle run test and were analyzed: VO2max, number of laps and health-related criteria. Muscular fitness was assessed with 90o push-up test and number of repetition and health-related criteria was analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate β coeficients and Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratios (PR. Male sex was associated to higher cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max β = 9.04 to 9.77, Laps PR=1.67 to 1.80, health-related criteria PR=2.03 to 2.09 and the same occurred with muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.81 to 3.01, health-related criteria PR=1.91 to 2.09. Similarly, the stratification of the sample according to physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior did not change the associations between sex with cardiorespiratory (VO2max β=8.07 to 10.00, Laps PR=1.49 to 1.85, health-related criteria PR=1.64 to 2.27 and muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.24 to 3.22, health-related criteria PR=1.76 to 2.06. These data suggest that higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people.

  2. The Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Microparticles on Individual Fitness in Daphnia magna.

    Martin Ogonowski

    Full Text Available Concerns are being raised that microplastic pollution can have detrimental effects on the feeding of aquatic invertebrates, including zooplankton. Both small plastic fragments (microplastics, MPs produced by degradation of larger plastic waste (secondary MPs; SMPs and microscopic plastic spheres used in cosmetic products and industry (primary MPs; PMPs are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, despite the fact that most environmental MPs consist of weathered plastic debris with irregular shape and broad size distribution, experimental studies of organism responses to MP exposure have largely used uniformly sized spherical PMPs. Therefore, effects observed for PMPs in such experiments may not be representative for MP-effects in situ. Moreover, invertebrate filter-feeders are generally well adapted to the presence of refractory material in seston, which questions the potential of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations to measurably affect digestion in these organisms. Here, we compared responses to MPs (PMPs and SMPs and naturally occurring particles (kaolin clay using the cladoceran Daphnia magna as a model organism. We manipulated food levels (0.4 and 9 μg C mL-1 and MP or kaolin contribution to the feeding suspension (<1 to 74% and evaluated effects of MPs and kaolin on food uptake, growth, reproductive capacity of the daphnids, and maternal effects on offspring survival and feeding. Exposure to SMPs caused elevated mortality, increased inter-brood period and decreased reproduction albeit only at high MP levels in the feeding suspension (74% by particle count. No such effects were observed in either PMP or kaolin treatments. In daphnids exposed to any particle type at the low algal concentration, individual growth decreased by ~15%. By contrast, positive growth response to all particle types was observed at the high algal concentration with 17%, 54% and 40% increase for kaolin, PMP and SMP, respectively. When test particles

  3. Testing a key assumption in animal communication: between-individual variation in female visual systems alters perception of male signals

    Kelly L. Ronald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females. We tested this assumption in a group of female wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater, a species that uses a male visual signal (e.g. a wingspread display to make its mate-choice decisions. We found that females varied in two key parameters of their visual sensory systems related to chromatic and achromatic vision: cone densities (both total and proportions and cone oil droplet absorbance. Using visual chromatic and achromatic contrast modeling, we then found that this between-individual variation in visual physiology leads to significant between-individual differences in how females perceive chromatic and achromatic male signals. These differences may lead to variation in female preferences for male visual signals, which would provide a potential mechanism for explaining individual differences in mate-choice behavior.

  4. Testing a key assumption in animal communication: between-individual variation in female visual systems alters perception of male signals.

    Ronald, Kelly L; Ensminger, Amanda L; Shawkey, Matthew D; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2017-12-15

    Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females. We tested this assumption in a group of female wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), a species that uses a male visual signal (e.g. a wingspread display) to make its mate-choice decisions. We found that females varied in two key parameters of their visual sensory systems related to chromatic and achromatic vision: cone densities (both total and proportions) and cone oil droplet absorbance. Using visual chromatic and achromatic contrast modeling, we then found that this between-individual variation in visual physiology leads to significant between-individual differences in how females perceive chromatic and achromatic male signals. These differences may lead to variation in female preferences for male visual signals, which would provide a potential mechanism for explaining individual differences in mate-choice behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Study of personality traits, individual coping resources, and their association in HIV-seropositive males

    Prateek Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV infection is an unfortunate consequence of a defined set of behaviors. Individuals with continued high-risk behavior either due to personality factors or due to maladaptive coping skills have higher viral loads and morbidity. Research has shown significant interactions between less effective coping styles and personality factors. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate personality traits, coping skills, and their association in male HIV-seropositive cases. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted on 86 patients. Informed consent and sociodemographic details, by a structured questionnaire, were obtained. Scales pertaining to personality factors and coping were applied. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 16. Results: Neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness traits were in the average range. Scores on openness and agreeableness were below average. The results pertaining to coping showed an overall mean score of 50.78, with the highest on physical domain and then on the philosophical domain, the lowest was in social domain. The research sample perceived their coping resources as average. Neuroticism was negatively related to all the coping styles. Extraversion showed relation with physical, emotional, social, and philosophical scales. Openness was related to philosophical and emotional scales. Agreeableness correlated with all domains of coping except the social. Conscientiousness correlated significantly with all the domains of coping. Conclusion: The various personality traits associated with male HIV-seropositive patients were identified and various coping resources used by these were also delineated. Further, the association among them was identified which can help in primary prevention and mental health professionals to have a targeted approach for counseling.

  6. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals maximize fitness through certain behaviors (e.g., foraging, mating, predator avoidance) that incur metabolic costs and often require high levels of locomotor activity. Consequently, the ability of animals to achieve high fitness often relies on their physiological capacity for exercise (aerobic scope) and/or their ability to acquire and utilize energy judiciously. Here, we explore how environmental factors and physiological limitations influence exercise and metabolism in fish while foraging, migrating to spawning grounds, and providing parental care. We do so with three case studies that use a number of approaches to studying exercise in wild fish using biologging and biotelemetry platforms. Bonefish (Albula vulpes) selectively use shallow water tropical marine environments to forage when temperatures are near optimal for aerobic scope and exercise capacity. Bonefish energy expenditure at upper thermal extremes is maximal while activity levels diminish, likely caused by reduced aerobic scope. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) reproductive migrations frequently involve passage through hydraulically challenging areas, and their ability to successfully pass these regions is constrained by their physiological capacity for exercise. Aerobic scope and swim performance are correlated with migration difficulty among sockeye salmon (O. nerka) populations; however, depletion of endogenous energy stores can also limit migration success. In another example, male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) allocate a significant amount of energy to nest-guarding behaviors to protect their developing brood. Smallmouth bass body size, endogenous energy reserves, and physiological state influence nest-guarding behaviors and reproductive success. We suggest that in some scenarios (e.g., bonefish foraging, Pacific salmon dam passage) metabolic capacity for exercise may be the strongest determinant of biological fitness, while in others (e.g., long distance salmon migration

  7. Serum Interleukin-6, insulin, and HOMA-IR in male individuals with colorectal adenoma.

    Sasaki, Yu; Takeda, Hiroaki; Sato, Takeshi; Orii, Tomohiko; Nishise, Shoichi; Nagino, Ko; Iwano, Daisuke; Yaoita, Takao; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Saito, Hideki; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-01-15

    It is widely acknowledged that chronic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The level of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the major proinflammatory adipokines, is correlated with obesity and insulin resistance, which are known to be risk factors for colorectal adenoma. We examined the association between the circulating level of IL-6 and the presence of colorectal adenoma. In a total colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between January and December 2008, serum levels of IL-6 were measured in samples of venous blood obtained from 336 male participants attending health checkups (118 individuals with colorectal adenoma and 218 age-matched controls) after an overnight fast. In the colorectal adenoma group, the median levels of serum IL-6 (1.24 vs. 1.04 pg/mL; P = 0.01), triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were to be significantly higher than those in the control group. When restricted to individuals with adenoma, levels of IL-6 were positively correlated with body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analyses adjusted to include insulin or HOMA-IR showed that high levels of IL-6 were associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma. There was no significant interaction of IL-6 with HOMA-IR to modify this association. Our findings suggest that increased serum levels of IL-6 are positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma in men, independently of insulin and HOMA-IR. ©2011 AACR.

  8. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans.

    Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-10-19

    Effective approaches that engage men in weight loss and lifestyle change are important because of worldwide increases, including in Canada, in obesity and chronic diseases. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), developed in Scotland, successfully tackled these problems by engaging overweight/obese male football fans in sustained weight loss and positive health behaviours, through program deliveries at professional football stadia. Aims: 1) Adapt FFIT to hockey within the Canadian context and integrate with HealtheSteps™ (evidence-based lifestyle program) to develop Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT); 2) Explore potential for Hockey FIT to help overweight/obese men lose weight and improve other outcomes by 12 weeks, and retain these improvements to 12 months; 3) Evaluate feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight/obese men; 4) Evaluate acceptability of Hockey FIT; and 5) Conduct program optimization via a process evaluation. We conducted a two-arm pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial (pRCT) whereby 80 overweight/obese male hockey fans (35-65 years; body-mass index ≥28 kg/m 2 ) were recruited through their connection to two junior A hockey teams (London and Sarnia, ON) and randomized to Intervention (Hockey FIT) or Comparator (Wait-List Control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-week Active Phase (classroom instruction and exercise sessions delivered weekly by trained coaches) and a 40-week Maintenance Phase. Data collected at baseline and 12 weeks (both groups), and 12 months (Intervention only), will inform evaluation of the potential of Hockey FIT to help men lose weight and improve other health outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability will be assessed using data from self-reports at screening and baseline, program fidelity (program observations and coach reflections), participant focus group discussions, coach interviews, as well as program questionnaires and interviews with participants. This information will be analyzed to inform program

  9. Interchromosomal insertional translocation at Xq26.3 alters SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal.

    Haines, Bryan; Hughes, James; Corbett, Mark; Shaw, Marie; Innes, Josie; Patel, Leena; Gecz, Jozef; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Thomas, Paul

    2015-05-01

    46,XX male sex reversal occurs in approximately 1: 20 000 live births and is most commonly caused by interchromosomal translocations of the Y-linked sex-determining gene, SRY. Rearrangements of the closely related SOX3 gene on the X chromosome are also associated with 46,XX male sex reversal. It has been hypothesized that sex reversal in the latter is caused by ectopic expression of SOX3 in the developing urogenital ridge where it triggers male development by acting as an analog of SRY. However, altered regulation of SOX3 in individuals with XX male sex reversal has not been demonstrated. Here we report a boy with SRY-negative XX male sex reversal who was diagnosed at birth with a small phallus, mixed gonads, and borderline-normal T. Molecular characterization of the affected individual was performed using array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes, whole-genome sequencing, and RT-PCR expression analysis of lymphoblast cell lines. The affected male carries ∼774-kb insertion translocation from chromosome 1 into a human-specific palindromic sequence 82 kb distal to SOX3. Importantly, robust SOX3 expression was identified in cells derived from the affected individual but not from control XX or XY cells, indicating that the translocation has a direct effect on SOX3 regulation. This is the first demonstration of altered SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal and suggests that SOX3 can substitute for SRY to initiate male development in humans.

  10. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  11. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  12. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Ralf, Arwin; Aboukhalid, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RM Y-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  13. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (Δ%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

  14. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  15. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    de Jong, T.R.; Korosi, A.; Harris, B.N.; Perea-Rodriguez, J.P.; Saltzman, W.

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might

  16. Individual, Family, School, and Community Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors: An Analysis of 2010 Iowa Youth Survey Data

    Beck-Cross, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Youth suicide is a public health issue and the second leading cause of death for young Iowans ages 15 to 24 years, with young males six times more likely to die than their female peers (Iowa Department of Public Health, 2009). Suicide among adolescents is a complex issue, but there are patterns of individual, family, school, and community…

  17. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  18. Awareness and Attitude towards Use of Dietary Supplements and the Perceived Outcomes Among Saudi Adult Male Members of Fitness Centers in Saudi Arabia.

    Alfawaz, Hanan A; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Al-Faifi, Latifah; Atta, Halima Ali Bin; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad; Alghanim, Saad A; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2017-11-15

    Dietary supplements are believed to enhance athletic performance and/or prevent/reverse pathological states. Despite the increasing use of dietary supplements in Saudi Arabia, systematic studies in this field are lacking. This study aims to assess the relation between demographic and social characteristics and dietary supplement use among adult males in Saudi Arabia. Demographic and dietary supplements data from fitness club participants were collected through a questionnaire and Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine associations. A total of 448 apparently healthy adult males above 20 years of age, who were registered at fitness centers located in Saudi Arabia participated in the study. Majority [275 (62%)] of the study participants were younger (20-30 years), of normal weight [189 (43%)], without health problems [332 (79%)] and obtained an undergraduate degree or higher [336 (77%)]. Majority (58%) took supplements under the supervision of a professional and the rest depended on internet (22%), friends (12%) or books (4%) for choosing supplement types. The main motives of the participants for visiting the fitness center were: weight loss [N=149(35%)], keeping fit [N=101(24%)] and muscle building [N=151(35%)]. One hundred fifty-five participants (44%) were taking supplements on a daily basis with 34 (10%) having taken it for a prolonged duration (>1 year). The most commonly used supplements were proteins (29%) and multivitamins (21%). Supplement use was not associated with the participants' family income or level of education, but, was positively associated with younger age (<31 years) [χ 2 (2, N= 443) = 4.96, p=0.03.

  19. Measurements of Weight Bearing Asymmetry Using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board Are Not Reliable for Older Adults and Individuals With Stroke.

    Liuzzo, Derek M; Peters, Denise M; Middleton, Addie; Lanier, Wes; Chain, Rebecca; Barksdale, Brittany; Fritz, Stacy L

    Clinicians and researchers have used bathroom scales, balance performance monitors with feedback, postural scale analysis, and force platforms to evaluate weight bearing asymmetry (WBA). Now video game consoles offer a novel alternative for assessing this construct. By using specialized software, the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can provide reliable measurements of WBA in healthy, young adults. However, reliability of measurements obtained using only the factory settings to assess WBA in older adults and individuals with stroke has not been established. To determine whether measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and default settings are reliable in older adults and individuals with stroke. Weight bearing asymmetry was assessed using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board in 2 groups of participants-individuals older than 65 years (n = 41) and individuals with stroke (n = 41). Participants were given a standardized set of instructions and were not provided auditory or visual feedback. Two trials were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measure (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were determined for each group. The ICC for the older adults sample was 0.59 (0.35-0.76) with SEM95 = 6.2% and MDC95 = 8.8%. The ICC for the sample including individuals with stroke was 0.60 (0.47-0.70) with SEM95 = 9.6% and MDC95 = 13.6%. Although measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board, and its default factory settings, demonstrate moderate reliability in older adults and individuals with stroke, the relatively high associated SEM and MDC values substantially reduce the clinical utility of the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board as an assessment tool for WBA. Weight bearing asymmetry cannot be measured reliably in older adults and individuals with stroke using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board without the use of specialized software.

  20. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    Kaukab Azeem; Erdogan Tabur

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Underweight (UW) individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT) plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009) stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT) on t...

  1. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Guilherme D’Aprile Marchesi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20 than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4, whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0 than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22 at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3 and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3 offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0 and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0 at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4 and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6 offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8, neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1 and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8 counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  2. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Marchesi, Guilherme D’Aprile; de Fatima Soto, Sônia; de Castro, Isac; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages. PMID:28355363

  3. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  4. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , and physical function among recreationally active men aged 66–78 years.  Methods: After completing a 12-week randomized and controlled intervention with floorball and petanque training in the autumn 2014 or spring 2015, 15 subjects chose to participate in floorball training (floorball group, FG), whereas 16...... in recreationally active male elderly.......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  5. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  6. The Effects of Self-Disclosure on Male and Female Perceptions of Individuals Who Stutter.

    Byrd, Courtney T; McGill, Megann; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Cappellini, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both videos, participants completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speakers. Controlling for observer and speaker gender, listeners were more likely to select speakers who self-disclosed their stuttering as more friendly, outgoing, and confident compared with speakers who did not self-disclose. Observers were more likely to select speakers who did not self-disclose as unfriendly and shy compared with speakers who used a self-disclosure statement. Controlling for self-disclosure and observer gender, observers were less likely to choose the female speaker as friendlier, outgoing, and confident compared with the male speaker. Observers also were more likely to select the female speaker as unfriendly, shy, unintelligent, and insecure compared with the male speaker and were more likely to report that they were more distracted when viewing the videos. Results lend support to the effectiveness of self-disclosure as a technique that persons who stutter can use to positively influence the perceptions of listeners.

  7. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  8. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  9. Conceptualizing Masculinity in Female-to-Male Trans-Identified Individuals: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Vegter, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    A non-normative gender identity raises questions concerning widely accepted theories of gender that prevail in Western society. These theories are founded upon dichotomous models of gender identity that are posited as having a direct relationship to binary biological sex. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals who…

  10. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2012-01-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....

  11. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  12. A 45-second self-test for cardiorespiratory fitness: heart rate-based estimation in healthy individuals

    Sartor, F.; Bonato, M.; Papini, G.; Bosio, A.; Mohammed, R.; Bonomi, A.G.; Moore, J.P.; Merati, G.; Della Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up

  13. Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics.

    Saakyan, O. S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres. Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success. This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.

  14. Training effects of wheelchair dance on aerobic fitness in bedridden individuals with severe athetospastic cerebral palsy rated to GMFCS level V.

    Terada, Kyoko; Satonaka, Ayako; Terada, Yasuto; Suzuki, Nobuharu

    2017-10-01

    There were few studies about training effects of wheelchair dance on aerobic fitness in the bedridden individuals with severe cerebral palsy for whom the traditional maximal or submaximal exercise tests were not applicable. As the oxygen pulse (O2P), the oxygen uptake divided by the heart rate, is regarded to be a relative measure of stroke volume and the O2P correlates to peak oxygen uptake, we would be able to assess the training effects of wheelchair dance on aerobic fitness in those individuals measuring O2P. To study training effects of wheelchair dance on aerobic fitness in bedridden individuals with severe athetospastic cerebral palsy. Pre-post study design. A laboratory and a community care center. Bedridden individuals with athetospastic cerebral palsy rated to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level V (N.=6). The O2P was compared between during the rest, the waltz, and the jive at the baseline, the 3rd, the 6th, and the 12th month of the intervention of wheelchair dance 6 to 15 minutes at a time, 2 days a week or more. Paired Student's t-test showed that O2P during the waltz and the jive was significantly increased compared with that during the rest at the 6th and the 12th month, and O2P during the jive was also significantly increased compared with that during the rest at the 3rd, the 6th, and the 12th month of the intervention period. This is the first study that shows wheelchair dance may possibly increase aerobic fitness in bedridden individuals with severe athetospastic cerebral palsy rated GMFCS level V. Future studies with a larger sample will be warranted to prove the claim.

  15. Meiotic recombination analyses of individual chromosomes in male domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica.

    Nicolas Mary

    Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers, on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18 and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.

  16. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings.

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-11-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal target, song control region area X, in the regulation of individual differences in the motivation to sing. We used high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure dopamine, norepinephrine and their metabolites in micropunched samples from VTA, GCt, and area X in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We categorized males as sexually motivated or non-sexually motivated based on individual differences in song produced in response to a female. Dopamine markers and norepinephrine in VTA and dopamine in area X correlated positively with sexually-motivated song. Norepinephrine in area X correlated negatively with non-sexually-motivated song. Dopamine in GCt correlated negatively with sexually-motivated song, and the metabolite DOPAC correlated positively with non-sexually-motivated song. Results highlight a role for evolutionarily conserved dopaminergic projections from VTA to striatum in the motivation to communicate and highlight novel patterns of catecholamine activity in area X, VTA, and GCt associated with individual differences in sexually-motivated and non-sexually-motivated communication. Correlations between dopamine and norepinephrine markers also suggest that norepinephrine may contribute to individual differences in communication by modifying dopamine neuronal activity in VTA and GCt. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A genetic polymorphism in the sex-linked ATP5A1 gene is associated with individual fitness in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    Judith D. Toms; Lori S. Eggert; Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    While testing genetic sexing techniques in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla),we found a genetic polymorphism in the ATP5A1 gene in 38% of individuals. The Z ' allele included changes in both intronic and exonic portions of the sequenced region, but there was no evidence that this changed the resulting ATP synthase product. Males that had one or more copies of...

  18. When one size does not fit all: a simple statistical method to deal with across-individual variations of effects.

    Vindras, Philippe; Desmurget, Michel; Baraduc, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability). In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals) suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.

  19. When one size does not fit all: a simple statistical method to deal with across-individual variations of effects.

    Philippe Vindras

    Full Text Available In science, it is a common experience to discover that although the investigated effect is very clear in some individuals, statistical tests are not significant because the effect is null or even opposite in other individuals. Indeed, t-tests, Anovas and linear regressions compare the average effect with respect to its inter-individual variability, so that they can fail to evidence a factor that has a high effect in many individuals (with respect to the intra-individual variability. In such paradoxical situations, statistical tools are at odds with the researcher's aim to uncover any factor that affects individual behavior, and not only those with stereotypical effects. In order to go beyond the reductive and sometimes illusory description of the average behavior, we propose a simple statistical method: applying a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess whether the distribution of p-values provided by individual tests is significantly biased towards zero. Using Monte-Carlo studies, we assess the power of this two-step procedure with respect to RM Anova and multilevel mixed-effect analyses, and probe its robustness when individual data violate the assumption of normality and homoscedasticity. We find that the method is powerful and robust even with small sample sizes for which multilevel methods reach their limits. In contrast to existing methods for combining p-values, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has unique resistance to outlier individuals: it cannot yield significance based on a high effect in one or two exceptional individuals, which allows drawing valid population inferences. The simplicity and ease of use of our method facilitates the identification of factors that would otherwise be overlooked because they affect individual behavior in significant but variable ways, and its power and reliability with small sample sizes (<30-50 individuals suggest it as a tool of choice in exploratory studies.

  20. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,pphysiotherapy was effective in preventing curve progression in children with EOIS. Final postpubertal follow-up data is needed.

  1. 'This is the beginning of the new me': process evaluation of a group fitness intervention to promote wellbeing in formerly homeless individuals.

    Sofija, Ernesta; Plugge, Melanie; Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil

    2018-02-27

    Homelessness is a persistent social issue with diverse impacts reaching far beyond individuals. Strategies and research concerning homelessness and health have largely focused on the risk factors and weaknesses of individuals. Such preoccupation has meant the potential strengths and resources within individuals, and so-called strength-based approaches have received less attention. Consequently, understanding how to effectively work with and engage this population in such interventions is limited. The current study presents a process evaluation of an 8-week group fitness intervention in a supportive housing facility. The purpose of the intervention was to increase tenants' physical activity together with opportunities for social interaction and support to, in turn, improve physical and mental wellbeing, and ultimately help individuals re-engage in their community. The evaluation focused on seven key components: context, recruitment, reach/participation, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction/feedback and fidelity. Data collection methods included observation, attendance records and participant and staff interviews. Findings indicate the intervention was appropriate, well delivered, and enjoyed by participants who highlighted the importance of the sessions for their mental wellbeing and social inclusion. The intervention being conducted on site, the trainers' ability to build good rapport with participants together with the supportive environment they created were central to successful implementation. Group fitness sessions represent a promising intervention to improve wellbeing of this population. However, the need for more personalised care when delivering fitness sessions, due to the complexity of health issues prevalent in this population, was identified. This has implications for already limited resources, including staffing. Strategies to address this are required to ensure the continuity of fitness programs. Impact evaluation to quantify changes

  2. Progressive white matter microstructure damage in male chronic heroin dependent individuals: a DTI and TBSS study.

    Yingwei Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10:20 years] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (Da and radial diffusivity (Dr were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. CONCLUSIONS: The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore

  3. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  4. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts.

    Taanila, Henri; Hemminki, Antti J M; Suni, Jaana H; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parkkari, Jari

    2011-07-25

    Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs) for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133) were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59) and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39) disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4), poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0), poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2), and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6) were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The findings suggest that increasing both aerobic and muscular

  5. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts

    Taanila Henri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. Methods We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133 were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59 and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39 disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4, poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0, poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2, and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6 were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The

  6. "All of My Lovers Fit Into This Scale": Sexual Minority Individuals' Responses to Two Novel Measures of Sexual Orientation.

    Galupo, M Paz; Lomash, Edward; Mitchell, Renae C

    2017-01-01

    Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.

  7. Mid-arm muscle circumference as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in male individuals.

    Li-Wei Wu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences indicate that mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC is one of the anthropometric indicators that reflect health and nutritional status, but its correlative effectiveness in all-cause mortality prediction of United States individuals remains uncertain.We investigated the joint association between MAMC and all-cause mortality in the US general population. A population-based longitudinal study of 6,769 participants aged 40 to 90 years in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All participants were divided into two groups based on the gender: male and female group; each group was then divided into three subgroups depending on their MAMC level. The tertiles were as follows: T1 (18<27.3, T2 (27.3<29.6, T3 (29.6≤40.0 cm in the male group and T1 (15<22.3, T2 (22.3<24.6, T3 (24.6≤44.0 cm in the female group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were utilized to jointly relate all-cause mortality risk to different MAMC level. For all-cause mortality in male participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-0.98; p = 0.033 for MAMC of 27.3-29.6 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm, and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61-0.95; p = 0.018 for MAMC of 29.6-40 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm. For all-cause mortality in female participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-1.02; p = 0.075 for MAMC of 22.3-24.6 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.75-1.17; p = 0.583 for MAMC of 24.6-44 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm.Results support a lower MAMC is associated with a higher mortality risk in male individuals.

  8. Effect of physical workload and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation task performance by high-fit young males.

    Zahabi, Maryam; Zhang, Wenjuan; Pankok, Carl; Lau, Mei Ying; Shirley, James; Kaber, David

    2017-11-01

    Many occupations require both physical exertion and cognitive task performance. Knowledge of any interaction between physical demands and modalities of cognitive task information presentation can provide a basis for optimising performance. This study examined the effect of physical exertion and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation-related information processing. Results indicated males of equivalent high fitness, between the ages of 18 and 34, rely more on visual cues vs auditory or haptic for pattern recognition when exertion level is high. We found that navigation response time was shorter under low and medium exertion levels as compared to high intensity. Navigation accuracy was lower under high level exertion compared to medium and low levels. In general, findings indicated that use of the haptic modality for cognitive task cueing decreased accuracy in pattern recognition responses. Practitioner Summary: An examination was conducted on the effect of physical exertion and information presentation modality in pattern recognition and navigation. In occupations requiring information presentation to workers, who are simultaneously performing a physical task, the visual modality appears most effective under high level exertion while haptic cueing degrades performance.

  9. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers.

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Klein Hesselink, John; Bültmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R; de Looze, Michiel P; van der Klink, Jac J L; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640 employees of Tata Steel in the Netherlands were retrieved from the Occupational Health Service and company registers. Work outcomes related to sustainable employment were (i) temporarily being placed in less strenuous work, (ii) sickness absence ≥6 weeks, and (iii) leaving the organization. Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for all outcome measures. Similar predictors were found for shift and day workers although some differences were observed. For shift workers, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease were important predictors for sickness absence. For day workers, insomnia was an important predictor of sickness absence ≥6 weeks. Similar predictors in magnitude and direction were found for work outcomes related to sustainable employment among shift and day workers. Interventions aimed at enhancing sustainable employability should focus on individual and work-related characteristics.

  10. All individuals are not created equal; accounting for interindividual variation in fitting life-history responses to toxicants.

    Jager, Tjalling

    2013-02-05

    The individuals of a species are not equal. These differences frustrate experimental biologists and ecotoxicologists who wish to study the response of a species (in general) to a treatment. In the analysis of data, differences between model predictions and observations on individual animals are usually treated as random measurement error around the true response. These deviations, however, are mainly caused by real differences between the individuals (e.g., differences in physiology and in initial conditions). Understanding these intraspecies differences, and accounting for them in the data analysis, will improve our understanding of the response to the treatment we are investigating and allow for a more powerful, less biased, statistical analysis. Here, I explore a basic scheme for statistical inference to estimate parameters governing stress that allows individuals to differ in their basic physiology. This scheme is illustrated using a simple toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model and a data set for growth of the springtail Folsomia candida exposed to cadmium in food. This article should be seen as proof of concept; a first step in bringing more realism into the statistical inference for process-based models in ecotoxicology.

  11. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  12. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  13. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The atypical presence of the paternal mitochondrial DNA in somatic tissues of male and female individuals of the blue mussel species Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Rodakis George C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals mtDNA inheritance is maternal except in certain molluscan bivalve species which have a paternally inherited mitochondrial genome (genome M along with the standard maternal one (genome F. Normally, the paternal genome occurs in the male gonad, but it can be often found, as a minority, in somatic tissues of males and females. This may happen in two ways. One is through "sperm mtDNA leakage" into somatic tissues, a deviation from the normal situation in which the sperm mtDNA vanishes in females or ends up exclusively in the germ line of males. The other is through "egg heteroplasmy", when the egg contains, in small quantities, the paternal genome in addition to maternal genome. Findings To test the two hypotheses, we compared the sequences of one of the most variable domains of the M molecule in a somatic tissue (foot and in the sperm of ten male and in the foot of ten female individuals of M. galloprovincialis. Presence of the M genome was rarer in the foot of females than males. The M genome in the sperm and in the foot of males was identical. Conclusions Given that the surveyed region differs from individual to individual, the identity of the M genome in the foot and the sperm of males supports strongly the hypothesis that, at least for the tissue examined, the presence of the M genome is due to sperm mtDNA leakage.

  16. Physical work demands and physical fitness in low social classes--30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the copenhagen male study

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness.......Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness....

  17. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  18. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with health care discrimination experiences among a national sample of female-to-male transgender individuals.

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Transgender individuals experience harassment, violence, and discrimination in a number of settings. Although health care discrimination against transgender people has been documented, this issue is understudied. Using a national cross-sectional survey data set (N = 1,711), the authors sought to determine how gender identity and presentation predict health care discrimination experiences among female-to-male (FTM) transgender people after demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are controlled. Analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and a two-step logistic regression. The majority of participants were white (73.9 percent) and between 25 and 44 years old (65.2 percent). Overall, 41.8 percent of FTM participants reported verbal harassment, physical assault, or denial of equal treatment in a doctor's office or hospital. When other factors were controlled, being Native American or multiracial, identifying as queer or asexual/other, having a graduate degree, living full-time as nonbirth gender, using hormones or surgery for medical transition, and having identification documents that list one's preferred gender were associated with increased reporting of health care discrimination experiences; being 45 years or older and reporting an annual income of $60,000 or more were associated with decreased risk. The study's findings can be useful to social workers, who play a role in educating health care providers and advocating for policies that improve health care experiences for FTM and other transgender patients.

  20. Evolution of social versus individual learning in a subdivided population revisited: comparative analysis of three coexistence mechanisms using the inclusive-fitness method.

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    Learning abilities are categorized into social (learning from others) and individual learning (learning on one's own). Despite the typically higher cost of individual learning, there are mechanisms that allow stable coexistence of both learning modes in a single population. In this paper, we investigate by means of mathematical modeling how the effect of spatial structure on evolutionary outcomes of pure social and individual learning strategies depends on the mechanisms for coexistence. We model a spatially structured population based on the infinite-island framework and consider three scenarios that differ in coexistence mechanisms. Using the inclusive-fitness method, we derive the equilibrium frequency of social learners and the genetic load of social learning (defined as average fecundity reduction caused by the presence of social learning) in terms of some summary statistics, such as relatedness, for each of the three scenarios and compare the results. This comparative analysis not only reconciles previous models that made contradictory predictions as to the effect of spatial structure on the equilibrium frequency of social learners but also derives a simple mathematical rule that determines the sign of the genetic load (i.e. whether or not social learning contributes to the mean fecundity of the population). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals.

  2. Definition of means and methods for physical training of 3–6 years old children taking into account their individual development and physical fitness

    Tеtіana Dorofieieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: definition and justification features of the physical development 3–6 years old children and the features of physical preparedness of this age period. Material & Methods: the sample size for each age group was 100 persons. For an objective assessment of the characteristics considered, the concepts of biological age and passport age are introduced as indispensable indicators for determining individual characteristics of the organism development. Results: based on the administration of the two criteria for age estimation takes into account features of construction of motor activity. For the orderly presentation of the obtained individual features of the organization of motor activity characteristics used indicative of semantic space. This allowed us to establish the regularities of the processes under consideration and their approximation by mathematical equations. Presence of analytical descriptions allows to provide forecasting of development and to carry out professional selection of persons possessing a certain motor talent. Results and their presentation are published for the first time. Conclusion: to build a system for monitoring physical fitness and physical preparedness, systematic monitoring is necessary, in which the assessment of the biological age and the individual structure of the somatotype. Based on the representation of the observations obtained in the semantic spaces, regularities of the morphological and functional forms of the child somatotype.

  3. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis.......No previous long-term prospective studies have examined if workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to high physical work demands. We tested this hypothesis....

  4. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  5. The Effects of Regular Exercise on the Physical Fitness Levels

    Kirandi, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of regular exercise on the physical fitness levels among sedentary individuals. The total of 65 sedentary male individuals between the ages of 19-45, who had never exercises regularly in their lives, participated in the present research. Of these participants, 35 wanted to be…

  6. Low level of objectively measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Pakistani male immigrants in Oslo, Norway

    Eivind Andersen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of physical fitness in south Asian immigrants living in Norway is largely unknown, but the level of physical activity seems to be low, possibly in part explaining their high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies have used self-reported measures of physical activity, and it might be questioned whether the previous data reflect the true physical activity level.Aim: To describe objectively measured physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk in a group of Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway.Methods: One hundred and fifty Pakistani immigrant men in the age group 25-60 years were included. Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured until exhaustion on a treadmill, and diabetes risk was evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test.Results: Mean age was 37.3 years (SD=7.7. Total physical activity level was 308 counts/min (SD=131, and peak oxygen uptake was 34.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 (SD=5.6. Fifty percent of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, and 76% were obese. Physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness level were lower, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome higher in a subgroup of taxi drivers as compared with those inother occupations (P<0.05.Conclusions: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels are low and diabetes risk high among Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, especially in taxi drivers

  7. Searching for pelvic floor muscle exercises on YouTube: what individuals may find and where this might fit with health service programmes to promote continence.

    Stephen, Kate; Cumming, Grant P

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the investigation, categorization/characterization and viewing of pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) on YouTube from the perspective of the 'wisdom of the crowd'. The aim of the research was to increase awareness of the type of clips that individuals are likely to come across when searching YouTube and to describe trends and popularity. This awareness will be useful for the design of continence promotion services, especially for hard-to-reach individuals. Web-based videos relating to PFE were identified by searching YouTube using the snowball technique. Main outcome measures Number of views; the approach taken (health, fitness, sexual and pregnancy); product promotion; and the use of music, visual cues and elements designed to encourage exercise. The number of views of each video was recorded at three points over a seven-month period. Twenty-two videos were identified. Overall these videos had been viewed over 430,000 times during the study period. One video was viewed over 100,000 times and overall the median increase in views was 59.4%. YouTube is increasingly used to access information about pelvic floor exercises. Different approaches are used to communicate PFME information but there are no formal structures for quality control. Further research is required to identify which elements of the video clips are effective in communicating information and in motivating exercise and to establish appropriate protocols. Kitemarking is recommended in order that women obtain correct advice.

  8. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  9. Nature beats nurture: a case study of the physiological fitness of free-living and laboratory-reared male Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    Hubo, B.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Killeen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation forms the basis for most of our knowledge of the biology of many organisms, in particular insects. However, the accuracy with which laboratory-derived estimates of insect life history and behaviour can predict their fitness and population dynamics in the wild is rarely

  10. Identification of a locus characteristic of male individuals of buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] by using an RAPD marker.

    Li, Y X; Wang, X G; Yang, C H; Cong, L L; Wu, F F; Xue, J G; Han, Y H

    2013-09-27

    Buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] plants can be either male, female, or hermaphrodite (monoecious). As there is no morphological difference in the early vegetative growth of these three classes of plants, it is worthwhile to use molecular biological methods to attempt to identify the sex of a plant at this early growth period. In this study, we identified 23 plants that had a stable sex for over at least 3 years. Of these, 9 were male plants, 10 were female plants, and 4 were hermaphrodites. Screening of 300 RAPD primers identified a primer, namely S211 (5'-ttccccgcga-3'), which is capable of identifying male plants. The specific fragment was cloned, sequenced, and submitted to the GenBank database (accession No. JN982469). When used to identify the sex of 188 plants during their first growing season, the S211 primer correctly identified 85.8% of all male plants. Our results showed that the S211 primer can identify the male, and in doing so, it facilitates buffalo grass breeding work.

  11. "I Have Goals to Prove All Those People Wrong and Not Fit into Any One of Those Boxes": Paths of Resistance to Stereotypes among Black Adolescent Males

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Way, Niobe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents form their identities by both accommodating (endorsing) and resisting (challenging) cultural stereotypes. Most research on Black males focuses on how they accommodate to negative stereotypes (e.g., delinquency, aggression), but a growing literature emphasizes how youth resist stereotypes. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed to…

  12. Individual- and area-level effects on mortality risk in Germany, both East and West, among male Germans aged 65+

    Kibele, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates whether mortality inequalities based on individual- and area-level deprivation exist at older ages in Germany, and whether there are differences between eastern and western Germany. Methods Data on population and death counts according to the individual-level

  13. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus) and the...... is strongly influenced by their local frequencies, and that male fitness of F(1)hybrids, when pollinating B. rapa seeds, is low even when their female fitness (seed set) is high.......The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus......) and their F(1) hybrids at different frequencies and densities. Paternity was determined by the presence of a transgene, morphology, and AFLP markers. In addition, observations of flower and pollen production, and published data on pollen fertilisation success, zygote survival, and seed germination, allowed us...

  14. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  15. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  16. Direct fitness of group living mammals varies with breeding strategy, climate and fitness estimates.

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Rivera, Daniela S; Hayes, Loren D

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding how variation in fitness relates to variation in group living remains critical to determine whether this major aspect of social behaviour is currently adaptive. 2. Available evidence in social mammals aimed to examine this issue remains controversial. Studies show positive (i.e. potentially adaptive), neutral or even negative fitness effects of group living. 3. Attempts to explain this variation rely on intrinsic and extrinsic factors to social groups. Thus, relatively more positive fitness effects are predicted in singularly breeding as opposed to plural breeding species. Fitness effects of sociality in turn may depend on ecological conditions (i.e. extrinsic factors) that influence associated benefits and costs. 4. We used meta-analytic tools to review how breeding strategy or ecological conditions influence the effect size associated with direct fitness-sociality relationships reported in the mammalian literature. Additionally, we determined how taxonomic affiliation of species studied, different fitness and sociality measures used, and major climatic conditions of study sites explained any variation in direct fitness effect size. 5. We found group living had modest, yet positive effects on direct fitness. This generally adaptive scenario was contingent not only upon breeding strategy and climate of study sites, but also on fitness measures examined. Thus, positive and significant effects characterized singular as opposed to plural breeding strategies. 6. We found more positive fitness effects on studies conducted in tropical as opposed to temperate or arid climates. More positive and significant effects were noted on studies that relied on group fecundity, male fecundity and offspring survival as measures of fitness. 7. To conclude, direct fitness consequences of mammalian group living are driven by interspecific differences in breeding strategy and climate conditions. Other factors not examined in this study, namely individual variation in

  17. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  18. Fitness club

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  19. Fitness consequences of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Burke, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested as the selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. Assessing the benefits accrued to individual males and females is crucial to understanding the sex-specific helping behavior observed in many cooperatively breeding species. We

  20. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-01-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal ...

  1. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  2. Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey (Mandrillus sphinx): influence of sex, male status, and individual identity.

    Setchell, Joanna M; Vaglio, Stefano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Calamai, Luca; Knapp, Leslie A

    2010-03-01

    Primates are traditionally considered to be microsmatic, with decreased reliance on olfactory senses in comparison to other sensory modalities such as vision. This is particularly the case for Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines). However, various lines of evidence suggest that chemical communication may be important in these species, including the presence of a sternal scent-gland in the mandrill. We investigated the volatile components of mandrill odor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 97 volatile components in 88 swabs of the sternal gland secretion and 95 samples of sternal gland hair saturated with scent-gland secretion collected from 27 males and 18 females. We compared odor profiles with features of the signaler using principle components and discriminant function analyses and found that volatile profiles convey both variable (age, dominance rank in males) and fixed (sex, possibly individual identity) information about the signaler. The combination of an odor profile that signals sex, age, and rank with increased motivation to scent-mark and increased production of secretion in high-ranking males leads to a potent signal of the presence of a dominant, adult male with high testosterone levels. This may be particularly relevant in the dense Central African rain forest which mandrills inhabit. By contrast, we were unable to differentiate between either female cycle stage or female rank based on odor profiles, which accords with behavioral studies suggesting that odor signals are not as important in female mandrills as they are in males. The similarity of our findings to those for other mammals and in primates that are more distantly related to humans suggests a broader role for odor in primate communication than is currently recognized.

  3. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  4. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  5. Fodbold Fitness

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  6. Fitness cost

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  7. An individually fitted physical barrier device as a tool to restrict the birds’ spatial access: can their use alter behavioral responses?

    Pellegrini, S.; Marin, R.H.; Guzman, Diego Alberto

    2015-01-01

    fabric bands around the wings’ base. To be useful, the IPB should allow natural movements and not affect the expression of behaviors (non-invasive). This study assessed whether the IPB may alter adult Japanese quail behavioral responses using 4 classical test situations: Open-Field, Runway, Time Budget...... in Home Box, and Mating Interactions. Open-field ambulatory behaviors were affected 1 h, but not 7 d, after IPB was fitted, suggesting that 7 d (or less) are required to habituate to the device. After that time period, IPB fitted birds showed no differences in any of the behaviors registered in the other......Social interactions have been extensively studied in poultry in a variety of environmental situations. Many studies allow full social contacts between birds, but there are others in which the interactions are tested through barriers (wire mesh or glass). Thus a situation where, according...

  8. The Effects of the CW-FIT Group Contingency on Class-Wide and Individual Behavior in an Urban First Grade Classroom

    Naylor, Anna Schmidt; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a class-wide group contingency, on the on-task behavior of all students in a first grade class and the on-task and disruptive behavior of three target students within that class who were nominated by their teacher through a behavioral screening.…

  9. Sexual selection on spontaneous mutations strengthens the between-sex genetic correlation for fitness.

    Allen, Scott L; McGuigan, Katrina; Connallon, Tim; Blows, Mark W; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2017-10-01

    A proposed benefit to sexual selection is that it promotes purging of deleterious mutations from populations. For this benefit to be realized, sexual selection, which is usually stronger on males, must purge mutations deleterious to both sexes. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that sexual selection on males purges deleterious mutations that affect both male and female fitness. We measured male and female fitness in two panels of spontaneous mutation-accumulation lines of the fly, Drosophila serrata, each established from a common ancestor. One panel of mutation accumulation lines limited both natural and sexual selection (LS lines), whereas the other panel limited natural selection, but allowed sexual selection to operate (SS lines). Although mutation accumulation caused a significant reduction in male and female fitness in both the LS and SS lines, sexual selection had no detectable effect on the extent of the fitness reduction. Similarly, despite evidence of mutational variance for fitness in males and females of both treatments, sexual selection had no significant impact on the amount of mutational genetic variance for fitness. However, sexual selection did reshape the between-sex correlation for fitness: significantly strengthening it in the SS lines. After 25 generations, the between-sex correlation for fitness was positive but considerably less than one in the LS lines, suggesting that, although most mutations had sexually concordant fitness effects, sex-limited, and/or sex-biased mutations contributed substantially to the mutational variance. In the SS lines this correlation was strong and could not be distinguished from unity. Individual-based simulations that mimick the experimental setup reveal two conditions that may drive our results: (1) a modest-to-large fraction of mutations have sex-limited (or highly sex-biased) fitness effects, and (2) the average fitness effect of sex-limited mutations is larger than the average fitness effect of

  10. Original article Determinants of personality in the scope of motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding therapy

    Jan Chodkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The results of numerous studies indicate strong associations of personality with the occurrence, and also with the treatment, of alcohol dependence. However, there is no agreement regarding the role of particular dimensions of temperament and character in the course of, and for the results of, alcohol rehabilitation therapy. The objective of the present research was to investigate the relationships between the dimensions of temperament and character as they are presented by Robert Cloninger and motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding the therapy. Participants and procedure Eighty-nine male alcohol-dependent individuals, concluding alcohol rehabilitation therapy in an outpatient setting, were studied. The following research tools were applied: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of R. Clo­ninger in the Polish adaptation of E. Hornowska (2003, and the Motivation for Maintaining Abstinence Inventory, the author of which is M. Ziółkowski. Results Two clusters, differing in the aspect of motivation for maintaining abstinence after the conclusion of the treatment, were distinguished: of individuals manifesting weaker motivation (n = 39 and those manifesting stronger motivation (n = 50. The patients with stronger motivation manifested the following major features: a lower level of harm avoidance, a higher level of reward dependence, and a higher level of cooperativeness. Conclusions Personality as it is presented by Cloninger manifests connections with motivation for maintaining abstinence. The research confirms the need for diagnosing addicted patients in the scope of temperament and character traits.

  11. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  12. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model

    Settele, Josef; Dormann, Carsten F.

    2018-01-01

    Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1) Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2) Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3) Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response to this ratio

  13. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model.

    Everaars, Jeroen; Settele, Josef; Dormann, Carsten F

    2018-01-01

    Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1) Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2) Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3) Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response to this ratio

  14. Fragmentation of nest and foraging habitat affects time budgets of solitary bees, their fitness and pollination services, depending on traits: Results from an individual-based model.

    Jeroen Everaars

    Full Text Available Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness, number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study, for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources. Simulated bees varied in body size and nesting preference. We aimed to understand effects of landscape fragmentation and bee traits on bee fitness and the pollination services bees provide, as well as interactions between them, and the general consequences it has to our understanding of the system. This broad scope gives multiple key results. 1 Body size determines fitness more than landscape fragmentation, with large bees building fewer brood cells. High pollen requirements for large bees and the related high time budgets for visiting many flowers may not compensate for faster flight speeds and short handling times on flowers, giving them overall a disadvantage compared to small bees. 2 Nest preference does affect distribution of bees over the landscape, with cavity-nesting bees being restricted to nesting along field edges, which inevitably leads to performance reductions. Fragmentation mitigates this for cavity-nesting bees through increased edge habitat. 3 Landscape fragmentation alone had a relatively small effect on all responses. Instead, the local ratio of nest to foraging habitat affected bee fitness positively through reduced local competition. The spatial coverage of pollination increases steeply in response

  15. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Perceptual and acoustic outcomes of voice therapy for male-to-female transgender individuals immediately after therapy and 15 months later.

    Gelfer, Marylou Pausewang; Tice, Ruthanne M

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined how effectively listeners' perceptions of gender could be changed from male to female for male-to-female (MTF) transgender (TG) clients based on the voice signal alone, immediately after voice therapy and at long-term follow-up. Short- and long-term changes in masculinity and femininity ratings and acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and vowel formant frequencies were also investigated. Prospective treatment study. Five MTF TG clients, five control female speakers, and five control male speakers provided a variety of speech samples for later analysis. The TG clients then underwent 8 weeks of voice therapy. Voice samples were collected immediately at the termination of therapy and again 15 months later. Two groups of listeners were recruited to evaluate gender and provide masculinity and femininity ratings. Perceptual results revealed that TG subjects were perceived as female 1.9% of the time in the pretest, 50.8% of the time in the immediate posttest, and 33.1% of the time in the long-term posttest. The TG speakers were also perceived as significantly less masculine and more feminine in the immediate posttest and the long-term posttest compared with the pre-test. Some acoustic measures showed significant differences between the pretest and the immediate posttest and long-term posttest. It appeared that 8 weeks of voice therapy could result in vocal changes in MTF TG individuals that persist at least partially for up to 15 months. However, some TG subjects were more successful with voice feminization than others. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fitness club

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  18. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  19. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  20. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  2. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  3. Fitness Club

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  4. The Comparison of Ankle Muscles Isometric Strength and Foot Eversion in Male Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Healthy Peers: A Case-Control Study

    V. Mazloum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proximal and distal factors to the knee joint can be assumed as etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Some distal factors include excessive foot pronation and medial tibia torsion. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle musculature strength and rearfoot eversion in individuals with and without PFPS. Methods: Forty males (20 healthy and 20 patients voluntarily participated in this case-control study. Isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion range of motion (ROM, and Navicular depression were respectively evaluated by handheld dynamometer, goniometry, and Navicular Drop Test by a single examiner for both groups. To analyze the measurements, Independent Samples t test for parametric data and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data at P0.05. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between patients with PFPS and healthy counterparts regarding rearfoot eversion and Navicular depression (P>0.05. Conclusion: It can be deduced that isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion ROM, and foot pronation are not difference in patients with PFPS and healthy persons. 

  5. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator: A pilot study | van Rensburg ...

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the web-based FitTrack Index may be considered an appropriate tool to evaluate exercise capacity and cardiovascular fitness in healthy individuals following an aerobic training programme. Keywords: Aerobic fitness, Exercise ability, Recreational fitness, Cardiovascular fitness, ...

  6. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. An investigation of motivational variables in CrossFit facilities.

    Partridge, Julie A; Knapp, Bobbi A; Massengale, Brittany D

    2014-06-01

    CrossFit is a growing fitness trend in the United States; however, little systematic research has addressed specific motivational principles within this unique exercise environment. The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of gender and membership time on perceptions of motivational climate and goals within the CrossFit environment. Specifically, people may set goals related to self-improvement (i.e., mastery) or focus on their performance in comparison to others (i.e., performance). Motivational climate refers to an individual's perception of being encouraged to focus on either mastery or performance goals from CrossFit trainers. A total of 144 members (88 females; 56 males) completed questionnaires to assess participants' perceptions of CrossFit goal structures and perceptions of the motivational climate encouraged by the trainer within their CrossFit box. Results indicated a significant main effect for gender on preferred goals (p ≤ 0.05), with males reporting higher levels of performance approach goals and females reporting higher levels of master avoidance goals. Participants who reported shorter membership times were found to have significantly higher mastery-related goals than individuals who reported longer membership times (p ≤ 0.05). The results from the study suggest that practitioners should consider how perceptions of the motivational climate and goals in group-based exercise settings such as CrossFit may vary based on demographic variables, and that these differences may impact how to most effectively motivate, encourage, and instruct group members, particularly with regard to helping members set goals that most effectively address their approach to the CrossFit regimen.

  8. Fitness consequences of social network position in a wild population of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus).

    Formica, Vincent A; Wood, C W; Larsen, W B; Butterfield, R E; Augat, M E; Hougen, H Y; Brodie, E D

    2012-01-01

    Social networks describe the pattern of intraspecific interactions within a population. An individual's position in a social network often is expected to influence its fitness, but only a few studies have examined this relationship in natural populations. We investigated the fitness consequences of network position in a wild beetle population. Copulation success of male beetles positively covaried with strength (a measure of network centrality) and negatively covaried with clustering coefficient (CC) (a measure of cliquishness). Further analysis using mediation path models suggested that the activity level of individuals drove the relationships between strength and fitness almost entirely. In contrast, selection on CC was not explained by individual behaviours. Although our data suggest that social network position can experience strong sexual selection, it is also clear that the relationships between fitness and some network metrics merely reflect variation in individual-level behaviours. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  10. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  11. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  12. Fitness club

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  13. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  14. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

    Abdurrazzak Gehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in acute coronary syndrome (ACS continues to raise interest, but data from the Middle East is limited, especially in non-diabetic patients. This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of MS and frequency of its components, individually and in combination, in a male population presenting with ACS, but without a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: This is a prospective study of 467 consecutive male patients hospitalized for ACS. They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS. Results: The mean age was (49.7±10.7 years. Of the 467 patients, 324 (69.4% fulfilled the criteria for MS. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI was identified in 178 patients (54.9%, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS in 146 patients (45.1%. These proportions were not significantly different from those without MS (STEMI 51.7% vs. NSTE-ACS 48.3%, respectively. However, patients with MS were older (50.6±10 vs. 47.9±11 years; p=0.012, and more than half of those with MS were above 50 years. The most common abnormal metabolic components were reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c; 94.1%, elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG; 89.8%, and elevated triglycerides (81.8%, followed by increased waist circumference (61.7% and raised blood pressure (40.4%. The majority of patients with MS had three or more metabolic components (326 patients, 69.4%, and 102 (21.8% had two components, but only 37 (8.4% had a single component. Conclusions: In ACS patients, without previous history of DM, MS is highly prevalent. Reduced HDL, elevated FBG and triglycerides were the most frequent metabolic components. The majority had multiple components. These findings raise alarm and show that drug therapy alone may

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution.

    Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis de; Bracco, Mario Maia; Matsudo, Victor K Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in evaluations performed every ten years since 1978/1980, according to the nutritional status and gender of students in the city of Ilhabela, Brazil. The study is part of the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. The study included 1,291 students of both genders, aged 10 to 11 years old. The study periods were: 1978/1980, 1988/1990, 1998/2000, and 2008/2010. The variables analyzed were: body weight, height, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max - L.min-1 and mL.kg-1.min-1) performed using a submaximal progressive protocol on a cycle ergometer. Individuals were classified as normal weight and overweight according to curves proposed by the World Health Organization of body mass index for age and gender. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with three factors followed by the Bonferroni method were used to compare the periods. The number of normal weight individuals (61%) was higher than that of overweight. There was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders. Among the schoolchildren with normal weight, there was a decrease of 22% in males and 26% in females. In overweight schoolchildren, males showed a decrease of 12.7% and females, of 18%. During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between Short Term Memory and Cardiopulmonary Fitness of Administrative Officers at Universitas Padjadjaran

    Iswaran Ampalakan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The work of administrative officers depends a lot on their capability in memorizing. Increased fitness is strongly associated with a better memory. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was carried out from August to September 2014. Subjects from administrative offices within Universitas Padjadjaran were chosen by simple random sampling. 101 individuals were selected, comprising of 68 males and 33 females. Data were obtained through Digit Span Test for short term memory and the cardiopulmonary fitness was measured using Harvard Step Test. The VO2 Max obtained was correlated with the Digit Span Test score. Results: The mean for cardiopulmonary fitness of males was found to be 36.1, with standard deviation 8.63, whereas mean cardiopulmonary fitness for females was found to be 32.94, with standard deviation 7.5. For correlation analysis, the result of Spearman’s rank analysis from the study showed that the p-value is 0.00. Comparing to the significance level α=5%, the p value is worth less, thus the null hypothesis, Ho is rejected. Therefore, it could be concluded that there was a relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory of male and female administrative officers at Universitas Padjadjaran. Conclusions: There is a relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory of male and female administrative officers at Universitas Padjadjaran.

  17. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  18. Quantifying the life-history response to increased male exposure in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Edward, Dominic A; Fricke, Claudia; Gerrard, Dave T; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-02-01

    Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly decreased fitness within declining but not stable or increasing populations. There was a net benefit of increased male exposure in expanding populations, despite a significant decrease in lifespan. The study shows how a more accurate description of fitness, and new insights can be achieved by considering individual life-history strategies within the context of population growth. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. MixFit

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  20. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  1. Consumo de suplementos nutricionais por frequentadores de academias da cidade de Porto Alegre Consumo de suplementos nutricionales por los frecuentadores de las academias de la ciudad de Porto Alegre Consumption of nutritional supplements among individuals in Porto Alegre's fitness centers

    Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência do uso de suplementos alimentares nas academias da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram entrevistados 316 indivíduos com idade entre 18-59 anos. A abordagem foi por voluntariedade, em 22 academias da cidade. Observou-se um expressivo uso de suplementos nutricionais pelos participantes (28,8%, e os homens utilizam mais suplementos do que as mulheres (pEl objetivo del estúdio fue verificar la prevalencia de la utilizacíon de suplementos dietéticos en las academias de la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Fueron entrevistadas 316 personas con edad entre 18 y 59 años. La abordaje fue por voluntariedad en 22 academias de la ciudad. Se ha observado un expresivo uso de suplementos nutricionales por los participantes (28,8%, y los hombres utilizan más los suplementos que las mujeres (pThe aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of the use of food supplements at fitness centers in the city of Porto Alegre. Were interviewed 316 individuals at an age range between 18 and 59. Individuals participated voluntarily in 22 fitness centers in the city. The study has revealed a significant use of nutritional supplements by the participants (28.8% and men intake more supplements than women (p<0.05. The most common supplements reported in the study were those mainly based on proteins, which are mainly chosen because of suggestions made by physical educators. The high intake of nutritional supplements indicates the necessity of alerting the population about the risks related to the inappropriate use of nutritional supplements.

  2. Association between Changes in Muscle Quality with Exercise Training and Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measures in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the HART-D Study.

    Sénéchal, Martin; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L; Earnest, Conrad P; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a reduction in muscle quality. However, there is inadequate empirical evidence to determine whether changes in muscle quality following exercise are associated with improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in individuals with T2DM. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between change in muscle quality following a 9-month intervention of aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT) or a combination of both (ATRT) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in individuals with T2DM. A total of 196 participants were randomly assigned to a control, AT, RT, or combined ATRT for a 9-months intervention. The exposure variable was change in muscle quality [(Post: leg muscle strength/leg muscle mass)-[(Pre: leg muscle strength/leg muscle mass)]. Dependent variables were change in CRF measures including absolute and relative VO2peak, and treadmill time to exhaustion (TTE) and estimated metabolic equivalent task (METs). Continuous change in muscle quality was independently associated with change in absolute (β = 0.015; p = 0.019) and relative (β = 0.200; p = 0.005) VO2peak, and TTE (β = 0.170; p = 0.043), but not with estimated METs (p > 0.05). A significant trend was observed across tertiles of change in muscle quality for changes in absolute (β = 0.050; p = 0.005) and relative (β = 0.624; p = 0.002) VO2peak following 9 months of exercise training. No such association was observed for change in TTE and estimated METs (p > 0.05). The results from this ancillary study suggest that change in muscle quality following exercise training is associated with a greater improvement in CRF in individuals with T2DM. Given the effect RT has on increasing muscle quality, especially as part of a recommended training program (ATRT), individuals with T2DM should incorporate RT into their AT regimens to optimize CRF improvement. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00458133.

  3. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  4. Comparing Person Organization Fit and Person Job Fit

    Kadir Ardıç

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies conducted to analyze the effects of person-organization fit (POF and person-job fit (PJF on individual outcomes, little is known about which of these fit associates stronger with individual variables (i.e., intention to quit job, IQJ, and perceived individual performance, PIP. Therefore the purpose of the study is to compare the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP. The sample of the study consists of security guards working at a private company's civil aviation safety department. Totally 98 security guards participated to the research. Results indicated that, the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP were not significantly different. Consequently the results indicate that POF and PJF associate similarly with critical individual outcomes.

  5. Relation of uptake and metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone to individual differences in sexual behavior in male guinea pigs.

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-03-19

    Male guinea pigs were given 3 tests for sexual behavior. Animals that never ejaculated were classified as low activity (LA), animals that ejaculated on one test were classified as medium activity (MA), and animals that ejaculated on two or more tests were classified as high activity (HA). Subsequently, animals from each group were castrated and given an s.c. injection of 43 muCi of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone and were killed 0.5, 1, or 4 h after injection. There were no significant differences in uptake or metabolism of radioactive testosterone among LA, MA, and HA males in homogenates of anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, midbrain, or seminal vesicle. Thus, differences in sexual behavior could not be attributed to differences in testosterone uptake in tissue homogenates. At the 1 h time interval (time of peak plasma radioactivity), radioactivity in the seminal vesicles of all males was primarily in the form of steroids with the chromatographic mobility of dihydrotestosterone. In all males, anterior and posterior hypothalamus contained a higher proportion of steroids with the mobility of testosterone than did midbrain, and midbrain contained more testosterone zone radioactivity than cerebral cortex at 1 h. The highest proportion of dihydrotestosterone zone radioactivity in neural tissues was found in anterior hypothalamus. These results are discussed in terms of androgenic mediation of sex behavior by the anterior hypothalamus in guinea pigs.

  6. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  7. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Endocrine disruption effects in male and intersex roach (Rutilus rutilus, L.) from French rivers: An integrative approach based on subcellular to individual responses.

    Geraudie, Perrine; Gerbron, Marie; Minier, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    Among the chemicals found in the aquatic environment, some have been reported to interact with the endocrine system of organisms and have been identified as endocrine disrupting compounds. In this study, we have assessed the biological effects due to environmental estrogenic compounds in adult male roach (Rutilus rutilus). Wild fish were collected in the Seine River, and one of its affluent, the Epte River in Normandy, France and impacts on endocrine and reproductive functions have been assessed. This study provides innovative data on the intersex condition in wild fish that are crucial to understand estrogenic contamination impacts and maintenance of sustainable fish population. The biomarker responses found in fish from contaminated sites included high plasmatic vitellogenin concentrations, altered steroid levels, histopathological and up to 50% intersex fish among the male. However, the overall sex ratio of the roach population indicated sign of feminization with some sites showing only 20% of males. The chemical organic contamination at the different location sites has been characterized by the levels of PAHs, PCBs and phthalates and total estrogenic activity was measured by the YES in vitro assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  10. Chemokine-Like Receptor 1 mRNA Weakly Correlates with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Score in Male but Not Female Individuals

    Maximilian Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 ligands resolvin E1 and chemerin are known to modulate inflammatory response. The progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is associated with inflammation. Here it was analyzed whether hepatic CMKLR1 expression is related to histological features of NASH. Therefore, CMKLR1 mRNA was quantified in liver tissue of 33 patients without NAFLD, 47 patients with borderline NASH and 38 patients with NASH. Hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA was not associated with gender and body mass index (BMI in the controls and the whole study group. CMKLR1 expression was similar in controls and in patients with borderline NASH and NASH. In male patients weak positive correlations with inflammation, fibrosis and NASH score were identified. In females CMKLR1 was not associated with features of NAFLD. Liver CMKLR1 mRNA tended to be higher in type 2 diabetes patients of both genders and in hypercholesterolemic women. In summary, this study shows that hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA is weakly associated with features of NASH in male patients only.

  11. Responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to different novel environments is a consistent individual trait in adult male outbred rats.

    Márquez, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Susceptibility to some stress-induced pathologies may be strongly related to individual differences in the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stressors. However, there have been few attempts in rodents to study the reliability of the individual differences in the responsiveness of the HPA to stressors and the relationship to resting corticosterone levels. In the present work, we used a normal population of Sprague-Dawley rats, with a within-subject design. Our objectives were to study: (a) the reliability of the ACTH and corticosterone response to three different novel environments widely used in psychopharmacology and (b) the relationship between stress levels of HPA hormones and the daily pattern of corticosterone secretion (six samples over a 24-h-period). Animals were repeatedly sampled using tail-nick procedure. The novel environments were the elevated plus-maze, the hole-board and the circular corridor. Animals were sampled just after 15 min exposure to the tests and again at 15 and 30 min after the termination of exposure to them (post-tests). The hormonal levels just after the tests indicate that the hole-board seems to be more stressful than the circular corridor and the elevated plus-maze, the latter being characterized by the lowest defecation rate. Correlational analysis revealed that daily pattern of resting plasma corticosterone levels did not correlate to HPA responsiveness to the tests, suggesting no relationship between resting and stress levels of HPA hormones. In contrast, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, a good within-subject reliability of the ACTH and corticosterone responses to the three environments, suggesting that HPA responsiveness to these kind of stressors is a consistent individual trait in adult rats, despite differences in the physical characteristics of the novel environments.

  12. Intra-individual variability in the urine concentrations of inhaled salmeterol in male subjects with reference to doping analysis – impact of urine specific gravity correction

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and a-hydroxysalmeterol during visits one and two were 12.6 and 21.8%, respectively. The intra-individual variability of salmeterol and a-hydroxysalmeterol in the urine concentrations were significantly higher when uncorrected for USG with 43.0 and 43.7% versus 20.4% (p...Since 2010, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced urinary thresholds for some beta2-agonists. In doping analysis urine samples of beta2-agonists are not corrected for the Urine Specific Gravity (USG) by the WADA laboratories. Several studies have observed high differences in the urine...

  13. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  14. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  15. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  16. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  17. Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?

    Klimek, Chelsey; Ashbeck, Christopher; Brook, Alexander J; Durall, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity ballistic movements. As CrossFit is an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings: (1) The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs. (2) The search initially yielded >100 results, which were narrowed down to 3 level 2b retrospective cohort studies that were deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria. (3) In all 3 reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer, or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from 3 retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or

  18. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  19. Fitness for duty

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  20. Long-term programing of psychopathology-like behaviors in male rats by peripubertal stress depends on individual's glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress.

    Walker, Sophie E; Sandi, Carmen

    2018-02-07

    Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress. Two rat lines, genetically selected for either low or high glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stress were exposed to a series of unpredictable, fear-inducing stressors on intermittent days during the peripuberty period. Results obtained at adulthood indicated that having high glucocorticoid responses to repeated stress and having experience of peripuberty stress independently enhanced levels of psychopathology-like behaviors, as well as increasing basal activity in several prefrontal and limbic brain regions in a manner associated with enhanced behavioral inhibition. Interestingly, peripuberty stress had a differential impact on aggression in the two rat lines, enhancing aggression in the low-responsive line but not in the already high-aggressive, high-responsive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that aberrant HPA axis activity around puberty, a key period in the development of social repertoire in both rats and humans, may alter behavior such that it becomes anti-social in nature.

  1. Development of Android Application for Measuring Cardiovascular Endurance Fitness for Military Cadet Officers

    Kassim, Mohar; Zaidi, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad; Sholihin Mokhtar, Rahmat

    2018-05-01

    Mobile software application has become a part of today’s lifestyle. This mobile app is designed to help society to be physically active. The application is named UPNM Cardio Fitness, and is developed on the Android platform. The original purpose of the application is to measure and analyse the level of cardiovascular fitness of 18 years old male Military cadet Officers through a 2.4 km run test. The application is based on a data base using Google Fusion Table that stores and analyses the data received. The application consists of two parts: information of the individual and their respective fitness norms that can be accessed either automatically or manually. The classification of the norms is obtained from the fitness norms of 120 male cadets aged 18 years old. The norms are grouped into five categories which are: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Moderate and Poor. The software consists of 5 hyperlinks which are the main page, individual information, test result, file and record. The application is created using MIT App Inventor Software and Windows 7. The creation of the application has enabled researchers particularly in the Science Training programme in UPNM to carry out tests as well as to identify the level of fitness of their trainees immediately, accurately, and systematically.

  2. The Role of Adiposity in the Association between Muscular Fitness and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Pérez-Bey, Alejandro; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Fernández-Santos, Jorge Del Rosario; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Veiga, Oscar L; Marcos, Ascensión; Castro-Piñero, José

    2018-05-11

    To test the associations of muscular fitness and body mass index (BMI), individually and combined, with clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents and to analyze the mediator role of BMI in the association between muscular fitness and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors. In total, 239 children (113 girls) and 270 adolescents (128 girls) participated in this cross-sectional study. Height and weight were assessed, and BMI was calculated. A cardiovascular disease risk factors index (CVDRF-I) was created from the combination of the following variables: waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose. Handgrip strength/weight and standing long jump tests were used to assess muscular fitness. A muscular fitness index was computed from the combination of both tests. Muscular fitness index was associated with CVDRF-I in children of both sexes and adolescent boys; however, these associations disappeared after accounting for BMI. BMI was associated with CVDRF-I in both children and adolescents, even after adjusting for muscular fitness (all P < .001). In male and female children and in adolescent boys, the association between muscular fitness and CVDRF-I was mediated by BMI (all P < .001). Because there was no association between muscular fitness and CVDRF-I in adolescent girls, the mediation hypothesis was discarded. BMI is an independent predictor of CVDRF-I in children and adolescents of both sexes. Conversely, the effect of muscular fitness on CVDRF-I seems to be fully mediated by BMI levels in male and female children and in adolescent boys. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  4. Family Activities for Fitness

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  5. Computer code FIT

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  6. Segmentation of Portuguese customers’ expectations from fitness programs

    Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Expectations towards fitness exercises are the major factor in customer satisfaction in the service sector in question. The purpose of this study is to present a segmentation framework for fitness customers, based on their individual expectations. The survey was designed and validated to evaluate individual expectations towards exercises. The study included a randomly recruited sample of 723 subjects (53% males; 47% females; 42.1±19.7 years. Factor analysis and cluster analysis with Ward’s cluster method with squared Euclidean distance were used to analyse the data obtained. Four components were extracted (performance, enjoyment, beauty and health explaining 68.7% of the total variance and three distinct segments were found: Exercise Lovers (n=312, Disinterested (n=161 and Beauty Seekers (n=250. All the factors identified have a significant contribution to differentiate the clusters, the first and third clusters being most similar. The segmentation framework obtained based on customer expectations allows better understanding of customers’ profiles, thus helping the fitness industry develop services more suitable for each type of customers. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later and the results concur with the initial study.

  7. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  8. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  9. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  10. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  11. Back school for fitness treinees

    Líbalová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    In introductory chapters the work deals with theoretical starting points of exercising in fitness centres. It focuses on anatomical and physiological basis of exercises and neuromuscular imbalances which may be caused by inadequate exertion. In further chapters the work enlightens about the rudiments of sport training, training of strength and model form of a training unit. In final chapters suitable techniques of exercises of individual muscular systems are discussed. Common mistakes done by...

  12. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  13. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  14. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1: 45–52, 2012].

  15. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Getting CSR communication fit

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  17. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  18. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  19. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  20. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  2. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  3. Influence of Age and Aerobic Fitness on the Multifractal Characteristics of Electrocardiographic RR Time-Series

    Michael James Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal properties of electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR time-series offer insight into its long-term correlation structure, independently of RR variability. Here we quantify multifractal characteristics of RR data during 24-hour diurnal-nocturnal activity in healthy participants. We tested the hypotheses that (1 age, gender and aerobic fitness influence RR multifractal properties, and that (2 these are influenced by circadian variation.Seventy adults (39 males aged 19-58 years and of various fitness levels were monitored using 24-hour ECG. Participants were dichotomised by median age and fitness for sub-group analysis. Gender and fitness were independent of age (p=0.1, p>0.5. Younger/older group ages were substantially different (p<0.0005 and were independent of gender and fitness. Multifractality was quantified using the probability spectrum of Hölder exponents (h, from which modal h (h* and the full-width and half-widths at half-maximum measures (FWHM, HWHM+ and HWHM- were derived. FWHM decreased (p=0.004 and h* increased (p=0.011 in older people, indicating diminished long-range RR correlations and weaker anti-persistent behavior. Anti-persistent correlation (h* was strongest in the youngest/fittest individuals and weakest in the oldest/least fit individuals (p=0.015. Long-range correlation (HWHM+/FWHM was strongest in the fittest males and weakest in the least fit females (p=0.007-0.033.Multifractal RR characteristics in our healthy participants showed strong age-dependence with diminished long-range anti-persistent correlation in older people. Circadian variation of these characteristics was influenced by fitness and gender: fitter males and females of all ages had the greatest degree of multifractality or long-range order. Multifractal characterisation appears to be a useful method for exploring the physiological basis of long-term correlation structure in RR time-series as well as the benefits thereon of physical fitness training.

  4. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  6. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  7. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  8. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  9. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  10. Análisis de la condición física en jugadores y jugadoras de tenis de mesa y su relación con el rendimiento deportivo. [Physical fitness analysis in male and female table tennis players and their relationship to competition performance].

    Jon Mikel Picabea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el perfil físico de jugadores de tenis de mesa, observar si existían diferencias en función del género en las pruebas realizadas y determinar si existía alguna relación entre las pruebas de condición física y el rendimiento deportivo. Veinte jugadores de tenis de mesa, de los cuales 10 eran jugadores de categoría masculina (17,61 ± 7,56 años, 1,63 ± 0,11 m, 60,62 ± 20,03 kg, 22,07 ± 5,87 kg/m2 y 10 jugadoras de categoría femenina (17,35 ± 7,12 años, 1,61 ± 0,07 m, 48,89 ± 7,66 kg, 19,33 ± 2,26 kg/m2 fueron evaluados en la capacidad de sprint, fuerza isométrica de antebrazo, salto vertical con contra movimiento, salto horizontal con contra movimiento, capacidad de cambiar de dirección y flexibilidad. Los resultados mostraron mejores resultados en el grupo de jugadores masculinos en comparación con el grupo femenino en el test de capacidad de cambio de dirección (MAT, p 0,05 entre el resultado obtenido en las pruebas de condición física y el rendimiento deportivo en competición ni en jugadores masculinos ni femeninos. Este aspecto pone de manifiesto que la condición física puede no ser uno de los factores relevantes en el rendimiento deportivo de los jugadores de tenis de mesa de este estudio. Abstract The aims of this study were to analyze the physical profile of table tennis players, look at differences between genders in the different tests and to determinate the relationships between the physical fitness test and sport performance. 20 table tennis players, 10 male players (17.61 ± 7.56 years, 1.63 ± 0.11 m, 60.62 ± 20.03 kg, 22.07 ± 5.87 kg/m2 and 10 female players (17.35 ± 7.12 years, 1.61 ± 0.07 m, 48.89 ± 7.66 kg, 19.33 ± 2.26 kg/m2, performed a sprint test, forearm isometric strength, countermovement vertical test, countermovement horizontal test, change of direction ability test and flexibility. The male players obtained better results than the female

  11. Fitness-driven deactivation in network evolution

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Peng, Xiao-Long; Fu, Xin-Chu; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Individual nodes in evolving real-world networks typically experience growth and decay—that is, the popularity and influence of individuals peaks and then fades. In this paper, we study this phenomenon via an intrinsic nodal fitness function and an intuitive ageing mechanism. Each node of the network is endowed with a fitness which represents its activity. All the nodes have two discrete stages: active and inactive. The evolution of the network combines the addition of new active nodes randomly connected to existing active ones and the deactivation of old active nodes with a possibility inversely proportional to their fitnesses. We obtain a structured exponential network when the fitness distribution of the individuals is homogeneous and a structured scale-free network with heterogeneous fitness distributions. Furthermore, we recover two universal scaling laws of the clustering coefficient for both cases, C(k) ∼ k −1 and C ∼ n −1 , where k and n refer to the node degree and the number of active individuals, respectively. These results offer a new simple description of the growth and ageing of networks where intrinsic features of individual nodes drive their popularity, and hence degree

  12. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  13. The universal Higgs fit

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  14. ACSM Fit Society Page

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  15. Mastering the leader role : how individuals in leader roles increase leader role efficacy and trust in subordinates, (re)construct leader identities, and attempt to craft leader roles that fit

    Gjerde, Susann

    2018-01-01

    People have a psychological need to master their environment and the roles they enact (Ashforth, 2001). Individuals who take on leader roles are no exception. However, as the leader role is filled with complex, demanding, conflicting and ambiguous role expectations (Conger & Fishel, 2007; Denis, Langley, & Pineault, 2000; Levin, 2010) mastering the leader role may be particularly challenging. This thesis addresses three complementary approaches to mastering the leader role and deals with each...

  16. The Langley Fitness Center

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  17. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  18. Set-fit effects in choice.

    Evers, Ellen R K; Inbar, Yoel; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    In 4 experiments, we investigate how the "fit" of an item with a set of similar items affects choice. We find that people have a notion of a set that "fits" together--one where all items are the same, or all items differ, on salient attributes. One consequence of this notion is that in addition to preferences over the set's individual items, choice reflects set-fit. This leads to predictable shifts in preferences, sometimes even resulting in people choosing normatively inferior options over superior ones.

  19. Football Fitness - a new version of football?

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila Susanne

    2014-01-01

    organised as small-sided games is highly beneficial for enhancing overall fitness. In addition, studies indicate that team sports such as football may have an advantage over individual sports when it comes to personal development and the development of social capital. The aim of this paper is to explore...... a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF), with a specific focus on organisational issues. In doing so, we would like to contribute to the discussion of how to organise sports as a means for promoting health within sporting organisations. The theoretical framework...... in a Danish context. Key words: Football Fitness, Health, Sports clubs, Sports Organisations, Path dependency...

  20. Fitness costs of polygyny in female Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    Variance in mating systems can only be understood if the fitness consequences of the available options are known for both sexes. In Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca it has for long been suggested that females pairing with already mated males pay a fitness cost, and it is still debated why females

  1. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10 year old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure...

  2. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  3. An Alien in the Group: Eusocial Male Bees Sharing Nonspecific Reproductive Aggregations

    dos Santos, C. F.; Ferreira-Caliman, M. J.; Nascimento, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection predicts that individuals competing for access to sexual partners should maximize their chances of mating by looking for sites where the chances of finding partners are more likely to occur. However, males of stingless bees have been observed sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase of individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odors common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are candidate odors of interest because their nonvolatile pheromone nature allows them to play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether any phylogenetic patterns exist among male stingless bees that aggregate with closely or distantly related species. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of Neotropical stingless bee species (Plebeia sp. Schwarz, Trigona spinipes (F.), Tetragona clavipes (F.), Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), and Melipona subnitida (Ducke) to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odors. We found males of 21 stingless bee species involved in interspecific interactions mainly from Neotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions. Alien males did not necessarily visit host aggregations of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles of different studied species were very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. It is unclear yet why this apparently nonadaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males. PMID:26518220

  4. Behavioral and physiological polymorphism in males of the austral lizard Liolaemus sarmientoi.

    Fernández, Jimena B; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Medina, Marlin; Méndez De la Cruz, Fausto R; Sinervo, Barry R; Ibargüengoytía, Nora R

    2018-02-01

    Integrative behavioral studies show that the interplay between individual physiology and social behavior influences the ecology of the species, ultimately affecting individual fitness. Particularly in lizards, color polymorphism is associated with differential behaviors and reproductive strategies, which are evident in mature males during the mating season. Dominant males generally have greater endurance, higher body temperature, and larger bodies than submissive males, so they can acquire and defend larger territories and have greater access to females for mating. We studied whether the color morphs observed in males of one of the world's southernmost reptiles, Liolaemus sarmientoi, are related to behavioral variation during agonistic interactions, thermal physiology, morphology, and/or locomotor stamina. Liolaemus sarmientoi males exhibit three color morphs: red (RR), red-yellow (RY), and yellow (YY). These lizards exhibit subtle behavioral displays and we did not observe stamina differences among morphs. However, we found that RR males are more aggressive than YY males during agonistic encounters. In addition, greater body temperature change during trials, higher field body temperatures, and greater head sizes of RR males compared to RY or YY indicate that RR is a dominant morph, which may influence their ability to acquire and defend territory and tactics for achieving reproductive success.

  5. Результати впровадження індивідуалізації фізичного виховання школярів = Increasing the level of physical fitness of adolescents in the individualization of physical education

    L. Levandovska

    2015-08-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness of adolescents in the individualization of physical education Summary   Physical fitness of the younger generation today is recognized as an important component of health, physical development, high performance foundation, preparation for socially useful work. Objective: to study physical fitness of adolescents during physical education classes during the school year. To determine the effectiveness of the proposed individualization of physical training of teenagers was the comparative pedagogical experiment. This study was conducted on the bases Kremenets boarding school and secondary school pupils of 6-7 classes of children age: 11-12 years. Overall in the study participated 148 adolescents, including 70 girls and 78 boys. During the academic year studied the level of physical fitness of students 11-12 years in the individualization of physical education.   Key words: adolescents, physical fitness, individualization, increase.

  6. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  7. Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Misspecification in Growth Curve Models

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification in within-individual covariance structure, between-individual covariance structure, and marginal mean structure in growth curve models. Five commonly used fit indices were examined, including the likelihood ratio test statistic, root mean square error of…

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution

    Gerson Luis de M. Ferrari

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals.

  9. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  10. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  11. Male sterility in chestnuts

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  13. The Navy SEAL Physical Fitness Guide

    1997-08-01

    Injuries Reported by a Sample of Male Runners Injury Frequency (%) Knee 23 Achilles Tendon/Calf 16 Metatarsal 11 Hip/Groin/Toenails/Blisters 9 Plantar ... Fascia /Heel 8 Ankle Sprain 7 Shin Splints 6 Nerve/Quadriceps/Hamstring/Back 2 Run Tall Run Relaxed Run Naturally70 Running for Fitness Chapter 5...Name of Injury Description of Injury Plantar Fasciitis Inflammation and tightness of thick fibrous band on sole of foot. Achilles Tendonitis

  14. Improving NEC Fit

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  15. Reliability and Model Fit

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  16. The contribution of the mitochondrial genome to sex-specific fitness variance.

    Smith, Shane R T; Connallon, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among mutations-including the correlation of mutant fitness effects between the sexes-on mitochondrial genetic variation for fitness. We show how drift, genetic correlations, and skewness of the DFE determine the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to male versus female fitness variance. When mutant fitness effects are weakly correlated between the sexes, and the effective population size is large, mitochondrial genes should contribute much more to male than to female fitness variance. In contrast, high fitness correlations and small population sizes tend to equalize the contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male variance. We discuss implications of these results for the evolution of mitochondrial genome diversity and the genetic architecture of female and male fitness. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Repeatability of decision-making behaviour in male threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: Effects of dummy vs. live stimuli

    Teresa L. DZIEWECZYNSKI, Lindsay M. FORRETTE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals select from a number of behaviours when responding to various situations and the decisions they make may affect their fitness. The costs and benefits of these responses vary among individuals causing them to differ even in identical situations. One example of this type of situation is when territorial males encounter both a male and female simultaneously, gene- rating a trade-off that likely leads to individual differences due to differing costs of various actions among males. This situation commonly occurs in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. However, for selection to act effectively, individuals must behave in a consistent manner and measuring repeatability can aid in understanding how selection may shape such trade-offs. Males of this species exhibit consistent individual differences in their response to dummy males and females but it is unknown if patterns are similar when feedback from the stimuli is present. To assess this, male threespine stickleback were tested with dummy and live male and female conspecifics, presented separately and simultaneously. While the same trends were found regardless of stimulus type, males were more aggressive towards the live conspecifics than to the dummies. Repeatability values were similar within a treatment regardless of whether live or dummy conspecifics were used, suggesting that individuals show the same level of consistency. This study adds to our understanding of consistent individual differences by demonstrating that feedback may not affect responses to conflicting stimuli and that male threespine stickleback respond in a consistent manner to both dummy and live stimuli [Current Zoology 57 (1: 101–108, 2011].

  18. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  19. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  20. Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.

    Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2016-09-29

    Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

  1. Fit-for-Purpose

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  2. Convolution based profile fitting

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  3. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  4. Discriminating males and unpredictable females: males differentiate self-similar facial cues more than females in the judgment of opposite-sex attractiveness.

    Jin-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance and dissimilar (other-resemblance images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0% rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.

  5. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  6. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  7. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  8. The Effect of 12 Weeks Dance Education on Physical Fitness Values At Mentally Retarded Children

    Asena DORSAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of dance education on the values of physical fitness at children with mental retarded. 22 educable mentally retarded children from Dr. Günseli - Dr. Bülent Akınsal Secondary School and Working Sc hool participated in this study. Mentally Disabled children who participated voluntarily were grouped as the average age of 16.27± 1.00 year with11 people (9 males, 2females of the experimental group and the average age of 15.90± 0.83 year to 11people(7 males, 4 females as the control group. Participants in the experimental group was implemented 12 - weekdance education program including 2 days a week, 2 hours a day. Program contents included the basic posture correction, flexibility, ability to maintain a rhythm, motion diversity and self - expression skills, pair work and group work. Physical fitness values of experimental and control group were measured in before and after studies. After the 12 - week dance education, It was determined that there was st atistically significant differences in vertical jump, flexibility, sprint and balance parameters between the experimental and control groups.(p<0.05. In the study of comparing the experimental group in itself, statistically significant differences were fo und of the specified physical fitness parameters (p<0.01. As a result; physical fitness levels of the educable mentally retarded individuals who regularly participated in dance activities showed significant improvements. The results of this study, it was observed that after 12 - week education program there was more development of many physical fitness parameters in the experimental group than the control group and this revealed that the importance of dance education on educable mentally retarded children.

  9. Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Armstad, Connor E.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of nonrelatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the tropical gray-throated babbler, Stachyris nigriceps, in Malaysian Borneo. Babblers foraged in social groups containing one or more breeding pairs (median = 8 group members of equal sex ratio), but group members rarely assisted with breeding (9% of 67 breeding pairs had a third helper; exhibiting facultative cooperative breeding). Although 20% of 266 group member dyads were first-order relatives of one or both members of the breeding pairs, 80% were unrelated. Male group members gained direct fitness benefits through extrapair and extra-group paternity (25% of 73 offspring), which was independent of their relatedness to the breeding pair and increased with decreasing group size. In contrast, females did not gain direct fitness benefits through brood parasitism. The low levels of relatedness and helping in social groups suggest that most group members do not gain indirect fitness benefits by helping to raise unrelated offspring. These findings highlight the importance of examining benefits of sociality for unrelated individuals that largely do not help and broaden the direct fitness benefits of group foraging beyond assumed survival benefits.

  10. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26729925

  12. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer.

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-02-05

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. A cost of sexual attractiveness to high-fitness females.

    Tristan A F Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mate choice by females is an important component of sexual selection in many species. The evolutionary consequences of male mate preferences, however, have received relatively little study, especially in the context of sexual conflict, where males often harm their mates. Here, we describe a new and counterintuitive cost of sexual selection in species with both male mate preference and sexual conflict via antagonistic male persistence: male mate choice for high-fecundity females leads to a diminished rate of adaptive evolution by reducing the advantage to females of expressing beneficial genetic variation. We then use a Drosophila melanogaster model system to experimentally test the key prediction of this theoretical cost: that antagonistic male persistence is directed toward, and harms, intrinsically higher-fitness females more than it does intrinsically lower-fitness females. This asymmetry in male persistence causes the tails of the population's fitness distribution to regress towards the mean, thereby reducing the efficacy of natural selection. We conclude that adaptive male mate choice can lead to an important, yet unappreciated, cost of sex and sexual selection.

  14. Validation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a Sample of Male Brazilian University Students.

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items.

  15. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  16. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in

  17. Individual transferable quotas, does one size fit all?

    Dinesen, Grete E.; Rathje, Iben Wiene; Højrup, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    using six ecological and socio-economic indicators: 1), discards (food web), 2), by-catch incidences (food web/biodiversity), 3), seabed impacts, 4), fuel use efficiency, 5), quality of fish landed (food provision), and 6), social and cultural gains and drawbacks (social and cultural features). Except....... The results and lessons learned are discussed in the context of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management and the current reform of the common fisheries policy of the European Union...

  18. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  19. Social context influences chemical communication in D. melanogaster males.

    Kent, Clement; Azanchi, Reza; Smith, Ben; Formosa, Amanda; Levine, Joel D

    2008-09-23

    Chemical communication mediates social interactions in insects. For the fruit fly, D. melanogaster, the chemical display is a key fitness trait because it leads to mating. An exchange of cues that resembles a dialogue between males and females is enacted by pheromones, chemical signals that pass between individual flies to alter physiology and behavior. Chemical signals also affect the timing of locomotor activity and sleep. We investigated genetic and environmental determinants of chemical communication. To evaluate the role of the social environment, we extracted a chemical blend from individual males selected from groups composed of one genotype and compared these extracts to those from groups of mixed genotypes. To evaluate the role of the physical environment, these comparisons were performed under a light-dark cycle or in constant darkness. Here, we show that chemical signaling is affected by the social environment, light-dark cycle, and genotype as well as the complex interplay of these variables. Gene-by-environment interactions produce highly significant effects on chemical signaling. We also examined individual responses within the groups. Strikingly, the response of one wild-type fly to another is modulated by the genotypic composition of his neighbors. Chemical signaling in D. melanogaster may be a "fickle" trait that depends on the individual's social background.

  20. Multilevel selection and neighbourhood effects from individual to metapopulation in a wild passerine.

    Paola Laiolo

    Full Text Available Multilevel selection has rarely been studied in the ecological context of animal populations, in which neighbourhood effects range from competition among territorial neighbours to source-sink effects among local populations. By studying a Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti metapopulation, we analyze neighbourhood effects mediated by song repertoires on fitness components at the individual level (life-span and population level (growth rate. As a sexual/aggressive signal with strong effects on fitness, birdsong creates an opportunity for group selection via neighbour interactions, but may also have population-wide effects by conveying information on habitat suitability to dispersing individuals. Within populations, we found a disruptive pattern of selection at the individual level and an opposite, stabilizing pattern at the group level. Males singing the most complex songs had the longest life-span, but individuals with the poorest repertoires lived longer than 'average' males, a finding that likely reflects two male strategies with respect to fitness and sexual trait expression. Individuals from groups with intermediate repertoires had the longest life-span, likely benefitting from conspecific signalling to attract females up to the detrimental spread of competitive interactions in groups with superior vocal skills. Within the metapopulation selection was directional but again followed opposite patterns at the two levels: Populations had the highest growth rate when inhabiting local patches with complex repertoires surrounded by patches with simple repertoires. Here the song may impact metapopulation dynamics by guiding prospecting individuals towards populations advertising habitat quality. Two fitness components linked to viability were therefore influenced by the properties of the group, and birdsong was the target of selection, contributing to linking social/sexual processes at the local scale with regional population dynamics.

  1. No pain, no gain: Male plasticity in burrow digging according to female rejection in a sand-dwelling wolf spider.

    Carballo, Matilde; Baldenegro, Fabiana; Bollatti, Fedra; Peretti, Alfredo V; Aisenberg, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses. We exposed males who had constructed burrows to: a) virgin females or b) mated females, (n=16 for each category). If female rejection occurred, we repeated the trial 48h later with the same female. As control, we maintained a group of males without female exposure (unexposed group, n=32). Rejected males enlarged their burrows more frequently and burrows were longer compared to unexposed males. However, frequency and length of enlargement did not differ according to female reproductive status. Males of A. senex showed plasticity in digging behavior in response to the availability of females, as a way to maximize the possibilities of future mating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  3. Male greater sage-grouse detectability on leks

    Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2016-01-01

    It is unlikely all male sage-grouse are detected during lek counts, which could complicate the use of lek counts as an index to population abundance. Understanding factors that influence detection probabilities will allow managers to more accurately estimate the number of males present on leks. We fitted 410 males with global positioning system and very high...

  4. Dance your way to fitness

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  5. Fitting neuron models to spike trains

    Cyrille eRossant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuitsin systems neuroscience.These studies require models of individual neurons with realisticinput-output properties.Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict theprecisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response tosomatically injected currents,if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficientand flexible enough to easily test different candidate models.We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator(a neural network simulator in Python, which allowsthe user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings.It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques toachieve efficiency.We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex andin the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking modelscan accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complexmulticompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model.

  6. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  7. Fitness on facebook: advertisements generated in response to profile content.

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide relevant and

  8. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  9. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  10. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes.

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.

  11. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  12. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  13. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  14. A Stepwise Fitting Procedure for automated fitting of Ecopath with Ecosim models

    Erin Scott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stepwise Fitting Procedure automates testing of alternative hypotheses used for fitting Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE models to observation reference data (Mackinson et al. 2009. The calibration of EwE model predictions to observed data is important to evaluate any model that will be used for ecosystem based management. Thus far, the model fitting procedure in EwE has been carried out manually: a repetitive task involving setting >1000 specific individual searches to find the statistically ‘best fit’ model. The novel fitting procedure automates the manual procedure therefore producing accurate results and lets the modeller concentrate on investigating the ‘best fit’ model for ecological accuracy.

  15. ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Fitness Facilities in Western Wisconsin.

    Johnson, Marquell J; Stoelzle, Hannah Y; Finco, Kristi L; Foss, Sadie E; Carstens, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The study expands the research on fitness facility accessibility by determining how compliant fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin were with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Comparisons were made with 4 other studies that were conducted in different geographical regions. The study also examined fitness professionals' disability knowledge and awareness. An ADA fitness facility compliance instrument and a fitness professional disability awareness survey were used. Direct observation and physical measurements were taken during on-site visits to 16 of 36 eligible fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin. Ten fitness professionals from participating facilities completed an online survey. Frequencies were used to analyze the results. None of the participating facilities were in 100% compliance with ADA. Customer service desk (84%) and path of travel throughout the facility (72%) were the highest compliance areas. Telephone (6%) and locker rooms (32%) were the lowest compliance areas. No fitness professional was trained in wheelchair transfers and very few had received training in providing services to individuals with disabilities. Fitness facility accessibility remains a concern nationally. Continued efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of ADA compliance among fitness professionals across the United States, especially in rural areas where fitness facility availability is limited.

  16. Performar para seguir performando: la cultura fitness

    Liuba Kogan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the culture of the body in gymnasiums. It suggests that if these spaces were, before, the redoubt of boxers and of body-builders, who sought to build strong and muscular bodies for physical competition, today they are used to build the post modern performative self. In this way, they propose new technology, practices, norms and knowledges that leave not much space for individual agency. Thus, the body that is attained within the context of the fitness culture is not a metaphor of the machine, or of the conscience’s tool, which requires discipline and training, it isn’t even the mediator of an inner being. The individual who follows the fitness culture is one who performs to keep performing. His fate is constant movement in order to respond constantly and in a flexible way to the changing commands of post-modernity.

  17. Endometriosis in the male.

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E

    1985-07-01

    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Optimization of Fit for Mass Customized Apparel Ordering Using Fit Preference and Self Measurement.

    2000-01-01

    in significance and definition for both consumers and manufacturers. Fit preference involves an individualized bias toward a particular look, size...Committee. Bishton, D. (1984). The sweatshop report. Birmingham: AFFOR. 268 269 Bjerve, S. & Doksum, K. (1993). Correlation curves: Measures of...anthropometry methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rosenbaum, R. & Schilling D. (1997). In sweatshops , wages are the issue. The Corporate Examiner

  19. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  20. Left ventricular mechanics in humans with high aerobic fitness: adaptation independent of structural remodelling, arterial haemodynamics and heart rate

    Stöhr, Eric J; McDonnell, Barry; Thompson, Jane; Stone, Keeron; Bull, Tom; Houston, Rory; Cockcroft, John; Shave, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high aerobic fitness have lower systolic left ventricular strain, rotation and twist (‘left ventricular (LV) mechanics’) at rest, suggesting a beneficial reduction in LV myofibre stress and more efficient systolic function. However, the mechanisms responsible for this functional adaptation are not known and the influence of aerobic fitness on LV mechanics during dynamic exercise has never been studied. We assessed LV mechanics, LV wall thickness and dimensions, central augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), blood pressure and heart rate in 28 males (age: 21 ± 2 years SD) with a consistent physical activity level (no change >6 months). Individuals were examined at rest and during exercise (40% peak exercise capacity) and separated post hoc into a moderate and high aerobic fitness group (: 49 ± 5 and 63 ± 7 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively, P 0.05). However, for the same AIx, the high group had significantly lower LV apical rotation (P = 0.002) and LV twist (P = 0.003) while basal rotation and strain indices did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). We conclude that young males with high aerobic fitness have lower LV apical rotation at rest and during submaximal exercise that can occur without changes in gross LV structure, arterial haemodynamics or heart rate. The findings suggest a previously unknown type of physiological adaptation of the left ventricle that may have important implications for exercise training in older individuals and patient populations in which exercise training has previously failed to show clear benefits for LV function. PMID:22431336

  1. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Childhood cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and adult measures of glucose homeostasis.

    Fraser, Brooklyn J; Blizzard, Leigh; Schmidt, Michael D; Juonala, Markus; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-02-14

    To assess whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, power, endurance) predict adult glucose homeostasis measures. Prospective longitudinal study. Study examining participants who had physical fitness measured in childhood (aged 7-15 years) and who attended follow-up clinics approximately 20 years later and provided a fasting blood sample which was tested for glucose and insulin. Physical fitness measurements included muscular strength (right and left grip, shoulder flexion, shoulder and leg extension), power (standing long jump distance) and endurance (number of push-ups in 30s), and CRF (1.6km run duration). In adulthood, fasting glucose and insulin levels were used to derive glucose homeostasis measures of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA2-β). A standard deviation increase in childhood CRF or muscular strength (males) was associated with fasting glucose (CRF: β=-0.06mmol/L), fasting insulin (CRF: β=-0.73mU/L; strength: β=-0.40mU/L), HOMA2-IR (CRF: β=-0.06; strength: β=-0.05) and HOMA2-β (CRF: β=-3.06%; strength: β=-2.62%) in adulthood, independent of the alternative fitness phenotype (all p0.06). CRF and muscular fitness in childhood were inversely associated with measures of fasting insulin, insulin resistance and beta cell function in adulthood. Childhood CRF and muscular fitness could both be potential independent targets for strategies to help reduce the development of adverse glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge translation to fitness trainers: A systematic review

    Adamo Kristi B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.

  4. Epidemia de fitness

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  5. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  6. Body mass index, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans with hypertension.

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Korshak, Lauren; Manolis, Athanasios; Pittaras, Andreas; Tsioufis, Costas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males. A graded exercise test was performed in 4,183 hypertensive veterans (mean age ± s.d.; 63.3 ± 10.5 years) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. We defined three body weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 7.5 METs). During a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 1,000 deaths. The association between exercise capacity and mortality risk was strong, inverse, and graded. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the adjusted risk was 20% for normal weight, 12% for overweight, and 25% for obese (P exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive males regardless of BMI. The risk for overweight and obese but fit individuals was significantly lower when compared to normal weight but unfit. These findings suggest that in older hypertensive men, it may be healthier to be fit regardless of standard BMI category than unfit and normal weight.

  7. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  8. Relationships Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    Moxley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta; Park, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, the influences of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA %S]) on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness were explored. Data were abstracted from a completed study that included 51 overweight or obese subjects with T2DM ( n = 18), impaired glucose tolerance ( n = 8), or normal glucose tolerance ( n = 25). Relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (VO 2 peak and VT) were determined using correlational analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. A statistically significant relationship was observed between HbA1c and cardiovascular fitness. However, BMI and HOMA %S did not influence the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness. HbA1c contributes to VO 2 peak and VT in obese and overweight subjects across glucose tolerance categories. Significant results were achieved despite the fact that there was a limited range of HbA1c based on the study inclusion criteria. This finding suggests that even a mild decrease in glycemic control can negatively influence cardiovascular fitness.

  9. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  10. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  11. Physical Fitness in the Army

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  12. Factors associated with prevalence and types of 'may be fit' advice on fit notes: a cross-sectional primary care analysis.

    Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark; Hillage, Jim

    2014-03-01

    The 'fit note', with the opportunity for the GP to advise that a patient 'may be fit' to do some work, was introduced in April 2010. To estimate numbers of fit notes with 'may be fit' advice, the types of advice, and factors associated with any inclusion of such advice in the fit note. Cross-sectional analysis of fit note data from 68 general practices in eight regions of England, Wales and Scotland. Collection of practice fit note data via GP use of carbonised pads of fit notes for a period of 12 months. The 'may be fit' box was ticked on 5080 fit notes (6.4% of all fit notes in study). But there was a wide variation in completion rates across the 68 practices (from 1% to 15%). The most prevalent individual item of advice was to 'amend duties' of patient as a prerequisite for return to work (included in 42% of all notes containing any 'may be fit' advice). Advice was often incomplete or irrelevant, with some GPs failing to comply with official guidance. Inclusion of any 'may be fit' advice was independently associated with the patient being female, less socially deprived and having a physical health reason for receiving a fit note. Unlike other studies that have relied upon eliciting opinion, this study investigates how the fit note is being used in practice. Findings provide some evidence that the fit note is not yet being used to the optimum benefit of patients (and their employers).

  13. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  14. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  15. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  16. Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruit flies.

    Fricke, C; Chapman, T

    2017-07-01

    Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male's overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting data sets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male's reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is a major contributor to fitness. The exclusion of these data can both hinder our understanding of the complete fitness landscapes of competing males and lessen our ability to assess the contribution of different determinants of reproductive success to male fitness. We addressed this here, using the Drosophila melanogaster model system, by (i) capturing a comprehensive range of intermating intervals that define the fitness of interacting wild-type males and (ii) analysing outcomes of sperm competition using selection analyses. We conducted additional tests using males lacking the sex peptide (SP) ejaculate component vs. genetically matched (SP + ) controls. This allowed us to assess the comprehensive fitness effects of this important Sfp on sperm competition. The results showed a signature of positive, linear selection in wild-type and SP + control males on the length of the intermating interval and on male sperm competition defence. However, the fitness surface for males lacking SP was distinct, with local fitness peaks depending on contrasting combinations of remating intervals and offspring numbers. The results suggest that there are alternative routes to success in sperm competition and provide an explanation for the maintenance of variation in sperm competition traits. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Some characteristics of participants in an industrial fitness programme.

    Shephard, R J; Cox, M

    1980-06-01

    A controlled study has allowed an investigation of several hypotheses relating to initial recruitment and continued participation in an employee fitness programme. Following initial physiological and psychological testing, attendance records show that the staff of the experimental company sorted themselves into four categories (non-participants, drop-outs, low adherents, and high adherents). Parallel observations were made at a second, comparable company where there was no employee fitness programme. Exercise classes met three times per week for 30 minutes of rhythmic calisthenics and endurance-type activities. Continued participation was favoured by a short stature, but perhaps because of gentle progression of intensity, there was no selective loss of obese subjects. A below average strength in high adherent men was related to their short stature. Participation was favoured by an interest in activity as the release of tension on the scale of Kenyon (women). Negative factors were a low score for personal and social factors on the scale of Holmes & Rahe (men), a recent health change (women), dissatisfaction with pay on the Job Description Index of Smith et al. (male non-participants, female drop-outs), and an interest in activity as Games of Chance (women). In the men, "Type A" score on the questionnaire of Friedman and Rosenman was highest in those with infrequent participation, but not in drop-outs; this possibly reflects a real time conflict among upper executives. Body image (Kenyon and McPherson scales), manifest anxiety (Taylor Scale) and reported health (Cornell Medical Index) were unrelated to participation in the programme. Lessons for future programming include (i) matching of prescribed activity to body build, (ii) gentle progression (to avoid discouragement of the obese), (iii) attention to the desired rewards of the individual, and (iv) flexibility of class schedules to accommodate subjects with real or perceived time conflicts.

  18. Aerobic fitness of Anglo-Saxon and Indian students.

    Hardy, C P; Eston, R G

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic fitness of two groups of male college students: 32 Anglo-Saxon males (age range 16-18 years) with 27 Indian males, born in England, (age range 16-23 years), none of whom was highly active in any particular sport. Maximal oxygen uptake was estimated by submaximal test on a cycle ergometer and percent body fat was assessed by skinfold calipers. The Anglo-Saxon group had higher absolute and relative maximal oxygen consumption values and higher body weight. There was no difference in percent fat between the two groups. Strength data were also provided for descriptive purposes.

  19. Fitness profile of elite junior South African badminton players | van ...

    The purpose of this study was to establish the fitness profile of the elite junior badminton players in South Africa through the measurement and description of their body composition, aerobic power, muscular characteristics, speed, flexibility and agility. Eight elite male and seven elite female badminton players between the ...

  20. Why fight? Socially dominant jackdaws, Corvus monedula, have low fitness

    Verhulst, S; Salomons, HM

    2004-01-01

    Social dominance is intuitively assumed to be associated with higher fitness, because social dominance implies better access to resources. We found that, in a colony of jackdaws, the dominant males consistently produced fewer fledglings, which had lower chances of survival to 1 year of age. Laying

  1. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  2. Direct and trans-generational effects of male and female gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Morimoto, Juliano; Simpson, Stephen J; Ponton, Fleur

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster , by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum ( AP ) or Lactobacillus plantarum ( LP ) . Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP- infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP -infected males. Furthermore, females of either re-inoculation state mated with AP- infected males were more likely to have zero offspring after mating, suggesting a negative effect of AP on male fertility . Finally, we found that the effects of male and female gut bacteria interacted to modulate their daughters', but not sons' body mass, revealing a new trans-generational effect of parental gut microbiota. In conclusion, this study shows direct and trans-generational effects of the gut microbiota on mating and reproduction. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness and incident diabetes

    Holtermann, Andreas; Gyntelberg, Finn; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Aims Increases in prevalence have led to a diabetes pandemic. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are considered to be central mechanisms. We investigated if the effect of CRF on diabetes risk was equivalent across levels of fatness among healthy men. Methods In total 4988 middle-aged......: 0.76–1.23). Conclusion High CRF has a stronger protective effect on diabetes among obese than among normal weight men, supporting the recommendation of fitness-enhancing physical activity for preventing diabetes among the obese.......Aims Increases in prevalence have led to a diabetes pandemic. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are considered to be central mechanisms. We investigated if the effect of CRF on diabetes risk was equivalent across levels of fatness among healthy men. Methods In total 4988 middle......-aged Caucasian employed men free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were included from the Copenhagen Male Study starting in 1970–71. CRF was assessed using a sub-maximal bicycle ergometer test and body mass index (BMI) was measured by height and weight. Their interaction and stratified associations...

  6. Agonistic reciprocity is associated with reduced male reproductive success within haremic social networks

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    While individual variation in social behaviour is ubiquitous and causes social groups to differ in structure, how these structural differences affect fitness remains largely unknown. We used social network analysis of replicate bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) harems to identify the reproductive correlates of social network structure. In stable groups, we quantified agonistic behaviour, reproduction and steroid hormones, which can both affect and respond to social/reproductive cues. We identified distinct, optimal social structures associated with different reproductive measures. Male hatching success (HS) was negatively associated with agonistic reciprocity, a network structure that describes whether subordinates ‘reciprocated’ agonism received from dominants. Egg laying was associated with the individual network positions of the male and dominant female. Thus, males face a trade-off between promoting structures that facilitate egg laying versus HS. Whether this reproductive conflict is avoidable remains to be determined. We also identified different social and/or reproductive roles for 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-oestradiol and cortisol, suggesting that specific neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie connections between network structure and fitness. This is one of the first investigations of the reproductive and neuroendocrine correlates of social behaviour and network structure in replicate, naturalistic social groups and supports network structure as an important target for natural selection. PMID:26156769

  7. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men.

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions-15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week.

  8. Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

    Phillips, K P; Jorgensen, T H; Jolliffe, K G; Richardson, D S

    2017-11-01

    How individual genetic variability relates to fitness is important in understanding evolution and the processes affecting populations of conservation concern. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been widely used to study this link in wild populations, where key parameters that affect both variability and fitness, such as inbreeding, can be difficult to measure. We used estimates of parental heterozygosity and genetic similarity ('relatedness') derived from 32 microsatellite markers to explore the relationship between genetic variability and fitness in a population of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. We found no effect of maternal MLH (multilocus heterozygosity) on clutch size or egg success rate, and no single-locus effects. However, we found effects of paternal MLH and parental relatedness on egg success rate that interacted in a way that may result in both positive and negative effects of genetic variability. Multicollinearity in these tests was within safe limits, and null simulations suggested that the effect was not an artefact of using paternal genotypes reconstructed from large samples of offspring. Our results could imply a tension between inbreeding and outbreeding depression in this system, which is biologically feasible in turtles: female-biased natal philopatry may elevate inbreeding risk and local adaptation, and both processes may be disrupted by male-biased dispersal. Although this conclusion should be treated with caution due to a lack of significant identity disequilibrium, our study shows the importance of considering both positive and negative effects when assessing how variation in genetic variability affects fitness in wild systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Physiological response to etho-ecological stressors in male Alpine chamois: timescale matters!

    Corlatti, Luca; Palme, Rupert; Lovari, Sandro

    2014-07-01

    From a life history perspective, glucocorticoids secreted by the neuroendocrine system, integrating different sources of stress through an adaptive feedback mechanism, may have important consequences on individual fitness. Although stress responses have been the object of several investigations, few studies have explored the role of proximate mechanisms responsible for the potential trade-offs between physiological stress and life history traits integrating social and environmental stressors. In 2011 and 2012, we collected data on faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in a marked male population of Alpine chamois, within the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy). Using a model selection approach we analysed the effect of potential etho-ecological stressors such as age, social status (territorial vs. non-territorial males), minimum temperature, snow depth and precipitation on FCM variation. To correctly interpret environmentally and socially induced stress responses, we conducted model selections over multiple temporal scales defined a priori: year, cold months, spring, warm months, mating season. Over the year, FCM levels showed a negative relationship with minimum temperature, but altogether, climatic stressors had negligible effects on glucocorticoid secretion, possibly owing to good adaptations of chamois to severe weather conditions. Age was negatively related to FCM during the rut, possibly due to greater experience of older males in agonistic contests. Social status was an important determinant of FCM excretion: while both the `stress of subordination' and the `stress of domination' hypotheses received some support in spring and during the mating season, respectively, previous data suggest that only the latter may have detrimental fitness consequences on male chamois.

  10. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Segmentation in sport services: a typology of fitness customers

    Josef Voráček

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers customer typology in fitness centres. The main aim of our survey is to state the basic segments of fitness customers and create their typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. The results of our research are as follows: we identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male (we called them student, shark, mature and three are female (manager, hunter, and student. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres.

  12. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  13. The connection between exercise addiction and orthorexia nervosa in German fitness sports.

    Rudolph, Sabrina

    2017-09-07

    The combination of physical activity and healthy eating habits has potentially positive effects on health. However, both practices can also lead to pathological behaviors such as exercise addiction (EA) and orthorexia nervosa (ON), thus generating negative effects. So far, studies analyzing the connection between these two phenomena cannot be found. The current paper is aiming to close this gap. The sample (n = 1.008) consisted of 559 male and 449 female active members of three fitness studios, and was analyzed in a cross-sectional study design. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) was used to establish exercise addiction and the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala (DOS) was used to evaluate orthorectic eating behavior. Out of the whole sample, 10.2% exhibit EA, while ON is prevalent in 3.4%. Twenty-three (2.3%) individuals suffer from both. There is a significant positive correlation between DOS and EAI (p < .001, r = .421). Female participants (p < .001, r = .452) show a higher correlation compared to male participants (p < .001, r = .418). The results suggest a positive correlation between ON and EA in the context of German fitness sports. Both seem to be serious phenomena and require further investigation. Level V (cross-sectional descriptive study).

  14. Sport and male sexuality.

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  15. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  16. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  17. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  18. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  19. Consequences of 'load-lightening' for future indirect fitness gains by helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Meade, Jessica; Nam, Ki-Baek; Beckerman, Andrew P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2010-05-01

    1. Helpers that invest energy in provisioning the offspring of related individuals stand to gain indirect fitness benefits from doing so. First, if the helper's effort is additional to that of the parents (additive) the productivity of the current breeding attempt can be increased. Secondly, if the parents reduce their workload (compensation) this can result in future indirect fitness gains to the helper via increased breeder survival; termed 'load-lightening'. 2. Long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus) have a cooperative breeding system in which helpers assist kin and parents exhibit both additive and compensatory reactions in the presence of helpers. Offspring from helped nests are heavier and more likely to recruit into the breeding population, thus helpers gain indirect fitness benefits from increasing the productivity of the current breeding attempt. Despite breeders' reduction of feeding effort in the presence of helpers, previous investigations found no subsequent increase in breeder survival. 3. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that load-lightening resulted in indirect fitness benefits for helpers. We used data from a 14-year study to investigate the provisioning rate, survival and future fecundity of male and female long-tailed tits that did and did not receive help at the nest. 4. We found an asymmetrical response to the presence of helpers at large brood sizes. Males reduced their feeding rate more than females, and this differential response was reflected in a significant increase in male survival when provisioning large broods assisted by helpers. We found no evidence of any increase in future fecundity for helped breeders. 5. The finding that males reduce their provisioning rate in the presence of helpers (at large brood sizes) to a greater degree than females, and that this is reflected in an increase in survival rate for males only, implies that the survival increase is caused by the reduction in work-rate rather than a non

  20. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil.

    Sprey, Jan W C; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B; Santili, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Descriptive epidemiological study. This cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire administered to CrossFit athletes from various specialized fitness centers in Brazil. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2015 through an electronic questionnaire that included demographic data, level of sedentary lifestyle at work, sports training history prior to starting CrossFit, current sports activities, professional monitoring, and whether the participants experienced any injuries while practicing CrossFit. A total of 622 questionnaires were received, including 566 (243 women [42.9%] and 323 men [57.1%]) that were completely filled out and met the inclusion criteria and 9% that were incompletely filled out. Overall, 176 individuals (31.0%) mentioned having experienced some type of injury while practicing CrossFit. We found no significant difference in injury incidence rates regarding demographic data. There was no significant difference regarding previous sports activities because individuals who did not practice prior physical activity showed very similar injury rates to those who practiced at any level. CrossFit injury rates are comparable to those of other recreational or competitive sports, and the injuries show a profile similar to weight lifting, power lifting, weight training, Olympic gymnastics, and running, which have an injury incidence rate nearly half that of soccer.

  1. Diploid male production in a leaf-cutting ant

    Armitage, S.; Boomsma, J.; Baer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    1. In haplodiploid social insects where males are haploid and females are diploid, inbreeding depression is expressed as the production of diploid males when homozygosity at the sex-determining locus results in the production of diploid individuals with a male phenotype. Diploid males are often a...

  2. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    2010-01-01

    Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'). Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs), initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1 generation reverted to outbreeding

  3. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    Serra Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'. Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs, initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1

  4. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study

    Tai-Fen Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18 to 25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential (ERP measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the OH, NL, and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of inhibition. However, these benefits in inhibition function would be lost in an individual who is obese or has low cardiovascular fitness, reflecting the importance keeping both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness.

  5. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  6. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.

    1988-09-01

    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  7. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice.

  8. Energetic fitness: Field metabolic rates assessed via 3D accelerometry complement conventional fitness metrics

    Grémillet, David; Lescroël, Amelie; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M.; Massaro, Melanie; Porzig, Elizabeth L.; Ainley, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the fitness of organisms is an essential step towards understanding their responses to environmental change. Connections between energy expenditure and fitness have been postulated for nearly a century. However, testing this premise among wild animals is constrained by difficulties in measuring energy expenditure while simultaneously monitoring conventional fitness metrics such as survival and reproductive output.We addressed this issue by exploring the functional links between field metabolic rate (FMR), body condition, sex, age and reproductive performance in a wild population.We deployed 3D accelerometers on 115 Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae during four breeding seasons at one of the largest colonies of this species, Cape Crozier, on Ross Island, Antarctica. The demography of this population has been studied for the past 18 years. From accelerometry recordings, collected for birds of known age and breeding history, we determined the vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) and used it as a proxy for FMR.This allowed us to demonstrate relationships among FMR, a breeding quality index (BQI) and body condition. Notably, we found a significant quadratic relationship between mean VeDBA during foraging and BQI for experienced breeders, and individuals in better body condition showed lower rates of energy expenditure.We conclude that using FMR as a fitness component complementary to more conventional fitness metrics will yield greater understanding of evolutionary and conservation physiology.

  9. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear.

  10. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  11. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  12. An intelligent talent recognition of male youth field hockey players ...

    The aim of this study was to determine the most significant of physical fitness, anthro-energy intake and psychological variables in identifying the talented male youth field hockey players. 40 male players (age, 14.6 ± 1.2 years) from Terengganu sport academy were evaluated in different tests and measurements.

  13. Exploring Person Fit with an Approach Based on Multilevel Logistic Regression

    Walker, A. Adrienne; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that test scores may not be valid representations of what students know, can do, and should learn next is well known. Person fit provides an important aspect of validity evidence. Person fit analyses at the individual student level are not typically conducted and person fit information is not communicated to educational stakeholders. In…

  14. Male sexual polymorphism, alternative reproductive tactics, and androgens in combtooth blennies (pisces: blenniidae).

    Oliveira, R F; Canario, A V; Grober, M S

    2001-09-01

    In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois males that compete for access to mates invest in typically male behaviors, such as building elaborated nests or displaying ornaments; and (2) parasitic males that take advantage of the success of the bourgeois males in attracting females and attempt "sneaker" fertilizations (e.g., sneaker and satellite males). In combtooth blennies (Blenniidae) the co-occurrence of ART and male sexual polymorphism has been described for two temperate species: the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, and the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius sanguinolentus parvicornis. Interestingly, while in the peacock blenny the alternative male morph adopts a sneaker tactic, in the rock-pool blenny parasitic males act as satellites to nest-holder males. Thus, this variation in the ART expressed in these two closely related species allows for a comparative study of the proximate and ultimate factors affecting the expression of the two ART. In this article we summarize the available information on androgen levels in bourgeois and parasitic males of natural populations of the two species and of recent studies on the effect of exogenous administration of androgens on tactic switching in parasitic males of the two species. The information is discussed within the frame of the relative plasticity hypothesis, which predicts that plastic alternative morphs should show differences in hormone levels and that the administration of sex steroids should be effective in promoting the switch from the parasitic to bourgeois tactic. The evidence is only partly consistent with this hypothesis. Alternatively, a social

  15. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  16. Farmacocinética da associação de glucosamina e sulfato de condroitina em humanos sadios do sexo masculino Pharmacokinetic profile of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate association in healthy male individuals

    Odaly Toffoletto

    2005-01-01

    (GS and chondroitin sulfate (CS given to two groups of twelve healthy male volunteers (group I: one capsule containing 500 mg of GS and 400 mg of CS; group II: four capsules with the same content. Blood samples were collected at pre-determined time intervals up to 48 hours post-dosing. GS and CS were measured in plasma by the DMMB (1,9,dimethyl-dimethilene blue method. Maximum concentration was achieved within 2 hours (average ± SE; 0.893±0.093 µg/ml, group I; and 2.222±0.313 µg/ml, group II. Areas under curve up to 48 hours were 10.803±0.965 µg-hr/ml and 38.776±2.981 µg-hr/ml for groups I and II, respectively. Both groups showed a second peak after 18 hours, indicating an enterohepatic flow. Our results indicate that this association is absorbed through the oral route by a saturable mechanism, which can enable its use in clinical treatments.

  17. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  18. Desirable design of hose fittings

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  19. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  20. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  1. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Individual Education.

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  3. Bateman's Principle in Cooperatively Breeding Vertebrates: The Effects of Non-breeding Alloparents on Variability in Female and Male Reproductive Success.

    Hauber, Mark E; Lacey, Eileen A

    2005-11-01

    The sex-specific slopes of Bateman's gradients have important implications for understanding animal mating systems, including patterns of sexual selection and reproductive competition. Intersexual differences in the fitness benefits derived from mating with multiple partners are expected to yield distinct patterns of reproductive success for males and females, with variance in direct fitness predicted to be greater among males. These analyses assume that typically all adults are reproductive and that failure to produce offspring is non-adaptive. Among some species of cooperatively breeding birds and mammals, however, non-breeding adult alloparents are common and may comprise the majority of individuals in social groups. The presence of a large number of non-breeding adults, particularly when coupled with greater social suppression of reproduction among females, may alter the relative variance in direct fitness between the sexes, thereby generating an apparent contradiction to Bateman's Paradigm. To explore quantitatively the effects of non-breeding alloparents on variance in reproductive success, we used genetic estimates of parentage and reproductive success drawn from the literature to calculate the relative variability in direct fitness for females and males in alloparental and "other" societies of birds and mammals. Our analyses indicate that in mammals and, to a lesser extent, in birds, variability in direct fitness is greater among females in species characterized by the presence of non-breeding alloparents. These data suggest that social interactions, including social suppression of reproduction, are powerful determinants of individual direct fitness that may modify sex-specific patterns of reproductive variance from those described by Bateman.

  4. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  5. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old) who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness ...

  6. AXAF FITS standard for ray trace interchange

    Hsieh, Paul F.

    1993-07-01

    A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.

  7. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  8. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  9. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  10. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  11. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  12. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  14. Relationships among cane fitting, function, and falls.

    Dean, E; Ross, J

    1993-08-01

    Although canes are among the most commonly used mobility aids, little is known about the relationship between cane prescription and effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among cane fitting (ie, cane fitter, cane band, and cane length), reported improvements in function, and reduction in falls. Cane users living in the community (86 women and 58 men with a median age distribution of 61 to 80 years) and sampled from seven urban shopping centers in British Columbia, Canada, participated in the study. The primary reasons cited for using a cane were joint problems (39%), general balance difficulties (30%), and a combination of joint and balance problems (15%). Measures included appropriateness of cane length and responses to closed-ended questions related to qualifications of the cane fitter, cane band, functional ability with a cane, and falling frequency. Overall, cane use was associated with improved confidence and functional ability. Canes fitted by health care workers approximated the clinically recommended length compared with canes fitted by non-health care workers, which tended to be greater than this length. There was no relationship, however, between cane fitting (cane fitter, cane hand, and appropriateness of cane length) and functional ability with a cane and falling frequency [corrected]. We concluded that health care workers may need to reconsider the variables for optimal cane prescription and their specifications for a given individual. The notion of a correct length and cane hand, for example, may be less important than factors such as the indications for cane use, comfort, and enhanced confidence.

  15. No evidence for female discrimination against male house mice carrying a selfish genetic element.

    Sutter, Andreas; Lindholm, Anna K

    2016-12-01

    Meiotic drivers distort transmission to the next generation in their favor, with detrimental effects on the fitness of their homologues and the rest of the genome. Male carriers of meiotic drivers commonly inflict costs on their mates through genetic incompatibility, reduced fecundity, or biased brood sex ratios. Given these costs, evidence for female discrimination against male carriers is surprisingly rare. One of few examples is the t haplotype in house mice, a meiotic driver that shows strong transmission distortion in males and is typically homozygote lethal. As a consequence, mating between 2 t heterozygous (+/ t ) mice leads to high embryo mortality. Previous experiments showing that +/ t females avoid this incompatibility cost by preferring +/+ versus +/ t males have inferred preference based on olfactory cues or brief social interactions. Evidence from mating contexts in laboratory settings and semi-natural populations has been inconclusive. Here, we investigated female choice from a large number of no-choice mating trials. We found no evidence for discrimination against +/ t males based on mating, remating, and copulatory behavior. Further, we found no evidence for avoidance of incompatibility through selective interactions between gametes. The likelihood of mating showed significant effects of female weight and genotype, suggesting that our test paradigm enabled females to exhibit mate choice. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our approach. By explicitly considering selection at both the individual and gene level, we argue why precopulatory female discrimination by +/ t females may be less evolutionarily stable than discrimination by all females based on postcopulatory mechanisms.

  16. A change in competitive context reverses sexual selection on male size.

    Kasumovic, M M; Andrade, M C B

    2009-02-01

    In studies of sexual selection, larger size is often argued to increase male fitness, and relatively smaller males are explained by genetic and/or environmental variation. We demonstrate that a size-development life-history trade-off could underlie the maintenance of a broad, unimodal distribution of size in male redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti). Larger males are superior in direct competition, but redback males mature rapidly at small size in the presence of females. In field enclosures, we simulated two competitive contexts favouring development of divergent male sizes. Relatively smaller males lost when competing directly, but had 10 times higher fitness than relatively larger males when given the temporal advantage of rapid development. Linear selection gradients confirmed the reversal of selection on size, showing that it is critical to consider life-history decisions underlying the development of traits related to fitness.

  17. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  18. The Group Selection Debate and ALife: Weak Altruism, Strong Altruism, and Inclusive Fitness (abstract)

    Powers, Simon T.; Watson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of the evolution of social behaviour are often framed in terms of either multi-level selection or inclusive individual fitness theory. Although both of these descriptions correctly predict changes in gene frequency (where group fitness is defined as the average individual fitness of the group members), it is still a hotly contested issue as to which provides a faithful description of the underlying causal processes at work. Furthermore, the type of model analysis used reflects the phil...

  19. Testing Vocational Interests and Personality as Predictors of Person-Vocation and Person-Job Fit

    Ehrhart, Karen Holcombe; Makransky, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The fit between individuals and their work environments has received decades of theoretical and empirical attention. This study investigated two antecedents to individuals' perceptions of fit: vocational interests and personality. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that vocational interests assessed in terms of the Career Occupational…

  20. Clipboard Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine?

    Unknown

    'period of infertility' in the male monkeys was reversible. However, one thing to note is that not all the monkeys recruited for the study induced high titre antibodies to Eppin – not surprisingly, as the response to any immunogen varies from individual to individual. However, this might turn out to be a stumbling block when it ...

  1. Diversity of Nuptial Plumages in Male Ruffs

    Van Rhijn, J.; Jukema, J.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Nuptial ornament diversity was studied in 1814 individual male Ruffs that were caught in their spring staging areas in Friesland, The Netherlands. Ornaments (hereafter called plumages) comprised of a ruff, two head tufts and facial wattles. Individual feathers were found to be plain (white, black or

  2. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator

    Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg

    d Institute for Sports Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, South Africa e Institute for Food ... The American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for health/fitness .... It is important to stress that the focus of this study was not.

  3. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  4. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  5. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    . The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  6. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  7. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  8. Sperm influences female hibernation success, survival and fitness in the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    . Using the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, we artificially inseminated queens (females) with sperm from one or several males and show that sire groups (groups of brother males) vary in their effects on queen hibernation survival, longevity and fitness. In addition, multiply inseminated queens always had...

  9. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  10. Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17.

    Vyskocilová, Martina; Prazanová, Gabriela; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    The hybrid sterility-1 (Hst1) locus at Chr 17 causes male sterility in crosses between the house mouse subspecies Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). This locus has been defined by its polymorphic variants in two laboratory strains (Mmd genome) when mated to PWD/Ph mice (Mmm genome): C57BL/10 (carrying the sterile allele) and C3H (fertile allele). The occurrence of sterile and/or fertile (wild Mmm x C57BL)F1 males is evidence that polymorphism for this trait also exists in natural populations of Mmm; however, the nature of this polymorphism remains unclear. Therefore, we derived two wild-origin Mmm strains, STUS and STUF, that produce sterile and fertile males, respectively, in crosses with C57BL mice. To determine the genetic basis underlying male fertility, the (STUS x STUF)F1 females were mated to C57BL/10 J males. About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest. A further one-fifth of males (20.3%) also had anomalous reproductive traits but produced some spermatozoa. The remaining fertile males (45.9%) displayed no deviation from values found in parental individuals. QTL analysis of the progeny revealed strong associations of male fitness components with the proximal end of Chr 17, and a significant effect of the central section of Chr X on testes mass. The data suggest that genetic incompatibilities associated with male sterility have evolved independently at the proximal end of Chr 17 and are polymorphic within both Mmd and Mmm genomes.

  11. Avaliação da aptidão cardiopulmonar em indivíduos com hemiparesia após acidente vascular encefálico Evaluación de la aptitud cardiopulmonar en individuos con hemiparesia tras accidente vascular encefálico Evaluation of cardiopulmonary fitness in individuals with hemiparesis after cerebrovascular accident

    Angélica Cristiane Ovando

    2011-02-01

    prueba cardiopulmonar (PCP en hemiparéticos para una evaluación pre participación que busca una criteriosa prescripción de ejercicio aeróbico. MÉTODOS: Participaron en el estudio 8 individuos con hemiparesia crónica, que se sometieron a PCP realizado con protocolo individualizado en rampa, desarrollado a partir de la información de la velocidad de marcha de los individuos previamente evaluados en prueba de pista. Se consideró como la propuesta de inclinación variando entre el 0% y el 10%, velocidad inicial correspondiente a un 70% del ritmo de caminata confortable y velocidad máxima el 40% superior a la velocidad máxima en la prueba de pista, en la expectativa de que el PCP, con este incremento gradual y constante de la intensidad, durase entre 6 y 8 minutos RESULTADOS: El 100% de los evaluados, la motivación para la interrupción de la prueba fue fatiga periférica. El VO2 de pico alcanzado fue de 20,6 ± 5,7 ml/kg.min. Se identificó el Umbral I en todos los exámenes, situándose en 82,64 ± 4,78% de la FC de pico y 73,31 ± 4,97% del VO2 de pico. El cociente respiratorio (R del grupo fue de 0,96 ± 0,09, y tres de los 8 individuos (37,5% alcanzaron R superior a 1,00, siendo el umbral II identificado en estos sujetos. Se encontraron relaciones positivas entre variables del PCP y scores de equilibrio, desempeño en la prueba de marcha de 6 minutos y velocidad de marcha en el suelo. CONCLUSIÓN: La prueba se reveló útil para prescripción de actividad física en estos individuos.BACKGROUND: Due to the hemiparesis, the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness on individuals after cerebrovascular accident (CVA, using exercise tests with conventional protocols, has become a challenge. OBJECTIVE: Perform cardiopulmonary test (CPT in hemiparetic patients to a pre-participation evaluation aimed at a careful prescription of aerobic exercise. METHODS: The study included eight individuals with chronic hemiparesis who underwent CPT performed with individualized ramp

  12. Individualizing Medicare.

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  13. Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving

    Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving; Exercise; does exercise help quit smoking; exercises after quitting smoking; exercise after smoking; exercise and quitting smoking; exercise and smoking; smoking articles; articles about smoking; articles on smoking; articles about smoking; article on smoking; health articles on smoking; smoking article; benefits of physical activity; benefits for physical activity; benefit of physical activity; benefits to physical activity; daily physical activities; daily physical activity; healthy physical activities; healthy physical activity; health activities; activity for health; exercise physical activity and health; health activities; health activities for kids; health and fitness activities; health benefits for physical activity; health benefits from physical activity; health benefits of physical activity; health benefits physical activity; health promotion activities; physical exercise; exercise and physical activity; exercise and physical health; exercise for physical fitness; health benefits of physical fitness; how to do physical exercise; physical activity and exercise; physical activity exercise; physical health; physical health and fitness; physical health and wellness; physical health benefits; physical Health fitness; what are the benefits of physical fitness; physical fitness; about physical fitness; benefits of physical fitness; how to improve physical fitness; physical fitness; physical fitness article; fitness; fitness article; fitness articles; fitness plans; health and fitness; exercise; benefits of regular exercise on health; exercise plan; exercise tips; routine; best work out routine for overweight women

  14. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  15. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  16. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    2008-03-24

    bonus to make working out convenient and facilitate work / life balance . This was secondary to the hope that a fitness program would produce healthier...workforce; and 3) become an employer of choice and promote work life balance .88 34 Strategic plans and supporting objectives of the Army Installation

  17. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  18. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  19. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...

  20. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  1. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  2. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  3. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  4. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  5. Low-intensity training dissociates metabolic from aerobic fitness

    Helge, J W; Damsgaard, R; Overgaard, K

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking was perf......This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking...... sensitive lipase activity was similar in arm and leg muscle prior to the expedition and was not significantly affected by the crossing. In conclusion, an improved blood lipid profile and thus metabolic fitness was present after prolonged low-intensity training and this occurred in spite of a decreased...... aerobic fitness and an unchanged arm and leg muscle hormone-sensitive lipase activity....

  6. Collective individualism

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    at a construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...

  7. Individual, spatial and inter-sex variation in somatic growth: a study of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae, a long-distance freshwater Neotropical migratory fish

    Luzia da S. Lourenço

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth is a fundamental biological process, driven by multiple endogenous (intra-individual and exogenous (environmental factors that maintain individual fitness and population stability. The current study aims to assess whether individual, spatial (headwaters and floodplains and inter-sex variation occurs in the growth of Piaractus mesopotamicus in the Cuiabá River basin. Samples were collected monthly from July 2006 to July 2007, at two areas in the Cuiabá River basin (headwaters and floodplain. Three growth models (individuals; individuals and sex factors; individuals and areas factors were developed and compared the fish growth parameters using Akaike information criterion (AIC. The best fit to the length-at-age data was obtained by a model that considered individual variation and sex. The theoretical maximum average length ( L∞ was 64.99 cm for females, and 63.23 cm for males. Females showed a growth rate (k of 0.230 yr-1and males of 0.196 yr-1. Thus, could be concluded that individual variability and sex were the main sources of variation in P. mesopotamicus somatic growth parameters.

  8. Intellectual differences of adult men related to age and physical fitness before and after an exercise program.

    Elsayed, M; Ismail, A H; Young, R J

    1980-05-01

    Fluid and crystalized intelligence differences among high-fit, young; high-fit, old; low-fit, young, and low-fit, old groups were investigated before and after an exercise program. The high-fit group had higher fluid intelligence than the low-fit group. Likewise, the young group scored higher than the old group. The four groups scored higher at the posttest on two of the fluid intelligence subtests of the Cattell Culture. Fair Intelligence Test. No differences were observed on crystallized intelligence. It is uncertain how biological factors and psychological changes, either individually or in combination, produce differences in cognitive functioning due to physical fitness.

  9. Direct benefits of choosing a high-fitness mate can offset the indirect costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict.

    Pischedda, Alison; Chippindale, Adam K

    2017-06-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict generates a cost to mate choice: high-fitness partners transmit genetic variation that confers lower fitness to offspring of the opposite sex. Our earlier work in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, revealed that these indirect genetic costs were sufficient to reverse potential "good genes" benefits of sexual selection. However, mate choice can also confer direct fitness benefits by inducing larger numbers of progeny. Here, we consider whether direct benefits through enhanced fertility could offset the costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict in D. melanogaster. Using hemiclonal analysis, we found that females mated to high-fitness males produced 11% more offspring compared to those mated to low-fitness males, and high-fitness females produced 34% more offspring than low-fitness females. These direct benefits more than offset the reduction in offspring fitness caused by intralocus sexual conflict, creating a net fitness benefit for each sex to pairing with a high-fitness partner. Our findings highlight the need to consider both direct and indirect effects when investigating the fitness impacts of mate choice. Direct fitness benefits may shelter sexually antagonistic alleles from selection, suggesting a novel mechanism for the maintenance of fitness variation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity (RD, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks.

  11. Coaching the alpha male.

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  12. Individual monitoring

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  13. 'Feel better/work better' epitomizes employee fitness program.

    Molidor, C

    1979-01-01

    It stands to reason that employees who feel better will take less time off because of illness and, consequently, improve their productivity. Rather than leave the health of their employees to chance, the Mercy Center for Health Care Services in Aurora, IL, put together a program that develops the total fitness of individual employees.

  14. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  15. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse and...

  16. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  17. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  18. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  19. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  20. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  1. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  2. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  3. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  4. Physical fitness, injuries, and team performance in soccer.

    Arnason, Arni; Sigurdsson, Stefan B; Gudmundsson, Arni; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Participants were 306 male soccer players from 17 teams in the two highest divisions in Iceland. Just before the start of the 1999 soccer season, the following variables were tested: height and weight, body composition, flexibility, leg extension power, jump height, and peak O2 uptake. Injuries and player participation in matches and training were recorded through the 4-month competitive season. Team average physical fitness was compared with team success (final league standing) using a linear regression model. Physical fitness was also compared between players in different playing positions. A significant relationship was found between team average jump height (countermovement jump and standing jump) and team success (P = 0.009 and P = 0.012, respectively). The same trend was also found for leg extension power (P = 0.097), body composition (% body fat, P = 0.07), and the total number of injury days per team (P = 0.09). Goalkeepers demonstrated different fitness characteristics from outfield players. They were taller and heavier, more flexible in hip extension and knee flexion, and had higher leg extension power and a lower peak O2 uptake. However, only minor differences were observed between defenders, midfield players, and attackers. Coaches and medical support teams should pay more attention to jump and power training, as well as preventive measures and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries to increase team success.

  5. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  6. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  8. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  9. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  10. Fit for charity’: the moderating role of private self-focus in the persuasiveness of regulatory fit

    Fransen, M.L.; Fennis, B.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Pruyn, A.T.H.

    2009-01-01

    The present research extends work on the ‘the value from fit’ principle by showing that regulatory fit effects on charitable behavior are stronger for consumers high in private self-focus. Based on previous research showing that individuals high in private self-focus are more affected by external

  11. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer

    Meijer, Mathias; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Green, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess...... the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride. Individual...

  12. The factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Schönberger, Michael; Ponsford, Jennie

    2010-10-30

    There is a lack of validated scales for screening for anxiety and depression in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with TBI. A total of 294 individuals with TBI (72.1% male; mean age 37.1 years, S.D. 17.5, median post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration 17 days) completed the HADS 1 year post-injury. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to examine the fit of a one-, two- and three-factor solution, with and without controlling for item wording effects (Multi-Trait Multi-Method approach). The one-, two- or three-factor model fit the data only when controlling for negative item wording. The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiety and depression subscales of the HADS and demonstrate the importance of evaluating item wording effects when examining the factor structure of a questionnaire. The results would also justify the use of the HADS as a single scale of emotional distress. However, even though the three-factor solution fit the data, alternative scales should be used if the purpose of the assessment is to measure stress symptoms separately from anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  14. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  15. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  16. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  17. How Transformational Leadership Influences Work Engagement Among Nurses: Does Person-Job Fit Matter?

    Enwereuzor, Ibeawuchi K; Ugwu, Leonard I; Eze, Onyinyechi A

    2018-03-01

    The current study examines whether person-job fit moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement. Data were collected using cross-sectional design from 224 (15 male and 209 female) hospital nurses. Participants completed measures of transformational leadership, person-job fit, and work engagement. Moderated multiple regression results showed that transformational leadership had a significant positive predictive relationship with work engagement, and person-job fit had a significant positive predictive relationship with work engagement. Simple slope analysis showed that person-job fit moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement such that transformational leadership was more positively related to work engagement for nurses with high person-job fit compared with those with low person-job fit. Thus, all the hypotheses were confirmed. The findings were discussed, and suggestions for future research were offered.

  18. Contribution of radiobiology to the problem of general fitness

    Vacha, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the present scarce literary data it can be taken as proved that between the numerous properties of the organism usually considered as biologically valuable (high fertility, longevity, higher body weight, resistance to fasting, radiation, and infection agents, certain favorable parameters of CNS) there exist many single and multiple positive correlations. The existence of these correlations allows for the introduction of the working concept of general fitness, stimulating further interdisciplinary research in this field important both in practice and theory. Most correlated manifestations of fitness demonstrated a masked influence of the organism's genotype even though the manner of this manifestation on the phenotype level remains considerably obscure. The efficiency of the haematopoietic system is doubtless one of the mechanisms of general fitness; it is determined by the very complex coordination of several cytokinetic parameters. Important factors are the efficiency of regulation mechanisms at CNS level, the endocrine system, and the regulators of cell populations. Generally highest fitness is connected with a ''balanced'' regulation type, which is characterized by optimal activation of the homeostatic regulation mechanism. In studying the causes of general fitness a systems approach is inevitable which evaluates the levels of individual factors not ''mechanically'' or linearly but from the point of view of the needs of the whole organism and with the application of concepts established by the systems theory (e.g. by the theory of automatic regulation). The sensitivity of an organism to irradiation with ionizing radiation turns out to be a suitable criterion of its general fitness. (author)

  19. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    Ernest Baiget

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2. Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy. Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25% was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in zone 2 (20 ± 21% and zone 3 (3 ± 5%. Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75, as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75. Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

  20. Validity of a Newly-Designed Rectilinear Stepping Ergometer Submaximal Exercise Test to Assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Zhang, Rubin; Zhan, Likui; Sun, Shaoming; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yining

    2017-09-01

    The maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max), determined from graded maximal or submaximal exercise tests, is used to classify the cardiorespiratory fitness level of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the YMCA submaximal exercise test protocol performed on a newly-designed rectilinear stepping ergometer (RSE) that used up and down reciprocating vertical motion in place of conventional circular motion and giving precise measurement of workload, to determine V̇O 2 max in young healthy male adults. Thirty-two young healthy male adults (32 males; age range: 20-35 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m; weight: 67.5 ± 8.6 kg) firstly participated in a maximal-effort graded exercise test using a cycle ergometer (CE) to directly obtain measured V̇O 2 max. Subjects then completed the progressive multistage test on the RSE beginning at 50W and including additional stages of 70, 90, 110, 130, and 150W, and the RSE YMCA submaximal test consisting of a workload increase every 3 minutes until the termination criterion was reached. A metabolic equation was derived from the RSE multistage exercise test to predict oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 ) from power output (W) during the submaximal exercise test (V̇O 2 (mL·min -1 )=12.4 ×W(watts)+3.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ×M+160mL·min -1 , R 2 = 0.91, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 134.8mL·min -1 ). A high correlation was observed between the RSE YMCA estimated V̇O 2 max and the CE measured V̇O 2 max (r=0.87). The mean difference between estimated and measured V̇O 2 max was 2.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , with an SEE of 3.55 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 . The data suggest that the RSE YMCA submaximal exercise test is valid for predicting V̇O 2 max in young healthy male adults. The findings show that the rectilinear stepping exercise is an effective submaximal exercise for predicting V̇O 2 max. The newly-designed RSE may be potentially further developed as an alternative ergometer for assessing