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Sample records for male gender smoking

  1. Male gender and smoking are related to single, but not to multiple, human aortic aneurysms.

    Gutierrez, Paulo S; Leite, Thiago N P; Mangione, Fernanda M

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information concerning multiple aortic aneurysms. Thus, we verified if clinical or pathological characteristics are different in patients with multiple (two or more) aortic aneurysms in comparison with those with only one. We selected at the necropsy files of the Heart Institute, São Paulo University School of Medicine, the last 100 cases with aortic aneurysms, comparing between the two groups: sex, age, presence of systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipedemia, history of smoking habit, cause of the aneurysm, cause of death, and if the diagnosis was reached during life. Age was analysed by Mann-Whitney test, and the other variables by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Multiple aneurysms corresponded to 14% of cases. The proportion of women among patients with multiple aneurysms was higher than among those with single aneurysm (64.3% versus 20.9%, P<.01), even if only cases with atherosclerosis were taken into consideration (women among multiple-6/10, 60.0%; among single-14/70, 20.0%; P=.01). Smoking was less reported in cases with multiple (4/14, 28.6%) than with single aneurysm (53/86, 61.6%; P=.04); considering cases with atherosclerosis, such difference decreases (40.0% of multiple versus 68.6% of single, P=.09). although atherosclerosis is present in most cases of both single and multiple aortic aneurysms, male gender and smoking, considered highly influential in such lesions, are less frequent in patients with multiple than in patients with single aneurysms. Thus mechanisms underlying multiple aortic aneurysms are probably different from those related to single, more common aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Gender-disturbed males.

    Levine, S B

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  4. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...

  5. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. METHODS: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: Cases: mothers of children with CL/P (n = 843 and Controls: mothers of children without CL/P (n = 676. All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR = 3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37. By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential.

  6. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate.

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Coletta, Ricardo D; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Rodrigues, Laíse A Mendes; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: mothers of children with CL/P (n=843) and mothers of children without CL/P (n=676). All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR=3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37). By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescents in Foster Care: A Gender-Based Analysis.

    Shpiegel, Svetlana; Sussman, Steve; Sherman, Scott E; El Shahawy, Omar

    2017-09-19

    Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.

  8. Gender differences in smoking behaviors in an Asian population.

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N

    2008-01-01

    Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.

  9. Influences of tobacco advertising exposure and conduct problems on smoking behaviors among adolescent males and females.

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.

  10. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  11. Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...

  12. Low self-esteem and positive beliefs about smoking: a destructive combination for male college students.

    Hale, Willie J; Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Garza, Raymond T

    2015-07-01

    Men exhibit higher rates of smoking relative to women (CDC, 2014). Given the associated health and socio-economic consequences, it would be valuable to explore the psychological factors underlying this variance. We contend that positive beliefs about smoking influence this difference, and that self-esteem moderates these beliefs. As part of a multi-institutional collaborative study funded by the American Legacy Foundation, 445 participants who reported being either steady or occasional smokers completed a series of questionnaires assessing their beliefs and behaviors involving smoking as well as several dispositional variables. Moderated mediation was used to test for conditional indirect effects. The total, indirect, and direct effects of gender were significant for individuals with lower, but not higher self-esteem. Males with lower self-esteem exhibited more positive beliefs and smoking behavior than females with lower self-esteem. No differences between males and females with higher self-esteem were observed. The gender gap in smoking behavior appears to occur primarily among individuals with lower self-esteem. It is a particularly detrimental risk factor for males, as it is related to higher positive views about smoking and increased tobacco consumption. These results highlight the importance of developing multifaceted gender specific belief-based preventative interventions to address smoking related behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Medical students' perspectives on gender and smoking: a mixed methodology investigation in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Mubeen, Syed Muhammad; Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2011-08-01

    To explore the gender dimensions on influences of tobacco uptake on medical students using both qualitative and quantitative methods. A phased mixed-method study design was used with in-depth interviews followed by a survey questionnaire in a 'smoke-free' medical college campus in a private university of Karachi. Eight in-depth interviews were conducted to under-pin themes that were further used for developing the questionnaire. Tabulation and analysis of the quantitative data was done using SPSS software version 12. All the ethical issues for the research were taken into consideration. One hundred and sixty-five (72 male, 93 female) students participated in the study. Mean age was 21.57 +/- 1.66 years. The survey results reported perceived reasons for male smoking as stress relief (74%), image (62%), companionship (54%), leisurely independence (46%) and male power and masculinity (44%). Among reasons for women for not smoking by the majority was that it was frowned upon (87%) while the reasons for smoking clustered around concepts of images (65%), western culture (66%), stress relief (51%) and advertising (36%). A large proportion (55%) of students felt bad and bothered by male and female smoking. Despite being medical students, the anti-tobacco future role models, traditional concepts of gender were frequently involved that explains smoking and non-smoking gendered behaviours.

  14. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Hagen, Edward H; Garfield, Melissa J; Sullivan, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58-0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  16. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  17. Young people, smoking and gender--a qualitative exploration.

    Amos, Amanda; Bostock, Yvonne

    2007-12-01

    Smoking among young people has become increasingly gendered. In several countries, smoking among adolescent girls is now higher than among adolescent boys. However, we have only a limited understanding of the reasons behind these gender patterns. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative study which used single-sex focus groups to explore the gendered nature of the meaning and function of smoking among Scottish 15- to 16-year old smokers. The study found that young people were ambivalent about their smoking but that this was somewhat different for boys and girls. These differences related to their social worlds, pattern of social relationships, interests, activities and concerns, the meanings they attached to smoking and the role smoking played in dealing with the everyday experience of being a boy or girl in their mid-teens. For example, boys were concerned about the impact of smoking on their fitness and sport, whereas girls were more concerned about the negative aesthetic effects such as their clothes and bodies smelling of smoke. Of particular importance was how smoking related in different ways to the gendered 'identity work' that adolescents had to undertake to achieve a socially and culturally acceptable image. The implications for programmes aimed at reducing smoking among young people, particularly the need for more gender-sensitive approaches, are discussed.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences.

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Clark, Trenette T; Kollins, Scott H; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple

  20. Only for Males: Gendered Perception of Wrestling

    Y. Umar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling has generally been considered to be a masculine sport. To increase female participation in the sport, managers and administrators will need to understand how wrestling is perceived differently by the genders. A focus group interview was conducted with eight participants from both genders to examine how wrestling was perceived. The findings suggested that wrestling was regarded more as a form of violent entertainment rather than as a sport. A survey instrument was then constructed using statements made by the focus group. The survey was administered to 155 respondents of which 56% were females. The mean age of the respondents was 19.8 years. The findings from the survey concurred with the findings from the focus group interview. Wrestling is considered to be a violent and gendered form of entertainment. However, gender differences exist with females more likely to see wrestling as a form of entertainment as compared to males. Females are also more likely to view wrestling as violent and consequently, they tend to see wrestling as more suited for male participation. The findings suggest that sports managers and administrators will need to manage the perception that wrestling is a form of violent entertainment among females by creating opportunities for women to experience the sport and to correct their perception of the sport.

  1. Sex, gender, and secondhand smoke policies: implications for disadvantaged women.

    Greaves, Lorraine J; Hemsing, Natalie J

    2009-08-01

    Although implementation of secondhand smoke policies is increasing, little research has examined the unintended consequences of these policies for disadvantaged women. Macro-, meso-, and micro-level issues connected to secondhand smoke and women are considered to illustrate the range of ways in which sex, gender, and disadvantage affect women's exposure to secondhand smoke. A review of current literature, primarily published between 2000 and 2008, on sex- and gender-based issues related to secondhand smoke exposure and the effects of secondhand smoke policies for various subpopulations of women, including low-income girls and women, nonwhite minority women, and pregnant women, was conducted in 2008. These materials were critically analyzed using a sex and gender analysis, allowing for the drawing of inferences and reflections on the unintended effects of secondhand smoke policies on disadvantaged women. Smoke-free policies do not always have equal or even desired effects on low-income girls and women. Low-income women are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke, may have limited capacity to manage their exposure to secondhand smoke both at home and in the workplace, and may experience heightened stigmatization as a result of secondhand smoke policies. Various sex- and gender-related factors, such as gendered roles, unequal power differences between men and women, child-caring roles, and unequal earning power, affect exposure and responses to secondhand smoke, women's capacity to control exposure, and their responses to protective policies. In sum, a much more nuanced gender- and diversity-sensitive framework is needed to develop research and tobacco control policies that address these issues.

  2. Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.

    Jundong Jiang

    Full Text Available Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS. Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion. Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (β = -0.123, p = 0.051 for sample-A; β = -0.103, p = 0.035 for sample-B; β = -0.082, p = 0.017 for the combined sample. However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.

  3. Smoking, internalized heterosexism, and HIV disease management among male couples.

    Gamarel, K E; Neilands, T B; Dilworth, S E; Taylor, J M; Johnson, M O

    2015-01-01

    High rates of cigarette smoking have been observed among HIV-positive individuals. Smoking has been linked to HIV-related medical complications and non-AIDS defining cancers and negatively impacts on immune function and virologic control. Although internalized heterosexism has been related to smoking behaviors, little is known about associations between partners' reports of smoking, internalized heterosexism, and HIV medication management in male couples with HIV. A sample of 266 male couples completed baseline assessments for a cohort study examining relationship factors and HIV treatment. A computer-based survey assessed self-reported smoking behaviors, alcohol use, internalized heterosexism, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. HIV-positive men also provided blood samples to assess viral load. Approximately 30% of the sample reported that they are currently smoking cigarettes. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, men in a primary relationship with a partner who reported currently smoking had more than five-fold greater odds of reporting smoking. Higher levels of internalized heterosexism and financial hardship were each independently associated with greater odds of reporting smoking. Among HIV-positive men on ART (n = 371), having a partner who reported smoking was associated with almost three-fold greater odds of having a detectable viral load. Our findings add new support to the evidence of romantic partners influencing each other's health behaviors, and demonstrate an association between smoking and disease management within male couples. Future research should explore the interpersonal and social contexts of smoking in order to develop interventions that meet the unique needs of male couples.

  4. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  5. Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women

    Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects ...

  6. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  7. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  8. Gender difference in smoking effects on lung function and risk of hospitalization for COPD

    Prescott, E; Bjerg, A M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that females may be more susceptible than males to the deleterious influence of tobacco smoking in developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paper studies the interaction of gender and smoking on development of COPD as assessed by lung function and hosp......Recent findings suggest that females may be more susceptible than males to the deleterious influence of tobacco smoking in developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paper studies the interaction of gender and smoking on development of COPD as assessed by lung function.......7-50.9) in females, and 3.2 (1.1-9.1), 5.7 (2.2-14.3) and 8.4 (3.3-21.6) in males) but the interaction term gender x pack-years did not reach significance (p=0.08). Results were similar in the GPS. After adjusting for smoking in more detail, females in both cohorts had an increased risk of hospitalization for COPD...

  9. Gender differences in adolescent smoking: mediator and moderator effects of self-generated expected smoking outcomes.

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Anderson, Cheryl B; Pollak, Kathryn I; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    To examine relations among gender, self-generated smoking-outcome expectancies, and smoking in adolescents. Students from one all-girls' (n=350; 53%) and one all-boys' (n=315; 47%) Catholic high school participated. Analyses included binary and ordinal logistic regression. For boys, smoking behavior was associated with buzz (odds radio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.83, p exercise/sport impairment (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.68-4.81, p gender-smoking relationship. Moderators included negative social (beta = -0.45, p = .021) and enhance self-esteem (beta = -1.07, p = .024). Interventions might benefit from tailoring on gender differences in smoking-outcome expectancies.

  10. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  11. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  12. Smoking intensity among male factory workers in Kunming, China.

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Tsoh, Janice Y; Cui, Wenlong; Li, Xiaoliang; Kohrman, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the intensity of cigarette consumption and its correlates in China among urban male factory workers, a cohort especially vulnerable to tobacco exposure, one that appears to have benefitted little from recent public health efforts to reduce smoking rates. Data were collected from men working in factories of Kunming city, Yunnan, China, who are current daily smokers (N = 490). A multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors in association with smoking intensity in light, moderate, and heavy levels. Light smoking correlated with social smoking, smoking the first cigarette later in the day, self-reported health condition, and quit intention. Heavy smoking was associated with purchase of lower priced cigarettes, difficulty refraining from smoking, and prehypertensive blood pressure. Even in regions where smoking is highly prevalent, even among cohorts who smoke heavily, variation exists in how cigarettes are consumed. Analyses of this consumption, with special consideration given to smoking intensity and its correlates, can help guide tobacco-control strategists in developing more effective interventions. © 2013 APJPH.

  13. Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women

    Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -dependent relationship exists between changing female-to male ratios of smoking and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in worldwide birth cohorts from previously published studies. BACKGROUND: Smoking behavior in industrialized nations has changed dramatically over the second half of the 20th century, with diverging patterns...... in male and female smoking rates. During the same time period, an increase in the female to male ratio in MS incidence has been reported. We examined whether MS incidence in the two genders changed concomitantly with smoking, as would be expected if smoking truly increased MS risk. DESIGN/METHODS: We...... identified relevant studies reporting male and female age-specific incidence of MS throughout the world using within-country birth cohorts as units of observation. For each country and birth cohort, we then estimated the male to female ratio in MS incidence, and correlated these ratios with the corresponding...

  14. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Male Teachers Talk about Gender Violence: "Zulu Men Demand Respect"

    Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…

  16. Men's business, women's work: gender influences and fathers' smoking.

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Johnson, Joy L; Ponic, Pamela; Chan, Anna

    2010-05-01

    To further understand men's continued smoking during their partner's pregnancy and the postpartum period, a study was undertaken to explore women's perspectives of men's smoking. Using a gender lens, a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews with 27 women was completed. Women's constructions of men's smoking and linkages to masculine and feminine ideals are described. The findings highlight the ways women position themselves both as defenders and regulators of men's smoking. Femininities that aligned women with hegemonic masculine principles underpinned their roles in relation to men's smoking and presented challenges in influencing their partner's tobacco reduction. By positioning the decision to quit smoking as a man's solitary pursuit, women reduced potential relationship conflict and managed to maintain their identity as a supportive partner. Insights from this study provide direction for developing gender-specific tobacco reduction initiatives targeting expectant and new fathers. Indeed, a lack of intervention aimed at encouraging men's tobacco reduction has the potential to increase relationship tensions, and inadvertently maintain pressure on women to regulate fathers' smoking. This study illustrates how gender-based analyses can provide new directions for men's health promotion programmes and policies.

  17. Social Smoking and Mental Health Among Chinese Male College Students.

    Cai, Long-Biao; Xu, Fang-Rong; Cheng, Qing-Zhou; Zhan, Jian; Xie, Tao; Ye, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Shang-Zhi; McCarthy, Kayne; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-05-01

    China has a high prevalence of smoking, but the characteristics of social smoking in Chinese college students have not been investigated. We examined the pattern of social smoking and explored the association between social smoking and personal cessation efforts and mental health factors among Chinese male college students. Study design was a cross-sectional survey. P. R. China was the setting of the study. Participants were a random sample of 1327 male college students. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that examined their smoking behaviors and a group of specific mental health factors (loneliness, self-harm, suicide, depression, and anxiety). Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, χ 2 analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. Of a total of 207 current smokers, 102 (49.3%) were identified as social smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, social smokers had increased risks for depression (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.65). Among daily smokers, social smokers were less likely to have an intention to quit smoking than nonsocial smokers (odds ratio, .08; 95% confidence interval, .01-.57). This study reveals unique psychologic characteristics related to social smoking. College students are a particular group of interest because unhealthy behaviors initiated during adolescence may continue through adulthood. Our findings provide evidence for future tobacco control intervention among this population.

  18. [Hearing loss associated with smoking in male workers].

    Takata, Yasumitsu

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effect of smoking habit on hearing loss at 1000 and 4000 Hz in the workplace. Among 1,875 male workers, including 287 subjects with occupational noise exposure, the ratio of the number with hearing loss at 1000 or 4000 Hz increased with smoking habits and that relation at 4000 Hz was statistically significant. These hearing losses showed a significant relation with age but not with working- duration under occupational noise exposure by multiple regression analysis. The amount of smoking showed a weak but significant association with hearing loss at 4000 Hz. However, among the 287 male subjects with occupational noise exposure, there was no significant relation between smoking habits and hearing loss. Therefore, both hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure and that related with smoking habit were well controlled in this workplace. These results indicate that hearing check-ups and education to prevent noise-induced hearing impairment in the workplace might be useful to prevent the hearing loss associated with smoking habit among male workers.

  19. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  1. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD. QT dispersion (QTD is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS: Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively, QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively, and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively. However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001 in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION: Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD.   Keywords: Cardiac, Death, Electrocardiography, Smoking, Sudden  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  2. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  3. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Perception of male gender preference among pregnant igbo women.

    Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci

    2014-03-01

    Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.

  5. Smoking prevalence and seizure control in Chinese males with epilepsy.

    Gao, Hui; Sander, Josemir W; Du, Xudong; Chen, Jiani; Zhu, Cairong; Zhou, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52.1%. We used two classifications: the first classified epilepsy as generalized, or by presumed topographic origin (temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital). The second classified the dominant seizure type of an individual as generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS), myoclonic seizure (MS), complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondary GTCS (sGTCS). The univariable analysis of satisfactory seizure control profile and smoking rate in both classifications showed a trend towards a beneficial effect of smoking although most were not statistically significant. Considering medication is an important confounding factor that would largely influence seizure control, we also conducted multi-variable analysis for both classifications with drug numbers and dosage. The result of our model also suggested that smoking is a protective factor. Our findings seem to suggest that smoking could have a potential role in seizure control although confounders need exploration particularly in view of the potential long term health effects. Replication in a much larger sample is needed as well as case control studies to elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  7. Smoking cue reactivity across massed extinction trials: negative affect and gender effects.

    Collins, Bradley N; Nair, Uma S; Komaroff, Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Designing and implementing cue exposure procedures to treat nicotine dependence remains a challenge. This study tested the hypothesis that gender and negative affect (NA) influence changes in smoking urge over time using data from a pilot project testing the feasibility of massed extinction procedures. Forty-three smokers and ex-smokers completed the behavioral laboratory procedures. All participants were over 17 years old, smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily over the last year (or the year prior to quitting) and had expired CO below 10 ppm at the beginning of the ~4-hour session. After informed consent, participants completed 45 min of baseline assessments, and then completed a series of 12 identical, 5-minute exposure trials with inter-trial breaks. Smoking cues included visual, tactile, and olfactory cues with a lit cigarette, in addition to smoking-related motor behaviors without smoking. After each trial, participants reported urge and negative affect (NA). Logistic growth curve models supported the hypothesis that across trials, participants would demonstrate an initial linear increase followed by a decrease in smoking urge (quadratic effect). Data supported hypothesized gender, NA, and gender×NA effects. Significant linear increases in urge were observed among high and low NA males, but not among females in either NA subgroup. A differential quadratic effect showed a significant decrease in urge for the low NA subgroup, but a non-significant decrease in urge in the high NA group. This is the first study to demonstrate gender differences and the effects of NA on the extinction process using a smoking cue exposure paradigm. Results could guide future cue reactivity research and exposure interventions for nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  9. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Gender-specific association between childhood adversities and smoking in adulthood: findings from a population-based study.

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Filippelli, J; Lue-Crisostomo, C A

    2013-05-01

    To investigate gender-specific differences between individual adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking behaviours in adulthood; while controlling for several known risk factors, including adult health behaviours, adult mental health, adult socio-economic indicators and social support. Data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample included 19,356 individuals (11,506 females and 7850 males) aged ≥18 years who were asked questions about their ACEs. Using logistic regression, the independent factors associated with ever smoking and current smoking were determined. Childhood physical abuse was associated with ever smoking for both males and females. Neither sexual abuse nor verbal abuse were significantly associated with ever smoking for males, but they were for females [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63 and OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27, respectively]. For both genders, childhood exposure to parental separation or divorce, household drug abuse or household problem drinking, were significantly associated with ever smoking. These findings underscore the need for future research that investigates gender-specific differences, and the possible mechanisms, linking individual ACEs and smoking behaviours. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  12. Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Mar-Apr 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 2 |. 173. Address ... Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be ..... UNFPA Asia and the Pacific Regional Office. 2012.

  13. The Male Gender Role and Depression

    Liljegren, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male...

  14. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  15. Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility.

    Sansone, Andrea; Di Dato, Carla; de Angelis, Cristina; Menafra, Davide; Pozza, Carlotta; Pivonello, Rosario; Isidori, Andrea; Gianfrilli, Daniele

    2018-01-15

    In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health. Alcohol consumption is often considered socially acceptable, but its negative effects on gonadal function have been consistently reported in the last 30 years. Several studies have reported a variety of negative effects on male fertility following drug abuse - a worrying phenomenon, as illicit drug consumption is on the rise, most notably in younger subjects. While evidence in these regards is still far from solid, mostly as a result of several confounding factors, it is safe to assume that cessation of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug addiction might represent the best course of action for any couple trying to achieve pregnancy.

  16. Reshuffling and Relocating: The Gendered and Income-Related Differential Effects of Restricting Smoking Locations

    Natalie Hemsing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates secondhand smoke (SHS exposure and management in the context of smoking location restrictions, for nonsmokers, former, and current smokers. A purposive sample of 47 low income and non-low-income men and women of varied smoking statuses was recruited to participate in a telephone interview or a focus group. Amidst general approval of increased restrictions there were gendered patterns of SHS exposure and management, and effects of SHS policies that reflect power, control, and social roles that need to be considered as policies are developed, implemented and monitored. The experience of smoking restrictions and the management of SHS is influenced by the social context (relationship with a partner, family member, or stranger, the space of exposure (public or private, worksite, the social location of individuals involved (gender, income, and differential tolerance to SHS. This confluence of factors creates differing unintended and unexpected consequences to the social and physical situations of male and female smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers. These factors deserve further study, in the interests of informing the development of future interventions and policies restricting SHS.

  17. Social Identity and Gender Inequities for Male Elementary Teachers

    River, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the California Department of Education has reported that female teachers in California outnumbered male teachers two to one. The imbalance in teacher gender is a problem that affects elementary-age students and teaching staffs because the educated and caring male teachers who could be role models are largely absent from…

  18. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  19. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  20. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  1. Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising | Mate ...

    Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising. Rekopantswe Mate. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23952 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  3. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-01-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects’experiences regarding dysphoria into the ‘Onset of gender dysphoria,’ ‘Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,’ and ‘C...

  4. The Influence of Social Media Use on Male College Students' Gender Identity and Gendered Performance

    Potts, Lawrence Charles

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of social media use on male college students' gender identity and male gendered performance, this research examined existing research on digital identity and social networking sites, male gender identity development, college student development theory, and the effects of living arrangements on college students.…

  5. [Predictors for 'successful quitting smoking' among males carried out in a smoking cessation clinic].

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi; Liu, Miao; Chen, Hongyan

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the predictors for 'quitting' among male smokers in a smoking cessation clinic. The target population consisted of smokers who volunteered to seek treatment for cessation at our clinic in Beijing. Smokers received face-to-face counseling and psychological intervention at the first visit by trained physicians and standardized telephone discussion, was carried out with counselors at 1 week, 1/3/6 months a follow-up study. The main outcomes would involve 'successful quitting' at the 7-day point, continuous quit rates at 3 and 6 months as well as the predictors of 'quitting'. From October 2008 to December 2012, we collected 355 eligible male smokers among whom 255 had completed the 6-month follow-up program. Results from the analysis (n = 255) showed that the quitting rates at the 7-day point and 3 months were 34.9% and 25.5%, while the rates were 25.1% and 18.3% among the 355 smokers who had the intention for treatment. Data from the stepwise logistic regression model analysis showed that lower exhaled CO level at the first visit, higher perceived confidence in quitting, lower expenditure on cigarettes and had diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases by physicians, were important predictors for quitting smoking. The main reasons of failure to quit were addiction of tobacco cigarette, craving for cigarettes to relieve pressure from work, peer influence from other smokers, lack of mental preparation and perseverance to quit, etc. Smokers who smoked less cigarettes, had higher perceived confidence in quitting and had physician-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases seemed easier to quit. Regular follow-up intervention services for smokers should be established to enhance the motivation for quitting so as to create a favorable environment for the smokers.

  6. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks: a social network analysis of adolescent smoking.

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; de Vries, Hein

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks to act as a dynamic constraint for changes in smoking behaviour, while allowing current smoking behaviour to be simultaneously a dynamic constraint for changes in friendship networks. Longitudinal design with four measurements. Nine junior high schools in Finland. A total of 1163 adolescents (mean age = 13.6 years) who participated in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study, including 605 males and 558 females. Smoking behaviour of adolescents, parents, siblings and friendship ties. Smoking-based selection of friends was found in male as well as female networks. However, support for influence among friends was found only in female networks. Furthermore, females and males were both influenced by parental smoking behaviour. In Finnish adolescents, both male and female smokers tend to select other smokers as friends but it appears that only females are influenced to smoke by their peer group. This suggests that prevention campaigns targeting resisting peer pressure may be more effective in adolescent girls than boys.

  7. Gender difference and effect of pharmacotherapy: findings from a smoking cessation service.

    Walker, N J; van Woerden, H C; Kiparoglou, V; Yang, Y; Robinson, H; Croghan, E

    2016-10-03

    Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1), validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO) monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme. Main effects fitted were: client gender; age; region; the type of advisory sessions; and pharmacotherapy, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) or Varenicline. A second model was fitted including all main effects plus two-way interactions except region. These models were repeated using 12-week self-reported quit as the outcome. At 4 weeks, all main effects were statistically significant, with males more likely (odds ratio and 95 % CI, females v males = 0.88 [0.79-0.97]), older smokers more likely (adjusted odds ratios [OR] and 95 % confidence interval [CI] respectively for groups 20-29, 30-49, 50-69 and 70+ vs 12-19 age group: 1.79 [1.39-2.31], 2.12 [1.68-2.68], 2.30 [1.80-2.92] and 2.47 [1.81-3.37] and for overall difference between groups, χ 2 (4) = 53.5, p gender and type of counselling, and (ii) age and type of counselling. Similar results were seen in relation to main effects at 12 weeks except that type of counselling was non-significant. The only significant interaction at this stage was between gender and pharmacotherapy (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for females using Varenicline versus all other groups = 1.43 [1.06-1.94]). Gender and treatment options were identified as predictors of abstinence at both 4 and 12 weeks after quitting smoking. Furthermore, interactions were observed between gender and (i) type of counselling received (ii) pharmacotherapy. In particular, the quit rate in women at 12 weeks was significantly improved in conjunction with

  8. Smoke-free laws, gender, and reduction in hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction.

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Burkhart, Patricia V; Moser, Debra K

    2011-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after the passage of a smoke-free law in Lexington, Kentucky. The initial legislation had exemptions not covering manufacturing facilities and government buildings, which may have put men at greater risk for AMI. We examined the effect of Lexington's smoke-free public places law on hospitalizations for AMI (i.e., heart attack) among men and women 40 months prior to and 32 months after enactment of the law. We used the statewide administrative database (Comp Data) for all hospital billing records for the four health-care systems in Lexington-Fayette County. Cases were included in the analysis if (1) the patient was $35 years of age; (2) the patient had a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI, with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code in the range of 410.00 to 410.99; and (3) the date of service was between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Among women, AMI hospitalizations declined 23% after the law took effect. The rate of AMI events among men did not change significantly. There was an overrepresentation of women in the hospitality industry and a disproportionate number of men working in manufacturing facilities and government worksites not mandated by the law. We found gender differences in the reduction of AMI hospitalizations following implementation of a smoke-free law that covered only some sectors of the workforce. Enacting smoke-free laws that cover all places of employment and strengthening existing partial laws may extend protection against AMIs to female and male workers.

  9. Smoking status and associated factors among male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney.

    Jiang, Wei; Leung, Brenda; Tam, Nancy; Xu, Huilan; Gleeson, Suzanne; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed The smoking rate among male Chinese migrants in Australia is higher than among the general population. This study investigated the smoking rate of male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney, and explored factors associated with smoking and quitting. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by Chinese workers in selected Chinese restaurants in metropolitan Sydney from October-December 2012. Eighty-nine Chinese restaurants were approached and 54 (61%) took part in the study. The questionnaire asked participants about their smoking status, knowledge of and attitudes to smoking and quitting as well as socio-demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was built to assess the associated factors. Results Of the 382 participants who completed the survey, 171 (45%) were current smokers and 50% of current smokers wanted to quit smoking. Participants who spoke Mandarin, had lower English proficiency, did not realise environmental smoke harms children, did not prefer a smoke-free environment or had more than 50% of relatives or friends who smoked were more likely to be current smokers. Participants who were aged 18-29 years, did not understand the benefits of quitting smoking or did not prefer a smoke-free environment were less likely to want to quit. Conclusions Nearly 50% of male Chinese restaurant workers surveyed in this study were current smokers. Key factors associated with the participants' smoking or quitting status are: aged 18-29 years; speaking Mandarin; lower English literacy; and not knowing the dangers of smoking. So what? Tobacco control programs targetted at male Chinese restaurant workers that raise awareness of the harm caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting smoking are required to enhance intention to quit smoking within this population.

  10. Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence

    Shiffman, Saul; Rathbun, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The immediate emotional and situational antecedents of ad libitum smoking are still not well understood. We re-analyzed data from Ecological Momentary Assessment using novel point-process analyses, to assess how craving, mood, and social setting influence smoking rate, as well as assessing the moderating effects of gender and nicotine dependence. 304 smokers recorded craving, mood, and social setting using electronic diaries when smoking and at random nonsmoking times over 16 days of smoking. Point-process analysis, which makes use of the known random sampling scheme for momentary variables, examined main effects of setting and interactions with gender and dependence. Increased craving was associated with higher rates of smoking, particularly among women. Negative affect was not associated with smoking rate, even in interaction with arousal, but restlessness was associated with substantially higher smoking rates. Women's smoking tended to be less affected by negative affect. Nicotine dependence had little moderating effect on situational influences. Smoking rates were higher when smokers were alone or with others smoking, and smoking restrictions reduced smoking rates. However, the presence of others smoking undermined the effects of restrictions. The more sensitive point-process analyses confirmed earlier findings, including the surprising conclusion that negative affect by itself was not related to smoking rates. Contrary to hypothesis, men's and not women's smoking was influenced by negative affect. Both smoking restrictions and the presence of others who are not smoking suppress smoking, but others’ smoking undermines the effects of restrictions. Point-process analyses of EMA data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate. PMID:21480683

  11. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated

    Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. Methods: We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industr...

  12. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  13. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior.

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, E S; Abd El-Moneim, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.

  14. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    K Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2. The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.

  15. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  16. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  17. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial.

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70-80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. A randomized controlled trial was planned among male prisoners in Central Jail, Bangalore city. There were 1600 convicted prisoners. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the prisoners to assess their smoking behavior by which prevalence of tobacco smoking was found. Exactly 1352 tobacco users were studied. Among them, there were 1252 smokers. Based on inclusion criteria and informed consent given by the prisoners, a sample of 600 was chosen for the study by systematic random sampling. Among the 600 prisoners, 300 were randomly selected for the study group and 300 for the control group. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among the prisoners was 92.60%. In the present study, after smoking cessation intervention, 17% showed no change in smoking, 21.66% reduced smoking, 16% stopped smoking, and 45.33% relapsed (P prison even if the living conditions are not favorable. Relatively high rate of relapse in our study indicates that some policies should be adopted to improve smokers' information on consequences of tobacco on health and motivational intervention should be added to prisoners.

  19. Examination of the association between male gender and preterm delivery.

    Brettell, Rachel; Yeh, Peter S; Impey, Lawrence W M

    2008-12-01

    To examine possible reasons why a male fetus constitutes a risk factor for preterm delivery. Retrospective study of deliveries from hospital database in a UK teaching hospital. The population comprised all deliveries >23 weeks over an 11-year period, excluding multiples, terminations and pregnancies with major abnormalities including indeterminate gender. Obstetric variables and outcomes were initially compared in male and female babies for preterm births in different gestation bands, extreme (pathways that might explain the male excess were tested. 75,725 deliveries occurred, of which 4003 (5.3%) were preterm. Males delivered preterm more frequently (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20). This was due to spontaneous (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.19-1.42) but not iatrogenic (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.05) preterm birth. There was an increased risk of pre eclampsia among preterm females. Although males were larger, and male pregnancies were more frequently nulliparous and affected by some other obstetric complications (abruption, urinary tract infection), these did not account for their increased risk. Any effect of growth restriction could not be properly determined. Being male carries an increased risk of spontaneous but not iatrogenic preterm birth. The reasons behind this remain obscure.

  20. The Effect of a "Class Smoke Free Pledge" on Breath Carbon Monoxide in Arabic Male Adolescents.

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Khader, Yousef S; Shah, Smita; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Gallagher, Robyn

    2018-04-02

    Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan. Schools were randomly assigned to receive either TAJ (Triple A in Jordan, n = 218) or TAJ-Plus (with added class smoke-free pledge, n = 215). We hypothesized that students receiving TAJ-Plus would have greater reduction in BCO levels than those only receiving the TAJ intervention. Asthma and smoking status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Smoking outcomes were collected using a BCO Monitor. Both groups had significant reductions in BCO levels post-intervention (p smoking status (p = .085), asthma status (p = .602), or a combination of the two (p = .702). An added smoke-free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma education program appears to be a promising approach to motivate adolescents to abstain from smoking in Jordan. Future research is required to determine if these results can be extended to Jordanian adolescent females. A commitment by students via a "class smoke-free" pledge can be an added incentive to motivate adolescents in Arabic-speaking countries to abstain from smoking. Social influence approaches in schools can be useful in countering the aggressive tobacco marketing campaigns targeting Jordanian and other Arabic-speaking youth. The combination of "class smoke-free" pledges and an evidence-based peer-led asthma and smoking education can be implemented in schools to influence adolescents with asthma to abstain from smoking.

  1. Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers

    Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers. PMID:25621181

  2. Exploring socio-contextual factors associated with male smoker’s intention to quit smoking

    Minsoo Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker’s intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Results Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–6.82. In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11–5.10. Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07–3.46. Conclusions A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.

  3. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder.

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-04-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects'experiences regarding dysphoria into the 'Onset of gender dysphoria,' 'Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,' and 'Changes due to receiving medical care.' The subjects reported experiencing great pain and distress because they did not fully understand that they were experiencing dysphoria and could not align their gender identity and their self-identity. All subjects described their experiences of dysphoria as negative. Additionally, all said that the dysphoria was alleviated by a medical intervention such as visiting a gender clinic, receiving a diagnosis and treatment, and changing their physical sex to the sex congruent with their gender identity. The provision of information at the gender clinic and the physical changes achieved by medical intervention exerted a positive effect both mentally and socially on the subjects, who suffered various physical, mental and social problems.

  4. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  5. Gender differences of cannabis smoking on serum leptin levels: population-based study

    Fernanda P. Moreira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008. When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039. Conclusion: Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.

  6. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  7. Workplace smoking policies and their association with male employees' smoking behaviours: a cross-sectional survey in one company in China.

    Gao, Jianing; Zheng, Pinpin; Gao, Junling; Chapman, Simon; Fu, Hua

    2011-03-01

    The present work sought to evaluate different worksite smoking control policies and their associations with employees' smoking behaviours and attitudes among Chinese male workers. This was a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered standardised questionnaire, conducted among seven production workplaces of one multinational company in Shanghai in 2008. In total, 1043 male workers were involved. Current smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, quitting intention and their potential association with workplace smoking control policies (smoke free or restricted smoking) were measured. Current smoking prevalence in workplaces where smoke-free policies had been imposed for 3 years was 55.5%, about 18% lower than in workplaces that only restricted smoking. Smokers in smoke-free workplaces also smoked 3.4 cigarettes less per day, made more quit attempts, were more confident of successfully quitting and more willing to accept a company sponsored cessation programme. Those patterns declined or were not found among the workplaces where smoking control policies had been imposed for 10 years. Smoker quitting intentions were not associated with workplace smoking policies regardless of the duration of the policies imposed. A smoke-free workplace policy was found to have a significant association with lower smoking prevalence and daily cigarette consumption, but not with employee quitting intentions. Restrictive smoking policies had no impact on employee smoking behaviours. The impact of workplace smoking control policies may vary over time.

  8. Mouths Wide Shut: Gender-Quiet Teenage Males on Gender-Bending, Gender-Passing and Masculinities

    Davidson, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Through individual narratives, three adolescent males of colour reflect on their fluid masculinities in relation to ethnicity, spirituality and sexuality. The self-described gender benders examine their complex relationships and hybrid identities, which cross the various boundaries of heteronormativity routinely legitimatised through peer norms…

  9. Smoking is a poor prognostic factor for male nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Lu-Jun; Li, Bo-Fei; Gao, Jin; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To evaluate the effect of smoking on prognosis of male nasopharyngeal carcinoma by comparing the treatment outcomes between smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 2450 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were enrolled, including 1865 male patients. Matching was performed between smokers and non-smokers in male patients according to age, UICC clinical stage, T stage, N stage and treatment. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression. Smoking index was calculated by multiplying cigarette packs per day and smoked time (year). Results: In male patients, smokers had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (70.1% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.001) and locoregional recurrent free survival (76.8% vs.82.4%, P = 0.002) compared with non-smokers. Matched-pair analysis showed that smokers kept a high risk of death compared with non-smokers (HR = 2.316, P < 0.001). High degree of smoking index (>15 pack-years) had a poor effect on overall survival (HR = 1.225, P = 0.016). When smoking index was more than 45 and 60 pack-years, the risk for death increased to 1.498 and 1.899 fold compared with non-smokers (P = 0.040, 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Smoking was a poor prognostic factor for male nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The heavier the patients smoked, the poorer prognosis they suffered

  10. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  11. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  12. Development and validation of a smoking rationalization scale for male smokers in China.

    Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Hong; Li, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yong; Wang, Fan; Gao, Junling; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua; Ding, Ding; Chapman, Simon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a smoking rationalization scale for Chinese male smokers. A total of 35 focus groups and 19 one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect items of the scale. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the scale. Results found a 26-item scale within six dimensions (smoking functional beliefs, risk generalization beliefs, social acceptability beliefs, safe smoking beliefs, self-exempting beliefs, and quitting is harmful beliefs). The scale showed acceptable validity and reliability. Results highlight that smoking rationalization is common among Chinese male smokers, and some beliefs of smoking rationalization seem to be peculiar to China.

  13. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors.

  14. Couple's infertility in relation to male smoking in a Chinese rural area

    Fen Yang; Mao-Hua Miao; Lin Li; Jian-Ping Chen; Xiao-Qin Liu; Chun-Li Zhong; Yuan Yang; Yan-Feng Ren; Wei Yuan; Hong Liang

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor of reproductive health.However,the effect of paternal smoking on fertility has been less extensively examined.We conducted a cross-sectional study in a mountainous area of South-West China to assess the effect of male smoking on couples' fertility.A total of 8200 couples aged 18-49 years in the study area were invited to participate in the study.An in-person interview was performed to collect demographic characteristics of the couples,and husbands' life style factors including smoking and drinking habits.Information on time to pregnancy (TTP) was collected retrospectively.Infertility was defined as failure to achieve clinical pregnancy after regular unprotected intercourse for ≥12 months.Logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between male smoking and infertility.A total of 7025 couples were included in the final analysis.After adjusting for potential confounders,the couples were more likely to suffer from infertility if the husbands smoked (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.28,95% Cl:1.08-1.52) before the first pregnancy.After the analyses were performed according to husbands' smoking duration,an increased risk started at a relatively longer smoking duration of 5-10 years (aOR = 1.58,95% Cl:1.26-1.99) and a stronger association (aOR = 3.34,95% Cl:2.45-4.56) was observed in the group of ≥10 years.Similar patterns were found for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the total amount of cigarettes smoked.From our findings,we conclude that male smoking may have an adverse impact on couples' infertility.

  15. Impact of drinking and smoking habits on cerebrovascular disease risk among male employees.

    Hatanaka, Yoko; Shimokata, Keiko; Osugi, Shigeki; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2016-10-07

    We aimed to analyze the impact of drinking and smoking behavior on the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases among male employees aged 20-46 years. Twenty years of follow-up data of male employees enrolled in the DENSO Health Insurance Program were used for analyses. Of 29,048 male employees aged 20-46 years who were enrolled in the insurance program in 1994, 25,084 (86.4%) employees underwent annual health check-ups until 2003 without missing an appointment. Of these 25,084 employees, the data of 11,784 (40.6%) employees who self-reported drinking and smoking habits were used for analyses. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cerebrovascular disease in 2004-2013 were calculated in four risk groups categorized as per drinking and smoking behavior in the young group who were in their 20s and the middle-aged group who were in their 30s-40s in 1994. Based on their drinking behavior, participants were categorized into two groups: "not drinking or drinking sometimes" and "drinking every day." Based on their smoking behavior, participants were also categorized into two groups: "not smoking for 10 years" and "smoking for 10 years." A Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that after controlling for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and age, the hazard ratios for "smoking and drinking every day" were 3.82 (95% CI: 1.40-10.41) in the young group and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.27-4.17) in the middle-aged group. Male employees who had been drinking and smoking for 10 years had a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. To prevent cerebrovascular diseases among male employees, it may be effective to offer behavior change interventions for both drinking and smoking habits, regardless of the age group.

  16. Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in childhood.

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005-2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From Metrosexual to Retrosexual: The Importance of Shifting Male Gender Roles to Feminism

    Anderson, Katherine Noel

    2008-01-01

    The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in society. The emergence of the metrosexual in the 1990s through 2005 was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to ...

  18. Gender difference and effect of pharmacotherapy: findings from a smoking cessation service

    N. J. Walker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. Methods A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1, validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme. Main effects fitted were: client gender; age; region; the type of advisory sessions; and pharmacotherapy, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT or Varenicline. A second model was fitted including all main effects plus two-way interactions except region. These models were repeated using 12-week self-reported quit as the outcome. Results At 4 weeks, all main effects were statistically significant, with males more likely (odds ratio and 95 % CI, females v males = 0.88 [0.79–0.97], older smokers more likely (adjusted odds ratios [OR] and 95 % confidence interval [CI] respectively for groups 20–29, 30–49, 50–69 and 70+ vs 12–19 age group: 1.79 [1.39–2.31], 2.12 [1.68–2.68], 2.30 [1.80–2.92] and 2.47 [1.81–3.37] and for overall difference between groups, χ2(4 = 53.5, p < 0.001 and clients being treated with Varenicline more likely to have successfully quit than those on NRT (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for Varenicline vs NRT = 1.41 [1.21–1.64]. Statistically significant interactions were observed between (i gender and type of counselling, and (ii age and type of counselling. Similar results were seen in relation to main effects at 12 weeks except that type of counselling was non-significant. The only significant interaction at this stage was between gender and pharmacotherapy (adjusted OR and 95 % CI for females using Varenicline versus all other groups = 1.43 [1.06–1.94]. Conclusion Gender and

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Smoking Intention in Korean Male Middle School Students

    Ra, Jin Suk; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial factors influencing smoking intention in Korean male middle school students. We used a descriptive cross-sectional design, based on the biopsychosocial model, to analyze data from 309 male adolescents aged 14-16 years in middle school. Of the psychological factors examined, stress and risk-taking tendency were…

  20. Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

    Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute

    2017-05-01

    Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.

  1. Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines

    Sarah Banchefsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.

  2. Gender differences in the association between perceived discrimination and adolescent smoking.

    Wiehe, Sarah E; Aalsma, Matthew C; Liu, Gilbert C; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-03-01

    We examined associations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, gender, and cigarette smoking among adolescents. We examined data on Black and Latino adolescents aged 12 to 19 years who participated in the Moving to Opportunity study (N = 2561). Perceived discrimination was assessed using survey items asking about unfair treatment because of race/ethnicity in the prior 6 months. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between discrimination and smoking, stratified by gender and controlling for covariates. One fourth of adolescents reported that discrimination had occurred in at least 1 location. Discrimination was associated with increased odds of smoking among boys (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 3.0) and decreased odds among girls (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.3, 1.1). Discrimination at school or work contributed to associations for girls (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1, 0.9), and discrimination at shops (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.8) and by police (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4) contributed to associations for boys. Associations between discrimination and smoking differ by gender. Girls' decreased smoking in higher-discrimination settings may be a result of protective factors associated with where they spend time. Boys' increased smoking in higher-discrimination settings may reflect increased stress from gender-specific targeting by police and businesses.

  3. Stereotype Threat, Gender-Role Conformity, and New Zealand Adolescent Males in Choirs

    Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan

    2017-01-01

    Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…

  4. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Predictors of Tobacco Smoking in Male Adolescents in Hamadan Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Majid Barati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.

  6. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  7. Smoking behavior of Mexicans: patterns by birth-cohort, gender, and education.

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Lillard, Dean R; Balmori de la Miyar, Josè R

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about historical smoking patterns in Mexico. Policy makers must rely on imprecise predictions of human or fiscal burdens from smoking-related diseases. In this paper we document intergenerational patterns of smoking, project them for future cohorts, and discuss those patterns in the context of Mexico's impressive economic growth. We use retrospectively collected information to generate life-course smoking prevalence rates of five birth-cohorts, by gender and education. With dynamic panel data methods, we regress smoking rates on indicators of economic development. Smoking is most prevalent among men and the highly educated. Smoking rates peaked in the 1980s and have since decreased, slowly on average, and fastest among the highly educated. Development significantly contributed to this decline; a 1 % increase in development is associated with an average decline in smoking prevalence of 0.02 and 0.07 percentage points for women and men, respectively. Mexico's development may have triggered forces that decrease smoking, such as the spread of health information. Although smoking rates are falling, projections suggest that they will be persistently high for several future generations.

  8. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  9. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000.

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Krieger, Nancy; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen

    2004-02-01

    We sought to describe the burden of smoking on the US population, using diverse socioeconomic measures. We analyzed data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was greatest among persons in--and independently associated with--working class jobs, low educational level, and low income. Attempts to quit showed no socioeconomic gradient, while success in quitting was greatest among those with the most socioeconomic resources. These patterns held in most but not all race/ethnicity-gender groups. Finer resolution of smoking patterns was obtained using a relational UK occupational measure, compared to the skill-based measure commonly used in US studies. Reducing social disparities in smoking requires attention to the complexities of class along with race/ethnicity and gender.

  10. Smoking cessation in Argentina: a gender-based perspective from GATS results

    Brunilda Casetta

    2018-01-01

    Background It is a common belief that men are more successful in quitting than women. However, results from the evidence are controversial. While some studies do not show differences in number of quit attempts and abstinence rates by gender, other sources find abstinence is more difficult for women. In Argentina, more girls than boys smoke, but men smoke more than women. This study aimed to measure the quitting effect evaluating the characteristics of current and f...

  11. Gender Aware Therapy: Implications for Therapists and Male Clients.

    Good, Glenn E.; And Others

    Gender Aware Therapy (GAT) has developed in recent years to synthesize feminist theory and knowledge about gender into principles of therapy equally applicable to both men and women. This paper briefly examines the roots of Gender Aware Therapy and describes its principles: (1) conceptions of gender are seen as integral aspects of psychotherapy…

  12. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  13. Gender determinants of smoking practice in Indigenous communities: an exploratory study.

    Knott, V E; Gilligan, G; Maksimovic, L; Shen, D; Murphy, M

    2016-03-01

    Despite the need to urgently reduce smoking rates among Indigenous Australians, in order to close-the-gap in life expectancy, little is known regarding how this can be achieved. This study aimed to explore whether a focus on gender specific determinants of smoking among Indigenous Australians could be identified, thus providing a potentially novel approach to underpin future efforts at intervention. A qualitative research design was employed. Eighty-two participants, comprised of 43 Indigenous women (mean age 32.15, SD, 12.47) and 39 Indigenous men (mean age 34.91, SD, 11.26), participated in one of 12 focus groups held in metropolitan, regional and rural locations in South Australia. Facilitators prompted discussion in response to the question: 'What is it like being a smoker these days?' Two experienced coders assessed data for themes using Attride-Stirling's (2002) method of analysis. Two global themes emerged for men and women. The first theme, 'It's Harder to Smoke Nowadays', encompassed sub-themes capturing changed smoking practices in response to tobacco control strategies implemented in Australia. Sub-themes of 'smoking in secrecy' coupled with an 'awareness of the effects of passive smoking' were identified among women. Among men, sub-themes that depicted tension between 'a desire to be a role model' and 'guilt about smoking' emerged. The second theme, 'Push and Pull Factors', identified a range of gender specific determinants of smoking. While similar reasons for smoking ('pull factors') were identified in men and women (e.g. addiction, boredom, stress, pleasure, mood stabiliser), different 'push factors' (reasons for not wanting to smoke) emerged. For men, sport, fitness and children were identified as reasons for not wanting to smoke, whereas women identified factors such as respect for non-smokers, and body image concerns. The current findings suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the determinants of smoking (pull factors) as well as

  14. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  15. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  16. Frequency of smoking among males and its impact on the quality of life

    Unsal, A.; Ayranci, U.; Tozun, M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine frequency of smoking among males aged 40 and above and to evaluate its impact on health related quality of life (HRQOL). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a region of western Turkey between January, 1, and February, 30 2009. A questionnaire concerning demographics, smoking and health related quality of life (HRQOL) was filled by the subjects. Chi Square (x2) test, Student's t test, variance (ANOVA) and Spearman Correlation analyses were performed when the data were being evaluated. The frequency of smoking was 47.1%. In those smoking, the scores received from the other fields of SF-36 scale except for the emotional field were significantly lower in those not smoking. As the severity of smoking increased, physical functioning, physical body pain, general health perception, and the vitality scores showed significant decrease (p<0.05, for each domain). Smoking has a negative impact on health related quality of life. Public health education highlighting ill effects of smoking and Tobacco use need to be initiated which can be an effective preventive strategy. (author)

  17. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    Tracy Onega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004–2006, we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.28–1.86, although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87–1.32. Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men (OR=1.32; 95% CI:1.00–1.76, but not for women (OR=0.85; 95% CI:0.61–1.14. An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34–1.93. For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  18. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Butterly, L.; Butterly, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004-2006), we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54 , 95% CI 1.28-1.86), although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32). Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men ( OR = 1.32; 95% CI:1.00-1.76. but not for women (OR = 0.85; 95% CI:0.61-1.14). An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34-1.93). For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  19. The impact of smoke-free legislation on reducing exposure to secondhand smoke: differences across gender and socioeconomic groups.

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-Wei; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2015-01-01

    On 11 January 2009, Taiwan expanded its smoke-free legislation to all indoor public places and workplaces. This study examined the impact of this policy on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in adult non-smokers, across gender and socioeconomic status groups (SES). An annual sample of about 13,000-14,000 non-smokers was drawn from cross-sectional nationwide data of Taiwan Adult Tobacco Behavior Surveys during 2005-2011. Logistic regressions were used to analyse the aggregate data to estimate the association between the 2009 smoke-free legislation and SHS exposures in homes and workplaces. Interaction terms were used to examine the impact of the 2009 smoke-free policy on reducing differences in SHS exposure across gender, education and income groups. The 2009 policy reduced the odds of SHS exposure in homes in 2009 (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.84) and in workplaces (year 2009: OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.62; year 2010: OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). The model with interaction terms showed that men were more likely than women to be exposed to workplace SHS (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.27) but were less likely to be exposed to home SHS (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86). SHS exposure in homes was significantly related to lower socioeconomic status, but the 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the difference in SHS exposure across education levels. The 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the SHS exposure for non-smokers. However, this impact on home SHS did not persist after 2009, and the effect of protection was unequal across gender and SES groups. Thus, further enforcement of smoking restrictions would be needed to reduce the risk of SHS exposure and improve protection against SHS risk among parts of the population with lower socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Gender-specific association between tobacco smoking and central obesity among 0.5 million Chinese people: the China Kadoorie Biobank Study.

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors are well-known important modifiable risk factors for obesity; the association between tobacco smoking and central obesity, however, is largely unknown in the Chinese population. This study examined the relationship between smoking and central obesity in 0.5 million Chinese adults, a population with a low prevalence of general obesity, but a high prevalence of central obesity.A total of 487,527 adults (200,564 males and 286,963 females, aged 30-79 years, were enrolled in the baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB Study conducted during 2004-2008. Waist circumference (WC and WC/height ratio (WHtR were used as measures of central obesity.The prevalence of regular smokers was significantly higher among males (60.6% than among females (2.2%. The prevalence of central obesity increased with age and BMI levels, with a significant gender difference (females>males. Of note, almost all obese adults (99.4% were centrally obese regardless of gender. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusting for age, education, physical activity, alcohol use and survey site, regular smoking was inversely associated with BMI in males (standardized regression coefficients, β= -0.093, p<0.001 and females (β= -0.025, p<0.001. Of interest, in the BMI stratification analyses in 18 groups, all βs of regular smoking for WHtR were positive in both genders; the βs showed a significantly greater increasing trend with increasing BMI in males than in females. In the analyses with model adjustment for BMI, the positive associations between regular smoking and WHtR were stronger in males (β= 0.021, p<0.001 than in females (β= 0.008, p<0.001 (p<0.001 for gender difference. WC showed considerably consistent results.The data indicate that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for central obesity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the adjustment for general obesity.

  1. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  2. Gender, economics and culture: diversity and the international evolution of smoking prevalence.

    Stevens, Andy R A; Caan, Woody

    2008-05-01

    To examine whether the observed diversity between national patterns of smoking prevalence could require modification of the World Health Organization (WHO) linear model for an international 'smoking pandemic' (a worldwide epidemic) to address data from non-western countries. We conducted secondary research using current measures in three publicly available databases: Globalink, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank (all Internet-accessible). The measures we used are the separate percentage data for men and women on: smoking and employment and national income per capita (US$) and percentage growth per annum. Regression analysis showed that women smokers were more frequent in countries with higher national income, but women were less likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Men were less likely to smoke in countries with higher national income, but more likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Two principle components together explained 62% of all the variance in the international data. The largest factor was positively correlated with the percentage of employed females, the percentage of female smokers and national income per capita, but negatively correlated with the percentage of male smokers and percentage annual. growth. The effect of female employment was not continuous, but above a threshold of 51%, was associated with a higher prevalence of female smoking. The smaller, second factor was only weakly correlated with any smoking variables. In his 1994 model (subsequently adopted by the WHO) Lopez looked at historical trends in 'stages' of smoking prevalence. These have been associated with 'stages' of economic development. We extended this analysis to look at a dynamic change (% annual growth) and a social indicator (employment). Male and female smoking is affected differentially by economic change and by level of income. These are also strongly related to the percentage of women in employment. This has implications for workplace

  3. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Identity in Young People who identify as Neither Male nor Female

    Boddington, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to categorising gender in western cultures, follows a binary\\ud system, where the gender of an individual must be either male or female. However,\\ud some individuals feel that their gender identity is neither male nor female, and may\\ud define themselves as non-binary. Non-binary gender has predominantly been\\ud encompassed within wider transgender research and, therefore, little is known about\\ud how young people who identify as non-binary describe their gender identity...

  5. Smoking cessation among European older adults: the contributions of marital and employment transitions by gender

    Trias Llimós, Sergi; Muszynska, Magdalena M.; Cámara, Antonio D.; Janssen, Fanny

    Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on

  6. Smoking cessation among European older adults: the contributions of marital and employment transitions by gender

    Trias Llimós, S.; Muszyńska, M.; Cámara, A.D.; Janssen, F.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on

  7. Gender and smoking-related risk of lung cancer. The Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Hein, H O

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to compare risk of lung cancer associated with smoking by gender and histologic type. A total of 30,874 subjects, 44% women, from three prospective population-based studies with initial examinations between 1964 and 1992 were followed until 1994 through the National Cancer Registry...

  8. Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Damegh, Saleh A; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care was taken to represent urban and rural communities. In urban areas, 8 schools with the largest number of students were selected. This is in addition to 3 schools, which were the only schools with special education on Islamic, Commercial and Technical programs. In the rural areas the 3 most distant schools were included in the sample. Data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires that contained questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude towards cigarette smoking. A total of 2203 students responded to the questionnaires with 83% response rate. Of the studied group, 606 (29.8%) were current smokers and among these 83.7% started smoking at the age of 15 years or less. Technical and commercial secondary school students had higher prevalence of the habit of smoking than those in general and Islamic secondary schools. It was found that the more pocket money received by the students, the higher was the prevalence of smoking. The most common reason given for cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) was the influence of friends (63.5%). Family factor, especially the brother's smoking habit (24.8%) was also important. Most of the students knew that smoking is harmful to their own health (89.3%), and to others (73.9%). The association between smoking and lung cancer was 84.3%, 80.9% for chest disease and 78.2% for heart disease, while the relation to other diseases was less known. We conclude that onset of smoking in the young is alarming. This is of immense importance in formulating health education strategies, which should be directed towards pupils, teachers and

  9. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Important… but of low status': male education leaders' views on gender in medicine.

    Risberg, Gunilla; Johansson, Eva E; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-06-01

    The implementation of and communication about matters associated with gender in medical education have been predominantly perceived as women's issues. This study aimed to explore attitudes towards and experiences of gender-related issues among key male members of faculties of medicine. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 male education leaders from the six medical schools in Sweden. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using a modified grounded theory approach. The core category--'important… but of low status'--reflects ambivalent attitudes towards gender-related issues in medicine among male education leaders. All informants were able to articulate why gender matters. As doctors, they saw gender as a determinant of health and, as bystanders, they had witnessed inequalities and the wasting of women's competence. However, they had doubts about gender-related issues and found them to be overemphasised. Gender education was seen as a threat to medical school curricula as a consequence of the time and space it requires. Gender-related issues were considered to be unscientifically presented, to mostly concern women's issues and to tend to involve 'male bashing' (i.e. gender issues were often labelled as ideological and political). Interviewees asked for facts and knowledge, but questioned specific lessons and gender theory. Experiences of structural constraints, such as prejudice, hierarchies and homosociality, were presented, making gender education difficult and downgrading it. The results indicate that male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender-related issues, but do not necessarily recognise or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine. To change this and to engage more men in gender education, faculty measures are needed to counteract prejudice and to upgrade the time allocation, merits and status of gender implementation work. Based on our findings, we present and discuss possible ways to

  11. Influence of gender role attitudes on smoking and drinking among girls from Jujuy, Argentina.

    Mejia, Raul; Kaplan, Celia P; Alderete, Ethel; Gregorich, Steven E; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate effect of gender role attitudes on tobacco and alcohol use among Argentinean girls. Cross-sectional survey of 10th grade students attending 27 randomly selected schools in Jujuy, Argentina. Questions about tobacco and alcohol use were adapted from global youth surveys. Five items with 5-point response options of agreement-disagreement assessed attitude towards egalitarian (higher score) gender roles. 2133 girls, aged 13-18 years, 71% Indigenous, 22% mixed Indigenous/European, and 7% European responded. Of these, 60% had ever smoked, 32% were current smokers, 58% ever drinkers, 27% drank in previous month, and 13% had ≥5 drinks on one occasion. Mean response to the gender role scale was 3.49 (95% Confidence Intervals = 3.41-3.57) out of 5 tending toward egalitarian attitudes. Logistic regression models using the gender role scale score as the main predictor and adjusting for demographic and social confounders showed that egalitarian gender role was associated with ever smoking (Odds Ratio = 1.25; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.09-1.44), ever drinking (Odds Ratio = 1.24; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.10-1.40), drinking in prior month (Odds Ratio = 1.21; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.07-1.37) and ≥5 drinks on one occasion (Odds Ratio = 1.15; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.00-1.33), but was not significant for current smoking. Girls in Jujuy who reported more egalitarian gender role attitudes had higher odds of smoking or drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Event-related potentials for gender discrimination: an examination between differences in gender discrimination between males and females.

    Suyama, Natsuka; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Shimizu, Hideki; Saito, Hirofumi

    2008-09-01

    The event-related potentials (ERP) following presentation of male and female faces were investigated to study differences in the gender discrimination process. Visual stimuli from four categories including male and female faces were presented. For the male subjects, the P220 amplitude of the T5 area following viewing of a female face was significantly larger than that following viewing of a male face. On the other hand for female subjects, the P170 amplitude of the Cz area following observation of a male face was larger than that for a female face. The results indicate that the neural processes, including responsive brain areas used for gender discrimination by observing faces, are different between males and females.

  13. Male Iranian adolescent's reasons for having an other-gender friend.

    Bahrami, Nasim; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Bukowski, William M; Panarello, Bianca

    2016-01-21

    The aim of this study was to identify the primary reasons why male Iranian adolescents enter into other-gender friendships. A qualitative study was conducted with a sample of 21 male adolescents recruited in public places in Tehran, Iran. Information about each boy's experiences with other-gender friends was collected via semi-structured interviews whose contents were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Five reasons were identified for engaging in other-gender friendships: (a) for the purpose of entertainment, (b) financial benefits, (c) increased popularity with peers, (d) sensation seeking and (e) sexual experiences. This study revealed that adolescent males do not follow appropriate goals for communicating with the other-gender. In many cases, these goals could endanger their own health and the health of their other-gender friends. Future researchers must focus on identifying and understanding the factors that influence an adolescent to enter into an other-gender friendship.

  14. [Effects of a smoking cessation education on smoking cessation, endothelial function, and serum carboxyhemoglobin in male patients with variant angina].

    Cho, Sook Hee

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking cessation education on endothelial function and carboxyhemoglobin levels in smokers with variant angina. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 60 male smokers with variant angina admitted to one hospital: the control group (30) between September and December, 2009, and the experimental group (30) between February and May, 2010. Endothelial function, as defined by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and serum carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were determined at baseline and at 3 months after the initiation of education in both groups. Three months after the program, smoking cessation was successful in 22 of the 30 smokers in the experimental group, but only in 4 of 30 smokers in the control group (p<.001). After the education, the experimental group showed a significant increase in FMD, and a significant decreased in serum COHb compared with the control group. The findings indicate that this smoking cessation education program is effective for hospitalized smokers with variant angina.

  15. Global Research on Smoking and Pregnancy—A Scientometric and Gender Analysis

    Mathias Mund

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is considered to be amongst the most harmful avoidable risk factors. In this scientometric and gender study scientific data on smoking and pregnancy was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified h-index in combination with gender-specific investigations. Covering a time period from 1900 to 2012, publishing activities of 27,955 authors, institutions and countries, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were analyzed and interpreted. Out of 10,043 publications the highest number of scientific works were published in the USA (35.5%, followed by the UK (9.9% and Canada (5.3%. These nations also achieve the highest modified h-indices of 128, 79 and 62 and the highest citation rates of 41.4%, 8.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Out of 12,596 scientists 6,935 are female (55.1%, however they account for no more than 49.7% of publications (12,470 and 42.8% of citations (172,733. The highest percentage of female experts about smoking and pregnancy is found in Australasia (60.7%, while the lowest is found in Asia (41.9%. The findings of the study indicate an increase in gender equality as well as in quantity and quality of international scientific research about smoking and pregnancy in the future.

  16. Global Research on Smoking and Pregnancy—A Scientometric and Gender Analysis

    Mund, Mathias; Kloft, Beatrix; Bundschuh, Matthias; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A.; Gerber, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is considered to be amongst the most harmful avoidable risk factors. In this scientometric and gender study scientific data on smoking and pregnancy was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified h-index in combination with gender-specific investigations. Covering a time period from 1900 to 2012, publishing activities of 27,955 authors, institutions and countries, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were analyzed and interpreted. Out of 10,043 publications the highest number of scientific works were published in the USA (35.5%), followed by the UK (9.9%) and Canada (5.3%). These nations also achieve the highest modified h-indices of 128, 79 and 62 and the highest citation rates of 41.4%, 8.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Out of 12,596 scientists 6,935 are female (55.1%), however they account for no more than 49.7% of publications (12,470) and 42.8% of citations (172,733). The highest percentage of female experts about smoking and pregnancy is found in Australasia (60.7%), while the lowest is found in Asia (41.9%). The findings of the study indicate an increase in gender equality as well as in quantity and quality of international scientific research about smoking and pregnancy in the future. PMID:24879489

  17. The Perception towards National Anti-Smoking Initiatives among Malay Male Smokers

    Suriani ISMAIL; Muhamad Hanafiah JUNI; Kulanthayan KCMANI; Muhamad Suhainizam SALILUDDIN; Raja Ahmad ZAKWAN; Ling Rong TIONG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia 2011 reported that the prevalence of smoking was highest among Malays male i.e., 24.6% (CI:22.1,27.3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of a group of smokers towards various national anti-smoking initiatives as well as its association with age and education level.Methods: The study was conducted in a randomly selected pre-dominantly Malay settlement in Malaysia using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The n...

  18. Effect of gender, age, diet and smoking status on chronomics of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians.

    Singh, Ranjana; Sharma, Sumita; Singh, Rajesh K; Mahdi, Abbas A; Singh, Raj K; Lee Gierke, Cathy; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Circulating lipid components were studied under near-normal tropical conditions (around Lucknow) in 162 healthy volunteers - mostly medical students, staff members and members of their families (103 males and 59 females; 7 to 75y), subdivided into 4 age groups: A (7-20y; N=42), B (21-40y; N=60), C (41-60y; N=35) and D (61-75y; N=25). Blood samples were collected from each subject every 6h for 24h (4 samples). Plasma was separated and total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids and total lipids were measured spectrophotometrically. Data from each subject were analyzed by cosinor. We examined by multiple-analysis of variance how the MESOR (Midline Estimating Statistic Of Rhythm, a rhythm-adjusted mean) and the circadian amplitude of these variables is affected by gender, age, diet (vegetarian vs. omnivore), and smoking status. In addition to effects of gender and age, diet and smoking were found to affect the MESOR of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians residing in northern India. Age also affected the circadian amplitude of these variables. These results indicate the possibility of using non-pharmacological interventions to improve a patient's metabolic profile before prescribing medication under near normal tropical conditions. They also add information that may help refine cut-off values in the light of factors shown here to affect blood lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  20. Gender-specific modifying effect on the educational disparities in the impact of smoking on health expectancy

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking reduces life years in good health but it is unclear how education modifies the impact of smoking. We hypothesize that the vulnerability of the effect of smoking on health expectancy decreases with educational level in both genders and examine the contributions of mortality...... by exposure to smoking but the effect of health status increased by educational level for men and decreased for women. CONCLUSION: The social differential vulnerability to the effect of smoking differed between genders. Thus, whereas smoking had a substantial effect on health among women with a low...... and health effects. METHODS: Life tables by educational level and smoking category were constructed from registers and survey data. For each educational level, difference in expected lifetime in self-rated good and poor health between 30-year-old never smokers and smokers were estimated and decomposed...

  1. Crossing the gender boundaries: The gender experiences of male nursing students in initial nursing clinical practice in Taiwan.

    Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Li, Yun Ling

    2017-11-01

    The initial nursing clinical practice is the necessary practicum required for nursing students. Because of the changing learning style, many of them are under great pressure for environmental change and therefore their daily routine is severe affected. Interacting directly with patients in a female-dominated occupation, along with the general gender stereotypes, the impact is especially significant to male nursing students than to female nursing students. The purpose of this preliminary qualitative study is to explore the gendered experiences of male nursing students during their first initial nursing clinical practice. Both focus group interviews and individual interviews are conducted with twenty-two sophomore nursing students from a university of technology in northern Taiwan, with ten male students and twelve female students. Two main themes emerge from the gendered experiences shared by the nursing students: Gender consciousness awakening and thus maintaining masculinity, and male advantage in the learning environments. The results identify the specific gendered experiences of nursing students, providing implications for future nursing education and counseling service. Further, this study may serve to promote an active yet gender-sensitive nursing education for training nursing professionals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Gender identity disorder: general overview and surgical treatment for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals.

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Ceulemans, Peter; De Cuypere, Griet; VanLanduyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip; Hamdi, Moustapha; Bowman, Cameron; Monstrey, Stan

    2005-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to discuss: 1. The terminology related to male-to-female gender dysphoria. 2. The different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment of gender dysphoria. 3. The surgical goals of sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. 4. The surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Gender identity disorder (previously "transsexualism") is the term used for individuals who show a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with their anatomical sex, as manifested by a preoccupation with getting rid of one's sex characteristics, or the belief of being born in the wrong sex. Since 1978, the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (in honor of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the first physicians who made many clinicians aware of the potential benefits of sex reassignment surgery) has played a major role in the research and treatment of gender identity disorder, publishing the Standards of Care for Gender Dysphoric Persons. The authors performed an overview of the terminology related to male-to-female gender identity disorder; the different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment; the goals expected; and the surgical technique available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism, with advantages and disadvantages offered by each technique, are reviewed. Other feminizing nongenital operative interventions are also examined. This review describes recent etiopathogenetic theories and actual guidelines on the treatment of the gender identity disorder in male-to-female transsexuals; the penile-scrotal skin flap technique is considered the state of the art for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals, whereas other techniques (rectosigmoid flap, local flaps, and isolated skin

  3. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  4. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2016 Print this issue Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  5. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  6. Where are the gender differences? Male priming boosts spatial skills in women

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Sieverding, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The effects of gender stereotype activation by priming on performance in a spatial task were investigated among a mixed adult sample (including students) of 161 men and women (mean age=31.90) from Austria (Europe). They were assigned to one of four experimental groups according to gender and stereotype activation condition. After a male or female gender stereotype activating task, participants worked on a test assessing mental rotation (three-dimensional cube test, Gittler 1990...

  7. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  8. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  9. Flowers, Dancing, Dresses, and Dolls: Picture Book Representations of Gender-Variant Males

    Sciurba, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, children's picture books have made great strides toward literary equity by including more perspectives from and stories about marginalized groups, such as those whose gender identities do not conform to heteronormative standards. While texts featuring gender-variant male characters engage in topics that are far too often…

  10. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  11. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  12. [Biopsychosocial variables associated with gender of rearing in children with male pseudohermaphroditism].

    Uslu, Runa; Oztop, Didem; Ozcan, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Savaş; Berberoğlu, Merih; Adiyaman, Pelin; Cakmak, Murat; Kerimoğlu, Efser; Ocal, Gönül

    2007-01-01

    The effect of parental rearing on gender identity development in children with ambiguous genitalia remains controversial. The present study aimed to address this issue by investigating the factors that may be associated with sex of rearing in children with male pseudohermaphroditism. The study included 56 children with male pseudohermaphroditism that were consecutively referred to a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. At the time of referral the age range of the sample was 6 months-14 years; 28 children had been raised as boys and 28 as girls. Demographic and biological information was obtained from patient charts. An intersex history interview was administered to the children and parents, whereas The Gender Identity Interview and the Draw-A-Person Test were administered only to the children. The children were observed during free play. Comparisons of biological, psychological and social variables were made with respect to gender of rearing. More children reared as boys were younger at time of referral, belonged to extended families, and had higher Prader scores. Although children's gender roles were appropriate for their gender of rearing, findings of the Gender Identity Interview and the Draw-A-Person Test suggested that some of the girls presented with a male or neutral gender self-perception. The relationships between age at the time of problem identification, age at the time of diagnosis, and gender of rearing indicate the importance of taking measures to ensure that the intersex condition is identified at birth and children are referred for early diagnosis, gender assignment, and treatment.

  13. Gender Matters: Working with Adult Male Survivors of Trauma

    Mejia, Ximena E.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of attention given to the application of feminist therapy in treating women, but there is little written about feminist therapy and its applications in treating men. Gender role analysis has proven to be effective in developing hope, resilience, and transcendence-3 primary sources in times of emotional distress. This…

  14. An examination of smoking behavior and opinions about smoke-free environments in a large sample of sexual and gender minority community members.

    McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin D; Zaniletti, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking rate and support for smoke-free policies in private and public environments from a large sample of self-identified sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. A targeted sampling strategy recruited participants from 4 Missouri Pride Festivals and online surveys targeted to SGM populations during the summer of 2008. A 24-item survey gathered information on gender and sexual orientation, smoking status, and questions assessing behaviors and preferences related to smoke-free policies. The project recruited participants through Pride Festivals (n = 2,676) and Web-based surveys (n = 231) representing numerous sexual and gender orientations and the racial composite of the state of Missouri. Differences were found between the Pride Festivals sample and the Web-based sample, including smoking rates, with current smoking for the Web-based sample (22%) significantly less than the Pride Festivals sample (37%; p times more likely to be current smokers compared with the study's heterosexual group (n = 436; p = .005). Statistically fewer SGM racial minorities (33%) are current smokers compared with SGM Whites (37%; p = .04). Support and preferences for public and private smoke-free environments were generally low in the SGM population. The strategic targeting method achieved a large and diverse sample. The findings of high rates of smoking coupled with generally low levels of support for smoke-free public policies in the SGM community highlight the need for additional research to inform programmatic attempts to reduce tobacco use and increase support for smoke-free environments.

  15. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in an urban setting in Lao PDR.

    Saito, Junko; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Foung, Ly; Vilaysom, Somphone; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco marketing is a contributing factor to adolescent smoking, and now targeting adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Especially, promotional items with tobacco brand logos have a great impact on adolescent smoking. The authors evaluated whether receptivity to tobacco marketing is associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in Lao PDR. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires among 526 non-smoking male students in grades 8th and 11th (aged 12-19 years) in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. The authors investigated receptivity to tobacco marketing by three measurements: awareness of tobacco marketing, recognition of tobacco marketing messages and owning/being willing to use promotional items. The authors then conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to determine whether marketing receptivity had an independent association with smoking susceptibility, which is defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke. About 20% of the participants were susceptible to smoking. Recognition of marketing messages was significantly associated with susceptibility to smoking (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08), as was any owning/being willing to use promotional items with recognition of marketing messages (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.24). In contrast, any owning/being willing to use promotional items without any recognition of marketing messages was not significantly associated with susceptibility. A significant association was detected between smoking susceptibility and marketing receptivity, which has been little explored in previous research in low-income countries. Owning/being willing to use promotional items was associated with smoking susceptibility only when there is also recognition of marketing messages.

  17. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  18. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  19. Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory.

    Gilenstam, K; Karp, S; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2008-04-01

    This study investigates how female ice hockey players describe and explain their situation within as well as outside their sport. Information was obtained by semi-structured interviews with female ice hockey players. The results were analyzed in a gender perspective where the main starting point was the concepts of different levels of power relations in society developed by Harding and applied to sports by Kolnes (the symbolic, structural, and individual level). The study shows that the players appeared to share the traditional views of men and women. They also described gender differences in terms of financial and structural conditions as well as differences in ice hockey history. Even though the players described structural inequalities, they were quite content with their situation and the differences in conditions were not considered when they explained the gender differences in ice hockey performance. At the individual level, the players considered themselves different from other women and appeared to share the traditional views of femininity and masculinity. It has been suggested that performance of a sport traditionally associated with the other sex might alter the traditional view of men and women; however, our results lend little support to this suggestion.

  20. The perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with severe mental illness participating in a smoking cessation intervention: gender differences and comparison to smokers without mental illness.

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the perceived risks and benefits of quitting in smokers diagnosed with psychosis, including potential gender differences and comparisons to smokers in the general population. Data were collected from 200 people diagnosed with psychosis participating in a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention for smoking cessation and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in people with severe mental illness. Results were compared with both treatment and non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. Male and female smokers with psychosis generally had similar perceived risks and benefits of quitting. Females rated it significantly more likely that they would experience weight gain and negative affect upon quitting than males diagnosed with psychosis. Compared with smokers in the general population also seeking smoking cessation treatment, this sample of smokers with psychosis demonstrated fewer gender differences and lower ratings of perceived risks and benefits of quitting. The pattern of risk and benefit ratings in smokers diagnosed with psychosis was similar to those of non-treatment seeking smokers in the general population. These results increase our understanding of smoking in people with severe mental illness, and can directly inform smoking interventions to maximise successful abstinence for this group of smokers. For female smokers with psychosis, smoking cessation interventions need to address concerns regarding weight gain and negative affect. Intervention strategies aimed at enhancing beliefs about the benefits of quitting smoking for both male and female smokers with psychosis are necessary. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Promoting smoking cessation in Bangladeshi and Pakistani male adults: design of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community smoking cessation workers

    Gill Paramjit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, but evidence suggests that these populations do not use National Health Service run stop smoking clinics as frequently as would be expected given their high prevalence of smoking. This study aims to tackle some of the main barriers to use of stop smoking services and adherence to treatment programmes by redesigning service delivery to be more acceptable to these adult male populations. The study compares the effectiveness of trained Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation workers operating in an outreach capacity ('clinic + outreach' with standard care ('clinic only' to improve access to and success of National Health Service smoking cessation services. Methods/design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial based in Birmingham, UK. Super output areas of Birmingham will be identified in which more than 10% of the population are of Pakistani and/or Bangladeshi origin. From these areas, 'natural geographical communities' will be identified. Sixteen aggregated agglomerations of super output areas will be identified, separating areas from each other using buffer regions in order to reduce potential contamination. These natural communities will be randomised to 'clinic + outreach' (intervention or 'clinic only' (control arms. The use of stop smoking services and the numbers of people quitting smoking (defined as prolonged self-reported abstinence at four weeks, three months and six months will be assessed in each area. In addition, we will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to smoking cessation treatments and patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 82127540.

  2. Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: differences by gender and sexual orientation.

    Blosnich, John R; Horn, Kimberly

    2011-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.

  3. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai

    2015-10-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines.

  5. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important.

  6. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  7. Gender Differences in the Transmission of Smoking From Filipino Parents to Their Offspring: The Role of Parenting, School Climate, and Negative Emotions.

    Barrera, Dan Jerome

    2017-09-19

    This article examines gender differences in the transmission of smoking, and the role of parenting, school climate, and negative emotions in the parental smoking-adolescent smoking relationship. The study used a nationally representative cross-sectional data on 5,290 Filipino secondary students. Results suggest that Filipino adolescents having parents who smoke, tend to smoke cigarettes. Maternal smoking affects both girls' and boys' smoking, but paternal smoking has no effect on both sexes. Further, parenting dimensions (support and knowledge), school climate (bullying victimization and peer support), and negative emotions (loneliness and anxiety) tend to moderate the effects of parental smoking on adolescent smoking. Some of these factors appear to protect adolescents from parental smoking, while others aggravate the effects of parental smoking. Conclusions/Importance: Current findings suggest important theoretical and practical implications on the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking.

  8. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces.

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  9. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in South Africa: Addressing HIV and Gender Relations

    Fischer-Nielsen, Sara; Møller, Sabrah

    2011-01-01

    The thesis scrutinizes how gender relations and women’s and men’s control of sexual health are influenced by the intervention of male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa. The analytical framework combines the theory of therapeutic citizenship, post-development theory and gender theory. We argue that the individual man’s choice to circumcise is being challenged by international HIV prevention methods emphasizing men’s responsibility in HIV prevention. In South Africa, current chang...

  11. Male Gender and Arterial Hypertension are Plaque Predictors at Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Gabriel, Fabíola Santos; Hirata, Thiago Dominguez Crespo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Dória, Fabiana de Santana; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), in addition to male gender. Differences in coronary artery lesions between hypertensive and normotensive individuals of both genders at the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) have not been clearly determined. Objective To Investigate the calcium score (CS), CAD extent and characteristics of coronary plaques at CCTA in men and women with and without SAH. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study of 509 patients undergoing CCTA for CAD diagnosis and risk stratification, from November 2011 to December 2012, at Instituto de Cardiologia Dante Pazzanese. Individuals were stratified according to gender and subdivided according to the presence (HT +) or absence (HT-) of SAH. Results HT+ women were older (62.3 ± 10.2 vs 57.8 ± 12.8, p = 0.01). As for the assessment of CAD extent, the HT+ individuals of both genders had significant CAD, although multivessel disease is more frequent in HT + men. The regression analysis for significant CAD showed that age and male gender were the determinant factors of multivessel disease and CS ≥ 100. Plaque type analysis showed that SAH was a predictive risk factor for partially calcified plaques (OR = 3.9). Conclusion Hypertensive men had multivessel disease more often than women. Male gender was a determinant factor of significant CAD, multivessel disease, CS ≥ 100 and calcified and partially calcified plaques, whereas SAH was predictive of partially calcified plaques. PMID:25861034

  12. No Girls Allowed: Women in Male-Dominated Majors Experience Increased Gender Harassment and Bias.

    Dresden, Brooke E; Dresden, Alexander Y; Ridge, Robert D; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of gender harassment in male-dominated workforces has been well established, but little is known regarding the experiences of women in male-dominated majors within academia. The current study examines the experiences and gender-related biases of 146 male and female students in male-dominated (MD) and gender-equivalent (GE) majors. This study hypothesizes that men from MD majors, as opposed to GE majors, will exhibit more explicit and implicit bias regarding women in positions of power and authority, resulting in a higher prevalence of gender harassment towards women in MD majors. Results showed that there was no significant difference in self-reported explicit bias against women in positions of power and authority between men from MD and GE majors, but there was significantly more implicit bias among men from MD majors as opposed to GE majors. Additionally, women from MD majors experienced significantly more gender harassment than women from GE majors. Implications of these findings and suggestions to assist those working in education to combat these biases and instances of harassment are discussed.

  13. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  14. Cigarette smoking in male patients with chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese population: prevalence and relationship to clinical phenotypes.

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.

  15. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States.

    Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years) to 1982 (6.7 years), the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific) mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40–50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated. PMID:26273613

  17. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years to 1982 (6.7 years, the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40–50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated.

  18. [The effort of being male: a survey on gender and burnout].

    Maccacaro, G; Di Tommaso, Francesca; Ferrai, Paola; Bonatti, Daniela; Bombana, Susanna; Merseburger, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Stress at work affects more than 40 million people in the European Union - around 22% of workers - and is the second most reported work-related health problem. Gender does not seem to be a constant predictive factor for burnout: some studies showed that women suffer more from burnout than males, other studies proved that males report higher burnout scores while others did not detect any difference at all. These results may be due to gender-related stereotypes, or could even reiflect the preponderance of a specific gender in some jobs. To determine whether gender might be among the relevant variables in job burnout studies. In 2008-2009 a study on burnout was carried out in a Healthcare Trust in northern Italy. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were distributed to physicians, administrative staff and auxiliary personnel of hospital departments and local services. A total of l, 604 JCQ's and 1,604 MBI's were analysed, corresponding to 37% of the distributed tests. Results of logistic regression showed that gender, shift work and a low score in relationships with superiors were significantly associated with burnout. Considering the tasks of physicians and nurses, the burnout frequency was 3.78% for physicians and 1.97% for nurses, with higher percentages in males than in females. Women with children reported an average burnout frequency that was lower than the average of the whole population studied while men with children had a double burnout frequency compared to the average. Male gender is significantly associated with a burnout condition. Moreover, our findings have shown that physicians experience an excess burnout compared to nurses although this excess did not achieve statistical significance when taking into account distribution according to gender in the two professions.

  19. Blood Pressure and Its Association with Gender, Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Family History among University Students

    Hussein H. Alhawari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the major risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we will assess the frequency of hypertension among healthy university students and its association with gender, body mass index, smoking, and family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We screened healthy university students ranging from 18 to 26 years of age. For each participant, we performed blood pressure measurements using a previously validated device and obtained demographic data, body mass index (BMI, smoking status, and family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Out of the total number of 505 participants included in this study, 35.2% have blood pressure between 130/80 and 139/89, and 13.5% have blood pressure of more than 140/90. We found significant gender differences in both systolic pressure (p = 0.003 with mean difference = 18.08 mmHg (CI: 16.13 to 19.9 and diastolic pressure (p = 0.011 with mean difference = 3.6 mmHg (CI: 2.06 to 5.14, higher in males than in females. Upon comparing the mean difference in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with BMI, we found significant differences in both systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.002 blood pressure. We also found that smokers have significantly (p = 0.025 higher systolic blood pressure (mean difference = 4.2 mmHg, CI: 3.2 mmHg to 8.8 mmHg, but no significant difference for diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.386, compared to nonsmokers. First-degree family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases affected systolic but not diastolic blood pressure. Taking into account the adverse short- and long-term effect of hypertension, we recommend adopting an awareness program highlighting the importance of screening blood pressure in young adolescent populations, keeping in mind that both high BMI and smoking are important modifiable factors.

  20. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Bonomi, Amy E.; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association...

  1. Gender Variance and Sexual Orientation Among Male Spirit Mediums in Myanmar.

    Coleman, Eli; Allen, Mariette Pathy; Ford, Jessie V

    2018-05-01

    This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life. Myanmar remains quite a homophobic and transphobic culture but is undergoing rapid economic and social change. Therefore, it provides an interesting context to study how safe spaces are produced for sexual/gender minorities amidst broader social change. We find that, through the animistic belief structure, there is a growing space for gender nonconforming people, gender variant, and same-sex-oriented individuals (achout) to neutralize their stigmatized status and attain a level of respect and economic advantage. Their ability to become nat kadaw (mediums of spirits) mitigates or trumps their stigmatized status.

  2. Male gender and prematurity are risk factors for incarceration in pediatric inguinal hernia: A study of 922 children

    Amine Ksia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: IH occurs mainly in male infants. Prematurity and male gender were identified as risk factors of incarceration. Contralateral metachronous hernia was reported, especially in female infants and after a left side surgical repair of the hernia.

  3. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  4. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  5. Digital Games, Gender and Learning in Engineering: Do Females Benefit as Much as Males?

    Joiner, Richard; Iacovides, Jo; Owen, Martin; Gavin, Carl; Clibbery, Stephen; Darling, Jos; Drew, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore whether there is a gender difference in the beneficial effects of Racing Academy, which is a video game used to support undergraduate students learning of Mechanical Engineering. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduate students (15 females and 123 males) participated in the study. The students completed a…

  6. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  7. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g.

  8. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  9. Gender-atypical personality or sexual behavior: What is disgusting about male homosexuality?

    Caswell, T Andrew; Sackett-Fox, Kyrsten

    2018-01-15

    Research consistently finds that homosexuality elicits strong feelings of disgust, but the reasons remain unclear. In the current research, we investigate responses to gay men who violate social norms governing the expression of gender and sexuality. Two hundred forty-three college undergraduates read a vignette about a gay male college student whose personality traits (masculine, feminine, or neutral) and sexual behavior (active vs. passive) varied and reported their affective responses to and cognitive appraisals of the target. The gay target who displayed a feminine personality elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who displayed a masculine personality. Similarly, the gay target who assumed a passive sex role elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who assumed an active sex role. The sexual behavior/disgust relationship was mediated by perceived gender role conformity.

  10. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness.

  11. Gender Differences in Human Single Neuron Responses to Male Emotional Faces

    Morgan eNewhoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  12. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Jennifer Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  13. Male gender identity in children with 46,XX DSD with congenital adrenal hyperplasia after delayed presentation in mid-childhood.

    Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Laila, Kamrun; Hutson, John M; Banu, Tahmina

    2015-12-01

    Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) diagnosed at birth have some masculine behaviors but rarely convert to male gender. In developing countries, however, diagnosis and treatment (with secondary androgen suppression) are delayed. We aimed to assess effect of delayed treatment of CAH on gender identity. As part of a cross-sectional, case-control study of children with disorders of sex development (DSD), there were 11 patients with CAH. Patients and caregivers answered a questionnaire about gender identity, and behavior was assessed by observing toy play. Patients were examined for Prader score and gender identity. Of 11 CAH patients initially raised as girls, 3 (27%) had converted to male gender at presentation (5, 9, 9years) (Prader 3, 4, 4). Of the remaining 8 patients, one 4-year-old (Prader 2) had a male gender identity score. The remaining girls (2-13years, mean 8.1) (Prader 1-3) had gender identity scores in the female range. One third (4/11) of CAH patients presenting in mid-childhood had male gender identity scores, and ¾ had assumed male gender role. Although social and cultural factors are important in developing countries, this result suggests that delayed treatment may trigger male gender identity, and delayed female genital surgery may be unwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  16. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  17. Bullying, Physical Aggression, Gender-Atypicality, and Sexual Orientation in Samoan Males.

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    Bullying is characterized by the repeated attempts of a group or individual to gain social advantage by the use of relational, verbal, or physical aggression against a target, especially when there is a perceived or actual power imbalance (Espelage & Swearer, 2003). One consistent finding is that gay (i.e., androphilic) males report higher rates of victimization due to bullying in adolescence than their heterosexual (i.e., gynephilic) counterparts. Western data indicate that gender-atypical behavior, regardless of sexual orientation, is a key predictor of victimization due to bullying. Androphilic males generally display childhood gender-atypicality, including reduced levels of physical aggression, which may cause bullies to perceive them as "easy" targets. In order to test the associations between sexual orientation, childhood gender-atypicality, and recalled victimization due to bullying, a sample of Samoan gynephilic men (n = 100) were compared to a group of Samoan transgender androphilic males (n = 103), known as fa'afafine. Although the fa'afafine reported far more childhood gender-atypicality, the two groups did not differ significantly on measures of physical aggression or their reported rates of victimization due to bullying. Additionally, greater physical aggression, not gender-atypicality, was the only significant predictor of being bullied in both men and fa'afafine. These results suggest that there is nothing inherent in sexual orientation or childhood gender-atypicality that would potentiate victimization from bullying. Instead, the cultural context in which a bully functions influences the extent to which these are "acceptable" reasons to target certain individuals.

  18. Male gender is not a risk factor for the outcome of laparoscopiccholecystectomy: A single surgeon experience

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted thisprospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse inmen than women. Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs wereperformed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Wecollected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2),the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission(elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute) cholecystitis[AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to opencholecystectomy, complications, operation time and length of postoperativehospital stay. Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched forage, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidence of AC (P=0.003) andcomobrid disease (P=0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women weresignificantly more obese than men (P<0.001) and had a higher incidence ofprevious abdominal surgery (P=0.017). There were no statistical differencesbetween genders with regards to rate of conversion (P=0.372) andcomplications (P=0.647) and operation time (P=0.063). The postoperative staywas significantly longer in men than women (P=0.001). Logistic regressionanalysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor ofconversion (Odds ratio [or] = 0.37 and P=0.43) or complications (OR=0.42,P=0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not anindependent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longerpostoperative stay (P=0.02). Male gender is not an independent risk factorfor satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon. (author)

  19. Should male gender assignment be considered in the markedly virilized patient With 46,XX and congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P; Husmann, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    We assess the outcome in 46,XX men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were born with Prader 4 or 5 genitalia and assigned male gender at birth. After receiving institutional review board approval and subject consent we reviewed the medical records of 12 men 35 to 69 years old with 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia, of whom 6 completed social and gender issue questionnaires. All subjects were assigned male gender at birth, were diagnosed with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia at age greater than 3 years and indicated a male gender identity with sexual orientation to females. Ten of the 12 subjects had always lived as male and 2 who were reassigned to female gender in childhood subsequently self-reassigned as male. Nine of the 12 men had long-term female partners, including 7 married 12 years or more. The 3 subjects without a long-term female partner included 1 priest, 1 who was reassigned female gender, married, divorced and self-reassigned as male, and 1 with a girlfriend and sexual activity. All except the priest and the subject who was previously married when female indicated a strong libido and frequent orgasmic sexual activity. Responses to self-esteem, masculinity, body image, social adjustment and symptom questionnaires suggested adjustments related to the extent of familial and social support. Outcome data on severely masculinized 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were assigned male gender at birth indicate male gender identity in adulthood with satisfactory male sexual function in those retaining male genitalia. In men who completed questionnaires results were poorer in those lacking familial/social support. Male gender of rearing may be a viable option for parents whose children are born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a 46,XX karyotype and male genitalia, although positive parental and other support, and counseling are needed for adjustment. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research

  20. Separation anxiety among birth-assigned male children in a specialty gender identity service.

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Santarossa, Alanna; Nabbijohn, A Natisha; Wood, Hayley; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggested that separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is overrepresented among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for gender dysphoria (GD). The present study examined maternally reported separation anxiety of birth-assigned male children assessed in a specialty gender identity service (N = 360). SAD was determined in relation to DSM-III and DSM-IV criteria, respectively. A dimensional metric of separation anxiety was examined in relation to several additional factors: age, ethnicity, parental marital status and social class, IQ, gender nonconformity, behavioral and emotional problems, and poor peer relations. When defined in a liberal fashion, 55.8% were classified as having SAD. When using a more conservative criterion, 5.3% were classified as having SAD, which was significantly greater than the estimated general population prevalence for boys, but not for girls. Dimensionally, separation anxiety was associated with having parents who were not married or cohabitating as well as with elevations in gender nonconformity; however, the association with gender nonconformity was no longer significant when statistically controlling for internalizing problems. Thus, SAD appears to be common among birth-assigned males clinic-referred for GD when defined in a liberal fashion, and more common than in boys, but not girls, from the general population even when more stringent criteria were applied. Also, the degree of separation anxiety appears to be linked to generic risk factors (i.e., parental marital status, internalizing problems). As such, although separation anxiety is common among birth-assigned male children clinic-referred for GD, it seems unlikely to hold unique significance for this population based on the current data.

  1. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  2. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands : A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime

  3. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, F.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime

  4. Male Prison Inmates With Gender Dysphoria: When Is Sex Reassignment Surgery Appropriate?

    Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.

  5. The "here and now" of youth: the meanings of smoking for sexual and gender minority youth.

    Antin, Tamar M J; Hunt, Geoffrey; Sanders, Emile

    2018-05-31

    The mainstream tobacco field in the USA tends to situate youth as passive, particularly in terms of their susceptibility to industry manipulation and peer pressure. However, failing to acknowledge youths' agency overlooks important meanings youth ascribe to their tobacco use and how those meanings are shaped by the circumstances and structures of their everyday lives. This article is based on analysis of 58 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with sexual and gender minority youth living in the San Francisco Bay area in California. Topics covered in interviews focused on meanings of tobacco in the lives of youth. Interviews lasted approximately 2.5 h and were transcribed verbatim and linked with ATLAS.ti, a qualitative data analysis software. Following qualitative coding, narrative segments were sorted into piles of similarity identified according to principles of pattern-level analysis to interpret to what extent meanings of smoking for young people may operate as forms of resistance, survival, and defense. Analysis of our participants' narratives highlights how smoking is connected to what Bucholtz calls the "'here-and-now' of young people's experience, the social and cultural practices through which they shape their worlds" as active agents (Bucholtz, Annu Rev Anthropol31:525-52, 2003.). Specifically, narratives illustrate how smoking signifies "control" in a multitude of ways, including taking control over an oppressor, controlling the effects of exposure to traumatic or day-to-day stress, and exerting control over the physical body in terms of protecting oneself from violence or defending one's mental health. These findings call into question the universal appropriateness of foundational elements that underlie tobacco control and prevention efforts directed at youth in the USA, specifically the focus on abstinence and future orientation. Implications of these findings for research, prevention, and policy are discussed, emphasizing the risk of furthering

  6. A longitudinal analysis of Hispanic youth acculturation and cigarette smoking: the roles of gender, culture, family, and discrimination.

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs.

  7. A Longitudinal Analysis of Hispanic Youth Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking: The Roles of Gender, Culture, Family, and Discrimination

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Methods: Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Results: Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. Conclusions: In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs. PMID:23109671

  8. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.

  9. Gender, Reflexivity, and Positionality in Male Research in One's Own Community With Filipino Seafarers' Wives

    Roderick G. Galam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the epistemological, methodological, and ethical issues related to undertaking a cross-gender research (male researcher with female participants in one's own community. It also examines issues of analysis and representation germane to taking a gendered perspective in this study of the lives and experiences of left-behind women. The article frames the discussion of these issues within four interrelated sites or levels of reflexivity: theoretical reflexivity, gender and fieldwork relations, positionality and the insider/outsider dynamic, and representation. The conclusion reflects on the ethical obligation a researcher conducting a study in one's own community bears and the consequences of this ethical burden on representation. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503139

  10. Rubbing Elbows and Blowing Smoke: Gender, Class, and Science in the Nineteenth-Century Patent Office.

    Swanson, Kara W

    2017-03-01

    The United States Patent Office of the 1850s offers a rare opportunity to analyze the early gendering of science. In its crowded rooms, would-be scientists shared a workplace with women earning equal pay for equal work. Scientific men worked as patent examiners, claiming this new occupation as scientific in opposition to those seeking to separate science and technology. At the same time, in an unprecedented and ultimately unsuccessful experiment, female clerks were hired to work alongside male clerks. This article examines the controversies surrounding these workers through the lens of manners and deportment. In the unique context of a workplace combining scientific men and working ladies, office behavior revealed the deep assumption that the emerging American scientist was male and middle class.

  11. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association between GBV and smoking among women in the region. A two-phase address-based random sampling approach was used in three purposefully selected Ohio Appalachian counties to identify women to complete an interviewer administered cross-sectional survey (n = 398). The primary exposure variable was GBV Index Score, a 4 level indices representing increasing exposure to eight abuse types. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were used to examine smoking correlations and risk. Almost 57% of women in the three selected Ohio Appalachian counties experienced GBV, with rate increasing to 77.5% among current smokers. The distribution of the GBV Exposure Index Score was significantly different across smoking status (p role GBV plays in health behavior and behavioral change interventions, including smoking and smoking cessation.

  12. Thinking about gender types: cognitive organization of female and male types.

    Vonk, Roos; Ashmore, Richard D

    2003-06-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. workaholic, family man, sissy, womanizer, labourer). In Study 2A, a multidimensional configuration of 229 of these male and female types was derived from a free sorting task among a new set of participants. In Study 2B, a subset of types was judged on several dimensions of meaning, which were then fitted into the configuration of types. The most important dimensions in describing the structure of gender types were: young-old, masculine-feminine and traditional-modern. The masculine-feminine dimension showed that the male and female types were largely separated from each other; within each gender category, the types were ordered by their position on the masculine-feminine dimension. Several other aspects of current thinking about men and women are discussed.

  13. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology.

    De Smedt, Delphine; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Dallongeville, Jean; Gevaert, Sofie; De Backer, Guy; Bruthans, Jan; Kotseva, Kornelia; Reiner, Željko; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Clays, Els

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in the management and risk factor control of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), taking into account their age and educational level. Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) survey. Males and females between 18 and 80years of age, hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event were included in the study. Data were available for 7998 patients of which 75.6% were males. Overall, females had a worse risk factor profile compared to males and were more likely to have 3 or more risk factors (29.5% vs. 34.9%; p<0.001) across all age groups. A significant gender by education interaction (p<0.05) and gender by age interaction effect (p<0.05) was found. Furthermore, males were more likely to have a LDL-cholesterol on target (OR=1.50[1.28-1.76]), a HbA1c on target (OR=1.33[1.07-1.64]), to be non-obese (OR=1.45[1.30-1.62]) and perform adequate physical activity (OR=1.71[1.46-2.00]). In contrast males were less likely to be non-smokers (OR=0.71[0.60-0.83]). Furthermore, males were less likely to have made a dietary change (OR=0.78[0.64-0.95]) or a smoking cessation attempt (OR=0.70[0.50-0.96]) and more likely to have received smoking cessation advice if they were smokers (OR=1.52[1.10-2.09]). Whereas gender differences in CHD treatment are limited, substantial differences were found regarding target achievement. The largest gender difference was seen in less educated and elderly patients. The gender gap declined with decreasing age and higher education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Interdependent mechanisms for processing gender and emotion:The special status of angry male faces

    Daniel A Harris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce & Young, 1986, other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000. Here we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy-angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1 or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased towards angry while female faces were biased towards happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2 we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased towards angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated.

  15. Degrees of Intersectionality: Male Rap Artists in Sweden Negotiating Class, Race and Gender

    Kalle Berggren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Intersectionality” has become a highly influential concept in gender research over the last 25 years. Debates have focused on differences and power asymmetries between women, in terms of race but also addressing class, age, sexuality, ability and nation. However, intersectional paradigms have been used to a much lesser extent in gender studies on men. This article seeks to contribute to an emerging discussion about intersectionality and masculinity by analyzing rap lyrics in Swe-dish songs. The data consists of a broad sample of rap lyrics by male artists 1991-2011, which is analyzed through poststructuralist discourse analysis and queer phenomenology. The analysis shows how classed discourses can be described in terms of orientation and flow, how racialization is articulated in terms of place, and the role of normative notions of gender and sexuality in anti-racist discourses. It is argued that this interconnectedness – class being related to race, which in turn is profoundly gendered – is neither well captured by the prevailing notion of “masculinities” in gender studies on men, nor by the “constitution” vs. “addition” dichotomy in intersectionality debates. Instead, it is suggested that degrees of in-tersectionality might be a more fruitful way of theorizing intersectionality in rela-tion to men.

  16. Gender-Associated Genomic Differences in Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Insight from Feminization of Male Cancer Cells

    Rola H. Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2–q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46% exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003 and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009. No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  17. Prejudice at the nexus of race and gender: an outgroup male target hypothesis.

    Navarrete, Carlos David; McDonald, Melissa M; Molina, Ludwin E; Sidanius, Jim

    2010-06-01

    Adopting an evolutionary approach to the psychology of race bias, we posit that intergroup conflict perpetrated by male aggressors throughout human evolutionary history has shaped the psychology of modern forms of intergroup bias and that this psychology reflects the unique adaptive problems that differ between men and women in coping with male aggressors from groups other than one's own. Here we report results across 4 studies consistent with this perspective, showing that race bias is moderated by gender differences in traits relevant to threat responses that differ in their adaptive utility between the sexes-namely, aggression and dominance motives for men and fear of sexual coercion for women. These results are consistent with the notion that the psychology of intergroup bias is generated by different psychological systems for men and women, and the results underscore the importance of considering the gender of the outgroup target as well as the gender of the agent in psychological studies on prejudice and discrimination. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  19. Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers.

    Taylor, Laramie D; Setters, Tiffany

    2011-07-01

    The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences' gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

  20. Health care expenses in relation to obesity and smoking among U.S. adults by gender, race/ethnicity, and age group: 1998-2011.

    An, R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and smoking are two leading health risk factors and consume substantial health care resources. This study estimates and tracks annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older from 1998 to 2011. Retrospective data analysis. Individual-level data came from the National Health Interview Survey 1996-2010 waves and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1998-2011 waves. Annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were estimated in two-part models, accounting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Obesity and smoking were associated with an increase in annual per-capita total health care expenses (2011 US$) by $1360 (95% confidence interval: $1134-$1587) and $1046 ($846-$1247), out-of-pocket expenses by $143 ($110-$176) and $70 ($37-$104), hospital inpatient expenses by $406 ($283-$529) and $405 ($291-$519), hospital outpatient expenses by $164 ($119-$210) and $95 ($52-$138), office-based medical provider service expenses by $219 ($157-$280) and $117 ($62-$172), emergency room service expenses by $45 ($28-$63) and $57 ($44-$71), and prescription expenses by $439 ($382-$496) and $251 ($199-$302), respectively. From 1998 to 2011, the estimated per-capita expenses associated with obesity and smoking increased by 25% and 30% for total health care, 41% and 48% for office-based medical provider services, 59% and 66% for emergency room services, and 62% and 70% for prescriptions but decreased by 16% and 15% for out-of-pocket health care expenses, 3% and 0.3% for inpatient care, and 6% and 2% for outpatient care, respectively. Health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were considerably larger among women, Non-Hispanic whites, and older adults compared with their male, racial/ethnic minority, and younger counterparts. Health care costs associated with obesity and smoking are substantial and increased noticeably during 1998-2011. They also vary

  1. Is there a relationship between periodontal disease and smoking after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males?

    Morita, Ichizo; Sheiham, Aubrey; Nakagaki, Haruo; Yoshii, Saori; Mizuno, Kinichiro; Sabbah, Wael

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether the well-known association between periodontal disease and smoking persists after adjusting for job classification. A sample of 16,110 employed Japanese males aged 20-69 years was included in the study. Periodontal examinations were conducted using the Community Periodontal Index. The association between periodontal disease and smoking status was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes and job classification. Job classification was based on criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. There are nine major job groups: (1) Professional (professionals, specialists), (2) Managers, (3) Office workers (computer operators, clerks, secretaries), (4) Skilled worker (factory workers, construction workers), (5) Salesperson (shop assistants), (6) Service occupations (superintendents, cleaners or car park attendants), (7) Security (guards), (8) Farmers and fishermen, (9) Transport and telecommunication workers (truck drivers). Current and former smokers were more likely to have periodontal disease than non-smokers. Adjusting for job classification attenuated the association between smoking and periodontal disease but did not eliminate the association. The odds ratios for the association between smoking and Community Periodontal Index score 3 or 4 attenuated from 2.25 to 2.04 and from 2.62 to 2.52 for individuals aged 20 to 39 and 40 to 69 years, respectively. The effect of job classification on the association between periodontal disease and smoking was higher among younger participants aged 20 to 39 years. Smoking persisted as an important determinant of periodontal disease after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males.

  2. Digital Games, Gender and Learning in Engineering: Do Females Benefit as Much as Males?

    Joiner, Richard; Iacovides, Jo; Owen, Martin; Gavin, Carl; Clibbery, Stephen; Darling, Jos; Drew, Ben

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore whether there is a gender difference in the beneficial effects of Racing Academy, which is a video game used to support undergraduate students learning of Mechanical Engineering. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduate students (15 females and 123 males) participated in the study. The students completed a pre-test a week before they started using Racing Academy. The pre-test consisted of a test of students' knowledge of engineering, and a measure of students' motivation towards studying engineering. A week after using Racing Academy the students completed a post-test which was identical to the pre-test, except it also included a measure of how frequently they used Racing Academy and how motivating the students found playing Racing Academy. We found that after playing Racing Academy the students learnt more about engineering and there was no gender difference in the beneficial effect of Racing Academy, however there is some evidence that, female students found Racing Academy more motivating than male students. The implications for the use and design of video games for supporting learning for both males and females are discussed.

  3. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  4. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  5. A Masculine Perspective of Gendered Topics in the Research Literature on Males and Females with Intellectual Disability

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Shuttleworth, Russell P.; Parker, Desrae

    2010-01-01

    Background: A focus on male social pathologies may have evolved within parts of the intellectual disability research literature. This article explores this notion and makes some connections between mainstream gender theory about hegemonic masculinity and the current gendered discourse in intellectual disability research. Method: We conducted a…

  6. Help-Seeking and Counseling within a Traditional Male Gender Role: An Examination from a Multicultural Perspective

    McCarthy, John; Holliday, Ebony L.

    2004-01-01

    A traditional male gender role reflects an affirmation of masculine identity associated with such qualities as success and self-reliance. This gender role is examined from a diversity perspective in counseling, because it may affect many men's help-seeking attitudes and behaviors. Suggestions from the literature are reviewed from the standpoint of…

  7. Blessed art thou among women: male nursing students and gender inequalities in Chile.

    Ayala, Ricardo A; Holmqvist, Moira T; Messing, Helga B; Browne, Rodrigo F

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of nursing education into an academic curriculum and the growing interest of men in nursing have been significant landmarks in the development of a 'female' occupation. Chilean nursing is considered as the leading example of nursing education in Latin America, demanding a five-year training on a full-time university programme. The consequences of education, however, are assumed as more egalitarian opportunities, disregarding the latent replication of structures that perpetuate inequalities. To comprehend the socialisation of male nursing students and its relation with their masculine identity and the construction of inequalities in nursing education. We draw upon interviews undertaken with beginner and advanced nursing students from a Chilean university. Approval was obtained from the relevant Ethics Committee. The data were organised to allow the development of concepts by using the Grounded Theory approach. The analysis uncovers paradoxical results of nursing education and its ineffectiveness in preventing gender-based inequalities. The interest in empowering nursing politically may lead to favour an increasing number of men entering nursing in ways that facilitate male students' progress. Furthermore, there exist discourses of compassion that feed consideration for male students, engendering in the process the prospect of professional success and the gravitation into strategic positions in the employment market. These are mechanisms that reproduce earlier gender-based inequalities in nursing. In the light of the social reproduction theory, the academisation of Chilean nursing seems to be built upon historical gender asymmetries. Although the interest of men in embracing a career in nursing may have a meaningful resonance with the transformation of contemporary society, this process needs a judicious examination in order to protect academic integrity and, ultimately, prevent the reproduction of those inequalities in question. This analysis offers a

  8. Attitudes Toward Gender, Work, and Family among Female and Male Scientists in Germany and the United States

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Fuchs, Stefan; Aisenbrey, Silke; Kravets, Natalyia

    This research used a comparative approach and an elite framework to look at attitudes toward gender, work, and family among male and female scientists. The data came from the 1994 International Social Survey Program module measuring family and changing gender roles in (the former) East Germany, West Germany, and the United States. Research questions focused on the variation between the three samples in male scientists' attitudes regarding gender, work, and family; women's representation in science occupations; and the relation between the two. Another major concern was the extent to which female scientists express attitudes regarding gender, work, and family that resemble those of male scientists and the implications of these processes for increasing women's access to science. As predicted, male scientists in East Germany tended to have the most progressive attitudes (especially those regarding gender and work), East German women had the greatest access to science occupations, and there were virtually no sex differences in attitudes of East German scientists. West German male scientists were the most traditional on attitudes regarding gender and work, and U. S. male scientists tended to be the most traditional on attitudes regarding family. The attitudes of female scientists in West Germany and the United States reflected this larger trend, but there were sex differences within countries, with female scientists being more progressive than male scientists. Thus, the findings suggest that women s representation in science is related to the attitudes of male scientists regarding gender, work, and family. And although female scientists often hold quite similar attitudes as male scientists, there is considerable cross-country variation in how progressive the attitudes are and how similar men's and women's attitudes are. Implications for women's access to elite science occupations are discussed.

  9. Smoking initiation among youth: the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2011-05-01

    Existing evidence for the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices as significant determinants of youth smoking initiation is mixed. A few studies have considered the possibility that the impact of cigarette taxes and prices might differ by gender or race/ethnicity. In this paper, we address the role of cigarette taxes and prices on youth smoking initiation using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and discrete-time survival methods. We present results overall and by gender, race/ethnicity, and gender by race/ethnicity. We examine initiation over the age range during which youth are most at risk of initiation and over a period in which substantial changes have occurred in tax and price. The result for cigarette excise taxes is small and mixed across alternative specifications, with the effect strongest for black youth. Cigarette prices are more consistently a significant determinant of youth smoking initiation, especially for black youth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Smoking and Its Associated Factors Among Male College Students in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Mohammed Al-Mohaithef

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.

  11. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

    Yu Saito; Kazuhiro Nakamura; Shigeto Itani; Kiyoaki Tsukahara

    2018-01-01

    Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the...

  12. Influence of socioeconomic position and gender on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: disentangling context from composition

    Olalekan A. Uthman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is still gaining ground in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially among socially disadvantaged groups. People living with HIV represent a subgroup with a significantly elevated prevalence of cigarette smoking. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level socioeconomic position on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2003 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 31,270 individual living with HIV (Level 1 nested within 7,054 neighbourhoods (Level 2 from 19 countries (Level 3. Results After adjustment for individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level factors, respondents, the following significant independent risk factors for increasing odds of being a current cigarette smokers among people living with HIV: male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 62.49; 95 % credible interval [CrI] 45.93 to 78.28, from the poorer households (OR = 1.62, 95 % CrI 1.38 to 1.90; living in urban areas (OR = 1.24, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.41, from neighbourhoods with low poverty rate (OR = 1.25, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.43, illiteracy rate (OR = 1.28, 95 % CrI 1.14 to 1.42, low unemployment rate (OR = 1.11, 95 % crI 1.01 to 1.43; and from countries with low socio-economic deprivation (OR = 1.53, 95 CrI 1.08 to 1.96. About 3.4 % and 39.4 % variation in cigarette smoking behaviour among people living with HIV is conditioned by differences between neighbourhoods and countries. Conclusions Gender, education and socioeconomic context are independently associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Influence of socioeconomic position and gender on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: disentangling context from composition.

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Ekström, Anna Mia; Moradi, Tahereh T

    2016-09-20

    Smoking is still gaining ground in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially among socially disadvantaged groups. People living with HIV represent a subgroup with a significantly elevated prevalence of cigarette smoking. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level socioeconomic position on current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2003 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 31,270 individual living with HIV (Level 1) nested within 7,054 neighbourhoods (Level 2) from 19 countries (Level 3). After adjustment for individual-, neighbourhood- and country-level factors, respondents, the following significant independent risk factors for increasing odds of being a current cigarette smokers among people living with HIV: male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 62.49; 95 % credible interval [CrI] 45.93 to 78.28), from the poorer households (OR = 1.62, 95 % CrI 1.38 to 1.90); living in urban areas (OR = 1.24, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.41), from neighbourhoods with low poverty rate (OR = 1.25, 95 % CrI 1.09 to 1.43), illiteracy rate (OR = 1.28, 95 % CrI 1.14 to 1.42), low unemployment rate (OR = 1.11, 95 % crI 1.01 to 1.43); and from countries with low socio-economic deprivation (OR = 1.53, 95 CrI 1.08 to 1.96). About 3.4 % and 39.4 % variation in cigarette smoking behaviour among people living with HIV is conditioned by differences between neighbourhoods and countries. Gender, education and socioeconomic context are independently associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Smoking

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  15. [Perceiving gender or profession: the practical experience of male nursing students in the obstetrics and gynecology ward].

    Lee, Ya-Fen; Yang, Yu-O; Tu, Chia-Ling

    2013-06-01

    The impact of general gender stereotypes on nursing is severe and influential, especially with regard to male nursing students working in obstetrics and gynecology wards. This study examined the experience of male nursing students in obstetrics and gynecology wards. We used a phenomenological qualitative research approach and a sample of 10 male nursing students currently studying at a nursing college in central Taiwan. All participants had obstetrics and gynecology ward experience. Individual interviews were transcribed into the procedural record. Colaizzi content analysis analyzed and categorized research data. Based on participants practical experiences in the obstetrics and gynecology ward, the main stages of participants professional development through their internship experience included: (1) Unbalanced self-role recognition; (2) being defined by the gender framework (gender stereotypes); (3) the difference between male doctor and male nurse; (4) learning appropriate communication techniques; (5) mutual and empathetic understanding of the female psychology during childbirth; (6) gaining sources for positive feedback; (7) releasing the shackles of gender and gaining full insight into and comprehension of nursing functions; and (8) given the opportunity to learn. Through ongoing examination and learning, participant internships in the obstetrics and gynecology wards were significant and essential learning experiences that validated their necessity. Nursing schools and internship institutions alike must realize the importance of gender-equality education to the nursing profession. Medical institutions are encouraged to offer equal learning opportunities to male and female nursing students and provide targeted assistance to males to help them master clinical nursing care practices in the obstetrics and gynecology department.

  16. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  17. Measurement of lower canine clinical crown index in male and female for gender identification

    Rita Dewi Handayani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to acquire the value index of clinical crown lower jaw canine male and female, and to prove whether the index of male's canine is bigger than female's. The samples of the research was the students of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran class of 1998 until 2001 by using proportional random sampling method according to the criteria and also adjust with the numbers of male and female composition in per class. The characteristic of the research was analytical descriptive with survey technique. The result of t test statistic measurement was that index of clinical crown tower jaw canine of mate was 1.50 and female was 1.21, by using reliance 95%. The inference of the research showed that the index of clinical crown lower jaw canine of male was significantly bigger than female's. The result of the research can be used as auxiliary data from the techniques to process gender identification in odontology forensic.

  18. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  20. Dimensional profiles of male to female gender identity disorder: an exploratory research.

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Bandini, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Ferruccio, Naika; Corona, Giovanni; Meriggiola, Maria C; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Manieri, Chiara; Ristori, Jiska; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder (MtF GID) is a complex phenomenon that could be better evaluated by using a dimensional approach. To explore the aggregation of clinical manifestations of MtF GID in order to identify meaningful variables describing the heterogeneity of the disorder. A consecutive series of 80 MtF GID subjects (mean age 37 +/- 10.3 years), referred to the Interdepartmental Center for Assistance Gender Identity Disorder of Florence and to other Italian centers from July 2008 to June 2009, was studied. Diagnosis was based on formal psychiatric classification criteria. Factor analysis was performed. Several socio-demographic and clinical parameters were investigated. Patients were asked to complete the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, a self-rating scale to evaluate gender role) and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R, a self-rating scale to measure psychological state). Factor analysis identified two dimensional factors: Factor 1 was associated with sexual orientation, and Factor 2 related to behavioral and psychological correlates of early GID development. No correlation was observed between the two factors. A positive correlation between Factor 2 and feminine BSRI score was found, along with a negative correlation between Factor 2 and undifferentiated BSRI score. Moreover, a significant association between SCL-90-R Phobic subscale score and Factor 2 was observed. A variety of other socio-demographic parameters and clinical features were associated with both factors. Behavioral and psychological correlates of Factor 1 (sexual orientation) and Factor 2 (gender identity) do not constitute the framework of two separate clinical entities, but instead represent two dimensions of the complex MtF GID structure, which can be variably intertwined in the same subject. By using factor analysis, we offer a new approach capable of delineating a psychopathological and clinical profile of MtF GID patients.

  1. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  2. Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future?

    Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women and smoking.

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  4. Breaking Away From the Male Stereotype of a Specialist: Gendered Language Affects Performance in a Thinking Task

    Marlene Kollmayer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental online-survey study investigated if different written language forms in German have an effect on male bias in thinking. We used answers to the specialist riddle as an indicator for male bias in mental representations of expertise. The difficulty of this thinking task lies in the fact that a gender-unspecified specialist is often automatically assumed to be a man due to gender stereotypes. We expected that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the specialist riddle helps readers achieve control over automatically activated gender stereotypes and thus facilitates the restructuring and reinterpretation of the problem, which is necessary to reach the conclusion that the specialist is a woman. We randomly assigned 517 native German speakers (68% women to reading a text on expertise written either in gender-fair language or in masculine generics. Subsequently, participants were asked to solve the specialist riddle. The results show that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the riddle led to higher rates of answers indicating that the specialist is a women compared to reading a text in masculine generics (44% vs. 33% in women and men regardless of their self-stereotyping concerning agency and communion. The findings indicate that reading even a very short text in gender-fair language can help people break their gender-stereotype habit and thus reduce male bias in thinking. Our research emphasizes the importance of using gender-fair language in German-language texts for reducing gender stereotypes.

  5. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  7. Gender differences in the association between pre-adolescent smoking initiation and emotional or behavioural problems

    de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and

  8. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender.

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths' intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships.

  9. Gender differences in the association between self-reported stress and cigarette smoking in Korean adolescents

    Kisok Kim

    2016-06-01

    This study found a statistically significant association between stress and smoking among Korean adolescents and this association was stronger in girls than boys. Further research is needed to understand more fully the link between stress and smoking in adolescents, with particular attention to sex differences.

  10. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships. PMID:28042523

  11. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  12. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  13. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners

    Reisner, Sari L.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Methods Transgender women and their male partners (N=191 couples; N=382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants’ mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned transgender-related discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Results Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Discussion Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions. PMID:25642440

  14. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners.

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-03-01

    Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Transgender women and their male partners ( N =191 couples; N =382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants' mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions.

  15. Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female- and male-targeted TV channels in the Netherlands

    Daalmans, S.; Kleemans, M.; Sadza, A.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). To this end, the presence of men and women

  16. The impact of male migration from Morocco to Europe on women: a gender approach

    Fatima Sadiqi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a gender approach to the impact of male migrationfrom Morocco to Europe on women left behind. The pertinence of the topic stems from the fact that very few studies have been conducted on the subject. It is believed that such studies will help in the understanding of the the phenomenon of migration and help to find solutions for some of the problems it poses. More and more Moroccan women suffer as a result of the migration of their husbands, sons,fathers, etc. Their suffering is not only due to separation from the loved ones but also to the dire economic and social conditions that a heavily patriarchal context does not help to alleviate.

  17. The experiences of male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and their partners: a gender analysis.

    Uren, Alan; Galdas, Paul

    2015-02-01

    To explore how masculinities shape the experiences of men and their partners after survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest report depression, dependence on others for daily functioning, decreased participation in society and significant decreases in quality of life. There is growing evidence that masculine gender identities play a central role in the recovery experiences of men and their families following other major cardiac events. However, to date, there has been no examination of how masculinities shape men's experiences of recovery following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Interview study guided by an interpretive description approach. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. A purposive sample of seven male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and 6 female partners was recruited in 2010 from a secondary care centre in British Columbia, Canada. Three themes were prominent in the experiences of the participants: (1) Support and self-reliance; (2) Dealing with emotional (in) vulnerability; and (3) No longer a 'He-man'. Masculinities played a role in men's experiences of recovery and adaptation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hegemonic masculinity partly explained men's experiences, notably their reluctance to seek professional support and reactions to changes in lifestyle. However, the study also suggests that the popular stereotype of men being 'strong and silent' in the face of ill-health may only be a part of a more complex story. Nurses would benefit from taking into consideration the potential influence of male gender identities on men's recovery postcardiac arrest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gender issues in malaysian education: Factors influencing male and female students’ academic achievement through cognitive processes in public examinations

    Suppiah Nachiappan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues in the field of education has been a continuos debated issue for generations. In the present context, the gender issue is being debated heatedly based on the differences in the achievements among male and female students in public exams.The objective of this study is to obtain views from (N=120 secondary school students randomly selected from various location in Malaysia. Hermeneutic analysis was used in order to analyse the students’ written essays on the factors which contributed to the achievement of the two genders in examinations. The findings of the study clearly indicated that female students outperform male students in examinations. The sample also summed up the factors leading to the failure of male students in performing well and ways to overcome this setback.

  19. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  20. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  1. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  2. Gender constructions of male sex offenders in Germany: narrative analysis from group psychotherapy.

    Moertl, Kathrin; Buchholz, Michael B; Lamott, Franziska

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze how male sexual offenders construct mental images of masculinity and femininity to provide insight into therapeutic treatment for such patients. Thematerial examined in this studywas comprised of 21 videotaped prison group therapy sessions in which the participating sexual offenders talked about their crimes and biographies. Aqualitative data analysis softwarewas usedto apply a modified grounded theorymethodology to the transcribed sessions. The resulting categories can be understood as descriptions of how the imprisoned men constructed gender images, and were based on three narrative levels: the structure of narration, the narrative positions in the story, and the interaction between the narrator and the other participants. According to the categories describedin the narrative positions (the narrated self and the narrated significant male others), we constructed masculinity categorizations which corresponded to specific images of femininity (derived from the narrated significant female others).The constructionsprovided insight into the selfimage of the narrator, as well as the accountability and positioning of himself and the other in regard to perpetrator-victim constructions. The study further revealed whether the participants either accepted or rejected responsibility and guilt for their crimes; this is essential for psychotherapeutic process and treatment.

  3. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder.

    Saito, Yu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Itani, Shigeto; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2018-01-01

    In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  4. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

    Yu Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID, hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs. We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. Conclusions. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  5. Male ICU nurses' experiences of taking care of dying patients and their families: a gender analysis.

    Wu, Tammy W; Oliffe, John L; Bungay, Vicky; Johnson, Joy L

    2015-01-01

    Male intensive care unit (ICU) nurses bring energy and expertise along with an array of beliefs and practices to their workplace. This article investigates the experiences of male ICU nurses in the context of caring for dying patients and their families. Applying a gender analysis, distilled are insights to how masculinities inform and influence the participants' practices and coping strategies. The findings reveal participants draw on masculine ideals of being a protector and rational in their decisive actions toward meeting the comfort needs of dying patients and their families. Somewhat paradoxically, most participants also transgressed masculine norms by outwardly expressing their feelings and talking about emotions related to these experiences. Participants also reported renewed appreciation of their life and their families and many men chronicled recreational activities and social connectedness as strategies for coping with workplace induced stresses. The findings drawn from this study can guide both formal and informal support services for men who are ICU nurses, which in turn might aid retention of this subgroup of workers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay

    Mirosław Niedzin; Ewelina Gaszyńska; Jan Krakowiak; Tomasz Saran; Franciszek Szatko; Dorota Kaleta

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cessation of tobacco use has the potential to provide the greatest immediate benefits for tobacco control. Understanding the social determinants of smoking cessation is an essential requirement for increasing smoking cessation at the population level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the socio-economic dimensions associated with cessation success among adults in Argentina and Uruguay. Material and Methods Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a cross...

  8. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  9. Differences in Current Cigarette Smoking Between Non-Hispanic Whites and Non-Hispanic Blacks by Gender and Age Group, United States, 2001 – 2013

    Caraballo, Ralph S.; Sharapova, Saida; Asman, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years, national U.S. surveys have consistently found a lower cigarette smoking prevalence among non-Hispanic (NH) black adolescents and young adults than their NH white counterpart while finding either similar or higher smoking prevalence in NH blacks among older adults. Because these surveys do not collect biomarker information to validate smoking self-reports, we also present results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which collects cotinine (a nicotine biomarker) to determine if U.S. surveys consistently show racial differences in smoking prevalence. Methods We present NH black and NH white current smoking estimates in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2001–2013), National Youth Tobacco Survey (2004–2012), National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002–2012), National Health Interview Survey (2001–2013), and NHANES (2001–2012). Results Using cotinine by itself or with self-reports to compare smoking prevalence between NH black and NH white males aged 12 – 25 years, no difference in current smoking was found. For male adult ≥26 years, all surveys consistently found a higher smoking prevalence among NH blacks. For females aged 12 – 25 years, all surveys found a higher smoking prevalence among NH whites. While inconsistent results across surveys were found for those aged ≥26 years, cotinine results showed a higher smoking prevalence among NH black females. Conclusion Some racial differences in self-reported smoking are not confirmed when supplemented with serum cotinine to detect current cigarette smokers. Improving the measurement of current smoking is important to accurately evaluate racial smoking differences. PMID:26980863

  10. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield...... information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark......, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued...

  11. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  12. The Salience of Gender during the Transition to Higher Education: Male Students' Accounts of Performed and Authentic Identities

    Warin, Jo; Dempster, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the transition to higher education made by a group of male undergraduates. The data were collected though one-to-one interviews with 24 students, who were asked questions designed to elicit data about their positioning in relation to hegemonic masculinities. The evidence presented here supports the view that gender operates…

  13. The impact of gender-role nonconforming behavior, bullying, and social support on suicidality among gay male youth.

    Friedman, Mark S; Koeske, Gary F; Silvestre, Anthony J; Korr, Wynne S; Sites, Edward W

    2006-05-01

    This study hypothesized that gender-role nonconformity is associated with suicidality, and bullying mediates this relationship. Gay males retrospectively answered questions pertaining to elementary, middle, and high school. Support for the hypotheses was found. Results can help screen gay youth for suicidality and support the need for policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual orientation.

  14. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Niedzin, Mirosław; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Krakowiak, Jan; Saran, Tomasz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kaleta, Dorota

    2018-03-14

    Cessation of tobacco use has the potential to provide the greatest immediate benefits for tobacco control. Understanding the social determinants of smoking cessation is an essential requirement for increasing smoking cessation at the population level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the socio-economic dimensions associated with cessation success among adults in Argentina and Uruguay. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative survey conducted in Argentina (n=5,383) and Uruguay (n=4,833) was utilized. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with results being presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were applied to study differences among those respondents who sustained smoking abstinence (≥1 year) and those who continued smoking. The GATS study revealed that social gradients in tobacco quitting exist in Argentina and Uruguay. Being aged 25-34, particularly men in Uruguay, women in Argentina, low educated men in Argentina and having a lower asset index were associated with reduced odds for quitting. Factors that are driving differences in smoking cessation between diverse social groups in Latin America countries need to be considered when implementing relevant interventions to ensure tobacco control strategies work effectively for all population segments.

  15. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  16. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  17. Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness: important predictable factors for empyema and gangrene in acute cholecystitis

    Khan, M.L.U.; Jawed, M.; Shaikh, U.; Abbassi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To underline the status of male gender and gall bladder wall thickness as significant risk factors for acute cholecystitis complications. Methods: The retrospective study, with purposive sampling of the patients of acute cholecystits in age above 18 years, who were operated within 10 days of onset of symptoms, was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Dow University Hospital, Karachi, by reviewing the patients' medical record from March 2010 to August 2012. Correlation of incidence of acute cholecystitis complications (empyema and gangrene) to male gender and to the sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm was analysed using SPSS 16. Result: Out of 62 patients, 8 (13%) patients had gangrene while 10 (16.12%) had empyema. Overall, there were 21 (33.87%) males in the study. Ten (47.6%) of the male patients developed empyema or gangrene of the gall bladder as a complication of acute cholecystitis. Of the 41 (66.12%) female patients, only 8 (19.5%) developed these complications. There were 22 (35.48%) cases of gall bladders with sonographic wall thickness more than 4.5mm who were operated for acute cholecystitis. Of them, 16 (72.7%) had empyema or gangrene. Conclusion: Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm were statistically significant risk factors for suspicion of complicated acute cholecystitis (empyema/gangrene) and by using these risk factors, we can prioritise patients for surgery in the emergency room. (author)

  18. Is gender a factor in perceived prison officer competence? Male prisoners' perceptions in an English dispersal prison.

    Boyd, Elizabeth; Grant, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of women officers into HM Prison Service raised questions regarding women's ability to perform what had traditionally been a male role. Existing research is inconclusive as to whether female prison officers are as competent as male prison officers, and whether there are gender differences in job performance. This study examined prisoners' perceptions of male and female prison officers' performance. The hypotheses were that overall competence and professionalism ratings would not differ for men and women officers, but that there would be differences in how men and women were perceived to perform their roles. Women were expected to be rated as more communicative, more empathic and less disciplining. The Prison Officer Competency Rating Scale (PORS) was designed for this study. Ratings on the PORS for male and female officers were given by 57 adult male prisoners. There was no significant difference in prisoners' ratings of overall competence of men and women officers. Of the PORS subscales, there were no gender differences in Discipline and Control, Communication or Empathy, but there was a significant difference in Professionalism, where prisoners rated women as more professional. The failure to find any differences between men and women in overall job competence, or on communication, empathy and discipline, as perceived by prisoners, suggests that men and women may be performing their jobs similarly in many respects. Women were rated as more professional, and items contributing to this scale related to respecting privacy and keeping calm in difficult situations, where there may be inherent gender biases.

  19. Youth, unemployment, and male gender predict mortality in AIDS patients started on HAART in Nigeria.

    DeSilva, Malini B; Merry, Stephen P; Fischer, Philip R; Rohrer, James E; Isichei, Christian O; Cha, Stephen S

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective study identifies risk factors for mortality in a cohort of HIV-positive adult patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Jos, Nigeria. We analyzed clinical data from a cohort of 1552 patients enrolled in a HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment program and started on HAART between December 2004 and 30 April 2006. Death was our study endpoint. Patients were followed in the study until death, being lost to follow-up, or the end of data collection, 1 December 2006. Baseline patient characteristics were compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for continuous variables and Pearson Chi-Square test for categorical variables to determine if certain demographic factors were associated with more rapid progression to death. The Cox proportional hazard multivariate model analysis was used to find risk factors. As of 1 December 2006, a total of 104 cases progressed to death. In addition to the expected association of CD4 count less than 50 at initiation of therapy and active tuberculosis with mortality, the patient characteristics independently associated with a more rapid progression to death after initiation of HAART were male gender, age less than 30 years old, and unemployment or unknown occupation status. Future research is needed to identify the confounding variables that may be amenable to targeted interventions aimed at ameliorating these health disparities.

  20. Gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment: data from a male-dominated environment.

    Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental health symptoms. As expected, women reported a higher frequency of sexual harassment. Further, women had increased odds of experiencing all subtypes of sexual harassment. Being female conferred the greatest risk for experiencing the most serious forms of harassment. For both men and women, sexual harassment was associated with more negative current mental health. However, at higher levels of harassment, associations with some negative mental health symptoms were stronger for men than women. Although preliminary, the results of this investigation suggest that although women are harassed more frequently than men, clinicians must increase their awareness of the potential for sexual harassment among men in order to provide the best possible care to all victims of harassment. Copyright 2007 APA.

  1. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  2. Caught in a dilemma: why do non-smoking women in China support the smoking behaviors of men in their families?

    Mao, Aimei; Bristow, Katie; Robinson, Jude

    2013-02-01

    Intimate relationships influence family members' health practices. Although cigarette smoking in China is predominantly a male behavior, (non-smoking) women's roles should be taken into account for the development of home-smoking interventions. Drawing on ethnographic interviews with 22 families in a rural area of China, this article explores non-smoking women's attitudes towards male smoking. The findings suggest that women's ability to influence male behavior is largely determined by culturally defined gender roles, underpinned by ideologies of familism and collectivism. Despite concerns about the adverse results of smoking to their family members and households, non-smoking women ultimately maintain the (male) smokers' argument that smoking plays an important role in construction and maintenance of intra- and extra-family relationships. By accepting male smoking and men's engagement in the social practice of smoking and cigarette exchanges, women maintain their identities as supportive wives, filial daughters/in-law and responsible family members who pursue family collective interests at the expense of their own personal beliefs. Future smoking control initiatives that target non-smoking women to influence male smoking should take into account the women's overarching need to maintain the status and harmony of their families.

  3. Gender Inequality and Role-Strained among Male Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institution, Lagos, Nigeria

    Folami, Florence F.

    2017-01-01

    Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…

  4. The Construction of Male Gender Identity through Choir Singing at a Spanish Secondary School

    Elorriaga, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently investigated the psychological aspects that play a determinant role in choral singing during adolescence. One of these aspects is vocal identity, which influences the construction of gender identity according to adolescents' needs and societal gender roles. This article focuses on gender aspects of vocal identity…

  5. Effect of smoking on hearing loss in refractory's factory male worker with occupational noise exposure in Iran.

    Mofateh, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Qasim; Hosseini, Mohammad Hamed; Sharif-Zadeh, Gholam Reza

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of smoking on hearing loss in factory workers with occupational noise exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran, from May to July 2013, and comprised smoking and non-smoking factory male workers. All of them were exposed to occupational noise level more than 85 decibels for at least 10 years. All participants underwent audiometric testing. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. Of the 150 participants, 55(36.7%) were smokers and 95(63.3%) were non-smokers. The mean age of the participants was 43.26±7.81 years while the mean working experience was 15.51±3.87 years. Furthermore, 18(32.7%) of the smokers and 8(8.4%) of the non-smokers suffered tinnitus (p=0.07). The mean noise intensity in the working place of the individuals was 89±2.63 A-weighted decibels. At a frequency of 500 Hz, the mean hearing loss was 4.8±5.7 decibels among smokers and 3.3±4.6 decibels among non-smokers in the left ear (p=0.52), whereas it was 4.8±5.1 decibels and 3.00±4.5 decibels in the right ear (p=0.15). The difference between the smokers and the non-smokers was significant in both ears at 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 4000Hz and 8000Hz (phearing loss among workers who were in close contact with excessive noise exposure.

  6. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  7. Perspectives of Survivors on Military Suicide Decedents’ Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress using the Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI)

    2013-03-26

    Suicide Psychiatric diagnoses. Antisocial Personality Disorder is diagnosed three times more often in men than women (American Psychiatric Association...Finally, using a two-year prospective design, researchers determined that a diagnosis of borderline     15   personality disorder resulted in...which refers to “a psychological state in which socialized gender roles have negative consequences for the person or others” (p. 362, O’Neil, 2008) and

  8. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75% ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO 2 tension (PetCO 2 ), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O 2 uptake (VO 2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO 2 ; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV 1 , FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the relationship between cigarette smoking and male erectile dysfunction independent of cardiovascular disease? Findings from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Chew, Kew-Kim; Bremner, Alexandra; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Earle, Carolyn; Jamrozik, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and as a risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, various aspects of the associations between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD need further elucidation. We explored the relationship between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD using data from a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,580 participants. Postal questionnaires were sent to randomly selected age-stratified male population samples obtained from the Western Australia Electoral Roll. In addition to items covering sociodemographic and self-reported clinical information and smoking habits, the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function was used to assess erectile function. Compared with never smokers, the odds of ED, adjusted for age, square of age, and CVD, were significantly higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.92) and ever smokers (OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.02, 2.42). Similarly, the adjusted odds of severe ED were significantly higher among former smokers. Albeit not statistically significant, the age-adjusted odds of ED among current smokers increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. Among former smokers, the age-adjusted odds of ED were significantly higher 6-10 years following cessation of smoking than 10 years. Compared with never smokers without CVD, the age-adjusted odds of ED among former smokers and ever smokers without CVD were about 1.6. Regardless of smoking, these odds were significantly higher among participants with CVD. Compared with never smokers, former smokers and ever smokers have significantly higher odds of ED. The relationship between smoking and ED is independent of that between smoking and CVD, and not because of confounding by CVD. Patterns of ED in former smokers suggest that there may be a latent interval between active smoking and symptomatic ED, involving a process initially triggered by smoking.

  10. Conception, pregnancy, and birth experiences of male and gender variant gestational parents: it's how we could have a family.

    Ellis, Simon Adriane; Wojnar, Danuta M; Pettinato, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Like members of any other population, transgender and gender variant people--individuals whose gender identity varies from the traditional norm or from the sex they were assigned at birth--often seek parenthood. Little is known about the decision making and experiences of these individuals, including male-identified and gender-variant natal females who wish to achieve parenthood by carrying a pregnancy. This pilot qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to explore the conception, pregnancy, and birth experiences of this population of parents. A grounded theory methodology was used to guide data collection and analysis. Eight male-identified or gender-variant gestational parents participated in the study. Data collection included individual 60-minute to 90-minute interviews conducted by recorded online video calls, as well as a self-administered online demographic survey. Data were collected from September 2011 through May 2012. Data saturation was achieved at 6 interviews, after which 2 more interviews were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a constant comparative method was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Loneliness was the overarching theme that permeated participants' experiences, social interactions, and emotional responses during every stage of achieving biologic parenthood. Within this context of loneliness, participants described complex internal and external processes of navigating identity. Navigating identity encapsulated 2 subthemes: undergoing internal struggles and engaging with the external world. The preconception period was identified as participants' time of greatest distress and least involvement with health care. The findings of this study suggest that culturally-sensitive preconception counseling could be beneficial for transgender and gender-variant individuals. The grounded theory produced by this pilot investigation also provides insights that will be useful to health care providers and others

  11. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    Nihaya Al-Sheyab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815 using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%, although 10 years was also common (25.3%. Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76, asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78, grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11, and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24. However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted.

  12. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  13. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of Tehran, Iran

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Methods: Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The s...

  14. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (1...

  15. The relationship of dysthymia, minor depression, and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population.

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Pilver, Corey E; Desai, Rani A; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    Although data clearly link major depression and smoking, little is known about the association between dysthymia and minor depression and smoking behavior. The current study examined changes in smoking over 3 years for current and former smokers with and without dysthymia and minor depression. Participants who were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and completed the Wave 2 assessment were included in these analyses (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of current dysthymia, lifetime dysthymia, and minor depression (a single diagnostic category that denoted current and/or lifetime prevalence) on continued smoking for Wave 1 current daily smokers and continued abstinence for Wave 1 former daily smokers. Wave 1 current daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23, 3.70) or minor depression (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.07, 2.18) were more likely than smokers without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 former daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20, 0.96) and lifetime dysthymia (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15, 0.91) were less likely than those without the diagnosis to remain abstinent from smoking at Wave 2. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant, suggesting that the impact of dysthymia and minor depression on smoking behavior is similar among men and women. Current dysthymia and minor depression are associated with a greater likelihood of continued smoking; current and lifetime dysthymia are associated with a decreased likelihood of continued smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of tehran, iran.

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The sampling continued until one hundred study subjects were recruited in each area. Although in the area with wealthier socioeconomic status the age at which smoking started was one year more, the number of days of smoking, number of consumed cigarettes, not willingness to quit smoking, ease of access to cigarettes, mother and siblings smoking were more frequent. In contrast, seeing anti-smoking advertisements, father smoking, teachers smoking and education about the adverse effects of smoking were lower than the area with poorer socioeconomic status. The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents' avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  17. The effect of tobacco control policy on smoking cessation in relation to gender, age and education in Lithuania, 1994-2010

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Sakyte, Edita; Petkeviciene, Janina; Prattala, Ritva; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the association between tobacco control policies and trends in smoking cessation according to gender, age and educational level in Lithuania in 1994-2010. Methods: The data were obtained from nine cross-sectional postal surveys conducted biennially within the

  18. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  19. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  20. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  1. Gender differences in adolescent health-related behaviour diminished between 1998 and 2006

    Pitel, L.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Objectives: Male teenagers used to smoke more than females, but this male: female ratio has reversed in several European countries over recent decades. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar shift in gender differences in smoking and other health-related behaviours has occurred in

  2. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile

  3. Factores predictores de éxito según género en el tratamiento del tabaquismo Predictors of outcome of a smoking cessation treatment by gender

    Adriana Marqueta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar los factores predictores de los resultados del tratamiento del tabaquismo según sexo, en personas fumadoras que solicitan tratamiento para dejar de fumar en una unidad de tabaquismo. Métodos: Estudio transversal en personas fumadoras que iniciaron tratamiento en una unidad de tabaquismo entre los años 2002 y 2007. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, de patrón de consumo, del entorno del paciente respecto al tabaco y la presencia de comorbilidad psiquiátrica. Se realizó tratamiento multicomponente: psicológico y farmacológico. Se consideró éxito del tratamiento la abstinencia continua validada con CO Objective: To identify factors predictive of the outcome of a smoking cessation program by gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study of smokers starting treatment in a smoking cessation clinic from 2002 to 2007 was conducted. The variables consisted of data on sociodemographic factors, smoking habits, the social context of smoking and psychiatric comorbidity prior to or during the smoking cessation process. All patients received multicomponent treatment consisting of psychological and pharmacological interventions. Success was defined as self-reported continuous abstinence confirmed by cooximetry (CO <10ppm. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors predictive of success. Results: A total of 1302 persons (52.1% men and 47.9% women, with a mean age of 43.4 (10.2 years, were included. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 25.3 (10.4 and the mean Fagerström test score was 6.2 (2.2 points. The success rate was 41.3% (538 with no differences by gender. Positive predictors were lower nicotine dependence and having a non-smoking partner in men and older age, smoking fewer cigarettes per day, having fewer smoking friends and not experiencing depression or anxiety during the treatment in women. Conclusions: Men and women have similar tobacco abstinence outcomes although gender factors play a role in

  4. Does Manager Gender Matter? : The Association between Female Manager and Wages of Male and Female Employees

    Hultqvist, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Women in the Swedish labor market have lower wage than men on average. There are multiple reasons for this gender wage differential. Among other things, processes at the organizational level have been stressed. Some researchers argue that the gender of the manager has an effect on wages and that this effect might differ for men and women. Prior studies have analyzed the potential effect of manager gender on wages, but few empirical studies have scrutinized the question. The studies that exist...

  5. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  6. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  7. The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials

    Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina; De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the role of gender segregation and pay structure in explaining gender wage differentials of full-time salaried workers in Spain. Data from the 1995 and 2002 Wage Structure Surveys reveal that raw gender wage gaps decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 over the seven-year period. Average differences in the base wage and wage complements decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 and from 0.59 to 0.40, respectively. However, the gender wage gap is still large after accounting for work...

  8. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The

  9. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  10. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  11. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  12. Differences in adolescent relationship abuse perpetration and gender-inequitable attitudes by sport among male high school athletes.

    McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaving college: a gender comparison in male and female-dominated programs

    Severiens, S.; ten Dam, G.

    2012-01-01

    Women, on average, outnumber men and are more successful in higher education. A literature overview showed that these differences may be explained by gender differences in learner characteristics, by external factors and by institutional factors. This study aims to explain gender differences in

  14. Leaving College: A Gender Comparison in Male and Female-Dominated Programs

    S.E. Severiens (Sabine); G. ten Dam (Geert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWomen, on average, outnumber men and are more successful in higher education. A literature overview showed that these differences may be explained by gender differences in learner characteristics, by external factors and by institutional factors. This study aims to explain gender

  15. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm perceptions,…

  16. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking.

    Reed, Robert M; Dransfield, Mark T; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I; Scharf, Steven M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities.

  17. Gender differences in a cohort of major depressive patients: further evidence for the male depression syndrome hypothesis.

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Belzeaux, Raoul; Fakra, Eric; Kaladjian, Arthur; Hantouche, Elie; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Adida, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that major depressive patients may differ in several features according to gender, but the existence of a specific male depressive syndrome remains controversial. As part of the EPIDEP National Multisite French Study of 493 consecutive DSM-IV major depressive patients evaluated in at least two semi-structured interviews 1 month apart, 125 (27.7%) were of male gender, whereas 317 (72.3%) were female, after exclusion of bipolar I patients. Compared to women, men were more often married, had more associated mixed features, with more bipolar disorder NOS, more hyperthymic temperaments, and less depressive temperaments. Women had an earlier age at onset of depression, more depressive episodes and suicide attempts. A higher family loading was shown in men for bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorder, impulse control disorders and suicide, whereas their family loading for major depressive disorder was lower. Men displayed more comorbidities with alcohol use, impulse control, and cardiovascular disorders, with lower comorbidities with eating, anxiety and endocrine/metabolic disorders. The following independent variables were associated with male gender: hyperthymic temperament (+), alcohol use disorder (+), impulse control disorders (+), and depressive temperament (-). The retrospective design and the lack of specific tools to assess the male depressive syndrome. Study findings may lend support to the male depression syndrome concept and draw attention to the role of hyperthymic temperament, soft bipolarity as well as comorbidities as determinants of this syndrome. The latter could help recognize an entity which is probably underdiagnosed, but conveys a high risk of suicide and cardiovascular morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Heavy Smoking on Dental Implants Placed in Male Patients Posterior Mandibles: A Prospective Clinical Study.

    Sun, Cong; Zhao, Jinxiu; Jianghao, Chen; Hong, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implant stability and peri-implant tissue response in heavy smokers receiving dental implants due to partially edentulous posterior mandibles. Forty-five ITI Straumann dental implants were placed into the partially edentulous posterior mandibles of 16 heavy smokers and 16 nonsmokers. One implant in each patient was evaluated for implant stability after surgery and before loading, and for the modified plaque index (mPLI), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing depth (PD), and marginal bone loss (MBL) after loading. Meanwhile, the osteogenic capability of jaw marrow samples collected from patients was evaluated via an in vitro mineralization test. For both groups, the implant stability quotient (ISQ) initially decreased from the initial ISQ achieved immediately after surgery and then increased starting from 2 weeks postsurgery. However, at 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postsurgery, the ISQ differed significantly between nonsmokers and heavy smokers. All implants achieved osseointegration without complications at least by the end of the 12th week postsurgery. At 6 or 12 months postloading, the MBL and PD were significantly higher in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers, whereas the mSBI and mPLI did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The 1-year cumulative success rate of implants was 100% for both groups. Within the limitations of the present clinical study (such as small sample size and short study duration), which applied the loading at 3 months postoperation, heavy smoking did not affect the cumulative survival rate of dental implants placed at the posterior mandible in male patients, but heavy smoking did negatively affect bone healing around dental implants by decreasing the healing speed. These results implied that it might be of importance to select the right time point to apply the implant loading for heavy smokers. In addition, heavy smoking promoted the loss of marginal bone and the further development

  19. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  2. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho.

    Newman, Constance J; Fogarty, Linda; Makoae, Lucia Nthabiseng; Reavely, Erik

    2011-06-08

    Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home), where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid) workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable.In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC) workforce. The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation and the underlying gender essentialism and male primacy if there

  3. ‘It’s really a hard life’: Love, gender and HIV risk among male-to-female transgender persons

    MELENDEZ, RITA M.; PINTO, ROGÉRIO

    2012-01-01

    Scientific studies demonstrate high rates of HIV infection among male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals and that stigma and discrimination place MTFs at increased risk for infection. However, there is little research examining how gender roles contribute to HIV risk. This paper reports on in-depth interviews with 20 MTFs attending a community clinic. Data reveal that stigma and discrimination create a heightened need for MTFs to feel safe and loved by a male companion and that in turn places them at a higher risk for acquiring HIV. Male-to-female transgender individuals appear to turn to men to feel loved and affirmed as women; their main HIV risk stems from their willingness to engage with sexual partners who provide a sense of love and acceptance but who also may also request unsafe sexual behaviours. A model illustrating how HIV risk is generated from stigma and discrimination is presented. PMID:17457728

  4. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study).

    Rachiotis, George; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kyrlesi, Athina; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-09-15

    Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004-2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females) participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08-3.08), parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45-5.89), and having pocket money > or = 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19-5.98). Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money > or = 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  5. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: Results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004–2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. Results 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08–3.08, parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45–5.89, and having pocket money ≥ 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19–5.98. Conclusion Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money ≥ 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  6. Gendered endings: Narratives of male and female suicides in the South African Lowveld

    Niehaus, I

    2012-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11013-012-9258-y. Copyright @ Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Durkheim’s classical theory of suicide rates being a negative index of social solidarity downplays the salience of gendered concerns in suicide. But gendered inequalities have had a negative impact: worldwide significantly more men than women perpetrate fatal suicides. Drawing on narratives of 52 fat...

  7. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating vi...

  8. Are Female Workers Less Productive Than Male Workers? Productivity and the Gender Wage Gap

    Meyerson, Eva M.; Petersen, Trond; Snartland, Vemund

    1998-01-01

    It is extraordinarily difficult to determine the extent to which the gender wage gap reflects discriminatory behaviors by employers or differences in productive capacities between men and women. We note that where piece-rate work is performed, wages should in principle reflect productivity differences and that it is more difficult to discriminate on the basis of gender because one is paid for what one produces. With this as our point of departure, we compared men and women working in the same...

  9. Degrees of Intersectionality: Male Rap Artists in Sweden Negotiating Class, Race and Gender

    Kalle Berggren

    2013-01-01

    “Intersectionality” has become a highly influential concept in gender research over the last 25 years. Debates have focused on differences and power asymmetries between women, in terms of race but also addressing class, age, sexuality, ability and nation. However, intersectional paradigms have been used to a much lesser extent in gender studies on men. This article seeks to contribute to an emerging discussion about intersectionality and masculinity by analyzing rap lyrics in Swe-dish songs. ...

  10. SBM recommends policy support to reduce smoking disparities for sexual and gender minorities.

    Matthews, Phoenix Alicia; Blok, Amanda C; Lee, Joseph G L; Hitsman, Brian; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Watson, Karriem; Breen, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Raymond; Scout; Simon, Melissa A; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Hein, Laura C; Winn, Robert

    2018-01-27

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine supports the inclusion of gender and sexual minorities in all local, state, and national tobacco prevention and control activities. These activities include surveillance of tobacco use and cessation activities, targeted outreach and awareness campaigns, increasing access to culturally appropriate tobacco use dependence treatments, and restricting disproportionate marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities by the tobacco industry, especially for mentholated tobacco products. © The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Comparative Study of Australian and New Zealand Male and Female Nurses' Health: A Sex Comparison and Gender Analysis.

    Tuckett, Anthony; Henwood, Tim; Oliffe, John L; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Kim, Jae Rin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the health and lifestyle behaviors between male and female nursing professionals. Biological, workplace, and lifestyle factors as well as health behaviors and outcomes are reported as different between male and female nurses. Although male nurses show distinct health-related patterns and experience health disparities at work, few studies have investigated health differences by sex in a large cohort group of nursing professionals. This observation study of Australian and New Zealand nurses and midwives drew data from an eCohort survey. A cohort of 342 females was generated by SPSS randomization (total N=3625), to compare against 342 participating males. Measures for comparison include health markers and behaviors, cognitive well-being, workplace and leisure-time vitality, and functional capacity. Findings suggest that male nurses had a higher BMI, sat for longer, slept for less time, and were more likely to be a smoker than their female nurse counterparts. Men were more likely to report restrictions in bending, bathing, and dressing. In relation to disease, male nurses reported greater rates of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease, including a three times greater incidence of myocardial infarction, and were more likely to have metabolic problems. In contrast, however, male nurses were more likely to report feeling calm and peaceful with less worries about their health. Important for nurse workforce administrators concerned about the well-being of their staff, the current study reveals significant sex differences and supports the need for gender-sensitive approaches to aid the well-being of male nurses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  13. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...

  14. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  15. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    Koelewijn, HP; VanDamme, JMM

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  16. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  17. Gendered endings: narratives of male and female suicides in the South African Lowveld.

    Niehaus, Isak

    2012-06-01

    Durkheim's classical theory of suicide rates being a negative index of social solidarity downplays the salience of gendered concerns in suicide. But gendered inequalities have had a negative impact: worldwide significantly more men than women perpetrate fatal suicides. Drawing on narratives of 52 fatal suicides in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, this article suggests that Bourdieu's concepts of 'symbolic violence' and 'masculine domination' provide a more appropriate framework for understanding this paradox. I show that the thwarting of investments in dominant masculine positions have been the major precursor to suicides by men. Men tended to take their own lives as a means of escape. By contrast, women perpetrated suicide to protest against the miserable consequences of being dominated by men. However, contra the assumption of Bourdieu's concept of 'habitus', the narrators of suicide stories did reflect critically upon gender constructs.

  18. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers.

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the 'dirty work'. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers' family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men's experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity.

  19. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  20. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  1. Gender-related beliefs of Turkish female science teachers and their effect on interactions with female and male students

    Uysal, Sibel

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students

  2. Constructing Men Who Teach: Research into Care and Gender as Productive of the Male Primary Teacher

    Pulsford, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that in order to begin loosening the ties that bind care and gender in primary education, we need to re-examine the knowledge sought and found by educational research about teachers. The focus is primarily on how we understand men who teach. Through an examination of two scholarly texts -- Ashley, M., and J. Lee [2003.…

  3. Outsourcing the Gender Factory : Living Arrangements and Service Expenditures on Female and Male Tasks

    Ruijter, Esther de; Treas, Judith K.; Cohen, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey 1998, this study analyzes how much money different types of households spend for domestic services on “female” and “male” tasks.We test alternative hypotheses based on economic and sociological theories of gender differentiation. Contrary to

  4. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  5. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  6. Geschlechterperspektive als integraler Bestandteil eines Seminars zur Prävention des Tabakkonsums [Sex- and gender-related perspectives as an integral part of a seminar dealing with smoking prevention

    Bisson, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Despite the standard of knowledge about gender-specific smoking behavior and sex-related characteristics in tobacco-attributable diseases, physicians do not feel competent in providing adequate prevention strategies against both female and male smoking. To address this problem, a seminar on smoking prevention has been developed and evaluated as part of the compulsory interdisciplinary subject “Prevention and Health Promotion” at Hannover Medical School. Supporting this aim, a parallel lecture on the theme is offered.The seminar is composed of four teaching units. They contrast sex- and gender-unspecific factors with specific ones. Using substantively related worksheets, students acquire knowledge within small teams. Interactive education is based on the concept of cooperative learning. The seminar was conducted seven times between July 2006 and July 2008. In total, 145 (94 female/51 male students attended the seminar; 25% of the students said they were smokers. The students showed a significantly higher level of sex- and gender-related acceptance after completion of the seminars than before. No association was found between increase in acceptance and student sex or smoking behavior.The extensive sex and gender awareness cultivated within the seminars involves the gender identity of medical students, teachers, and patients alike. Information transfer is characterized by sex and gender sensitivity at the levels of content, language, and process.[german] Wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse der letzten Jahre bestätigen die Bedeutung von Geschlechtsspezifika im Rauchverhalten und Auftreten tabakassoziierter Erkrankungen. Dem steht ein ärztlicher Kompetenzmangel hinsichtlich geschlechteradäquater Prävention des Tabakkonsums gegenüber. Mit dem Ziel, diese Diskrepanz zu mindern, wurde innerhalb des Querschnittsbereiches Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung ein Seminar zur Rauchprävention im Rahmen des grundständigen Medizinstudiums

  7. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  8. male circumcision, gender and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa

    Winnie

    strategy could provide new avenues for dialogue. Many ..... national level, such as media campaigns that encourage safe male .... tool kits for ministries of health, that outline standards, triage ... New York: Population Council. ... The New Times.

  9. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  11. Association of smoking and snuffing with dental caries occurrence in a young male population in Finland: a cross-sectional study.

    Tanner, Tarja; Kämppi, Antti; Päkkilä, Jari; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and snuffing habits in association with dental caries occurrence in a male cohort born in the early 1990s in Finland. The impact of health behaviours and factors related to the place of residence were included in analyses. Oral health of 8537 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study. In the same occasion they also answered a questionnaire covering their smoking and snuffing habits and other background factors. The residence-related factors were obtained from the Defence Forces' database. Cross-tabulation together with chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses. Almost forty per cent (39.4%) of the men reported smoking daily and 9.0% reported daily snuffing. Restorative treatment need of those who reported frequent smoking was more than 2-fold (mean DT = 2.22) compared to the non-smokers (mean DT = 1.07). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with other harmful health behaviours. The snuffers reported more snacking than the non-smokers, but were most frequent brushers. The result from the statistical modelling showed that smoking, low tooth brushing frequency, eating sweets and consuming energy drinks frequently were significantly associated with restorative treatment need. In this cross-sectional study, association between smoking and dental caries was distinct. The high rate of restorative treatment need among smokers may be explained by their poor health behaviours. Dietary habits of the snuffers seem harmful too, but are compensated by good tooth brushing frequency.

  12. A Social Network Family-Focused Intervention to Promote Smoking Cessation in Chinese and Vietnamese American Male Smokers: A Feasibility Study.

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Burke, Nancy J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Anthony; Chan, Joanne L; Sun, Angela; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2015-08-01

    Smoking prevalence is high among limited English-proficient Chinese and Vietnamese American men, who are frequently unmotivated to quit and who underutilize smoking cessation resources. This study applied lay health worker outreach to leverage peer and family networks to promote smoking cessation among these men. We integrated qualitative formative research findings and Social Network Theory to develop a social-network family-focused intervention. In a pilot single-group trial, 15 lay health workers recruited 96 dyads (N = 192, 75% Vietnamese) of Chinese or Vietnamese male daily smokers and their family members and delivered the intervention consisting of two small group education sessions and two individual telephone calls over 2 months. At baseline, 42% of smokers were at precontemplation. At 3 months following the initiation of the intervention, 7-day and 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates as reported by smokers and independently corroborated by family members were 30% and 24%, respectively. Utilization of smoking cessation resources (medication, quitline, physician's advice) increased from 2% to 60% (P Vietnamese smokers appears to be acceptable, feasible, and potentially efficacious. Findings warrant evaluation of long-term efficacy of the intervention in a larger scale randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of Tehran, Iran

    Fatemeh Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents′ avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  14. Medical Students’ First Male Urogenital Examination: Investigating the Effects of Instruction and Gender on Anxiety

    Lisa D. Howley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students’ anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students’ anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices

  15. Gender Integration of a Traditionally Male Field: A Definition of the Occupation.

    1982-12-01

    Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism ," American Economic Review 62 (Sept. 1972), 659-661. Tyler, L. The Psychology of Sex Differences, N.Y. Appleton...34 statistical discrimination." whereby the gender of the applicant is used as an Indicator of interior characteristics which are too...Awareness of Dying. Chicago: Aldine, 1965. • The Discovery of Grounded Theory . Chicago: Aldine, 1967. Goffman, Erving. Asylums. Garden City: Doubleday

  16. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective.

    Jonathan Dushoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.

  17. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  18. Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial.

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Di; Tian, Hui; Zuo, Fang; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-11-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture out-patient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Physicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within 1 month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counsellor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise and diet advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline, and a telephone counsellor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (approximately 1 minute each) at 1 week and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview. By intention-to-treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3 versus 6.9%, OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0

  19. Determinants of anger and physical aggression based on sexual orientation: an experimental examination of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations.

    Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations on antigay anger and aggression. Participants were 148 heterosexual men who were randomly assigned to view either a male-male or a male-female erotic video. Participants completed a measure of hypermasculinity and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic video. A laboratory paradigm was then used to measure physical aggression toward a gay or heterosexual man. Hypermasculinity predicted greater increases in anger among men who viewed male-male erotica relative to men who viewed male-female erotica. Hypermasculinity also predicted higher levels of physical aggression toward a gay, relative to a heterosexual, man, but only after viewing male-male erotica. Findings were discussed within the context of the General Aggression Model.

  20. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Male Patients.

    de Maio, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary male look includes sharp contours of the face with strong nose, significant malar-midface structure, and a powerful chin with well-defined jawline. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines should preserve a lower position of the brows and flatter arch in men. Excessive lifting of the eyebrows and full correction of forehead and periorbital lines are not desirable. The use of dermal fillers is fully accepted into the nasolabial. Male patients with sagginess and hollowness related or not related to acquired lipodystrophies are candidates for cheek correction with volumizers. Female attractiveness lies in the cheekbones, and for men, it lies in the chin. The use of volumizers in the chin is very much appreciated by male patients, especially when it is recessed. A strong and masculine appearance is obtained by creating a square chin. Men present slight thinner lips, especially the upper one. Lip reshape in male patients is very much rejected. It requires expertise both in communication and in technical skills to convince male patients to undergo lip treatments with fillers. The use of injectables in male patients is growing. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines and the use of dermal fillers in the nasolabial folds are widely accepted. The use of volumizers in the chin is highly appreciated. There is clear need of volumizers in the cheek to correct sagginess and hollowness in men. However, proper communication and technique are required. The same applies for the lips. Cheek and lip reshape is still considered a taboo for most patients and injectors.

  1. Voices in Transition: Testosterone, Transmasculinity, and the Gendered Voice among Female-to-Male Transgender People

    Zimman, Lal

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a long-term ethnographic and sociophonetic study of 15 transgender people on the female-to-male (or "transmasculine") identity spectrum. The focus of the study is the way these individuals' voices change during the first 1-2 years of masculinizing hormone therapy, which brings about a drop in vocal…

  2. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  3. When Police Intervene: Race, Gender, and Discipline of Black Male Students at an Urban High School

    Hines-Datiri, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Courtney and Dennis, two African American male students at McDowell High, were arrested at school for throwing water balloons during senior prank week. The principal assigned two police officers to the magnet school to oversee the implementation of a new discipline protocol. However, several members of the school staff were ill-informed about the…

  4. Feminist Pedagogy Meets Male Sports: A Workshop on Gender Sensitivity for the Men's Rugby Club.

    Scanlon, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a workshop that used feminist pedagogy to challenge students' deeply ingrained sexism, promote their appreciation of differences, and encourage them to change their behavior voluntarily. Participants involved a group of male students undergoing punishment in the campus judicial system. Workshop results are discussed. (GR)

  5. Gender-Linked Perceptions and Causal Attributions of Female/Male Competencies.

    Major, Harriet; Plake, Barbara S.

    Undergraduate students (N=518) rated graduate application materials for males or females applying to traditionally perceived masculine or feminine fields. Independent variables were rater's pro/anti feminism, sex of subject, sex of referent, sex of field, and sex of attributes. Dependent variables were academic competence, personal dynamics,…

  6. Is it a (fe)male pain? Portuguese nurses' and laypeople's gendered representations of common pains.

    Bernardes, S F; Silva, S A; Carvalho, H; Costa, M; Pereira, S

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have explored gender role expectations of pain behaviours in different cultures, only a few authors have tried to explore whether certain pains are more associated with the typical man or woman. Hence, this study aimed at exploring, among Portuguese laypeople and nurses, patterns of common pains more strongly associated with the typical man or woman, and their relationship with health-care training and personal pain experiences. A total of 68 nurses (76% women) and 55 laypeople (62% women) were asked to identify, through free association, the most frequent common pains that people in general associate with the typical man and woman, respectively, and also to report their personal past pain experiences. A content analysis was used to categorize and quantify participants' responses. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify gendered patterns of common pains, followed by a cluster analysis to classify participants according to their endorsed patterns. Findings showed that while 'back and musculoskeletal pains' was the only pattern associated with the typical man, more differentiated patterns of pains were associated with the typical woman, namely (1) headaches; (2) abdominal, back and musculoskeletal pains; and (3) pains due to hormonal cycles, labour/puerperium and from the urinary/reproductive system. These representations were shared by laypeople and nurses and were only significantly associated with personal experiences of pains from the urinary/reproductive system. This study identified different gendered patterns of common pains, which may have important implications for (wo)men's pain experiences and how these are interpreted by others. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  7. Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses in Israel.

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  9. Male gender explains increased birthweight in children born after transfer of blastocysts.

    Kaartinen, N M; Kananen, K M; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A; Tomás, C M; Huhtala, H Sa; Tinkanen, H I

    2015-10-01

    Does extended embryo culture have a different effect on the birthweight of girls and boys? The mean birthweight of boys born after fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was increased compared with those born after cleavage stage embryo transfer. This effect was not detected among girls. Previous studies indicate that newborns from frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryos may present with a higher weight than newborns from fresh embryo transfers. With regard to fresh embryos, newborns after a blastocyst transfer have been reported as having higher birthweights than newborns from cleavage stage embryos. Retrospective multicentre case-control cohort study. All IVF/ICSI treatments were performed in the time-period from January 2008 to March 2014. Birthweight of singletons born at full-term (≥37 weeks), after fresh or frozen blastocyst embryo transfers (n = 277), were compared with weights of children born after fresh or frozen cleavage stage embryo transfers (Day 2-3) (n = 277). The cases and controls were matched by delivery week, and by gender. Data of IVF/ICSI treatments, and the treatments' outcomes were collected and analysed. The birthweight after a fresh blastocyst transfer was significantly higher (mean 3530.6 g) than that after a transfer of cleavage stage embryos (mean 3418.8 g; weight difference 111.8 g, P = 0.047). The weights of newborns after frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers (mean 3647.5 g) and the frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfers (mean 3650.9 g), were similar (weight difference 3.4 g, P = 0.95). The boys born after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocysts had a significantly higher birthweight (mean 3767.9 g) than girls (3525.2 g; weight difference 242.7 g, P = 0.002), whereas the difference of birthweights between genders was only 13.5 g in cleavage stage (P = 0.863). The same effect was seen after fresh blastocyst transfers (weight difference 211.5 g, P = 0.011), but not after fresh Day 2-3 embryo transfers (weight difference 53.6 g, P

  10. The Gender Differences: Hispanic Females and Males Majoring in Science or Engineering

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.

  11. An empirical test of a mediation model of the impact of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior in men.

    Houle, Janie; Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François

    2008-04-01

    Men die by suicide three to four times more often than women in Western countries. The adverse impact of the traditional male gender role as well as men's reluctance to seek help are possible explanations of this gender gap, but these hypotheses have not been well documented empirically. This study compares two groups of men who experienced comparable severely stressful life events during the preceding 12 months: 40 men admitted to hospital emergency following suicide attempts, and 40 men with no history of suicide attempts. Structured interviews were conducted to measure adherence to the traditional male gender role, help seeking behaviour, social support, suicide acceptability and mental health. ANOVAS indicated that attempters are more likely to adhere to the traditional masculine gender role and regression analysis revealed that this relationship persists even when the presence of mental disorders is statistically controlled. Sequential regression analysis support the mediation model and show that the effects of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior are mediated through protective and risk factors for suicide, namely mental state, help seeking and social support. The traditional male gender role appears to increase the risk of suicidal behavior in men by undermining their mental state and by inhibiting the protective factors of help seeking and social support. This study underscores the importance of encouraging men to seek help.

  12. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% fema...

  13. Socioeconomic Determinants of Inequality in Smoking Stages: A Distributive Analysis on a Sample of Male High School Students.

    Ayubi, Erfan; Sani, Mohadeseh; Safiri, Saeid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Milad

    2017-07-01

    The effect of socioeconomic status on adolescent smoking behaviors is unclear, and sparse studies are available about the potential association. The present study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian adolescents. In a cross-sectional survey, a multistage sample of adolescents ( n = 1,064) was recruited from high school students in Zanjan city, northwest of Iran. Principal component analysis was used to measure economic status of adolescents. Concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior, and then it was decomposed to reveal inequality contributors. Concentration index and its 95% confidence interval for never, experimental, and regular smoking behaviors were 0.004 [-0.03, 0.04], 0.05 [0.02, 0.11], and -0.10 [-0.04, -0.19], respectively. The contribution of economic status to measured inequality in experimental and regular smoking was 80.0% and 68.8%, respectively. Household economic status could be targeted as one of the relevant factors in the unequal distribution of smoking behavior among adolescents.

  14. Unequal on top: Gender profiling and the income gap among high earner male and female professionals.

    Merluzzi, Jennifer; Dobrev, Stanislav D

    2015-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive, multi-level model of income inequality between high earner men and women during the early career stages. We argue that young women are routinely subjected to "gender profiling" by employers-women's potential contribution to the organization is interpreted through the lens of social stereotypes and cultural norms that attribute to them weaker labor market commitment than men. We investigate two specific mechanisms that arise from this profiling and lead to income inequality: First, women have diminished access to resources and advancement opportunities within the firm which results in lower returns to tenure for women than for men. Second, external mobility is greatly beneficial for men but much less so for women because it reinforces the image of weak commitment. Salary regressions of early career history data of young MBA alumni of a prestigious U.S. business school accord with our conjectures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.

  16. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  17. The meanings of smoking to women and their implications for cessation.

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2015-01-27

    Smoking cigarettes is a gendered activity with sex- and gender-specific uptake trends and cessation patterns. While global male smoking rates have peaked, female rates are set to escalate in the 21st century, especially in low and middle income countries. Hence, smoking cessation for women will be an ongoing issue and requires refreshed attention. Public health and health promotion messages are being challenged to be increasingly tailored, taking gender into account. Women-centred approaches that include harm-reduction, motivational interviewing and trauma-informed elements are the new frontiers in interventions to encourage smoking cessation for women. Such approaches are linked to the meanings of smoking to women, the adaptive function of, and the overall role of smoking cigarettes in the context of women's lives. These approaches respect gender and sex-related factors that affect smoking and smoking cessation and respond to these issues, not by reinforcing destructive or negative gender norms, but with insight. This article discusses a women-centred approach to smoking cessation that could underpin initiatives in clinical, community or public health settings and could inform campaigns and messaging.

  18. Gender

    Borghi , Rachele; Camuffo , Monica

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The protests which have been ongoing in North-African countries since February 2011 have contributed towards giving visibility to that component of society often neglected by the dominant male model: women. Female bodies occupied not only the front covers of important magazines (Libération, n.9253, 12th-13th February 2011; Los Angeles Times, Saturday 12th February), but also a traditional male space: the public space. This media visibility of women has given new food f...

  19. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  20. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  1. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  2. Gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings: female empowerment amidst male emasculation-a challenge to local integration?

    Ritchie, Holly A

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members. In the case of longer-term refugees (Somalis), it describes new collective agency among refugee women, boosting support for new practices. The paper reflects on emerging gender roles and relations in such hostile conditions, particularly as men remain excluded and struggle for their own identity and authority. In addition, it draws attention to the gap relating to refugee men and policymaking, and highlights ways to address better their needs for refugee resilience, inclusion, and local integration. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  3. Vulnerabilidade de gênero para a paternidade em homens adolescentes Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents

    Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same

  4. One-Stage Gender-Confirmation Surgery as a Viable Surgical Procedure for Female-to-Male Transsexuals.

    Stojanovic, Borko; Bizic, Marta; Bencic, Marko; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Jeftovic, Milos; Stanojevic, Dusan; Djordjevic, Miroslav L

    2017-05-01

    Female-to-male gender-confirmation surgery (GCS) includes removal of breasts and female genitalia and complete genital and urethral reconstruction. With a multidisciplinary approach, these procedures can be performed in one stage, avoiding multistage operations. To present our results of one-stage sex-reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and to emphasize the advantages of single-stage over multistage surgery. During a period of 9 years (2007-2016), 473 patients (mean age = 31.5 years) underwent metoidioplasty. Of these, 137 (29%) underwent simultaneous hysterectomy, and 79 (16.7%) underwent one-stage GCS consisting of chest masculinization, total transvaginal hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, vaginectomy, metoidioplasty, urethral lengthening, scrotoplasty, and implantation of bilateral testicular prostheses. All surgeries were performed simultaneously by teams of experienced gynecologic and gender surgeons. Primary outcome measurements were surgical time, length of hospital stay, and complication and reoperation rates compared with other published data and in relation to the number of stages needed to complete GCS. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range = 10-92). Mean surgery time was 270 minutes (range = 215-325). Postoperative hospital stay was 3 to 6 days (mean = 4). Complications occurred in 20 patients (25.3%). Six patients (7.6%) had complications related to mastectomy, and one patient underwent revision surgery because of a breast hematoma. Two patients underwent conversion of transvaginal hysterectomy to an abdominal approach, and subcutaneous perineal cyst, as a consequence of colpocleisis, occurred in nine patients. There were eight complications (10%) from urethroplasty, including four fistulas, three strictures, and one diverticulum. Testicular implant rejection occurred in two patients and testicular implant displacement occurred in one patient. Female-to-male transsexuals can undergo complete GCS, including mastectomy

  5. Distinctive features of female-to-male transsexualism and prevalence of gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Baba, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Keiko; Shimizu, Ayumi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya; Ohmura, Tousei; Kiya, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Takashi; Koizumi, Motoiki; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of transsexualism is thought to differ among socio-geographic backgrounds, and little is known about its prevalence in Japan. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is often seen in female-to-male (FTM) transsexual patients. Consequently, detection of PCOS is an important part of health care for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of transsexuality in Japan, as well as the incidences of PCOS and insulin resistance among Japanese FTM transsexual patients. One hundred four male-to-female (MTF) and 238 FTM Japanese transsexual patients were studied. Medical histories, including histories of menstrual cycling and hormone treatment, were taken. To exclude other diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hormone-secreting tumors, thorough medical assessments, including transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography and measurement of serum hormone levels and insulin resistance indexes, were performed. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Based on demographic statistics, the prevalences of MTF and FTM transsexuality are about 3.97 and 8.20 per 100,000 people, respectively, making the MTF-to-FTM ratio about 1:2. Of the FTM transsexual patients studied, 128 had not taken hormones before their initial assessment (untreated group); the remaining 50 self-administered androgen. Among the untreated group, 32.0% were diagnosed with PCOS, 30.1% were insulin-resistant, and 31.1% showed hypoadiponectinemia. The sex ratio among Japanese transsexuals is different than among Caucasians. PCOS and insulin resistance are common findings in FTM transsexual patients at initial presentation. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  7. Male gender and renal dysfunction are predictors of adverse outcome in nonpostoperative ischemic colitis patients.

    Lee, Tsung-Chun; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Chiu, Han-Mo; Lien, Wan-Ching; Chen, Mei-Jyh; Yu, Linda C H; Sun, Chia-Tung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic colitis (IC) spans a broad spectrum from self-limiting illness to intestinal gangrene and mortality. Prognostic factors specifically for nonpostoperative IC were not fully characterized. We aim to focus on nonpostoperative IC in patients with renal dysfunction and try to identify prognostic factors for adverse outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis at a university-affiliated tertiary medical center in Taiwan. From January 2003 to August 2008, 25 men and 52 women (mean age: 66 y) had colonoscopic biopsy-proven IC without prior culprit surgery. We estimated glomerular filtration rate with simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Nine patients with glomerular filtration rate below 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m were classified as renal dysfunction group (including 7 dialysis patients). Adverse outcomes were defined as need for surgery and mortality. Predictors for adverse outcomes were captured by univariate and multivariate analysis. Research ethical committee approved the study protocol. Patients with renal dysfunction more often had: diabetes mellitus (56% vs. 16%, P=0.02), prolonged symptoms (6.8 d vs. 3.5 d, P=0.01), lower hemoglobin (11.1 g/dL vs. 13.4 g/dL, P=0.01), and more often right colonic involvement (56% vs. 19%, P=0.03). Renal dysfunction patients also had longer hospitalization days (median 15 d vs. 4 d, P=0.045). However, there was no statistical significance in the rate of either surgery or mortality between these 2 groups (P>0.05). Univariate analysis showed that renal dysfunction, sex, emergency department referral, presentation with abdominal pain were significant for adverse outcome (P<0.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex conveyed 9.5-fold risk (P=0.01) and renal dysfunction conveyed 8.5-fold risk (P=0.03) for adverse outcomes. Nonpostoperative IC patients with concurrent renal dysfunction had distinct clinical profiles. Multivariate analysis showed that male patients had 9.5-fold and renal

  8. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  9. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Possible Role of Smoking and Mild Inflammation on Iron, Copper Ions and Related Metalloproteins in Male Volunteers Working in Radiation Field

    Bahgat, M.M.; Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.; El Daly, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress implies that cells have intact pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems that continuously generate and detoxify oxidants during normal aerobic metabolism. When additional oxidative events occur, the pro-oxidant systems out balance the anti-oxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids ultimately leading to cell death in severe oxidative stress. A disturbance in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems results from a myriad of different oxidative challenges, including radiation, metabolism of environmental pollutants and administered drugs and immune system response to disease or infection. Forty male volunteers have participated in this study to evaluate the effect of smoking and mild infection on ferric and copper ions, related metalloproteins and glutathione peroxidase in males working in the radiation fields. The results denoted that those two stress ors added further imbalance in the pro oxidant-antioxidant status

  11. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Does gender really matter?

    N K Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited data is available on the clinical expression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from India. The impact of gender on expression of COPD has received even less attention. Apart from tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, especially from biomass fuel may play an important role in development of COPD in women. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and two patients of COPD were studied regarding the etiological and risk factors leading to COPD, gender-related differences in clinical presentation, radiological expression of COPD and the co-morbidities in COPD. Results: Tobacco smoke in the form of beedi smoking was the predominant smoke exposure in males, whereas smoke from biofuel burning was the predominant exposure in females. As compared to males, females were younger, reported more dyspnea, more severe bronchial obstruction, more exacerbations, and exhibited higher prevalence of systemic features. Also, females smoked less and had lesser incidence of productive cough, lower body mass index, lesser co-morbidities and less number of hospital admissions as compared to males. Males were more likely than females to have an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while airway-predominant disease was more common among females. Conclusion: The current study shows that gender-related differences do exist in COPD patients. Understanding these differences in etiological agent and clinical picture will help early diagnosis of COPD in females.

  13. Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study

    Markham Wolfgang A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention interventions based on social influences approaches have had limited success. The attitudes-social influences-efficacy (ASE model is a social cognition model that states smoking behaviour is determined by smoking intention which, in turn, is predicted by seven ASE determinants; disadvantages, advantages, social acceptance, social norms, modelling, perceived pressure, self-efficacy. Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model. The ASE model is, thus, closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This study assessed the utility of the ASE model using cross-sectional data from Spanish and UK adolescents. Methods In 1997, questionnaires were simultaneously administered to Spanish (n = 3716 and UK adolescents (n = 3715 who were considered at high risk of smoking. Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions. Results All UK participants were aged 12 or 13 and most Spanish participants were aged between 12 and 14 (range 12–16 years. Amongst 12 and 13 year olds, regular smoking was more common in Spain. Almost half the participants were female (47.2% in Spain; 49.9% in the UK. Gender did not vary significantly according to age. The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention. The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country. Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants. The findings suggest resisting peer pressure interventions could potentially influence smoking amongst UK adolescents but not Spanish adolescents. Interventions that promote self

  14. Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study.

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Lopez, Maria Luisa; Aveyard, Paul; Herrero, Pablo; Bridle, Christopher; Comas, Angel; Charlton, Anne; Thomas, Hywel

    2009-06-04

    European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention interventions based on social influences approaches have had limited success. The attitudes-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model is a social cognition model that states smoking behaviour is determined by smoking intention which, in turn, is predicted by seven ASE determinants; disadvantages, advantages, social acceptance, social norms, modelling, perceived pressure, self-efficacy. Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model. The ASE model is, thus, closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This study assessed the utility of the ASE model using cross-sectional data from Spanish and UK adolescents. In 1997, questionnaires were simultaneously administered to Spanish (n = 3716) and UK adolescents (n = 3715) who were considered at high risk of smoking. Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions. All UK participants were aged 12 or 13 and most Spanish participants were aged between 12 and 14 (range 12-16 years). Amongst 12 and 13 year olds, regular smoking was more common in Spain. Almost half the participants were female (47.2% in Spain; 49.9% in the UK). Gender did not vary significantly according to age. The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention. The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country. Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale) but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants. The findings suggest resisting peer pressure interventions could potentially influence smoking amongst UK adolescents but not Spanish adolescents. Interventions that promote self-efficacy, on the other hand, would possibly have a greater

  15. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  16. Quit Smoking >

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  17. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  18. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  19. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  20. Unpacking the Male Superiority Myth and Masculinization of Mathematics at the Intersections: A Review of Research on Gender in Mathematics Education

    Leyva, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Gender research in mathematics education has experienced methodological and theoretical shifts over the past 45 years. Although achievement studies have used assessment tools to explore and subsequently challenge the assumption of male superiority on mathematics assessments, research on participation has unpacked these studies' sex-based…

  1. Effects of aging and gender on micro-rheology of blood in 3 to 18 months old male and female Wistar (Crl:WI) rats.

    Somogyi, Viktoria; Peto, Katalin; Deak, Adam; Tanczos, Bence; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months. Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein at 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age. Hematological parameters, red blood cell deformability (elongation under shear), osmotic gradient deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Body weight and the estrus cycle (in females) were also examined. Erythrocyte aggregation showed age- and gender-related variations. Red blood cell deformability was greater in females and gradually decreased over the 15-month period in both genders. Erythrocyte aggregation was greater in male rats at most ages, but did not show consistent changes with age. The micro-rheological parameters showed age-related alterations with gender differences. The effect of the estrous cycle cannot be excluded in female rats. The results provide reference data for studies of aging in rats and of the mechanism related to age and gender differences in hemorheology.

  2. Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School).

    Buckley, Tamara R

    2017-09-12

    Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  4. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  5. [The image of smoking women in France].

    Sledziewski, E G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to try to understand why the social image of the smoking woman remains positive and cannot be assimilated to that of the smoking man. We wanted to describe the typical status and function of smoking women in today's social imaginary in France. We identified and interpreted selected images in which female smoking is presented as an ideological corpus. The cultural meaning of female and male smoking, as well as their pathological effects, are different and should not be apprehended symmetrically. The leading feministic culture deeply resists alarming discourses about the dangers of tobacco, considering them to have little importance. Female smoking is still encouraged and exalted for its emancipating power: tobacco liberates woman from an impracticable womanhood. There is a need for a political approach to female smoking, viewing it as a modern form of mutilation meant to compensate for the extension of women's rights. In order to fight against this imagery efficiently, it must be put into a critical perspective, eliminating taboos about certain feministic misunderstandings and dead-ends. A woman must be offered something more than smoking cessation: an improvement in her own being, a way to reappropriate her gendered identity.

  6. Cigarro "companheiro": o tabagismo feminino em uma abordagem crítica de gênero Cigarette as "companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking

    Márcia Terezinha Trotta Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os principais resultados de uma pesquisa que investigou, sob a ótica crítica e de gênero e da abordagem qualitativa, os significados simbólicos e concretos do fumar feminino. Foram realizadas 14 entrevistas semi-estruturadas com mulheres tabagistas em diversas etapas do processo de cessação. O lócus da pesquisa foi um programa de tratamento do tabagismo em um hospital público do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os resultados evidenciaram o quanto o cigarro esteve imbricado em suas trajetórias sociais e de gênero, desempenhando importante papel de apoio no enfrentamento das inúmeras dificuldades de sobrevivência. Emergiu, como categoria empírica central, o "cigarro companheiro", sempre disponível para aplacar a ansiedade e a solidão, além de também ser fonte de prazer e relaxamento. O enfoque crítico de gênero evidenciou o quanto a sobrecarga de trabalho, reprodutivo e produtivo, potencializa o fumar feminino. Na assistência à saúde, para se conquistar a adesão das mulheres tabagistas ao difícil percurso da cessação, deve-se levar em conta os complexos entrelaçamentos entre as dimensões sociais e de gênero no estabelecimento da associação do cigarro a um "companheiro".This article presents the main results of a study that examined the symbolic and material meanings of women's smoking, adopting a critical and qualitative gender approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 women smokers in different stages of the smoking cessation process. The research locus was a tobacco treatment program located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The findings showed how deeply smoking is interwoven in these women's social and gender trajectories, playing a decisive support role when they have to deal with various difficulties in life. The cigarette as a "companion" emerged as the main empirical category, as something always available to quell anxiety and loneliness, as well as a source of pleasure

  7. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender.

    Joel, Daphna

    2012-12-17

    The categorization of individuals as "male" or "female" is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the "female" form at all levels, or the "male" form at all levels). About 1% of the human population is identified as "intersex" because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the "male" form at some levels and the "female" form at other levels. These two types of "intersex" reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior) leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the "male" form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics). Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-"intersex", when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits) and an intersex brain (a mosaic of "male" and "female" brain characteristics).

  8. Smoking prevalence and associated attitudes among high school students in Turkey.

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.

  9. Reasons for smoking among male teenagers in tehran, iran: two case-control studies using snowball sampling.

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Identifying the underlying factors contributing to smoking among teenagers is important in establishing smoking control programs. The present study was designed to identify and compare factors revealed in a preceding qualitative study conducted on 13-15 year-old boys living in two different socio-economic districts in the Northern and Southern parts of Tehran. Two completely similar case-control studies, each with 200 subjects, were conducted using a snowball sampling. The case and control subjects were matched based on the intimacy relations, i.e. six smokers were recruited in each of the Northern and Southern districts; they were then asked to introduce one of their smoker friends as a case and a non-smoker one as a control. Multi-variable conditional logistic regression revealed that having a smoker father is the single effective factor in the two districts. As for boys living in the Northern (wealthier) part of the city, social capital (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.81) played a protective role against smoking, whereas quitting home after a quarrel (OR: 15.07, 95% CI: 1.54-147.25), monthly allowance (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.29-3.82) and hyperactivity (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 2.64-240.45) were associated with a higher risk of becoming a smoker. The studied variables can be classified as personal, familial, and school-level factors. Familial intervention is effective for all the factors which revealed to be influential on the risk of becoming a smoker. It could be concluded that interventions on the family level should be used to prevent the cigarette use in Tehran.

  10. [Subgroup Analysis of the Non-interventional REASON Study: PFS and OS According to Age, Smoking History, Gender, and Histology in NSCLC Patients Treated with Gefitinib or Chemotherapy].

    Schuette, W; Eberhardt, W E E; Waller, C; Schirmacher, P; Dietel, M; Zirrgiebel, U; Radke, S; Thomas, M

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of several clinical factors on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in NSCLC patients (pts.) (stage IV) with mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRm+) treated with gefitinib (gef) or with chemotherapy (CT) under real-world conditions. 285 EGFRm+ pts. of the non-interventional REASON study treated with gef (n = 206) or CT (n = 79) as first-line therapy or with gef (n = 213) or CT (n = 61) in any line throughout the course of therapy were analyzed according to age, gender, smoking history and histology. Compared with CT, patients treated with gef showed prolongation of PFS and OS in all subgroups. PFS was significantly increased in women and non-smokers. OS was significantly increased in women, non-smokers, (ex)-smokers, patients with adenocarcinoma and elderly patients when treated with gef compared to CT. Female gender turned out to be an independent positive predictive factor for OS in patients treated with gef (HRmale: 1.74, p = 0.0009). A clinical benefit of gef was shown for all analyzed clinical subgroups of EGFRm+ pts. This was confirmed for the female gender in a multivariate analysis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  12. Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in Malaysia.

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Anil, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a primary risk factor for cancer development. While most research has focused on smoking cigarettes, the increasing popularity of shisha or water pipe smoking has received less attention. This study measured the prevalence and risk factors for shisha and cigarette smoking and related knowledge. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Participants aged ≥ 18 years were selected from restaurants. Data regarding demographic variables, smoking patterns, and knowledge about shisha smoking were collected in local languages. Logistic regression was performed to assess risk factors. Of 239 participants, 61.9 % were male and 99.2% revealed their smoking status. Some 57.4% were smokers: 50.7% only cigarettes, 5.9% only shisha and 42% both. Mean age of starting cigarette smoking was 17.5 ± 2.4 years and for shisha smoking 18.7 ± 2.0 years. In a univariate model, male gender, age 33-52 years and monthly income > MYR 4,000 increased the risk and unemployment and being a student decreased the risk. In a multivariate model, male gender increased the risk of smoking, while being a student decreased the risk, adjusting for age and income. The perception of shisha being less harmful than cigarettes was present in 14.6% and 7.5% had the opinion that shisha is not harmful at all, while 21.7% said that it is less addictive than cigarettes, 39.7% said that shisha did not contain tar and nicotine, 34.3% said that it did not contain carbon monoxide and 24.3% thought that shisha did not cause health problems. Prevalence of shisha and cigarette smoking is high in the general population in Malaysia and knowledge about shisha smoking is relatively low. The findings of our study might have implications for understanding similarities and differences in incidence of shisha and cigarette smoking in other cultural/geographic regions.

  13. 'Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse': future male leaders' views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka.

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men's perceptions are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men's perceptions of violence against women. Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles - patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists - sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men's right to punish; multiple factors cause violence - alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women - both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes.

  14. Gender, smoking, body size, and aneurysm geometry influence the biomechanical rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms as estimated by finite element analysis.

    Lindquist Liljeqvist, Moritz; Hultgren, Rebecka; Siika, Antti; Gasser, T Christian; Roy, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) has been suggested to be superior to maximal diameter measurements in predicting rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Our objective was to investigate to what extent previously described rupture risk factors were associated with FEA-estimated rupture risk. One hundred forty-six patients with an asymptomatic AAA of a 40- to 60-mm diameter were retrospectively identified and consecutively included. The patients' computed tomography angiograms were analyzed by FEA without (neutral) and with (specific) input of patient-specific mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, family history, and age. The maximal wall stress/wall strength ratio was described as a rupture risk equivalent diameter (RRED), which translated this ratio into an average aneurysm diameter of corresponding rupture risk. In multivariate linear regression, RRED neutral increased with female gender (3.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-7.3) and correlated with patient height (0.27 mm/cm; 95% CI, 0.11-0.43) and body surface area (BSA, 16 mm/m 2 ; 95% CI, 8.3-24) and inversely with body mass index (BMI, -0.40 mm/kg m -2 ; 95% CI, -0.75 to -0.054) in a wall stress-dependent manner. Wall stress-adjusted RRED neutral was raised if the patient was currently smoking (1.1 mm; 95% CI, 0.21-1.9). Age, MAP, family history, and patient weight were unrelated to RRED neutral . In specific FEA, RRED specific increased with female gender, MAP, family history positive for AAA, height, and BSA, whereas it was inversely related to BMI. All results were independent of aneurysm diameter. Peak wall stress and RRED correlated with aneurysm diameter and lumen volume. Female gender, current smoking, increased patient height and BSA, and low BMI were found to increase the mechanical rupture risk of AAAs. Previously described rupture risk factors may in part be explained by patient characteristic-dependent variations in aneurysm biomechanics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular

  15. Male imitations : a look at gender performance and the representation of masculinity in The O.C.

    Tenden, Per Aubrey Bugge

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines teen soap The O.C. s representation of gender and masculinity. The study employs a social constructivist view of gender, particularly inspired by Judith Butler s work. Moreover, theories on masculinity, masquerade and melodrama, feminist theory and the work of Camille Paglia also make up important theoretical groundwork which this thesis rests on. The main question I structure my thesis around is how gender and masculinity are represented in The O.C through the characters...

  16. Autonomy (vs. sociotropy) and depressive symptoms in quitting smoking: evidence for trait-congruence and the role of gender.

    Westmaas, J Lee; Ferrence, Roberta; Wild, T Cameron

    2006-10-01

    According to Beck's cognitive theory of depression, autonomy (high achievement concerns) and sociotropy (high interpersonal concerns) are vulnerability factors for depression when achievement or interpersonal stressors, respectively, are experienced. This hypothesis was tested among men and women attempting to quit smoking, an achievement stressor that can provoke depressive symptoms. Smokers recruited from the community (N=210) provided information about their quit attempt through mailed questionnaires. For the 48-h period following the quit, relationships among autonomy, sociotropy, coping, depressive symptoms and lapsing were assessed. Structural equation models supported the trait-congruence hypothesis because greater autonomy, but not sociotropy, was associated with elevated depressive symptoms among both men and women smokers. However, results were stronger for men (beta=.47, p=.0001) than for women (beta=.20, p=.05). After accounting for autonomy's relationship with depressive symptoms, greater autonomy was inversely associated with lapsing among men (beta=-.35, p=.01), but not women. Results point to the potential usefulness of a theoretical approach to understanding relationships between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation, and indicate that autonomous personality may be an important factor in smoking cessation in men.

  17. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  18. Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district, Johor, Malaysia.

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Ying, Chan Ying; Huey, Tay Chien; Yee, Lai Wai; Ying, Ong Shiau; Yen, Yeo Lay; Abdullah, Norhamimah; Wymen, Seet; Ibrahim, Normala

    2013-01-01

    Smoking among adolescents has been linked to a variety of adverse and long term health consequences. "Susceptibility to smoking" or the lack of cognitive commitment to abstain from smoking is an important predictor of adolescent smoking. In 2008, we conducted a study to determine the psycho-sociological factors associated with susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. Two thousand seven hundred students were randomly selected by proportional stratified sampling. Analyses on 1,736 non-smoking students revealed that prevalence of adolescents susceptible to smoking was 16.3%. Male gender (aOR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.23-3.39), poor academic achievement (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.44), ever-smoker (aOR 2.17, 95%CI 1.37-3.44) and having a smoking friend (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83) were associated with susceptibility to smoking, while having the perception that smoking prohibition in school was strictly enforced (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.94), and had never seen friends smoking in a school compound (aOR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96) were considered protective factors These results indicate that follow-up programmes need to capitalise on the modifiable factors related to susceptibility to smoking by getting all stakeholders to be actively involved to stamp out smoking initiation among adolescents.

  19. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of Γ-aminobutyric acid on kidney injury induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion in male and female rats: Gender-related difference.

    Vafapour, Marzieh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Talebi, Nahid; Shirdavani, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    The most important cause of kidney injury is renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which is gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of Γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA (against IRI in male and female rats. Thirty-six female and male wistar rats were assigned to six experimental groups. The IRI was induced by clamping renal vessels for 45 min then was performed reperfusion for 24 h. The group sex posed to IRI were pretreated with GABA and were compared with the control groups. Serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score increased in the IRI alone groups, (P GABA decreased these parameters in female significantly (P GABA. Testis weight did not alter in male rats. Serum level of nitrite and kidney level of malondialdehyde (MDA) had no significant change in both female and male rats. Kidney level of nitrite increased significantly in female rats experienced IRI and serum level of MDA increased significantly in males that were exposed to IRI (P GABA could ameliorate kidney injury induced by renal IRI in a gender dependent manner.

  1. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden.

    Jacobsson, Josephine; Andréasson, My; Kölby, Lars; Elander, Anna; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2017-06-01

    No surgical technique is reported to be the best option for gender-affirmation surgery (GAS) of the genitalia in transmen. Although patients' preferences are central when choosing a surgical technique, no studies have evaluated this factor. To investigate transmen's priorities and preferences regarding GAS of the genitalia. From November 2015 to March 2016, 54 transmen with the diagnosis of gender dysphoria who were referred to Sahlgrenska University Hospital for discussion of therapeutic steps (surgery and hormonal treatments) were asked to complete a questionnaire on different attributes achievable with GAS, such as sexual and urinary function and appearance. Forty-seven patients (87%) completed the questionnaire. Age ranged from 18 to 52 years (mean = 26 years, SD = 7.4 years). At the time of interview, no patient had undergone GAS of the genitalia. Answers to completed questionnaires. Seventy-six percent of patients identified themselves as male, and 24% wrote other terms such as "mostly male," "inter-gender" and "non-binary." Gender identity had a significant impact on patients' preferences for two questions: the importance of vaginal removal and the importance of having a penis that would be passable in places such as male dressing rooms. These items were more important to patients identifying themselves as male. The most important attributes requested were preserved orgasm ability and tactile sensation. The least important attribute was removal of the vagina, followed by having a penis of human material, minimal scarring, and size. The ability to urinate while standing was considered a high priority by some and a low priority by others. All answers ranged from "unimportant" to "imperative." This series of patients demonstrates a considerable heterogeneity among transmen in their gender identity and preferences regarding GAS of the genitalia, which supports the need for several techniques. Patients must be accurately informed on the different techniques and

  2. Male students’ perceptions about gender imbalances in a speech-language pathology and audiology training programme of a South African institution of higher education

    Sandra du Plessis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The professions of speech-language pathology and audiology (SLPA are characterised by occupational gender segregation. Reasons given by men are a lack of awareness of SLPA; a perception of poor salaries; a perception of poor working conditions; a stereotype that the profession is a female occupation; and a perception that working with children is feminine.   Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of male students in a specific SLPA training programme regarding gender imbalances. The objectives were to describe the influences of gender on the career orientation of students, the factors shaping students’ career choices and the experiences of students during their undergraduate training.   Method: This study followed a quantitative descriptive survey design. Thirty-one conveniently sampled male SLPA students, across different years of study, completed a self-administered questionnaire.   Results: Participants indicated that they did not believe in the gendered nature of occupations and that SLPA are not ‘female only’ professions. They (65% recorded that they considered salary and career prospects for choosing a career, and 74% specified that they chose SLPA because of a desire to help people. The perception of male students regarding their training appears to be positive as participants are comfortable with the clinical (71% and learning (77% activities. However, barriers were reported and some lecture information may be more obvious or applicable to female students. A need was identified to address the issue of working alone with paediatric clients and pertains to the societal awareness regarding sexual harassment of children, which may impact spontaneity in engagements.   Conclusion: The recruitment of male students should be prioritised to better reflect the client population served by the professions. Recommendations include career counselling in rural schools, recruitment campaigns to

  3. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Epidemiology, attitudes and perceptions toward cigarettes and hookah smoking amongst adults in Jordan.

    Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Serhan, Ala-Aldeen Ahmad; Nesheiwat, Adel Issa; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are to assess cigarette and hookah smoking rates amongst adult population in Jordan and to determine predictors of smoking status. Selected beliefs, perceptions and attitudes toward cigarettes and hookah smoking were also assessed. This cross-sectional study was conducted in five regional governorates of Jordan through face-to-face interviews on a random sample of adult population aged 18-79 years. Data was collected using a piloted questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Questionnaire. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking in our sample (869) was 59.1 % amongst males and 23.3 % amongst females, while the overall prevalence of hookah smoking was 18.9 % amongst males and 23.1 % amongst females. Leisure and imitation were the most commonly reported reasons for smoking. Regardless of smoking status, people were aware of health risks associated smoking and also had negative perceptions toward smoking. Smoking rates for both genders have reached alarmingly high rates in Jordan. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive national programme to target the country's growing burden of smoking. Suggestions on leisure time activities should be included in such programmes.

  5. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis : induction of estrogen signaling in male and progesterone signaling in female lesions

    Luchetti, Sabina; van Eden, Corbert G; Schuurman, Karianne; van Strien, Miriam E; Swaab, Dick F; Huitinga, Inge

    The basis of gender differences in the prevalence and clinical progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not understood. Here, we identify gender-specific responses in steroid synthesis and signaling in the brains of MS patients as possible contributors to these differences. We investigated gene

  6. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  7. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Adolescent males and young females in tehran: differing perspectives, behaviors and needs for reproductive health and implications for gender sensitive interventions.

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Shah, Iqbal; Cleland, John; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-04-01

    Despite cultural and religious prohibitions against premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy, some recent evidence suggests some rise in premarital heterosexual interactions and relationships among young people. On the other hand, although HIV in Iran is a concentrated epidemic and mainly reported among high risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), but there are evidences that the mode of transmission is shifting towards sexual contacts. This trend has caused concern among health policy makers in terms of prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS particularly, among young people. This paper was prepared with the aim of highlighting how gender contributes to variation in reproductive health needs and conduct of young people in Iran. This paper is based on a secondary analysis and compares comparable reproductive beliefs and conducts of women and men based on the data of two surveys conducted in Tehran in 2002 and 2005. A survey among 1385 adolescent males and another survey among 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran. Both surveys used anonymous self-administered questionnaires. To make the two samples comparable, the data of unmarried female university undergraduate students who resided in Tehran were merged with the data of adolescent male students who intended to pursue higher education. Common variables of the two surveys were identified, homogenized, merged and analysed. Reproductive health knowledge among male adolescents was poor compared to that of their female peers. Although premarital friendships were moderately acceptable from view points of both males and females, the majority were against premarital sex, particularly among female participants. There were evidences of gender-based double standards in perceptions of premarital sexuality among both males and females; particularly, it was stronger among males than females. Male adolescents reported earlier and greater experiences of premarital

  9. Epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult nigerians in a resource-poor environment of a primary care clinic in Southeastern Nigeria

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes is a public health hazard that is increasing globally and emerging in resource-poor nations where the health effects of secondhand smoke are less publicized in biomedical literatures, electronic and print media. As the global prevalence of cigarette smoking increases so does the health hazards and harm associated with secondhand smoke increases with implication for family and community health. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study was carried out on 500 adult Nigerian patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire containing information on relevant epidemiological variables. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never smoked adult in the previous 1 year. Results: The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke was 45.0%. Exposures occur predominantly among males (56.4%, middle-aged adults (44.0%, outside home environment (72.0, during the daytime (63.6%, and dry season (58.7%. The persons involved in the smoking were principally friends and passersby (65.8%. Exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with age (middle-aged adults (P = 0.036 and male gender (P = 0.02. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the variable epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke. Tackling relevant epidemiological factors that predispose to exposure to secondhand smoke through programs and policies will facilitate appropriate public health action to safeguard the health of never smoked individuals.

  10. Impact of maternal smoking on birth size: effect of parity and sex dimorphism.

    Varvarigou, Anastasia A; Asimakopoulou, Aspasia; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, and offspring's gender. We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004. The 1,443 were born to mothers who did not smoke and 665 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Birth weight, length and head circumference were measured prospectively in all newborns. Also, maternal smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day, age, and parity were recorded. For the analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation, and factorial MANOVA with covariates were used. With increasing parity, in the neonates of nonsmoking mothers there was a gradual increase of growth, whereas in neonates of smoking mothers there was a gradual decrease of growth. This effect was more pronounced in males. A significant negative main effect on growth resulted from the interaction of smoking with parity (p = 0.013), and with gender and parity (p = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between number of cigarettes smoked per day and growth, the strength of which increased with parity, mainly in males. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay in fetal growth, which is greater in male offspring, an effect that is enhanced with parity but is independent of maternal age. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  12. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  13. An Assessment of Gender Differences in Plastic Surgery Patient Education and Information in the United States: Are We Neglecting Our Male Patients?

    Sinno, Sammy; Lam, Gretl; Brownstone, Nicholas D; Steinbrech, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The number of total cosmetic procedures performed yearly has increased by more than 274% between 1997 and 2014, according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. However, the vast majority of plastic surgery procedures are still targeted toward women, with little attention toward men. This study sought to quantify the extent of gender discrepancies observed in online plastic surgery marketing in this country. For the 48 contiguous United States, a systematic Google (Mountain View, CA) search was performed for "[state] plastic surgeon." The first 10 solo or group practice websites in each state were analyzed for the gender of the first 10 images featured, presence of a male services section, and which procedures were offered to men. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS Software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY). A total of 453 websites were analyzed, as 5 states did not have 10 unique solo or group practice websites. Of the 4239 images reviewed, 94.1% were of females, 5.0% were of males, and 0.9% were of a male and female together. A male services page was present in 22% of websites. The most common procedures marketed toward men were gynecomastia reduction (58%), liposuction (17%), blepharoplasty (13%), and facelift (10%). Less than 10% of all websites offered other procedures to males, with a total of 15 other aesthetic procedures identified. Many plastic surgeons choose to ignore or minimize male patients in their online marketing efforts. However, as the number of men seeking cosmetic procedures continues to grow, plastic surgeons will benefit from incorporating male patients into their practice model. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Social characteristics associated with disparities in smoking rates in Israel.

    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Chetrit, Angela; Avni, Shlomit; Averbuch, Emma; Novikov, Ilya; Daoud, Nihaya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of health disparities. We aimed to determine social characteristics associated with smoking status and age at smoking initiation in the ethnically-diverse population of Israel. This is a cross-sectional survey, based on data collected during 2010 by the Israel Bureau of Statistics, in a representative nationwide sample of 7,524 adults (≥20 years). Information collected by personal interviews included a broad set of demographic and socio-economic characteristics and detailed information on smoking habits. Associations between social characteristics and smoking habits were tested in multivariable regression models. Current smoking was more frequent among men than among women (30.9 % vs. 16.8 %; p  rate of unemployment, lower income, possession of fewer material assets, difficulty to meet living expenses) and lower educational level were significantly associated with current smoking among men but not among women. Family status other than being married was associated with higher likelihood of being a current smoker, while being traditional or observant was associated with a lower likelihood of ever smoking among both gender groups. Arab minority men and male immigrants from the former Soviet Union countries were more frequently current smokers than Israeli-born Jewish men [adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.53 (1.22, 1.93) and 1.37 (1.01-1.87), respectively]. Compared to Israeli-born men, the age at smoking initiation was younger among male immigrants, and older among Arab minority men [adjusted hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.360 (1.165-1.586), and 0.849 (0.749-0.962), respectively]. While the prevalence of current smoking was lower in younger birth cohorts, the age at smoking initiation among ever-smokers declined as well. Among several subgroups within the Israeli population the smoking uptake is high, e.g. Arab men, men who are less affluent, who have lower educational level, and male immigrants

  15. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: male role models, gender role traits, and psychological adjustment

    Bos, H.; Goldberg, N.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of male role models on the lives of adolescents (N = 78) in the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Half of the adolescents had male role models; those with and those without male role models had similar scores on the feminine and masculine scales

  16. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  18. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  19. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  20. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  1. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  2. [Old gender patterns still used when physicians are pictured in medical journals. Male physicians are portrayed as active leaders, women physicians as listening, compassionate].

    Eriksson, Bodil; Johansson, Eva E

    As a part of a medical student' s research project on medical socialisation, the 2002 issue of two Swedish medicaljournals, Läkartidningen and Moderna Läkare, were scrutinized regarding how male and female physicians were represented on pictures. The outward façade was mostly male; 87% of portrays of editorials pictured a man, 81% of career announcements displayed men. Authors of articles and chroniclers more often presented a female face (55%). Photos in reports showed around 60% men and 40 % women, both regarding area and number of photos. These shares corresponded well to the actual share of male and female physicians in Sweden. The content analysis of pictures, however, demonstrated gender features: men were to a much higher degree focused in leading, demonstrating and speaker positions, while women to a higher degree were portrayed as taking part in consultations or caring activities.

  3. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Health literacy and smoking

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  5. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  6. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Burke, Sarah M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of

  7. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally.HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively, whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001. These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends.Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California's Asian Americans.

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S

    2005-12-15

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  9. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  10. What's gender got to do with it? Examining masculinities, health and safety and return to work in male dominated skilled trades.

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Colantonio, Angela; Moody, Joel; Mantis, Steve

    2016-06-16

    Electrical injuries are a common cause of work-related injury in male dominated skilled trades. In this study we explored how issues of gender, masculinities and institutional workplace practices shape expectations of men and their choices when returning to work following a workplace electrical injury. Twelve workers, who suffered an electrical injury, and twelve employer representatives, completed semi-structured interviews. Using thematic analysis we identified key themes related to how masculinities influenced men's health and safety during the return to work process. Strong identification with worker roles can influence injured workers decisions to return to work 'too early'. A desire to be viewed as a strong, responsible, resilient worker may intersect with concerns about job loss, to influence participants' decisions to not report safety issues and workplace accidents, to not disclose post-injury work challenges, and to not request workplace supports. Institutionalized workplace beliefs regarding risk, de-legitimization of the severity of injuries, and the valorization of the "tough" worker can further re-enforce dominant masculine norms and influence return to work processes and health and safety practices. Workplaces are key sites where gender identities are constructed, affirmed and institutionalized. Further research is warranted to examine how established masculine norms and gendered workplace expectations can influence workplace health and safety in male dominated high risk occupations. Future research should also evaluate strategies that encourage men to discuss post-injury work challenges and request supports when work performance or health and safety issues arise during the return to work process.

  11. ‘Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse’: future male leaders’ views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men’s perceptions are lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men’s perceptions of violence against women. Methods: Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results: Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles – patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists – sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men’s right to punish; multiple factors cause violence – alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women – both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Conclusions: Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes. PMID:28753081

  12. Gender specific determinants of goitre

    Jamshid, F.; Kerstin, C.; Elena, G.; Wilhelm, O.; Karl, W.; Hwe, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the strong implications of differences between females and males in the risk of goitre, gender-specific issues have not been extensively addressed in investigations of goitre prevalence. The Objective of our analysis was to investigate the gender-specific determinants of goitre. Methods: A total of 853 healthy employees from 4 institutions in western part of Germany aged between 18 and 68 years were examined by ultrasound of the neck to determine the thyroid volume between April 2001 and April 2002. Information on sex, age, daily use of iodised salt, the history of goitre in the first degree relatives, type and amount of' smoking, oral contraceptives and number of pregnancies were assessed by standardised questionnaires. Gender-specific predictors of goitre prevalence were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of goitre among study subjects was (204/853) 23.9%. Goitre was present in 80 out of 370 females (21.6%) vs. 124/483 (25.7%) in males.In general smoking (<0.0001), increasing age (p<0.0001) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.004) associated with goitre prevalence, but not sex (0.4) and family history of goitre (p=0.2). In 370 females, parity (p=0.004) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.01) were the major determinants for goitre, whereas, age (p=0.2), oral contraceptives (p=0.8), family history of goitre (p=0.3), and smoking (p=0.1) did not affect the goitre prevalence. In 483 males, smoking (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.001) affected the goitre prevalence, but not family history of goitre (p=0.4) and the iodine status failed just to reach the significant level (p=0.08) in this analysis. Conclusions: Gender specific determinants of goitre are parity and iodine status in females and smoking and increasing age in males. (authors)

  13. The association of affective temperaments with smoking initiation and maintenance in adult primary care patients.

    Eory, Ajandek; Rozsa, Sandor; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Torzsa, Peter; Simavorian, Tatevik; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Akiskal, Knarig K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Rihmer, Zoltan; Kalabay, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Smoking behaviour and its course is influenced by personality factors. Affective temperaments could allow a more specific framework of the role trait affectivity plays in this seriously harmful health-behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate if such an association exists in an ageing population with a special emphasis on gender differences. 459 primary care patients completed the TEMPS-A, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Subjects were characterized according to their smoking behaviour as current, former or never smokers. Univariate analysis ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to analyse differences in the three smoking subgroups to predict smoking initiation and maintenance. Current smokers were younger and less educated than former or never smokers. Males were more likely to try tobacco during their lifetime and were more successful in cessation. Depressive, cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores showed significant differences between the three smoking subgroups. Irritable temperament was a predictor of smoking initiation in females whereas depressive temperament predicted smoking maintenance in males with a small, opposite effect of HAM-A scores independent of age, education, lifetime depression and BDI scores. Whereas smoking initiation was exclusively predicted by a higher BDI score in males, smoking maintenance was predicted by younger age and lower education in females. The cross-sectional nature of the study design may lead to selective survival bias and hinder drawing causal relationships. Affective temperaments contribute to smoking initiation and maintenance independently of age, education, and depression. The significant contribution of depressive temperament in males and irritable temperament in females may highlight the role of gender-discordant temperaments in vulnerable subgroups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attitudes and behaviours in smoking cessation among general practitioners in Finland 2001.

    Barengo, Noël C; Sandström, H Patrick; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether smoking by general practitioners (GPs) and gender influence smoking cessation advice. A self-administered questionnaire, originally developed by the WHO and modified according to the Finnish health care system was sent by mail to physicians who were members of the Finnish Medical Association (FMA). Participants were restricted to those who were living in Finland and were younger than 65 years. Numbers of participants was 3,057 and the response rate 69%. Smoking male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice only to patients with a stomach ulcer or patients using oral contraceptive pills compared with their non-smoking colleagues. Male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice to pregnant patients or patients using contraceptive pills than female GPs. Female smoking GPs less likely advised patients who were pregnant or who were using oral contraceptive pills to stop smoking than non-smoking female GPs (p non-smoking general practitioners were found. The little involvement of GPs in health promotion activities regarding tobacco control is of concern.

  15. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  16. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    Jonker, J.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  17. Lifetime smoking habits among Norwegian men and women born between 1890 and 1994: a cohort analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-10-17

    Providing lifetime smoking prevalence data and gender-specific cigarette consumption data for use in epidemiological studies of tobacco-induced cancer in Norway. Characterising smoking patterns in birth cohorts is essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control interventions and predicting smoking-related mortality. Norway. Previously analysed annual surveys of smoking habits from 1954 to 1992, and individual lifetime smoking histories collected in 1965 from a sample of people born in 1893-1927, were supplemented with new annual surveys of smoking habits from 1993 to 2013. Age range 15-74 years. Current smoking proportions in 5-year gender-and-birth cohorts of people born between 1890 and 1994. The proportion of smokers increased in male cohorts until the 1950s, when the highest proportion of male smokers (76-78%) was observed among those born in 1915-1934. Among women, the peak (52%) occurred 20 years later, in women born in 1940-1949. After 1970 smoking has declined in all cohorts of men and women. In the 1890-1894 cohorts, male smoking prevalence was several times higher than female, but the gap declined until no gender difference was present among those born after 1950. Gender-specific per capita consumption was even more skewed, and men have consumed over 70% of all cigarettes since 1930. The incidence of lung cancer for men peaked at around 2000, with the highest incidence rate estimated at ca. 38%. The incidence of lung cancer for women is still increasing, and estimated incidence rate for 2011 was 25.2%. In an epidemiological perspective, men have had a longer and more intense exposure to cigarettes than women. The gender-specific incidence of lung cancer reflects the gender difference in consumption over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  19. Engaging men and women as allies: a workplace curriculum module to challenge gender norms about domestic violence, male bullying and workplace violence and encourage ally behavior.

    Wagner, K C; Yates, Diane; Walcott, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    This post-hoc analysis discusses a replicable workplace behavior change module called Men and Women As Allies, that was designed and implemented by a team of labor, management and community anti-violence educators at a private sector telecommunications employer. A job site-specific educational seminar linked issues of domestic violence to male bullying and workplace violence. It challenged social stereotypes about gender, taught skills to engage ally peer behavior and provided information on how to seek assistance from union, workplace and external community resources.

  20. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  1. Male and Female Middle School Students' Perceptions of Maternal Employment as a Function of Gender and School Environment.

    Farrell, Debi; Lindquist, Mia; Strauss, Aviva; Gorton, Larua; McCauley, Joyce; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Covert, Stephanie; Maggi, Leigh; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Black, Aimee; Denis, Lauren; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examined middle school students' perceptions of maternal employment, as a function of their gender and type of school environment (suburban vs. urban). A four-part survey, which included information about the respondents' mother's work status, the Beliefs About Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) scale, and…

  2. Cultural Differences in Face-ism: Male Politicians Have Bigger Heads in More Gender-Equal Cultures

    Konrath, Sara; Au, Josephine; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Women are visually depicted with lower facial prominence than men, with consequences for perceptions of their competence. The current study examines the relationship between the size of this "face-ism" bias (i.e., individual or micro-level sexism) and a number of gender inequality indicators (i.e., institutional or macro-level sexism) at the…

  3. No Gender Differences in Egocentric and Allocentric Environmental Transformation After Compensating for Male Advantage by Manipulating Familiarity

    Raffaella Nori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has two-fold aims: to investigate whether gender differences persist even when more time is given to acquire spatial information; to assess the gender effect when the retrieval phase requires recalling the pathway from the same or a different reference perspective (egocentric or allocentric. Specifically, we analyse the performance of men and women while learning a path from a map or by observing an experimenter in a real environment. We then asked them to reproduce the learned path using the same reference system (map learning vs. map retrieval or real environment learning vs. real environment retrieval or using a different reference system (map learning vs. real environment retrieval or vice versa. The results showed that gender differences were not present in the retrieval phase when women have the necessary time to acquire spatial information. Moreover, using the egocentric coordinates (both in the learning and retrieval phase proved easier than the other conditions, whereas learning through allocentric coordinates and then retrieving the environmental information using egocentric coordinates proved to be the most difficult. Results showed that by manipulating familiarity, gender differences disappear, or are attenuated in all conditions.

  4. Religious attitude associated with general health and smoking in Iranian students.

    Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

    2010-01-01

    Given the university students' model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary.

  5. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  6. Male and female residents in postgraduate medical education – A gender comparative analysis of differences in career perspectives and their conditions in Germany

    Ziegler, Stine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article focuses on the gender-specific career differences of residents in their postgraduate medical education in Germany. In particular the structural obstacles female physicians have to overcome during residency are investigated. Moreover, the study examines the position preferences of male and female physicians in the hospital and in how far occupational self-efficacy corresponds to the interest in a hospital leading position.Methods: The KarMed-Study’s database consists of annual postal surveys throughout the entire residency of medical students, who were in their “Practical Year” in 2008/2009. Descriptive statistics and regression models were used in the analysis.Results: Male and female physicians differ in terms of their preferred work place (hospital, ambulatory care, others, hospital position and working hours. Female physicians prefer part-time work and rarely assume leading positions compared to male physicians. In addition, female physicians, especially those with children, need more time to complete their postgraduate training. Female physicians with children are burdened and disadvantaged more often than their female colleagues without children as well as male physicians in general (e.g. belated start and completion of residency, lower rate of doctorate titles, higher quota of part-time contracts, short-term employment contracts, and higher rates of residency interruption or termination. Besides gender and doctorate title, the occupational self-efficacy expectation has an influence on the preference of leading positions in hospitals. Respondents with a low occupational self-efficacy score are less likely to strive for leading positions with more responsibilities than those with a high score. Conclusion: The results demonstrate clear gender disparities in postgraduate training. Female physicians, especially those with children, are disadvantaged in various areas when compared with their male colleagues. In particular

  7. Association of secondary sex ratio with smoking and parity.

    Beratis, Nicholas G; Asimacopoulou, Aspasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia

    2008-03-01

    To assess the sex ratio in offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers in relationship to parity. Prospective study. University hospital. The authors studied 2,108 term singleton neonates born between 1993 and 2002, 665 from smoking mothers and 1,443 from nonsmoking mothers. A prospective recording of maternal age, parity and smoking status, and gender of neonates delivered over a 10-year period. Secondary sex ratio in regard to maternal smoking and parity. The offspring sex ratio in the total sample studied was 1.09; in the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers, it was 1.26 and 1.03, respectively, a statistically significant difference. In the offspring of smoking women who had parity 1, 2, and >or=3, it was 1.47, 1.35, and 0.92, whereas in those of nonsmoking women, it was 1.04, 1.00, and 1.03, respectively (the differences of the parity 1 and 2 groups between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were statistically significant). Logistic regression analysis showed that the possibility of a boy being delivered by a mother who smoked was significantly greater in primiparous women than in women who had parity >or=3, independent of the maternal age. Conversely, parity did not affect significantly the sex ratio in the offspring of nonsmoking women. The findings suggest that among women who smoked, significantly more male than female offspring are born from primiparous women, whereas women who had parity >or=3 gave birth to more female offspring; biparous women give birth to significantly more male offspring, but the offspring sex ratio declined with the number of cigarettes when the mothers smoked >or=10 cigarettes per day.

  8. Protecting workers from secondhand smoke in North Carolina.

    Plescia, Marcus; Malek, Sally Herndon; Shopland, Donald R; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to job-related secondhand smoke represents a significant, but entirely preventable occupational health risk to non-smoking workers. This article examines trends in smoke-free workplace policies in North Carolina. We also examine whether workers comply with such policies. Data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey were analyzed from 1992 through 2002. Trends for North Carolina workers are compared with workers nationally and trends are presented by age, race, gender, and type of worker. North Carolina ranks 35th in the proportion of its workforce reporting a smoke-free place of employment. The proportion of workers reporting such a policy doubled between 1992 and 2002. Females were more likely to reporta smoke-free work environment (72.0%, CI +/- 2.6) than males (61.2%, CI +/- 4.6%). Blue-collar (55.6%, CI +/- 5.5) and service workers (61.2%, CI +/- 8.4), especially males, were less likely to report a smoke-free worksite than white-collar workers (73.4%, CI +/- 2.6). Compliance with a smoke-free policy does not appear to be an issue, only 3.2% of workers statewide reported someone had violated their company's nonsmoking policy While some progress has been made in North Carolina to protect workers from secondhand smoke, significant disparities exist. Smoke-free policies can make a significant difference in reducing exposure to airborne toxins and their associated diseases, and these protective public health policies have not been shown to reduce business revenues. Much has been done to assure the health and safety of workers through public health policy However, opportunities to protect North Carolina workers from the health effects of secondhand smoke are limited by a preemptive state law.

  9. The relationship of gender balance at work, family responsibilities and workplace characteristics to drinking among male and female attorneys.

    Shore, E R

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of gender balance at work, family and home responsibilities and workplace factors to the drinking behaviors of attorneys. Using a stratified random sampling procedure, attorneys were selected from the bar associations of two large Midwestern cities. Telephone interviews were completed with 300 men and 257 women (37.3% of those originally selected), who were asked about characteristics of their work, the numbers of female attorneys they had contact with in four types of working relationships, overall and work-related drinking, and family and home responsibilities. Multiple regression and discriminant analyses were used to study the influence of these variables on drinking. Gender balance variables entered several of the analyses. For both men and women the frequency of work-related drinking positively correlated with the number of female attorneys in the organization, but was negatively related to the number of women who were peers. Family and home responsibilities entered predictive equations, both positively and negatively, for both men and women. Size of firm was positively correlated with frequency of business-related drinking and, for men, with frequency of social drinking related to work. The influence of the gender composition of the workplace on drinking behaviors may vary, for both men and women, by the type of contact involved, with closer or more active involvement with female colleagues associated with decreased frequency of drinking. Work-related drinking may also be related to home and family demands and the size of the firm, again for both genders.

  10. Molecular evolutionary analysis of a gender-limited MID ortholog from the homothallic species Volvox africanus with male and monoecious spheroids.

    Kayoko Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Volvox is a very interesting oogamous organism that exhibits various types of sexuality and/or sexual spheroids depending upon species or strains. However, molecular bases of such sexual reproduction characteristics have not been studied in this genus. In the model species V. carteri, an ortholog of the minus mating type-determining or minus dominance gene (MID of isogamous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is male-specific and determines the sperm formation. Male and female genders are genetically determined (heterothallism in V. carteri, whereas in several other species of Volvox both male and female gametes (sperm and eggs are formed within the same clonal culture (homothallism. To resolve the molecular basis of the evolution of Volvox species with monoecious spheroids, we here describe a MID ortholog in the homothallic species V. africanus that produces both monoecious and male spheroids within a single clonal culture. Comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in MID genes between V. africanus and heterothallic volvocacean species suggests that the MID gene of V. africanus evolved under the same degree of functional constraint as those of the heterothallic species. Based on semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses using the asexual, male and monoecious spheroids isolated from a sexually induced V. africanus culture, the MID mRNA level was significantly upregulated in the male spheroids, but suppressed in the monoecious spheroids. These results suggest that the monoecious spheroid-specific down regulation of gene expression of the MID homolog correlates with the formation of both eggs and sperm in the same spheroid in V. africanus.

  11. Gender-transformative Bandebereho couples' intervention to promote male engagement in reproductive and maternal health and violence prevention in Rwanda: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Doyle, Kate; Levtov, Ruti G; Barker, Gary; Bastian, Gautam G; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Kazimbaya, Shamsi; Nzabonimpa, Anicet; Pulerwitz, Julie; Sayinzoga, Felix; Sharma, Vandana; Shattuck, Dominick

    2018-01-01

    Rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of male engagement interventions, particularly on how these interventions impact relationship power dynamics and women's decision-making, remains limited. This study assessed the impact of the Bandebereho gender-transformative couples' intervention on impact on multiple behavioral and health-related outcomes influenced by gender norms and power relations. We conducted a multi-site randomised controlled trial in four Rwandan districts with expectant/current fathers and their partners, who were randomised to the intervention (n = 575 couples) or control group (n = 624 couples). Primary outcomes include women's experience of physical and sexual IPV, women's attendance and men's accompaniment at ANC, modern contraceptive use, and partner support during pregnancy. At 21-months post-baseline, 1123 men and 1162 partners were included in intention to treat analysis. Generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors were used to fit the models. The Bandebereho intervention led to substantial improvements in multiple reported outcomes. Compared to the control group, women in the intervention group reported: less past-year physical (OR 0.37, p<0.001) and sexual IPV (OR 0.34, p<0.001); and greater attendance (IRR 1.09, p<0.001) and male accompaniment at antenatal care (IRR 1.50, p<0.001); and women and men in the intervention group reported: less child physical punishment (women: OR 0.56, p = 0.001; men: OR 0.66, p = 0.005); greater modern contraceptive use (women: OR 1.53, p = 0.004; men: OR 1.65, p = 0.001); higher levels of men's participation in childcare and household tasks (women: beta 0.39, p<0.001; men: beta 0.33, p<0.001); and less dominance of men in decision-making. Our study strengthens the existing evidence on male engagement approaches; together with earlier studies our findings suggest that culturally adapted gender-transformative interventions with men and couples can be effective at changing deeply entrenched

  12. Increased Risk of Smoking in Female Adolescents Who Had Childhood ADHD.

    Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; Samek, Diana R; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents. Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood. Regressions of childhood inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were conducted to predict smoking outcomes by age 17. ADHD effects were divided into those shared between twins in the pair and those nonshared, or different within pairs. Adolescents who had more severe ADHD symptoms as children were more likely to initiate smoking and to start smoking younger. The association of ADHD symptoms with daily smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence was greater in females than in males. Monozygotic female twins with greater attentional problems than their co-twins had greater nicotine involvement, consistent with possible causal influence. These effects remained when co-occurring externalizing behaviors and stimulant medication were considered. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, while also more strongly related to smoking for female adolescents, appeared primarily noncausal. Smoking initiation and escalation are affected differentially by ADHD subtype and gender. The association of inattention with smoking in female adolescents may be causal, whereas hyperactivity-impulsivity appears to act indirectly, through shared propensities for both ADHD and smoking.

  13. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  15. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  16. The Lure of Hegemonic Masculinity: Investigating the Dynamics of Gender Relations in Two Male Elementary School Teachers' Lives

    Martino, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on an investigation into the dynamics of masculinity in two male elementary school teachers' lives. It draws on a poststructuralist approach to empirical analysis that is informed by Sondergaard who argues for the need to attend to the "constitution of social practices and cultural patterns" through which subjects…

  17. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    Hooftman, W.E.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  18. THE EFFECT OF ETHREL ON THE DURATION OF FLOWERING OF MALE FLOWERS SQUASH PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT GENETIC EXPRESSIVENESS OF FLOWER GENDER IN THE KRASNODAR REGION CONDITION

    R. A. Gish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the genotype of monoecious plants Cucurbitaceae family may have different gender expressions: predominantly female, mixed and predominantlymale type of flowering. However, the degree of sexual differentiation can be changedunder the influence of abiotic and endogenous factors. Among the chemicals that affect the level of female flowering in pumpkin crops, preparations based on 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon or Etrelle are the most promising for hybrid seed production. Study of plant response of squash Cucurbita pepo var. giromontina with varying sex expressions on the treatments with Etrelle revealed common conformities and specificities of preparation action in the condition of Krasnodar region. It is shown the use of treatment once is not effective even if the high concentration range, 500-1100 mg/L, was taken. On gender switch was effectively influenced successive plant treatments with Etrelle at stages of 3-5 true leaves in a wide concentration range from 250 to 700 mg /L., where the restraining was that the start of male flower blossoming was 14-25 days after female flower blossoming. K69 line with predominantly female flowering was more responsive to the variation of concentration and frequency of treatments whereas the line K49 with male flowering was less responsive to the frequency of treatments. It is shown that in the range of effective concentrations, Etrelle may have phytotoxic effects on the growth and development of squash plants at the time of restraining flowering of male flowers. It is important to  ake that into account when choosing a regime of preparation treatments for chemical castration of maternal forms in hybrid seed production of this crop.

  19. WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR MEN'S HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN?: THE INFLUENCE OF HEGEMONIC MALE ROLE NORMS AND MASCULINE GENDER ROLE STRESS

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed. PMID:21531691

  20. What accounts for me