Sample records for male em non-exercising

  1. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang


    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  2. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito


    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  3. Studies on the bionomics of male <em>Anopheles gambiae em>Giles and male <em>Anopheles funestusem> Giles from southern Mozambique

    Charlwood, J D


    Little is known about the fitness of wild male mosquitoes, the females of which are vectors of malaria. The problem of studying male biology has been exacerbated by difficulties associated with catching them. In southern Mozambique, however, almost the entire adult population of An. funestus and An...... strategies of sterile or genetically modified mosquitoes....

  4. Accuracy of physical self-description among chronic exercisers and non-exercisers

    Joseph M. Berning


    Full Text Available This study addressed the role of chronic exercise to enhance physical self-description as measured by self-estimated percent body fat. Accuracy of physical self-description was determined in normal-weight, regularly exercising and non-exercising males with similar body mass index (BMI’s and females with similar BMI’s (n=42 males and 45 females of which 23 males and 23 females met criteria to be considered chronic exercisers. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the degree of agreement between self-estimated percent body fat and actual laboratory measurements (hydrostatic weighing. Three statistical techniques were employed: Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland and Altman plots, and regression analysis. Agreement between measured and self-estimated percent body fat was superior for males and females who exercised chronically, compared to non-exercisers. The clinical implications are as follows. Satisfaction with one’s body can be influenced by several factors, including self-perceived body composition. Dissatisfaction can contribute to maladaptive and destructive weight management behaviors. The present study suggests that regular exercise provides a basis for more positive weight management behaviors by enhancing the accuracy of self-assessed body composition.

  5. Cypris settlement and dwarf male formation in the barnacle <em>Scalpellum scalpellumem>

    Spremberg, U.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Buhl-Mortensen, L.


    Cypris settlement and metamorphosis into dwarf males were studied in the androdioecious barnacle Scalpellum scalpellum using field collected samples from the North Sea, and experiments with laboratory reared larvae, observed with video. In the field sample, dwarf males were always situated...... surfaces of the adults, or on their hydroid substratum, always developed into hermaphrodites. The numbers settling as males did not differ significantly from those settling as hermaphrodites, suggesting that genetic sex determination may operate in S. scalpellum. The N. Sea sample comprised 52 adult...

  6. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H


    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  7. Effects of acute exercise on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human skeletal muscle

    Catoire, Milene; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark; Hangelbroek, Roland; Muller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patricht; Kersten, Sander


    Background: Exercising is know to have an effect on exercising skeletal muscle, but unkown is the effect on non-exercising skeletal muscle. Gene expression changes in the non-exercising skeletal muscle would point to a signalling role of skeletal muscle

  8. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( <em>Lolium perenne em>L.)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno


    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...

  9. A male with unilateral microphthalmia reveals a role for <em>TMX3em> in eye development

    Chao, Ryan; Nevin, Linda; Agarwal, Pooja


    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are important birth defects, but their pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. We studied a patient with severe unilateral microphthalmia who had a 2.7 Mb deletion at chromosome 18q22.1 that was inherited from his mother. In-situ hybridization showed that one...... of the deleted genes, TMX3, was expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium and lens epithelium in the developing murine eye. We re-sequenced TMX3 in 162 patients with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and found two missense substitutions in unrelated patients: c.116G>A, predicting p.Arg39Gln, in a male...

  10. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.


    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  11. Retocele posterior em paciente do sexo masculino: qual o significado Posterior rectocele in a male patient: what does it mean?

    Marcos Soares Campos


    Full Text Available A retocele é uma projeção sacular anormal da parede retal, de etiologia multifatorial e uma causa muito significativa de sintomas anorretais como plenitude retal, sensação de peso anal durante a defecação, evacuação incompleta e dor retoanal. Muito tem se discutido sobre retoceles em mulheres, mas poucas publicações têm mencionado a presença de retocele em pacientes do sexo masculino e somente um artigo discute os detalhes da retocele em homens com distúrbios de defecação. A retocele posterior em homens, em especial, é uma disfunção incomum e possivelmente apresenta como causas a constipação intestinal, o esforço evacuatório longo e excessivo, a síndrome do descenso perineal, a fraqueza do assoalho pélvico e a contração paradoxal do músculo puborretal. É apresentado o caso de um paciente com história de dor anorretal crônica e defecação obstruída associadas à retocele posterior, doença hemorroidária, prolapso e intussuscepção retal.Rectocele is an abnormal sac-like projection of the rectum wall with multiple etiologies and an important cause of anorectal symptoms like rectoanal weight sensation during evacuation, incomplete evacuation and anorectal pain. Many reports have discussed rectoceles in women, but few have mentioned rectoceles in male patients and only one report has discussed the details of rectoceles in men with defecation disorders. Posterior rectocele in men, in particular, is an unusual disturb and possible causes are intestinal constipation, long and excessive straining, descending perineum syndrome, weakness of the pelvic floor and puborectalis muscle syndrome. We report a case of a male patient with chronic anorectal pain and outlet obstruction associated with posterior rectocele, hemorrhoidal disease, rectal mucous prolapse and intussusception.

  12. Vulnerabilidade de gênero para a paternidade em homens adolescentes Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents

    Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same

  13. Oscillation of tissue oxygen index in non-exercising muscle during exercise.

    Yano, T; Afroundeh, R; Shirakawa, K; Lian, C-S; Shibata, K; Xiao, Z; Yunoki, T


    The purpose of the present study was to examine how oscillation of tissue oxygen index (TOI) in non-exercising exercise is affected during high-intensity and low-intensity exercises. Three exercises were performed with exercise intensities of 30% and 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2)peak) for 12 min and with exercise intensity of 70% Vo(2)peak for 30 s. TOI in non-exercising muscle (biceps brachii) during the exercises for 12 min was determined by nearinfrared spectroscopy. TOI in the non-exercising muscle during the exercises was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain power spectra density (PSD). The frequency at which maximal PSD appeared (Fmax) during the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak for 12 min (0.00477 ± 0.00172 Hz) was significantly lower than that during the exercise with 30% Vo2peak for 12 min (0.00781 ± 0.00338 Hz). There were significant differences in blood pH and blood lactate between the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak and the exercise with 30% Vo(2)peak. It is concluded that TOI in nonexercising muscle oscillates during low-intensity exercise as well as during high-intensity exercise and that the difference in Fmax between the two exercises is associated with the difference in increase in blood lactate derived from the exercise.

  14. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Elena D. Koch


    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  15. The interrater reliability of rating non-exercise activity of inpatients with eating disorders using a visual analogue scale.

    Mazloum, A; Johnston, M; Lundrigan, M; Birmingham, C L


    Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended by body movement, other than sleeping, eating or sports-like activities. The obese have been reported to have a lower NEAT (walking, standing, and fidgeting) than controls. We hypothesize that an elevated NEAT could explain why some patients with anorexia nervosa are resistant to weight gain. To evaluate the interrater reliability of a rating of non-exercise activity of inpatients with eating disorders (ED) using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health care providers were asked to rate the non-exercise activity of inpatients by marking a VAS. Eight patients were individually rated by 10 clinicians. Results were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's multi-rater kappa statistic (kappa). The ICC(3,k) was 0.257 (pexercise activity and physiological measurements should be used.

  16. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José Al; Boushel, Robert


    Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy...... humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was 4-fold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb VO2 . Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared to rest...... was related closely to TB (R(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb VO2 whereas ABF, arm TB and VO2 remained largely unchanged. During...

  17. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K


    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  18. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    John K. Parker


    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  19. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Björn; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis


    Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly. To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years. Cohort study. Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality. At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98). A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.

  20. Produção de sementes macho-estéreis em arroz Male-sterile rice seed production

    Claudio Bragantini


    Full Text Available A obtenção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril é uma das limitações para viabilizar a produção de híbridos de arroz (Oryza sativa L.. Este trabalho buscou estudar três proporções entre a linhagem macho-estéril (linhagem A e a mantenedora (linhagem B. As proporções estudadas foram 8:4, 10:2 e 14:4. As características avaliadas para determinar qual das proporções apresenta maior potencial foram: número e porcentagem de grãos cheios por panículas, e número de grãos de pólen por unidade de área. A proporção 8:4 produziu maior porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula que as outras duas, mas, proporcionalmente, ocupa maior área física com a linhagem B no campo. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas na porcentagem de grãos cheios entre as amostras coletadas nas várias fileiras da linhagem A (diferentes distâncias da fonte polinizadora, e observou-se uma influência marcante com relação à direção predominante dos ventos. O número de grãos de pólen foi igual para todas as relações e distâncias da fonte de pólen; por isso, não foi o fator determinante das diferenças observadas em porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a proporção 10:2 é a de maior potencial para a produção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril.Commercial male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. seed production is one of the limitations to allow large scale hybrid seed production. This work studied three ratios between male-sterile line (A line and maintainer (B line. The A:B ratios used in the study were: 8:4, 10:2 and 14:4. The evaluated traits to determine which ratio is more suitable were: number and percentage of filled grains per panicle and number of pollen grains per unit area. The 8:4 ratio produced statistically significant higher percentage of filled grains per panicle than the other two, but proportionally it requires more field area for the B line. Statistical

  1. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Attenuates the Perception of Force Output Production in Non-Exercised Hand Muscles after Unilateral Exercise

    Goodall, Stuart; Gibson, Alan St Clair; Voller, Bernhard; Lomarev, Mike; Howatson, Glyn; Nguyet Dang, [No Value; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Hallett, Mark


    We examined whether unilateral exercise creates perception bias in the non-exercised limb and ascertained whether rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) interferes with this perception. All participants completed 4 interventions: 1) 15-min learning period of intermittent isometric

  2. Construct validation of a non-exercise measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults

    Kramer Arthur F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality but is rarely assessed in medical settings due to burdens of time, cost, risk, and resources. The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a regression equation developed by Jurca and colleagues (2005 to estimate CRF without exercise testing in community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants (n = 172 aged 60 to 80 years with no contraindications to submaximal or maximal exercise testing completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT and the submaximal Rockport 1-mile walk test on separate occasions. Data included in the regression equation (age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity were obtained via measurement or self-report. Participants also reported presence of cardiovascular conditions. Results The multiple R for the regression equation was .72, p and CRF estimated from this equation was significantly correlated with the MET value from the GXT (r = 0.66 and with CRF estimated from submaximal field testing (r = 0.67. All three CRF indices were significantly and inversely associated with reporting more cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence that a non-exercise estimate of CRF is at least as valid as field test estimates of CRF and represents a low-risk, low-cost, and expedient method for estimating fitness in older adults.

  3. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff


    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  4. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff


    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20–27 years) and older (28–35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained ≈25% and ≈30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20–35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention. PMID:19440527

  5. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Geoff Lovell


    Full Text Available A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years and older (28-35 years adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement. Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  6. Barriers to exercise in younger and older non-exercising adult women: a cross sectional study in London, United Kingdom.

    El Ansari, Walid; Lovell, Geoff


    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants' number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women's total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained approximately 25% and approximately 30% of the variance of younger and older women's total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  7. Melhoria da produtividade do processo de usinagem de uniões em ferro fundido maleável preto

    Pereira, Sidnei


    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica A produtividade é um dos fatores de maior impacto no desempenho de uma empresa, pois influencia diretamente nos custos dos produtos e no dimensionamento adequado da fábrica relacionado à produção, pessoas e tempos de máquinas paradas. Na usinagem especificamente, há muitas variáveis de processo que dificultam o trabalho de melhora no índice de produtividade...

  8. Perfil imuno-histoquímico de carcinomas mamários invasores em homens Immunohistochemical profile of invasive male breast carcinomas

    Alexandra Medeiros Souza de Freitas


    Full Text Available O câncer de mama em homens é uma doença incomum. A cada 150 casos de câncer de mama é esperada a ocorrência de apenas um no sexo masculino. Devido à baixa incidência desta neoplasia, grande parte do seu conhecimento é oriunda do carcinoma de mama no sexo feminino, cujos parâmetros diagnósticos, prognósticos e terapêuticos são bem estabelecidos na literatura. Entretanto, a distribuição dos fenótipos moleculares dos carcinomas da mama masculina é pouco conhecida. Pela análise de dados clínicos e imuno-histoquímicos estudamos os diferentes perfis de uma amostra de 20 casos de tumores invasores de mama em homens. Utilizamos um painel de cinco anticorpos composto por receptor de estrogênio, citoqueratinas 5/6, citoqueratinas 8/18, HER-1 e HER-2. Dos 20 casos examinados, 19 eram carcinomas do tipo ductal não-especial (95% e um do tipo lobular (5%. A maioria dos casos foi composta por mastectomias (65%, sendo a média de tamanho das neoplasias de 2,8 cm e o grau histológico mais freqüente o II (60%. Do total, 86,6% dos casos apresentaram metástases linfonodais. O número médio de linfonodos comprometidos foi de 5,2 nas amostras com axila positiva. Foram determinados 14 tumores (70% correspondentes ao fenótipo RE+/luminal, dois (10% do tipo indeterminado, um único tumor (5% do fenótipo Basal, e três de mama (15% correspondendo ao fenótipo HER2-positivo. A imunofenotipagem dos carcinomas de mama no sexo masculino permite traçar paralelos com os tumores de mama feminina, possibilitando a elucidação de fatores intrínsecos à doença em cada um dos sexos.Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease. One out of 150 cases of breast cancer is expected to occur in the male gender. Due to the low incidence of this neoplasia, most information about it derives from female breast carcinoma, whose diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutical parameters are well established in the medical literature. However, the distribution of molecular

  9. Motivação e criatividade em matemática: um estudo comparativo entre alunas e alunos de ensino médio/Motivation and creativity in mathematics: a comparative study between secondary school female and male students

    Denise de Souza Fleith


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a percepção de 100 alunos, dos gêneros masculino e feminino, da 3ª série do Ensino Médio de uma escola particular do Distrito Federal, sobre motivação em Matemática, bem como seu desempenho em um teste de criatividade e em um teste de criatividade em Matemática. A Escala de Motivação em Matemática, o Teste Torrance de Pensamento Criativo e o Teste de Criatividade em Matemática foram utilizados na pesquisa. Para a análise dos dados foi empregado o teste t de Student. Os resultados indicaram que, quanto à motivação em relação à Matemática, os alunos do gênero masculino demonstraram percepção mais favorável em relação a dois dos seis fatores da escala aplicada: “Jogos e Desafios” e “Resolução de Problemas”, enquanto os alunos do gênero feminino demonstraram percepção mais favorável apenas em relação ao fator “Hábitos de Estudo”. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre alunos dos gêneros masculino e feminino quanto às medidas de criatividade. Porém, os alunos do gênero masculino apresentaram desempenho superior em comparação aos do gênero feminino em relação à criatividade em Matemática. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of 100 students, males and females, attending 3rd year of a private Secondary School in the Federal District, with respect to motivation in Mathematics, as well as their performance in a creativity test and in a creativity test in Mathematics. The Scale of Motivation in Mathematics, the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and the Creativity Test in Mathematics were administered. The results indicated that, as for motivation in relation to Mathematics, male students demonstrated more favorable perception in relation to two of the six factors of the administered scale: “Games and Challenges” and “Problem Resolution”, while female students demonstrated a more favorable perception just in

  10. Different Effects of Cognitive and Non-exercise Physical Leisure Activities on Cognitive Function by Age in Elderly Korean Individuals.

    Jung, Mi Sook; Kim, Hyunli; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Mijung; Chung, Eunyoung


    We aimed to examine the effects of various leisure activities on cognitive impairment in young-old (aged 65-74 years) and old-old (aged ≥ 75 years) adults. In total, 10,279 elderly Korean individuals from the 2014 Korean National Survey on Older Adults' cohort were enrolled in our study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the standardized score of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening, whereas leisure activities were recorded via self-reporting of the extent and type of leisure activity the subjects involved in over the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of leisure activities on cognitive impairment, while controlling for potential covariates. The subjects were more likely to participate in cognitive activities than in non-exercise physical activities. After controlling for selected covariates, involvement in cognitive activities was found to be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment in both the groups, whereas involvement in non-exercise physical activities was not a predictor of cognitive impairment in individuals aged ≥ 75 years. Moreover, depressive symptoms, rural residence, and hearing difficulties were common predictors of cognitive impairment among elderly-Korean-individuals. Leisure activity involvement may help delay cognitive impairment, which is often concomitant with aging. Hence, an early intervention service may significantly benefit both young-old and old-old individuals.

  11. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.


    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) 50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of these models are similar to previously published models using

  12. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.


    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) 50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of these models are similar to previously published models using the 11-point PASS.

  13. Saúde reprodutiva em homens com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Reproductive health in male systemic lupus erythematosus

    Clovis Artur Almeida da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a saúde reprodutiva em homens com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e compará-la com controles saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco pacientes com LES do sexo masculino foram avaliados com dados demográficos, exame urológico (incluindo parâmetros pubertários e função sexual/erétil, ultrassonografia testicular com Doppler, perfil hormonal, análise seminal, características clínicas e tratamento. O grupo-controle incluiu 25 homens saudáveis. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade atual foi similar nos pacientes com LES comparada aos controles (26 versus 27 anos, P = 0,756. As frequências de disfunções sexual/erétil foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com LES em relação aos controles (20% versus 0%, P = 0,0001 e o número de gestações espontâneas foi menor (20% versus 60%, P = 0,0086. Uma tendência de uso infrequente de contraceptivos foi observada em pacientes com LES comparada aos controles (48% versus 76%, P = 0,079. Além disso, as frequências de parâmetros de disfunção gonadal: atrofia testicular avaliada pela ultrassonografia (36% versus 8%, P = 0,037, níveis elevados de FSH e/ou LH (36% versus 0%, P = 0,002 e alterações dos espermatozoides (48% versus 0%, P = 0,0001 foram estatisticamente maiores nos pacientes com LES versus controles. Os pacientes com LES e disfunção sexual/erétil não realizaram atividade sexual no último mês versus 95% dos pacientes sem disfunção (P = 0,0001. Entretanto, nenhuma diferença foi evidenciada nos pacientes com LES com e sem disfunção sexual/erétil em relação a dados demográficos, atividade da doença, dano cumulativo e tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo que identificou disfunção sexual/erétil e gonadal em homens lúpicos. Uma abordagem multidisciplinar é essencial para oferecer medidas preventivas para esses pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To assess reproductive health in male systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and compare them with

  14. Produção e purificação parcial de PPD-maleína para diagnóstico do mormo em equídeos

    Karla P. C. da Silva


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo produzir e purificar parcialmente a PPD-maleína a partir de amostras de Burkholderia mallei isoladas de equídeos no Brasil com potencial para uso no diagnóstico do mormo. As linhagens de B. mallei fenotipicamente caracterizadas e de virulência comprovada foram inoculadas em caldo Dorset-Henley para crescer e metabolizar. Em seguida, as proteínas foram separadas por precipitação com ácido tricloroacético e precipitadas com sulfato de amônia. As PPDs-maleínas foram concentradas em 1,0mg/mL e na avaliação realizada em cobaios foi eficaz no desenvolvimento da hipersensibilidade do tipo tardia e consequentemente na identificação de animais verdadeiro positivos e exclusão dos verdadeiro negativos, sendo uma possibilidade em potencial para utilização no diagnóstico do mormo.

  15. What is the effect of diet and/or exercise interventions on behavioural compensation in non-exercise physical activity and related energy expenditure of free-living adults? A systematic review.

    Silva, Analiza M; Júdice, Pedro B; Carraça, Eliana V; King, Neil; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B


    Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA.

  16. Dental caries in young male adults: prevalence, severity and associated factors Cárie dentária em homens jovens: prevalência, severidade e fatores associados

    Marcelo Augusto Amaral


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries as well as the needs for dental treatment in 18-year-old males from Maringá, PR, Brazil. The association of dental caries experience with socioeconomic variables was also tested. A cross sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 241 conscripts of the Brazilian Army. The adopted diagnosis criteria were those proposed by the World Health Organization. A socioeconomic questionnaire was utilized to determine family income and the criterion of the Brazil Economic Classification of the National Association of Research Enterprises. Associations among caries prevalence, DMF-T index, treatment needs and socioeconomic variables were evaluated by means of the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Caries prevalence was 82.6% and the mean DMF-T index was 4.6. Only a mean of 0.8 tooth per individual presented treatment needs. Significant statistical differences were found in caries prevalence and severity (DMF-T. The worst results were observed in the groups of lower income and purchasing power, indicating a need for the implementation of social policies that address these populations aiming at diminishing the existing differences in the health-disease process indicators. On the other hand, treatment needs were only associated to the Brazil Economic Classification Criterion variable (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária, bem como as necessidades de tratamento odontológico de jovens de 18 anos de idade do sexo masculino em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. A associação da experiência de cárie com variáveis socioeconômicas também foi testada. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra aleatória de conscritos (n = 241 do Exército Brasileiro. Os critérios de diagnóstico adotados foram aqueles estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram utilizados um question

  17. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc


    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  18. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Boris Cheval

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91 completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA and sedentary behaviors (IASB. Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a positively predicted by IAPA, (b negatively predicted by IASB, and (c was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  19. Morphology of the male agouti accessory genital glands (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 Morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias em cutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

    Danilo J. Ayres de Menezes


    Full Text Available The morphology of the accessory genital glands of the male agouti was studied in twenty-three animals that were raised in captivity. Twenty animals had their genital glands dissected in situ for macroscopic description. The samples of each gland were recovered, embedded in paraffin, sliced and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. It was founded four pairs of glands: the vesicular glands, the coagulating glands, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands. Histological characteristics of the vesicular, coagulating and prostate glands showed similar morphology, within the pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The tubulo-alveolar type of the bulbourethral glands showed a lack of connective tissue among the tubules, a small amount of red stained presented it the cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuoles in the tissue. This study concluded that the agouti showed to have similar morphological aspect described in the others species of rodents.A morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias de cutias foram estudados em 23 animais criados em cativeiros. Vinte animais tiveram suas glândulas genitais dissecadas in situ para as descrições macroscópicas. Para o estudo microscópico foram utilizados três animais. Os fragmentos de cada glândula foram embebidos em parafina, seccionados e corados em hematoxilina e eosina. Foram encontrados quatro pares de glândulas: vesiculares, coaguladoras, próstata e bulbouretrais. As características histológicas da glândula vesicular, coaguladora e próstata mostraram morfologia similar, com epitélio colunar pseudoestratificado. O tipo tuboalveolar da glândula bulbouretral mostrou uma deficiência de tecido conjuntivo, citoplasma pouco corado e presença de vacúolos. Este estudo concluiu que a cutia apresenta as mesmas características morfológicas das glândulas genitais acessórias encontradas em roedores.

  20. Serum zinc and hormonal profile in male dialysis patients receiving human recombinant erythropoietin Zinco sérico e perfil hormonal de pacientes do sexo masculino submetidos à hemodiálise em uso de eritropoetina humana recombinante

    Maria Mouranilda Schleicher


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo is associated with an improvement in well-being and quality of life in patients submitted to maintenance hemodialysis (HD. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones, hematocrit, albumin and zinc in HD patients with rHuEpo therapy and compare them with those observed in patients without rHuEpo treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of twelve male HD patients each were selected for a transversal study; one did not receive rHuEpo (group 1 whereas the other one did (group 2. Levels of hematocrit, albumin, zinc, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin, and testosterone were determined. RESULTS: Group 2 patients showed significantly higher medians (p INTRODUÇÃO: Em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise crônica (HD, o tratamento com eritropoetina humana recombinante (rHuEpo está associado a melhora no bem-estar geral e na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os níveis dos hormônios sexuais e do zinco em pacientes sob HD e em uso de rHuEpo em comparação com pacientes sem tratamento com essa droga. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Dois grupos de doze pacientes do sexo masculino cada um, submetidos à HD, sendo um deles sem uso de rHuEpo (grupo 1 e o outro utilizando a droga (grupo 2, foram selecionados para um estudo transversal, comparando-se os níveis séricos do zinco, da albumina, dos hormônios FSH, LH, prolactina, testosterona e do hematócrito. RESULTADOS: No grupo 2, os valores de testosterona (4,65 vs. 3,5ng/ml, hematócrito (30,5 vs. 22%, albumina (3,9 vs. 3,7g/dl e zinco (62,5 vs. 50,5microg/dl foram significativamente maiores do que no grupo 1 (p < 0,05. DISCUSSÃO: Sugere-se que, em pacientes recipientes da rHuEpo, os níveis mais altos de hematócrito, zinco, albumina e testosterona possam ser fatores que contribuam para melhorar a disfunção sexual e a qualidade de

  1. Oral lichen planus: two case reports in male patients = Líquen plano oral: relato de dois casos em pacientes masculinos

    Moraes, Maiara de


    Full Text Available Objetivo: O líquen plano é uma doença crônica sistêmica comum que envolve a mucosa oral, na maioria das vezes na ausência de lesões em pele. Embora relativamente comum, o líquen plano oral é alvo de muita controvérsia, especialmente em relação à sua patogênese e possibilidade de uma eventual transformação maligna. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar dois casos de líquen plano em pacientes do sexo masculino e discutir os principais aspectos dessa lesão em relação a etiopatogênese e tratamento. Descrição do caso: Exames físicos e histopatológicos foram realizados para confirmar o diagnóstico de líquen plano oral. Foi prescrito elixir de dexametasona no primeiro caso e no segundo caso, foi prescrito o uso tópico de propionato de clobetasol 0,05%. Após quinze dias, os pacientes retornaram com regressão da lesão. Conclusão: Embora a ocorrência de líquen plano oral é comum, o diagnóstico preciso é necessário para que o correto tratamento possa ser realizado

  2. Genotipagem de polimorfismos associados com sistemas de macho-esterilidade em acessos de cebola adaptados ao Brasil Genotyping of polymorphisms associated with male-sterility systems in onion accessions adapted for cultivation in Brazil

    Carlos Francisco Ragassi


    Full Text Available A produção em escala comercial de sementes híbridas de cebola (Allium cepa tem sido conduzida com o emprego de dois sistemas de macho-esterilidade do tipo genética-citoplasmática (CMS-S e CMS-T em associação ao citoplasma normal (macho-fértil. No entanto, a análise molecular desses diferentes tipos citoplasmáticos ainda não está disponível para um grande número de acessos de cebola adaptados para cultivo em regiões tropicais. Além de adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, muitos desses acessos apresentam tolerância a doenças, sendo de potencial valor como genitores de híbridos. O presente trabalho visou identificar os tipos citoplasmáticos de acessos de cebola de diferentes grupos morfoagronômicos de interesse para o melhoramento genético no Brasil, usando a reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR com 'primers' específicos para regiões polimórficas do genoma mitocondrial de cebola. Foi observada, nos 66 acessos amostrados, a presença dos três principais tipos de citoplasma descritos para cebola (S, N e T. Foi constatada maior frequência do citoplasma S (56% seguido do citoplasma T (25,8%. Em 18,2% das amostras, foi encontrado exclusivamente o citoplasma N. Essa caracterização pode ser útil para guiar a escolha de materiais genéticos dentro dos programas de melhoramento com objetivo de desenvolver cultivares híbridas adaptadas às condições tropicais.The synthesis of onion (Allium cepa hybrids relies upon the use of two genetic-cytoplasmic male-sterility systems, CMS-S and CMS-T, in association to the normal male-fertile (N cytoplasm. However, the molecular phenotyping of male-sterility-inducing and normal cytoplasms of many onion accessions adapted for cultivation under tropical conditions is not available. Some of these accessions were reported as presenting tolerance to diseases and adaptation to tropical and subtropical regions. Therefore, these accessions are potential sources of parental

  3. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Marcos Mesquita Filho


    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component varied according to the attended

  4. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je


    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Indução à macho-esterilidade e formação de sementes em genótipos de trigo Induction to male-sterility and cross-pollination in wheat

    Diego Girardi Pegoraro


    Full Text Available A variabilidade genética em programas de melhoramento é de extrema importância para o desenvolvimento de novos genótipos. Uma das principais formas de obtenção de variabilidade genética é através da recombinação genética em plantas oriundas do cruzamento de genótipos contrastantes. Em trigo, a obtenção de híbridos é trabalhosa, devido à forma natural e predominante de reprodução, por autofecundação. A indução da macho-esterilidade pode ser uma alternativa para a obtenção de sementes híbridas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a eficiência do gametocida ácido 2- cloroetilfosfanico (Ethrel na indução à macho-esterilidade em trigo, estimar a frequência de polinização cruzada em genótipos de trigo cultivados a campo e determinar o efeito do produto na obtenção de sementes híbridas a campo. O produto foi aplicado em cinco variedades de trigo em três dosagens diferentes, no estádio de pré-emborrachamento, sendo que a ariedade BR 43 (mútica foi empregada como testadora para verificar a frequência de cruzamentos. Os caracteres avaliados foram: porcentagem de pólen viável, número de grãos produzidos nas espigas ensacadas sem polinização, porcentagem de polinização dirigida e porcentagem de polinização natural. Os resultados indicaram que o produto Ethrel foi eficiente para a indução da macho-esterilidade em todas as variedades testadas; entretanto, ocorreram também prejuízos para o desenvolvimento da parte feminina, evidenciados pela redução do número de sementes produzidas em parcelas tratadas com o gametocida. As doses de 10 e 20l/ha causaram acentuada esterilidade de pólen; por outro lado, não foi verificado um incremento na produção de sementes híbridas. Assim sendo, é necessário ajustar a técnica de aplicação do Ethrel para a produção de híbridos em trigo.The genetic variability is importam for lhe development of new genotypes in breeding programs. This

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice Mapeamento de controladores de caracteres quantitativos de macho-esterilidade gênica termossensível em arroz indica

    Antonio Alberto Neves de Alcochete


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select and use microsatellite markers, to map genomic regions associated with the genetic control of thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS in rice. An F2 population, derived from the cross between fertile and TGMS indica lines, was used to construct a microsatellite-based genetic map of rice. The TGMS phenotype showed a continuous variation in the segregant population. A low level of segregation distortion was detected in the F2 (14.65%, whose cause was found to be zygotic selection. There was no evidence suggesting a cause-effect relationship between zygotic selection and the control of TGMS in this cross. A linkage map comprising 1,213.3 cM was constructed based on the segregation data of the F2 population. Ninety-five out of 116 microsatellite polymorphic markers were assembled into 11 linkage groups, with an average of 12.77 cM between two adjacent marker loci. The phenotypic and genotypic data allowed for the identification of three new quantitative trait loci (QTL for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice. Two of the QTL were mapped on chromosomes that, so far, have not been associated with the genetic control of the TGMS trait (chromosomes 1 and 12. The third QTL was mapped on chromosome 7, where a TGMS locus (tms2 has recently been mapped. Allelic tests will have to be developed, in order to clarify if the two regions are the same or not.O objetivo deste estudo foi selecionar e utilizar marcadores microssatélites, para mapear as regi��es genômicas associadas ao controle genético de macho-esterilidade termossensível (TGMS em arroz. Uma popu- lação F2, derivada do cruzamento entre linhagens indica fértil e TGMS, foi usada para construir um mapa genético de arroz, baseado em marcadores microssatélites. O fenótipo TGMS analisado apresentou uma variação contínua na população segregante. Um baixo nível de distorção da segregação foi detectado na população segregante

  7. Mulheres nas so(mbras: invisibilidade, reciclagem e dominação viril em presídios masculinamente mistos Women in the shadows: invisibility, recycling and masculine domination in mainly male mixed prisons

    Leni Beatriz Correia Colares


    Full Text Available O incremento do encarceramento feminino tem levado as autoridades a confinarem mulheres dentro dos presídios masculinos. O estudo - oriundo de pesquisa realizada na 5ª Região Penitenciária do Rio Grande do Sul - discute as dinâmicas carcerárias, mostrando que o acesso aos espaços, a distribuição do trabalho, a aplicação dos castigos e a definição das regras disciplinares são referenciados por uma orientação masculina. Nesta, o poder se volta para as mulheres, visando condicionar suas práticas a uma sexualização dirigida para o viril, ao mesmo tempo que positiva, nesse padrão, os comportamentos masculinos. As especificidades da condição feminina em tais espaços conduzem a que se definam esses presídios como "masculinamente mistos".The increase in women's imprisonment has pushed authorities to confine them in male prisons. The study of the research undertaken at the 5th Penitentiary Region of Rio Grande do Sul discusses the prison dynamics, showing that the access to areas in common, the task distribution, the punishments and the definition of disciplinary rules are based on male directions. Under these circumstances, the power turns to women aiming at conditioning their practices to sexualization directed to virility, affirming, at the same time, the male behaviors. The characteristics of the female condition in such environments lead to the definition of those prisons as "manly mixed".

  8. Balanço eletrolítico para suínos machos castrados em crescimento mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura Electrolyte balance of growing males castrated swines in a high temperature environment

    Anilce de Araujo Brêtas


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do balanço eletrolítico (BE em rações com diferentes níveis de eletrólitos para suínos na fase de crescimento criados em alta temperatura. Foram utilizados 200 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial de 25,3±1,3 kg e final de 68,8±3,4 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com dez animais por unidade experimental, para a fase de crescimento T1(testemunha ração sem suplementação de eletrólitos 191 mEq/kg; T2 (NaHCO3 ração suplementada bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3 250 mEq/kg; T3 (NaHCO3+KCl ração suplementada NaHCO3 e cloreto de potássio (KCl 250 mEq/kg; T4 (NaHCO3 ração suplementada NaHCO3 300 mEq/kg; e T5 (NaHCO3+KCl ração suplementada com NaHCO3 e KCl 300 mEq/kg. As variáveis avaliadas foram consumo de ração, ganho de peso, consumo de nitrogênio, consumo de lisina, eficiência de utilização de nitrogênio para ganho, eficiência de utilização de lisina para ganho, conversão alimentar e os parâmetros fisiológicos, frequência respiratória e temperatura retal. Foi coletado sangue para mensurar as concentrações sorológicas de Na, Cl e K. A temperatura média foi 29,65±3,80º C com UR do ar 69,6±10,4%, Temperatura do Globo Negro de 31,95±1,98º C e Índice de Temperatura do Globo Úmido em 80,51±2,44. Os níveis de BE reduziram (P0,05. A correção do BE não influenciou o desempenho dos suínos.The effect of electrolyte balance (EB in diets with different levels of electrolytes for growing swine under high environmental temperature was evaluated. Two hundred castrated pigs with initial weight of 25.3±1.3 kg and final weight of 68.8±3.4 kg were allotted in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates with 10 pigs per experimental unit, for the growing phase T1 (control diet without electrolyte 191 mEq/kg; T2 (NaHCO3 diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3

  9. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber


    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  10. Gasto energético e consumo calórico em adolescentes do sexo masculino com diferentes níveis de adiposidade corporal Energy expenditure and caloric intake among male adolescents with different levels of body adiposy

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva


    Full Text Available Foram comparados o gasto energético e consumo calórico de adolescentes com diferentes níveis de gordura corporal. Estudo transversal com 40 adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos do sexo masculino. Os adolescentes foram divididos em dois grupos, cada um com 20 sujeitos, de acordo com o %G: baixo (%G 20%. O gasto energético foi mensurado por acelerômetros triaxiais e recordatório de atividades diárias. O consumo calórico foi avaliado pelo registro de 24 horas. Os jovens com baixo %G tiveram menor consumo calórico ( = 2408,1 ± 557,9 kcal.dia-1 em comparação aos jovens com alto %G ( = 2931,7 ± 679,2 kcal.dia-1, pEnergy expenditure and caloric intake were compared among adolescents with different levels of adiposity. A cross-sectional study was carried with 40 adolescent boys aged 14 to 16 years. The adolescents were divided into two groups of 20 subjects each, according to % body fat (%BF: low ( 20%. Energy expenditure was measured using accelerometer and daily activity diary. The dietary pattern was evaluated based on 24-h recall. Caloric intake was lower in adolescents with low %F ( = 2408.1 ± 557.9 compared to those with high %F ( = 2931.7 ± 679.2, p<0.05. In addition, they presented greater relative energy expenditure than adolescents with high %F (p<0.05. High %F adolescents showed larger caloric intake than expenditure, while the opposite was observed among low %F males.

  11. A visão masculina sobre métodos contraceptivos em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil Male views of contraceptive methods in a rural community in Bahia State, Brazil

    Danilo Cerqueira do Espírito-Santo


    Full Text Available Os Programas de Planejamento Familiar vêm se preocupando predominantemente com a população feminina. Este estudo objetivou determinar o grau de conhecimento dos homens de uma comunidade rural do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, sobre os métodos contraceptivos. Dentre os 179 entrevistados, a preocupação com a prevenção de gravidez indesejada foi referida como responsabilidade do casal por 39,7% (n = 71 e do homem por 26,8% (n = 48. Os métodos mais conhecidos foram a "camisinha" (98,9% e a pílula (96,6%, sendo os mais usados a "camisinha" (22,9%, a laqueadura (21,2% e a pílula anticoncepcional (12,8%. A maioria (56,4% referiu "sempre" utilizar contraceptivo. A opção pelo método é feita pelo homem em 45,6% dos casais. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade da promoção do maior número de métodos contraceptivos, possibilitando ao casal a melhor opção que se adeque ao comportamento sexual do mesmo. Também, há necessidade de priorizar a participação do casal nos Programas de Planejamento Familiar, na medida em que ainda são os homens quem predominantemente acabam determinando o método contraceptivo utilizado.Family planning programs have traditionally concentrated on women. This study aimed to determine men's knowledge of contraceptive methods in a rural community in Bahia State, Brazil. Mean age of interviewees was 40.0 (±17.6 years. Avoiding unwanted pregnancy was reported as a responsibility of the couple by 39.7% of the male interviewees (n = 71 and as the man's responsibility by 26.8% (n = 48. The most widely known methods were condoms (98.9% and the pill (96.6%. Condoms (22.9%, female sterilization (21.2%, and the pill (12.8% were the most widely used methods. The majority of the interviewees (56.4% reported that they "always" use some method. The men chose the method in 45.6% of the couples. The results indicate that more options for contraceptive methods should be offered, thereby facilitating the best choice of methods by

  12. Violência conjugal: vivências expressas em discursos masculinos Violencia entre cónyuges: experiencias expresas en discursos masculinos Conjugal violence: experiences expressed in male discourses

    Normélia Maria Freire Diniz


    Full Text Available Tendo como objeto a vivência de violência na relação conjugal, este estudo descritivo, de abordagem quali-quantitativa, teve como objetivo identificar a violência conjugal no discurso masculino. A população foi composta por 50 homens residentes na comunidade do Calafate, em San Martin, bairro localizado em Salvador/Ba. Para coleta de dados, utilizou-se entrevista com formulário semi-estruturado. A amostra caracterizou-se por homens, na faixa etária entre 20 a 40 anos (74,0%; convivendo conjugalmente (98,0%. Com relação à violência conjugal, o índice encontrado foi de 80%. Quanto às formas de violência, destacam-se a violência emocional e a violência física.Teniendo como objeto la experiencia de violencia en la relación entre cónyuges, este estudio descriptivo, de abordaje cuali-cuantitativo, tuvo como objetivo identificar la violencia entre cónyuges en los discursos masculinos. La población fue compuesta por 50 hombres residentes en la comunidad del Calafate, en San Martin, barrio ubicado en Salvador/Ba. Para colecta de los datos, se utilizó entrevista con formulario semi-estructurado. La muestra se caracterizó por hombres de edad de 20 a 40 años (74,0%, viviendo con la pareja (98,0%0. Con relación a violencia entre cónyuges, el índice encontrado fue de 80,0%. Cuanto a las formas de violencia, se destacan la violencia emocional y la violencia física.Aiming the research of violence experiences in conjugal relation, this descriptive study, of qualitative and quantitative approach, aimed to identify conjugal violence in male discourse. Population was composed of 50 men residing in Calafate community, San Martin, a quarter in Salvador/Ba. In order to collect data, one utilized the interview with semi-structured formulary. Sample was caracterized by men between 20 and 40 years old (74% cohabiting. Concerning to conjugal violence, we found an 80% index. Relating to the forms of violence, we've distinguished emotional and

  13. Farmacocinética da associação de glucosamina e sulfato de condroitina em humanos sadios do sexo masculino Pharmacokinetic profile of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate association in healthy male individuals

    Odaly Toffoletto


    Full Text Available A osteoartrose é uma doença crônica das articulações que, uma vez instalada, leva seus portadores a uma incapacidade funcional progressiva. Como os proteocondroitins sulfato são os maiores constituintes das cartilagens, espera-se que com a ingestão de glucosamina e condroitina haja uma melhora das condições biológicas desse tecido. Uma vez que não temos conhecimento de estudo da farmacocinética da administração oral dessa associação em seres humanos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliá-la utilizando a associação entre o sulfato de glucosamina (SG e o sulfato de condroitina (SC administrada a dois grupos de doze voluntários sadios do sexo masculino (grupo I uma cápsula de (500 mg SG; 400 mg SC e grupo II quatro cápsulas. Amostras de sangue foram retiradas a intervalos de tempo pré-definidos até 48 horas pós-dose. O SG e o SC foram dosados no plasma pelo método de DMMB (azul de 1,9,dimetildimetileno. A concentração máxima foi atingida em 2 horas (média ±SE; 0,893±0,093 µg/mL, grupo I e 2,222±0,313 µg/mL, grupo II. As áreas sob a curva até 48 horas foram de 10,803±0,965 µg-hr/mL e 38,776±2,981 µg-hr/mL, respectivamente para os grupos I e II. Os dois grupos apresentaram um segundo pico após 18 horas, indicando circulação êntero-hepática. Os nossos resultados indicam que essa associação é absorvida por via oral por mecanismo saturável, o que pode facilitar o seu uso em tratamentos clínicos.Osteoarthrosis is a chronic joint disease that, once patent, leads to a progressive functional disability. As proteochondroitin sulfates are the major contents of the cartilage, it is expected that the ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin might improve the biological status of that tissue. As we could not find any studies on the pharmacokinetic profile of this association by oral administration route in human beings, the objective of this study was to evaluate it by using the association of glucosamine sulfate

  14. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  15. A similar pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance is present in the airways of competitive athletes and non-exercising asthmatics.

    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Olszewska-Ziąber, Agnieszka; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L


    Intensive exercise modifies airway inflammation and infection susceptibility. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-10) and innate immunity protein (HSPA1, sCD14) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal secretions of competitive athletes, non-exercising asthmatics and healthy controls (HC). The study group consisted of 15 competitive athletes (five speed skaters and ten swimmers) aged 15-25. The control groups comprised 10 mild-to-moderate asthmatics (AC) and seven HC. Athletes were assessed in- and off-training while asthmatics and controls at one time point. Nasal lavages and EBC were collected before and after a treadmill exercise challenge. Protein levels were assessed using ELISA. TNF-α levels in EBC were significantly higher in athletes than HC, but similar to asthmatic patients. In contrast, IL-1ra EBC concentrations were significantly lower in athletes than in HC, but again similar to asthmatics. Significant positive correlations were seen between baseline concentrations of TNF-α in EBC and fall in FEV1 following exercise challenge in athletes during training period (R=0.74, pExercise caused a slight, yet significant, increase in EBC HSPA1 in athletes (p=0.02). The exercise challenge did not considerably influence TNF-α, IL-1ra, HSPA1 and sCD14 in EBC or nasal secretions. Dysregulation of the TNF-α/IL-1ra balance in EBC and nasal secretions from athletes may reflect the presence of airway inflammation induced by repeated strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  17. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  18. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  19. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K


    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  1. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi


    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  2. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B


    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.


    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)


    Patricia Valle Pinheiro


    Full Text Available

    The antifeedant and insecticidal effects of two commercial neem (<em>Azadirachta indicaem> oil formulations (Dalneem and Nim-I-Go to <em>Oebalus poecilusem> were evaluated on irrigated rice. To evaluate the antifeedant effect, both formulations were tested at 1% and 2% (v/v concentration levels. The insecticidal effect was evaluated at 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% (v/v concentrations of Dalneem, by ingestion. Both experiments were conducted with four replications by treatment, containing one panicle and adult insects segregated by gender (two insects per plot for the antifeedant effect and five for the insecticidal effect. Both products were efficient, reducing the damage caused by insects. Insects fed less on the panicles treated with neem oil, causing lower number of feeding sheaths per panicle and lower percentage of damaged grains than the control. Spikelets weight was higher in panicles treated with neem oils. Females caused significantly higher damage than males in controls, for numbers of feeding sheaths and for the feeding deterrence index. Only at the 4% (v/v concentration level, Dalneem caused adult mortality higher than in the control. Results showed that neem oil formulations, at >= 1% (v/v concentration, can be used to reduce the quantitative and qualitative damages caused by <em>O. poecilusem> in lowland rice.

    KEY-WORDS: Small rice stink bug; <em>Azadirachta indicaem>; qualitative damages; <em>Oryza sativaem>;> em

  5. Alterações posturais em atletas brasileiros do sexo masculino que participaram de provas de potência muscular em competições internacionais Alteraciones posturales en atletas brasileños del sexo masculino que participaron en pruebas de potencia muscular en competiciones internacionales Postural alterations in male Brazilian athletes who have participated in international muscular power competitions

    Jayme Neto Júnior


    Full Text Available Os esportes de alto nível determinam padrões corporais que extrapolam barreiras geopolíticas, sociais e culturais. Estas peculiaridades resultam em alterações posturais que estão associadas à eficiência do gesto desportivo, porém, em longo prazo, podem evoluir para processos mórbidos que limitam a prática de atividades físicas regulares. O objetivo da pesquisa foi descrever o perfil postural dos atletas que participam de provas de potência muscular e identificar processos anátomo-cinesiológicos responsáveis pelas principais alterações corporais. A casuística foi composta por 15 atletas do sexo masculino, especializados em provas de potência muscular. O protocolo para coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na proposta de: i Kendall, para o exame físico e observacional, utilizando simetrógrafo e fio de prumo; ii Souchard, para a análise postural em cadeia. As informações foram organizadas sob a forma de distribuição de freqüência absoluta e relativa. Os resultados apontaram que: i o tornozelo em valgo (67% foi a situação mais comum; ii a rotação interna da pelve à direita (60%, seguida do lado oposto mais elevado (47%, pode estar relacionada com a corrida em curva que sobrecarrega a estrutura da pelve para a manutenção da velocidade com simultânea mudança de direção em função da força gravitacional; iii a anteversão de pelve (73% decorre da retração observada nos músculos flexores do quadril e extensores do joelho; iv a alteração expressa no item iii contribui para a formação de hiperlordose lombar (73% e desencadeia mecanismo compensatório de retração da cadeia posterior causando cifose torácica (53% e cabeça em protrusão (73%. O diagnóstico precoce e a adoção de medidas profiláticas efetivas podem contribuir para o aumento da performance, bem como prevenir a ocorrência de lesões desportivas. Estudos envolvendo intervenção fisioterápica deverão avaliar se há redução dos efeitos

  6. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip


    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  7. Avaliação espermática e da concentração de proteínas solúveis no plasma seminal de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada Reproductive performance, soluble proteins of the seminal plasm and hypoosmotic test in male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating

    Leonardo Franco Martins


    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, o teste hipoosmótico, a análise física e morfológica do sêmen e o desempenho reprodutivo de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada. O experimento foi realizado durante os meses de fevereiro a abril de 2001. Foram realizadas 40 coletas de sêmen em quatro reprodutores adultos em regime de monta controlada. Em todas as coletas, além do exame físico e morfológico do sêmen, foram realizados os testes hipoosmóticos, isoosmóticos e a determinação da concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal. Foi detectada diferença entre os bodes na concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, mas não houve diferença no teste hipoosmótico e no número de coberturas por prenhez. O teste hipoosmótico pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação de sêmen caprino, mas a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal não pode ser utilizada como parâmetro para predizer a qualidade seminal e a fertilidade de bodes da raça Alpina utilizados em regime de monta natural.The relationships among soluble proteins of the seminal plasma, the hypoosmotic test, the physical and morphologic analyses of semen and the reproductive performance of male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating were studied using forty samples of semen from four adult male goats collected twice a week between February and April of 2001. Differences among male goats were observed for soluble protein concentration of the seminal plasma, but not for the hypoosmotic test and the pregnancy rate. These results suggest the hypoosmotic test may be used for the evaluation of goat semen, but the protein concentration of the seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality and fertility of male goats of the Alpine breed.

  8. Tentativa de infanticídio por um macho dominante de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae em um infante extra-grupo devido a influência do observador Infanticide attempt by a dominant male of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae against an extra-group infant due to the influence of the observer

    Lucas M. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata um caso de tentativa de infanticídio por um macho residente e dominante de um grupo de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 em um infante extra-grupo, em ilha do rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil. O encontro do par fêmea-infante com o macho residente foi propiciado pela interferência humana. Devido às circunstâncias em que ocorreu o fato e a posição hierárquica do agressor, a hipótese de patologia social pareceu plausível na explicação do comportamento.This work reports on an infanticide attempt by a dominant resident male in a group of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 on an extra-group infant in an Island in the Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil. The encounter of an infant-female pair with a resident male was brought about by human interference. Give the circumstances in which the event ocurred and the hierarchical position of the agressor, the social pathology hypothesis seems the most plausible explanation for such behavior.

  9. Exigências de energia e composição da carcaça de galos reprodutores pesados em função do consumo energético na fase de reprodução Energy requirements and carcass composition of male broiler breeders as a function of energy intake during the reproduction period

    Carlos Augusto Quadro Borges


    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para estimativa da exigência e da composição de carcaça de machos reprodutores de corte em resposta a cinco níveis de ingestão de energia metabolizável (EM. Para avaliar o peso corporal, o volume de sêmen, a concentração espermática, a motilidade, o vigor e a fertilidade dos espermatozóides, foram selecionadas 450 fêmeas e 75 machos da linhagem Cobb-500 e, para avaliar a composição química da carcaça em MS, PB e gordura em função do consumo de energia, foram utilizados 30 machos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (290, 310, 330, 350 e 370 kcal de EM/ave/dia. No ensaio de desempenho reprodutivo, cada tratamento foi composto de 15 repetições de um galo e seis fêmeas e, no ensaio de avaliação da carcaça, cada tratamento continha duas repetições de três galos (três abatidos às 45 e três às 61 semanas de idade. A motilidade, o vigor e a fertilidade dos espermatozóides foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelo nível de ingestão de EM. O peso corporal e os teores de gordura e proteína da carcaça cresceram linearmente com o aumento do consumo de EM. Com base nas estimativas obtidas para motilidade, vigor e fertilidade, recomenda-se nível médio de 347 kcal de EM/galo/dia para atender às necessidades de machos reprodutores de 26 a 61 semanas de idade.Two trials were carried out to estimate the nutritional requirement and carcass composition of male broiler breeders according to five levels of metabolizable energy (ME ingestion. Four hundred and fifty females and 75 males of Cobb-500 strain were selected to evaluate body weight, semen volume, spermatic concentration, motility, vigor and fertility of spermatozoa. Thirty males were used for evaluation of carcass chemical composition (DM, CP and crude fat [CF] as a function of energy intake. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design with five treatments (290, 310

  10. Prevalência do "dedo em baioneta": uma manifestação do distúrbio de hiperatividade e déficit de atenção entre alcoolistas e psicóticos do sexo masculino Prevalence of "Bajonettfinger": a manifestation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among male alcoholics and psychotics



    Full Text Available A prevalência do dedo em baioneta, sinal semiológico do distúrbio de déficit de atenção (DHDA, foi determinada em pacientes alcoolistas e indivíduos com distúrbios psicóticos, do sexo masculino, internados em hospital psiquiátrico. Para comparações foram examinados indivíduos, do sexo masculino, recrutados dentre os funcionários do próprio hospital. A alteração morfológica foi observada em 70/200 (35% dos alcoolistas, 45/100 (45% dos psicóticos e 8/50 (16% dos indivíduos controles. A diferença na prevalência do dedo em baioneta entre alcoolistas e psicóticos não foi significativa, mas o foi entre os alcoolistas ou psicóticos e o grupo controle. Estas observações sugerem, relativamente a população masculina, que: (1 o DHDA e síndromes correlatas estariam, por correlação com a prevalência dos dedos em baioneta, presentes em aproximadamente 1/3 dos alcoolistas e 1/2 dos pacientes com distúrbios psicóticos. (2 o DHDA e síndromes correlatas representariam um fator de vulnerabilidade para o alcoolismo. (3 adolescentes com dedos em baioneta deveriam merecer especial atenção no sentido de prevenção do alcoolismo.The prevalence of Bajonettfinger, a semiologic sign of attention-deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD, was determined in male alcoholics and psychotics from a psychiatric hospital. A control group was taken from the hospital staff. The morphologic alteration was observed in 35% of the 200 alcoholics, 45% of the 100 psychotics and 16% of the 50 controls. The difference in prevalence of the sign between the alcoholics and psychotics groups was not significant but the differences between any of these groups and the controls was significant. The observations suggested that: (1 ADHD would be present, as judged through its high correlation with the prevalence of bajonettfinger, in approximately 1/3 of the alcoholics and 1/2 of the psychotics; (2 ADHD would be a vulnerability factor for alcoholism; (3 adolescents

  11. Changes in stature during and after spinal traction in young male subjects Alterações na estatura antes e após a tração vertebral em homens jovens

    ALF Rodacki


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal traction is a relatively popular procedure for increasing the intervertebral space by applying separating forces. The parameters of time and magnitude of the traction forces may influence the outcomes from this procedure and need to be investigated. The duration of the benefits derived from traction is unknown and needs to be determined so that physiotherapists can provide better and more effective treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between load magnitude and time during spinal traction in relation to stature variations. Traction effect duration was also analyzed. METHOD: Fifteen healthy male subjects (23.1 ± 5.77 years; 1.80 ± 0.17 m and 87.0 ± 9.6 kg were assessed under three traction conditions (0, 30 and 60% of body weight, BW of 42 minutes. Stature variation was used to determine intervertebral disc height variation. Stature was assessed every 7 minutes during traction of 42 minutes and every 5 minutes for 45 minutes after traction ceased. RESULTS: 0 and 30% BW traction produced similar gains (6.09 ± 1.89 mm, 5.70 ± 1.88 mm, respectively; p>0.05, while these were smaller (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A tração sobre a coluna vertebral é um procedimento relativamente popular para aumentar o espaço inter-vertebral pela aplicação de forças de separação. Os parâmetros de tempo e magnitude da força aplicada podem influenciar os resultados desse procedimento e ainda precisam ser investigados. A duração dos benefícios derivados da tração não é conhecida e precisa ser determinada para que fisioterapeutas possam prover tratamentos melhores e mais eficientes. OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisou a relação entre a magnitude de carga e de tempo durante a tração vertebral sobre as variações de estatura, bem como a duração deste efeito. MÉTODOS: Quinze sujeitos saudáveis do sexo masculino (23,1 ± 5,77 anos; 1,80 ± 0,17 m e 87,0 ± 9,6 Kg foram mensurados sob três condições (0, 30 e 60% PC

  12. Produção de Carne em Cordeiros Cruza Border Leicester com Ovelhas Corriedale e Ideal Meat Production in Male Lambs Derived from the Crossing Between Border Leicester Rams with Corriedale and Polwarth Ewes

    José Carlos da Silveira Osório


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou oferecer informações sobre a morfologia (in vivo e na carcaça, características comerciais, componentes do peso vivo, qualidade da carcaça e da carne em cordeiros não castrados cruzas de Border Leicester com ovelhas Corriedale e Ideal, criados em condições de campo nativo no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram utilizados 24 cordeiros, 11 procedentes do cruzamento de Border x Corriedale e 13 de Border Leicester x Ideal, sacrificados com 6,5 meses de idade. Foi verificado um efeito entre os cruzamentos para a perda ao resfriamento (em kg e %, peso e percentagem da pele, peso e percentagem do pescoço e capacidade de retenção de água. Igualmente, foi verificado que há diferença no desenvolvimento relativo dos componentes do peso vivo, composição regional da carcaça e composição tecidual da paleta entre os cordeiros Border Leicester x Corriedale e Border Leicester x Ideal e, dentro de cada genotipo verificou-se uma diferença quantitativa e qualitativa entre a paleta e a perna. As diferença quanto à qualidade da carcaça e carne não apresentam importância prática que justifique uma diferenciação do produto; porém, a comercialização deve ser com base no peso de carcaça fria e não com base no peso vivo ou carcaça quente. A paleta é mais precoce que a perna em ambos grupos genéticos.This study offers information on the morphology (in live and in carcass, commercial characteristics, components of the liveweight, quality of the carcass and meat in no castrated lambs derived from the crossing between Border Leicester rams and Corriedale and Polwarth ewes, grazing on native pasture in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Twenty-four lambs slaughtered at 6.5 months of age were used, from which 11 were from Border Leicester rams x Corriedale ewes and 13 were from Border Leicester rams x Polwarth ewes. Significant effects between crosses were observed for carcass looses (in kg and %, weight and percentage of the skin and

  13. Agronomic performance of male-sterile and fertile maize genotypes at two plant populations Performace agronômica de genótipos macho-estéreis e férteis de milho em duas densidades de semeadura

    Luís Sangoi


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in 1994 at Ames, Iowa, US to test whether cytoplasmic male-sterility can be used to decrease barrenness and to increase grain yield of maize at two plant populations. Four genotypes were tested: a hybrid (NK 6330 and an inbred, wifh sterile and fertile counterparts. Each genotype owas evaluated at plant populations equivalent to 25,000 and 75,000 pl. ha-1. Hybrids produced higher grain yield than inbreds at both plant populations. Gram yield was higher at 75,000 than at 25,000 pl. ha-1. No difference in gram yield, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, tassel length, and tassel number of branches was found between sterile and fertile counterparts of the inbred and hybrid, regardiess of plant population. Fertile genotypes bore heavier tassels at anthesis than their sterile counterparts. Adequate precipitation distribution and high fertility level in the soil probably decreased competition between tassel and ears, mitigating potential yield benefits of suppressing genetically pollen production.Este experimento foi conduzido em Ames, Iowa, US durante o ano agrícola de 1994, tendo como objetivo avaliar se a macho-esterelidade genético-citoplasmática pode ser utilizada para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em diferentes populações de planta. Quatro genótipos foram utilizados: um híbrido (NK 6330 e uma linhagem, ambos em suas versões fértil e macho-estéril. Cada genótipo foi avaliado em duas densidades de semeadura, equivalentes a 25.000 e 75.000 pl.ha-1. Os híbridos produziram maiores rendimentos de grão do que as linhagens nas duas populações utilizadas. O rendimento de grãos por área foi maior em 75.000 do que em 25.000 pl.ha-1. Nenhuma diferença significativa em termos de rendimento de grãos, número de espigas por planta, número de grãos por espiga, comprimento e número de ramos do pendão, foi observada entre genótipos férteis e macho-estéreis, independentemente da

  14. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

    Xuefeng Zhang


    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (κ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  15. A New Natural Lactone from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. Seeds

    Zhongjun Li


    Full Text Available A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1<em>H>-pyrrol-1-yl-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yldihydrofuran-2(3H-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS.

  16. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Dao-Yuan Zhang


    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  17. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pygmaeusem> Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

    Igor Pavlinić


    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem>, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (<em>P. pipistrellusem> and soprano pipistrelle (<em>P. pygmaeusem>. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between <em>P. pipistrellusem> and <em>P. pygmaeusem> in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (<em>Pipistrellus pygmeausem>, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem> e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (<em>P. pipistrellusem> e pipistrello pigmeo (<em>P. pygmaeusem>, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  18. Computational voxel phantom, associated to anthropometric and anthropomorphic real phantom for dosimetry in human male pelvis radiotherapy; Fantoma computacional de voxel, associado a fantoma real antropomorfico antropometrico, para dosimetria em radioterapia de pelve masculina

    Silva, Cleuza Helena Teixeira; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail:


    This paper addresses a computational model of voxels through MCNP5 Code and the experimental development of an anthropometric and anthropomorphic phantom for dosimetry in human male pelvis brachytherapy focusing prostatic tumors. For elaboration of the computational model of the human male pelvis, anatomical section images from the Visible Man Project were applied. Such selected and digital images were associated to a numeric representation, one for each section. Such computational representation of the anatomical sections was transformed into a bi-dimensional mesh of equivalent tissue. The group of bidimensional meshes was concatenated forming the three-dimensional model of voxels to be used by the MCNP5 code. In association to the anatomical information, data from the density and chemical composition of the basic elements, representatives of the organs and involved tissues, were setup in a material database for the MCNP-5. The model will be applied for dosimetric evaluations in situations of irradiation of the human masculine pelvis. Such 3D model of voxel is associated to the code of transport of particles MCNP5, allowing future simulations. It was also developed the construction of human masculine pelvis phantom, based on anthropometric and anthropomorphic dates and in the use of representative equivalent tissues of the skin, fatty, muscular and glandular tissue, as well as the bony structure.This part of work was developed in stages, being built the bony cast first, later the muscular structures and internal organs. They were then jointly mounted and inserted in the skin cast. The representative component of the fatty tissue was incorporate and accomplished the final retouchings in the skin. The final result represents the development of two important essential tools for elaboration of computational and experimental dosimetry. Thus, it is possible its use in calibrations of pre-existent protocols in radiotherapy, as well as for tests of new protocols, besides

  19. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  20. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  1. Avaliação dos Tipos 1 e 2 de alcoolismo de Cloninger em homens participantes de um programa de tratamento ambulatorial Evaluation of Cloninger's Type I and Type II alcoholism in male alcoholics in an outpatient treatment program

    Mário Sérgio Ribeiro


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 de Cloninger é uma das mais estudadas tipologias de alcoolismo. OBJETIVOS: Testar a aplicabilidade dessa tipologia, caracterizar os subtipos identificados e avaliar seu comportamento ante um programa terapêutico. MÉTODOS: Partindo das variáveis descritas por Cloninger et al., 16 características de 308 homens alcoolistas tratados ambulatorialmente foram submetidas à análise de cluster para identificação de dois subgrupos (clusters. Posteriormente, efetivaram-se cruzamentos de dados para testar possível associação dos clusters identificados com variáveis demográficas e clínicas. RESULTADOS: Pacientes do cluster 1 foram caracterizados por início mais tardio dos problemas relacionados ao álcool, menos problemas sociais e maior sentimento de culpa em relação a seu consumo. O cluster 2 incluiu pacientes com história familiar de alcoolismo mais evidente, características anti-sociais mais presentes, mais uso disfuncional de outras substâncias psicoativas e piores níveis de adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram a diferenciada associação dos clusters a variáveis de tratamento e prognóstico; em sua maior parte foram coerentes com a classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 e reforçam a tese de que o simples diagnóstico de dependência ao álcool não é suficiente para atender às necessidades terapêuticas de subgrupos específicos de pacientes.BACKGROUND: Cloninger's Type 1/Type 2 classification is one of the most frequently studied alcoholism typologies. OBJECTIVES: To test the applicability of this typology, to characterize the identified subtypes and to evaluate their behavior in a therapeutic program. METHODS: Starting from variables described by Cloninger et al., 16 characteristics of 308 alcoholic men attending an outpatient treatment program were submitted to Cluster analysis for identification of two subgroups (clusters. Cross-tabulations were then performed to

  2. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice; Avaliacao dos efeitos do laser em baixa intensidade na regiao da glandula tireoide de camundongos

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu


    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm{sup 2}, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  3. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Xishi Tai


    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  4. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in male newborn babies and its relationship with neonatal jaundice Deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase eritrocitária em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino e sua relação com a icterícia neonatal

    Marli Auxiliadora C. Iglessias


    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, the commonest red cell enzymopathy in humans, has an X-linked inheritance. The major clinical manifestations are drug induced hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice and chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is much greater in G6PD-deficient neonates than babies without this deficiency. The aim of this study was to ascertain the presence of neonatal jaundice in erythrocyte G6PD-deficient male newborns. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 204 male newborns of the Januário Cicco School Maternity located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil were analyzed. The G6PD deficiency was identified by the methemoglobin reduction test (Brewer's test. The deficiency was confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometric assay for enzyme activity and cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to identify the G6PD variant. Eight newborns were found to be G6PD deficient with four of them exhibiting jaundice during the first 48 hours after birth with bilirubin levels higher than 10 mg/dL. All deficient individuals presented the G6PD A- variant at electrophoresis. Our findings confirmed the association between G6PD deficiency and neonatal jaundice. Hence, early diagnosis of the deficiency at birth is essential to control the appearance of jaundice and to prevent the exposure of these newborns to known hemolytic agents.A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD é a anormalidade enzimática hereditária mais frequente. É transmitida como caráter recessivo ligado ao cromossomo X e as principais manifestações clínicas são hemólise induzida por fármacos, icterícia neonatal e anemia hemolítica não esferocítica. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de icterícia neonatal em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino deficientes de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase. Foram analisadas 204 amostras de sangue umbilical de recém-nascidos do sexo

  5. Free-throw accuracy and success as a function of ball weight in 9- to 11-year-old male players Precisão e êxito em função do peso da bola em jogadores de 9 a 11 anos de idade

    José Luis Arias


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze whether 9-11 years old children can attain more free-throw accuracy and success by modifying the ball weight in basketball game. The participants were 54 children (age: mean=10.63, SD=0.55 years from six basketball teams. The participants played four games with each of the following balls: (a standard ball weight (485 g, 69-71 cm, (b a lighter ball (440 g, 69-71 cm, and (c a heavier ball (540 g, 69-71 cm. The procedures adopted in the study were: (a defining the variables, (b instructing the observers and obtaining reliability, (c monitoring the properties of the ball and filming the games, and (d recording the data from the observation. The results revealed statistically significant differences for free-throw accuracy (χ²=1.76, df=2, p=.050 and success (χ²=5.69, df=2, p=.048. Free-throw accuracy and success were higher with the 440-g ball than with the 540-g ball.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar se crianças de 9 a 11 anos poderiam alcançar maior precisão e êxito no lance livre em função de diferentes pesos da bola no basquetebol. Participaram do presente estudo 54 crianças (idade: M=10.63, SD=0.55 de seis equipes de basquetebol. Os participantes jogaram quatro jogos com cada um das seguintes bolas: (a bola regulamentar (485 g, 69-71 cm, (b bola menos pesada (440 g, 69-71 cm, e (c bola mais pesada (540 g, 69-71 cm. Os procedimentos seguidos foram: (a definição das variáveis, (b formação dos observadores e obtenção da confiabilidade, (c controle das propriedades da bola e filmagem dos jogos, e (d gravação dos dados de observação. Os resultados revelaram diferenças estatísticas significativas para precisão (χ²=1,76; df=2; p=0,05 e êxito do lance livre (χ²=5,69; df=2; p=0,048. A precisão e êxito do lance livre foram mais elevados com a bola de 440 g em comparação com a bola de 540 g.

  6. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  7. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.


    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  8. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  9. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok


    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.


    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  11. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)


    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  12. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.


    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  13. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Chad H. Stahl


    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  14. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Guo-Feng Chen


    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  15. Efeitos do consumo agudo de cafeína sobre parâmetros metabólicos e de desempenho em indivíduos do sexo masculino Effects of caffeine acute consumption on the metabolic and performance parameters in male individuals

    Daniela Brunetto


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do consumo agudo de cafeína sobre a oxidação de lipídeos e desempenho durante o exercício aeróbico. Foram avaliados 15 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade média de 22,3 ± 2,7 anos, que realizaram teste de cargas progressivas em esteira rolante para determinação do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx e limiares ventilatórios (LV. Cada voluntário realizou três testes submáximos na intensidade de 10% abaixo do segundo LV, sendo orientados a permanecer em exercício até a exaustão. Trinta minutos antes de cada teste submáximo, foram ingeridos 250ml de uma das bebidas compostas por: café com adoçante (CAD, café com açúcar (CA e café descafeinado com adoçante (CD. Durante o exercício, os indivíduos foram monitorados pelo ergoespirômetro e frequencímetro. A oxidação de lipídeos foi predita pelo quociente respiratório (QR durante o teste, e o desempenho foi verificado pelo tempo de exercício. Para comparar os resultados de QR e tempo de exercício entre os grupos, foi utilizado Anova fatorial, e considerou-se significância estatística um valor de p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute caffeine consumption on lipid oxidation and performance during aerobic exercise. Fifteen healthy male individuals, 22.3 ± 2.7 years old, performed a progressive test on treadmill for determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and ventilatory thresholds. Each volunteer performed three submaximal tests at the intensity of 10% below the second ventilatory threshold, being guided to remain on exercise until exhaustion. Thirty minutes before each submaximal test, the subjects ingested 250ml of one of following drinks: coffee with sweetener (CSW, coffee with sugar (CS or decaffeinated coffee with sweetener (CD. During the exercise, the individuals's heart rate was monitored and respiratory gases analyses were done. The lipid oxidation was predicted by the

  16. Substituição natural de rainhas fisogástricas e distância de vôo dos machos em Tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 e Uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini Natural substitutions of queens and flight distance of males in tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 and uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini

    Gislene Almeida Carvalho-Zilse


    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata detalhes da vida reprodutiva de duas espécies de abelhas sem ferrão. Rainhas velhas de Melipona compressipes fasciculata, no Maranhão, morrem e são substituídas com sucesso em todos os meses. Rainhas de Melipona scutellaris, trazidas de Lençóis (BA - nordeste do Brasil para Uberlândia (MG, centro-sudeste do Brasil morreram durante todos os meses e não mostraram a existência de trimestre preferencial para as novas rainhas iniciarem postura. Quarenta machos de M. scutellaris, após serem marcados no tórax e libertados em grupos de 10 a 100, 400, 800 e 1000 metros do meliponário, tiveram seus retornos observados. Todos os machos libertados a 100 e 400 metros regressaram ao meliponário, 7 de 10 machos e 2 de 10 machos retornaram de 800 e 1000 metros, respectivamente. Os machos esperam constantemente pela saída de uma rainha virgem, próximos às colônias órfãs, o que indica que a maioria das rainhas é inseminada próximo aos seus ninhos, portanto, a dispersão dos genes depende do vôo dos machos e da distância de enxameagem para ocupação de uma cavidade para o novo ninho.This work reports on the reproductive life of the stingless bees (Meliponini. Old queens of Melipona compressipes fasciculata in Maranhão State, Brazil die and are successfully substituted by new ones in all months. Queens of Melipona scutellaris from Lençois (BA - northeastern Brazil brought to Uberlândia (Central South eastern Brazil died during all months, and there are no months where new queens are more able to begin egg laying. Forty males of M. scutellaris were marked in the thorax and released in groups of 10 at 100, 400, 800 and 1000 meters from the meliponary and their return to it was observed. All males released at 100 to 400 meters returned, 7 out of 10 and 2 out of 10 males returned respectively from 800 and 1000 meters. Males are constantly waiting for a virgin queen next to orphan colonies, the majority of the queens is

  17. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Danilo Russo


    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  18. Momentos em freios e em embraiagens

    Mimoso, Rui Miguel Pereira


    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Mecânica Nesta dissertação reúnem-se os modelos de cálculo utilizados na determinação dos momentos em freios e em embraiagens. Neste trabalho consideram-se os casos de freios e embraiagens de atrito seco e atrito viscoso. Nos freios de atrito viscoso são considerados casos em que as características dos fluidos não são induzidas, e outros em que são induzidas modificações a essas mesmas características. São a...

  19. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.


    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  20. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.


    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  1. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  2. Comparing electromagnetic stimulation with electrostimulation plus biofeedback in treating male refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Min-Hsin Yang


    Conclusion: Both EMS and ESB physical therapy of the pelvic floor muscle effectively reduce pain, increase the QoL, and improve urinary tract symptoms in male CPPS patients who are refractory to medical treatments. The combination therapy of ES plus biofeedback demonstrates additional benefits in pain and QoL when compared with EMS alone.

  3. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete


    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  4. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David


    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  5. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W


    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  6. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres


    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  7. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

    Paulo R.S. Santos


    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to

  8. Demanda por doenças crônico-degenerativas entre adultos matriculados em uma unidade básica de saúde em São Carlos - SP Ocurrencias de males crónico-degenerativos entre adultos inscritos en una unidad básica de salud en São Carlos-SP Demand for chronic-degenerative diseases among adults attended in a basic health unit at the city of São Carlos-SP

    Adriana Barbieri Feliciano


    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo traçar o perfil da clientela maior de 12 anos de idade de uma UBS, segundo variáveis sócio-demográficas como sexo, faixa etária, cor, estado civil e procedência e caracterizar o perfil de morbidade segundo os capítulos da CID (X-Revisão e grupos diagnósticos específicos destacando-se o grupo das doenças crônico-degenerativas, com vistas à sua caracterização no contexto da transição demográfico-epidemiológica. O delineamento foi do tipo transversal, sendo a população base constituída pela clientela matriculada na UBS até 31 de agosto de 1996. Foram excluídos os indivíduos em situação de abandono, os que foram transferidos para outras unidades e aqueles que foram a óbito. A população efetivamente estudada foi composta por 1013 indivíduos. Os dados foram processados no software FOXPRO vs 2.0 e as análises foram efetuadas no EPIINFO vs 6.04. Constatou-se que a população estudada foi basicamente constituída por mulheres (87.1%. Com relação à idade 69.6% estavam entre 12 e 40 anos, 95.6% eram da cor branca, 57.2% eram casados e 97% procedentes da zona urbana. Quando os diagnósticos foram classificados segundo os capítulos da CID destacaram-se as doenças do aparelho geniturinário (35.5%, aparelho respiratório (11.5% e sinais e sintomas (9,9%. A classificação segundo os grupos específicos de causas apontou magnitude semelhante entre as doenças infecto-parasitárias (24.8% e as doenças crônico-degenerativas (24.5%. No grupo de doenças crônico-degenerativas 50% dos capítulos da CID foram compostos pelo conjunto: causas circulatórias, endócrinas e mentais-comportamentais. Observou-se que o perfil de morbidade da UBS parece enquadrar-se no modelo polarizado de transição onde as doenças crônico-degenerativas coexistem com as infecto-parasitárias. O modelo tradicional de atendimento da Unidade que enfoca a saúde materno-infantil parece não adequar-se ao envelhecimento

  9. Mineralização óssea em adolescentes do sexo masculino: anos críticos para a aquisição da massa óssea Bone mineralization among male adolescents: critical years for bone mass gain

    Carla C. Silva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento do conteúdo mineral ósseo e da densidade mineral óssea em adolescentes do sexo masculino em função da faixa etária e do nível maturacional dos caracteres sexuais secundários. MÉTODOS: 47 adolescentes saudáveis na faixa etária de 10 a 19 anos foram avaliados quanto a ingestão de cálcio, peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal, estágio puberal, densidade mineral óssea e conteúdo mineral ósseo na coluna e no fêmur proximal. A massa óssea foi mensurada através de densitometria óssea. A ingestão de cálcio foi calculada através de registro dietético de 3 dias. O índice de massa corporal foi calculado pelo Índice de Quetelet, e o estágio puberal foi definido segundo os critérios de Tanner. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva, média e desvio padrão, análise de variância para comparação entre os grupos etários e teste de Tukey para localizar as diferenças significativas. RESULTADOS: A ingestão de cálcio não alcançou o valor mínimo de 800 mg em várias faixas etárias estudadas. A densidade mineral óssea e o conteúdo mineral ósseo demonstraram incrementos com o avançar da idade, indicando diferenças significativas a partir dos 14 anos, bem como quando os adolescentes atingiam os estágios de maturação sexual G4. Os parâmetros de mineralização revelaram aumento pronunciado quando os adolescentes atingiam G3, porém sem significado estatístico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontam um aumento importante na mineralização óssea durante a adolescência. A evidência de aumento na mineralização dos adolescentes foi percebida em níveis maturacionais superiores a G3. Os anos críticos para a aquisição da massa óssea neste estudo evidenciaram-se a partir dos 14-15 anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: To verify the behavior of the mineral bone content and density in male adolescents according to age and secondary sexual characters. METHODS: 47 healthy adolescents between 10 and 19

  10. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline


    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  11. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> e <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

    Gianna Dondini


    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> and <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (<em>Tenebrio molitorem>. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months <em>P. kuhliiem> and <em>H. saviiem> increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in <em>P. kuhliiem> than in <em>H. saviiem>. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  12. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Lutfiye Ozpak


    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  13. Males and Eating Disorders

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  14. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko


    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  15. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy


    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  16. Male breast lesions

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.


    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  17. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Anand Kumar


    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  18. EM International. Volume 1


    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  19. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues


    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  20. Parâmetros de bioquímica sérica de machos, fêmeas e filhotes de Araras canindé (Ara ararauna saudáveis mantidas em cativeiro comercial Serum biochemical parameters of healthy male, female and young blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna bred in captivity

    Stella de Faria Valle


    Full Text Available O Brasil possui um considerável número de espécies de psitacídeos catalogados, perfazendo cerca de 80 espécies, sendo que as Araras canindé (Ara ararauna, uma das maiores representantes dessa ordem, podem ser encontradas em florestas nas diversas regiões brasileiras. O Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA normalizou a comercialização de animais da fauna silvestre provenientes de criadouros e conseqüentemente ocorreu um aumento do número destes animais como de estimação. Atualmente, há pouco conhecimento sobre os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de espécies silvestres em cativeiro. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar parâmetros de bioquímica sangüínea de Araras canindé (Ara ararauna saudáveis de sexo e faixa etária distintas mantidas em um criatório comercial com alimentação e manejo controlados e padronizados. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 35 araras canindé (11 filhotes e 24 adultos e remetidas ao Laboratório de Análises Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF para determinação dos seguintes indicadores bioquímicos: ácido úrico (AU, albumina (ALB, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, cálcio (Ca, colesterol (Col, creatina quinase (CK, fosfatase alcalina (FA, fósforo inorgânico (Pi, frutosamina (Fru, gama glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais (PT e uréia (UR. Entre as aves adultas, foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos valores de CK (superior nos machos, Ca e AU (superiores nas fêmeas. Entre aves adultas e filhotes foram constatadas diferenças significativas nos valores de AU, Ca, ALB, COL, FA, Pi e FRU. A maioria das alterações detectadas pode ser relacionada à diferença na dieta fornecida e à condição fisiológica de cada categoria de aves. Os dados obtidos podem ser utilizados como parâmetros de referência para as araras canindé brasileiras.Several psittacines have been cataloged in Brazil

  1. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    Gottschalk, W.


    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  2. Male sterility in chestnuts

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya


    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  3. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano


    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A tortoiseshell male cat

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian


    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  5. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  6. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Possibilidade de seleção recorrente para aumento do teor de óleo em soja com a utilização da macho-esterilidade genética e da espectroscopia de ressonância nuclear magnética The possibility of recurrent selection to increase the oil content in soybeans using genetic male sterility and NMR spectroscopy

    Manoel Albino Coelho de Miranda


    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de estudar a possibilidade de realizar seleção recorrente, analisaram-se sementes de soja de plantas macho-estéreis e de sua progênies quanto ao teor de óleo no espectroscópio de ressonância nuclear magnética (NMR, no Instituto de Física da Universidade de Campinas de 1984 a 1988. Tais sementes provinham do composto IAC-1, com macho-esterilidade genética e ampla variabilidade quanto à percentagem de óleo (13,5-22,5%. Determinaram-se os coeficientes de repetibilidade, tomando-se o teor de óleo de cada semente da planta macho-estéril como uma medida fenotípica, obtendo-se o valor médio de r = 0,65. Concluiu-se que com a análise de quatro a cinco sementes, é possível representar a planta-mãe, passo importante para viabilizar a seleção recorrente nessa população, visto o pequeno número de sementes produzidas por planta macho-estéril. Utilizando-se a covariância entre a média das sementes da planta macho-estéril e a média de suas progênies, obteve-se h² = 0,73. Essa herdabilidade é alta, e como o caráter teor de óleo tem como principal componente de sua variância genética a variância aditiva, pode-se recomendar a seleção fenotípica. Calculou-se também o coeficiente de herdabilidade no nível da média de progênies, obtendo-se valores desde 0,66, para a média de duas plantas por progênie, até 0,85, para a de sete plantas por progênie. Esses resultados demonstram a possibilidade de seleção recorrente no composto IAC-1, tanto no campo, ao nível de planta macho-estéril, como em casa de vegetação, em seleção baseada na média da progênie.The seed oil content of male sterile plants and their progenies was analised by a NMR spectroscope to study the possibility of recurrent selection to improve the oil content. The seeds derived from a composite named "IAC-1" with genetic male sterility and large variability with respect to oil content. The repeatability coefficient (r for oil content

  8. Male Reproductive System

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...


    Le Duc, Ector


    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  10. Lycopene and male infertility

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi


    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  11. Marketing em moda

    Leães, Sabrina Durgante


    Dissertação de mestrado em Design e Marketing O actual estado do Marketing em Moda é uma das questões ainda complexa com que se debate a sociedade global. As questões do Marketing em Moda percorrem alguns aspectos fundamentais tais como as constantes mutações do meio envolvente, a forma de como é percebida e comunicada a identidade das marcas de moda, em busca da melhor forma de segmentar o mercado e definir o seu posicionamento, bem como a reacção ao produto de moda do consumidor final. ...

  12. Social network predicts loss of fertilizations in nesting males of a fish with alternative reproductive tactics

    Cardoso, Sara D.; Faustino, Ana Isabel Soares; Costa, Silvia S.; Valério, Fábio; Gonçalves, David; Oliveira, Rui Filipe


    Material suplementar está disponível online em doi: 10.1007/s10211-016-0249-9, disponibilizado a todos os utilizadores autorizados. Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) evolve when there is strong intra-sexual competition between conspecifics for access to mates. Typically, larger Bbourgeois^ males reproduce by securing the access to reproductive resources while smaller Bparasitic^ males reproduce by stealing fertilizations from larger males. A number of factors can influ...

  13. Caracterização da variabilidade de freqüência cardíaca e sensibilidade do barorreflexo em indivíduos sedentários e atletas do sexo masculino Characterization of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in sedentary individuals and male athletes

    Leandro Yukio A. Kawaguchi


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de variar a freqüência cardíaca representa importante papel fisiológico na vida diária. As variações dos intervalos RR estão na dependência de moduladores biológicos, como o sistema nervoso autônomo. Essas variações constituem a variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca (VFC. MÉTODOS: 10 indivíduos atletas (Atl e 10 sedentários (Sed (20-35 anos foram submetidos a eletrocardiografia digital, em repouso, antes, durante e após a manobra. Os valores de RR foram tratados (software Matlab 6.1, no domínio do tempo. RESULTADOS: Os grupos Sed e Atl apresentaram freqüência cardíaca média igual a 73,59bpm ± 2,5 e 51,01bpm ± 2,4, respectivamente. Quanto aos intervalos RR, o grupo de Sed apresentou média de 826,58ms ± 5,3 e o grupo Atl, 1.189,18 ± 6,9. O tempo de retorno simpático após a manobra 72 ± 12s (Sed 37 ± 6s (Atl. O tempo de retorno parassimpático foi de 80 ± 11s (Sed 40 ± 8s (Atl. O pNN50 foi de 10 ± 3,3 (Sed e 42,10 ± 6,9 (Atl. O valor da variação dos RR acima da média de todo o sinal foi de 343 ± 40ms (Sed e 175 ± 39ms (Atl. A variação abaixo da média de todo o sinal foi de 281 ± 27ms (Sed e 425 ± 26ms (Atl. CONCLUSÕES: A análise da VFC associada à manobra de Valsalva pode representar uma ferramenta simples, mas importante, para possíveis inferências sobre aptidão física.INTRODUCTION: The capacity to vary the heart rate represents important physiologic role in the daily life. The variations of the RR intervals is dependent of biological modulators as the autonomic nervous system. Those variations constitute the heart rate variability (HRV. METHODS: 10 athletes (Atl and 10 sedentary (Sed male individuals (20-35 age were submitted to digital electrocardiography, in rest, before, during and after the maneuver. The values of RR were analyzed (software Matlab 6.1, in the time domain. RESULTS: Both Sed and Atl presented mean heart rate of 73.5 bpm ± 2,5 and 51 bpm ± 2

  14. Proporções e coeficientes de crescimento dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros e cordeiras em diferentes métodos de alimentação Proportions and coefficients of growth components, non-carcass of the live weight of male and female lambs under different feeding methods

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa


    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar as proporções dos não-componentes da carcaça e o crescimento relativo dos mesmos. Foram utilizados 45 cordeiros, 22 machos não castrados e 23 fêmeas da raça Texel. Desses, sete foram abatidos no início do experimento 24 horas após o parto, e os demais assim que atingiam os pesos de 25 ou 33 kg. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com um arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 (três métodos, dois sexos e dois pesos de abate. Ocorreu diminuição das proporções de cabeça e patas com a elevação do peso de abate, verificando-se valores de 4,44% e 2,63% para pesos de 25 kg e de 3,76% e 2,43% para pesos de 33 kg, respectivamente.Entre sexos a maior proporção de gordura perirenal foi obtida para as fêmeas e entre pesos de abate, para 33 kg .As proporções de pele, fígado e coração não diferiram entre métodos de alimentação, sexos e pesos de abate. A maior proporção de rúmen-retículo foi dos cordeiros desmamados aos 45 dias mas, entre sexos e pesos de abate foram semelhantes.O crescimento relativo das patas, coração, rins e pulmão + traquéia é precoce, enquanto o da pele, fígado e gordura perirenal é isométrico, em relação ao peso de corpo vazio. O rúmen + retículo, independentemente de método e sexo, foi de crescimento tardio, cujos coeficientes variaram entre 2,22 e 2,47.The experiment was carried out to study the components proportions, non-carcass of the body weight and their relative growth. It was used 45 lambs: 22 non-castrated male and 23 females of Texel breed. From that group, 7 were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment and the others when they reached 25 or 33 kg. A randomly delineation adopted was by a factorial arrangement of 3:2:2 (three methods, two sexes and two weights of slaughter. The head and paws proportions decreased with elevation of the slaughter weight with values of 4.44% and 2.63% to 25 kg; 3.76% and 2.43% to 33 kg

  15. Efeito da Gymnema sylvestre na elevação da lipidemia após administração de gordura de origem animal em ratos wistar - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1602 The influence of Gymnema sylvestre on the elevation of blood levels of lipids after administration of animal fat in male wistar rats - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1602

    Márcia Regina Batista


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigamos a influência da Gymnema sylvestre (Gs na elevação da lipidemia após administração de gordura de origem animal em ratos machos Wistar (230g - 250g. Os animais, em jejum por 22 horas, foram divididos em 5 grupos que receberam via intragástrica às 8h os seguintes tratamentos: 1 2mL de gordura suína Batavo®/kg de peso corpóreo (GSB; 2 GSB + 500mg/kg de peso corpóreo de Gs (Gs 500mg; 3 GSB + 1g/kg de peso corpóreo de Gs (Gs 1g; 4 Gs 500mg; 5 Gs 1g. Os animais foram sacrificados 30min após a administração destas substâncias. Não observamos diferenças significativas na concentração sérica de lipídeos totais, triglicerídeos e colesterol total nos ratos que receberam GSB na ausência ou presença de Gs 500mg ou Gs 1g. Portanto, nossos resultados sugerem que a Gs não afeta a absorção intestinal de lipídeosThe aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs on the elevation of blood levels of lipids after administration of animal fat in male Wistar rats (230–250g. The animals, which were fasted for 22h, were separated in five groups that received (8:00 a.m intragastric administration of: 1 2ml of pork fat Batavo® /kg of body weight (PFB; 2 PFB+500mg/kg of Gs body weight (Gs 500mg; 3 PFB + 1g/kg of Gs body weight (Gs 1 g; 4 Gs 500mg; 5 Gs 1g. The animals were sacrificed 30min after the administration of these substances. No significant differences were verified in the serum concentration of total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in the animals, which received PBF in the presence or absence of Gs 500mg or Gs 1g. Therefore, the results showed that Gs could not affect the intestinal absorption of lipids

  16. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá


    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  17. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  18. Male breast pathology

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.


    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  19. Dos Males da Medida

    Lilia Moritz Schwarcz


    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objeto a difícil percepção da "diferença". Tema polêmico, o debate sobre as variedades culturais foi transformado, em meados do século XIX, em uma questão racial e, nesse sentido, vinculado às regularidades da biologia. Tecendo comparações entre os teóricos raciais brasileiros e os impasses mais contemporâneos, sobre a aferição de inteligência e capacidade, esse ensaio pretende provocar. Em pauta estarão as contradições que têm se destacado, mais recentemente, quando se opõem de um lado as etnicidades locais, de outro a tão propalada globalização. Tal qual dois lados de uma mesma moeda, a afirmação de identidades tem se mostrado tão evidente como o próprio estreitamento das relações internacionais. Mudam os termos do debate - de raça, para etnia -, mas, de alguma maneira, continuamos presos a uma lógica positiva de estabelecimento de hierarquias ontológicas.This article has as its objective the difficult perception of "difference". A controversial theme, in the nineteenth century, this debate on cultural varieties, became a racial issue and in this sense, bonded to the regularities of biology. In such a context, this essay intends to provoke comparisons about the standard measure of intelligence and capacity, between Brazilian racial theorists and the impasse of more contemporary times. Appointed here will be the contradictions which have, more recently grown in importance, and have opposed through one aspect, local ethnic groups and through another the greatly publicized globalization. As are the two sides of a coin, the affirmation of identities has shown itself as evident as the tightening of international relations. The terms of the debate change from race to ethnicism, but in some way, we are still tied to a positivist logic which establishes ontologic hierarchies.

  20. Advances in Male Contraception

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.


    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  1. Endometriosis in the male.

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E


    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Male Body Contouring.

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M


    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  3. Gender-disturbed males.

    Levine, S B


    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  4. Avaliação do Parceiro Sexual e Risco de Recidivas em Mulheres Tratadas por Lesões Genitais Induzidas por Papilomavírus Humano (HPV Male Sexual Partner Evaluation and Relapse Risk in Women Treated for Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV Lesions

    Júlio César Teixeira


    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a associação entre a avaliação ou não do parceiro e recidivas em mulheres tratadas por lesões por HPV. Métodos: estudo de coorte reconstituído com 144 mulheres com lesões por HPV e cujos parceiros foram avaliados, comparadas com 288 mulheres cujos parceiros não foram examinados, controladas por data do atendimento, idade, grau das lesões e tratamento, todos atendidos entre julho/1993 e março/2000. Avaliaram-se a semelhança entre os grupos, a associação entre a avaliação ou não dos parceiros ou o diagnóstico de lesões com a ocorrência e grau das recidivas nas mulheres e o tempo livre de doença (TLD. Resultados: os grupos foram semelhantes com relação às variáveis de controle. Encontrou-se 9,0% de recidivas nas mulheres cujos parceiros foram avaliados e 5,9% quando os parceiros não foram (p=0,23. Quando se diagnosticaram lesões nos homens, 12,5% das suas parceiras apresentaram recidivas contra 7,3% das parceiras de homens sem lesões (p=0,23, mas sem correlação com o grau da lesão recidivada e TLD. Quando o homem referiu relação conjugal monogâmica de até 12 meses, observou-se 14,9% de recidivas nas mulheres, contra 6,2% para as mulheres cujo parceiro relatou tempo maior (p=0,08. Conclusões: a avaliação do homem não diminuiu o risco de recidivas de lesões por HPV na parceira. A presença de lesões nos parceiros não se correlacionou com a ocorrência e grau das recidivas nas mulheres e TLD. Estas observações não suportam a hipótese de que os homens não avaliados seriam importante causa de recidivas nas parceiras.Purpose: to study the association between the evaluation or not of the male partner and relapses in women treated for HPV lesions. Methods: a reconstituted cohort study with 144 women with HPV lesions and whose partners had been evaluated, compared with 288 women whose partners had not been examined, controlled regarding date of attendance, age, lesion degree and treatment

  5. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Marta Magi


    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.


  6. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul


    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  7. The possibility of recurrent selection to increase the oil content in soybeans using genetic male sterility and NMR spectroscopy; Possibilidade de selecao recorrente para aumento do teor de oleo em soja com a utilizacao da macho-esterilidade genetica e da espectroscopia de ressonancia nuclear magnetica

    Miranda, M A.C. de; Teixeira, J P.F.; Mascarenhas, H A.A. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rettori, C [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    The seed oil content of male sterile plants and their progenies was analysed by a NMR spectroscope to study the possibility of recurrent selection to improve the oil content. The results suggest the possibility of recurrent selection in the composite IAC-1 both in the field with male sterile plants or at the greenhouse when selection is based on average values of progenies. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Esmée Hanna


    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  9. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario


    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  10. Male breast cancer

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.


    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  11. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)


    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  12. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M


    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Occupational causes of male infertility

    Bonde, Jens P E


    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  14. Médicos e médicas em São Paulo e os Livros de Registros do Serviço de Fiscalização do Exercício Profissional (1892-1932 Male and female doctors in São Paulo and the Records of the Professional Practice Audit Service (1892-1932

    Maria Lucia Mott


    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo analisar o perfil (naturalidade, nacionalidade e sexo, a formação e a inserção profissional dos médicos no mercado de trabalho em São Paulo, entre 1892-1932, período com poucos trabalhos sobre o tema. Utiliza como fontes a coleção de Livros do Serviço de Fiscalização do Exercício Profissional do Estado São Paulo, preservados pelo Centro de Memória da Saúde Pública (SES/SP. Trata-se de um estudo preliminar - primeiros resultados de uma pesquisa em andamento, que faz parte de um projeto mais amplo, voltado para a construção de um banco de dados e análise da formação e do perfil dos trabalhadores/as que atuaram em diferentes áreas da Saúde em São Paulo, entre 1892-1978.This article aims at analyzing the profile (place of origin, nationality and sex, the place/institution of graduation and the insertion of physicians into the labor market of São Paulo between 1892 and 1932, a period covered by only a small number of studies on this topic. The source of information used in this survey is the collection of records of the Professional Practice Audit Service of the State of São Paulo, preserved in the Center for the Memory of Public Health. The present paper refers to a preliminary study, part of a broader project aimed at constructing a data bank and analyzing the formation and the profile of workers acting in São Paulo in different health areas, between 1892 and 1978.

  15. Relação entre diferentes índices de atividade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de ambos os sexos Relacion entre diferentes índices de atividad física y predictores de adiposidad en adolescentes de ambos sexos Relationship between different rates of physical activity and adiposity predictors in male and female adolescents

    Luís Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre diferentes índices de atividade física e preditores de adiposidade em adolescentes de ambos os sexos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 111 crianças (57 meninos e 54 meninas, com idade média de 11,62 ± 0,72. Como preditores de adiposidade foram determinados o IMC, percentagem de gordura corporal e a relação cintura/quadril (RCQ. Quanto aos indicadores de atividade física, calcularam-se o gasto energético total (GET, nível de atividade física habitual (NAFH, nível de atividade física (NAF e gasto energético com atividade física (GEat através do questionário de Bouchard e, para a taxa metabólica basal (TMB, a equação de Schofield-HW. RESULTADOS: A amostra apresentou diferenças significativas entre os sexos para idade, % de gordura corporal, RCQ, NAFH, NAF, TMB com p OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre diferentes índices de actividad física y predictores de adiposidad en adolescentes de ambos sexos. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados 111 chicos (57 niños y 54 niñas, con edad media de 11,62 ± 0,72 años. Como predictores de adiposidad fueron determinados por IMC, percentil de grasa, y relación cintuda nalga (RCQ. En cuanto a los indicadores de la actividad física se calculó el gasto energético total (GET,el nivel de actividad física habitual (NAFH, nível de actividad física (NAF y gasto energético con actividad física (GEat a través de un cuestionario de Bouchard y para la taxa metabólica basal (TMB la ecuaciónde Schofield-HW. RESULTADOS: La muestra presentó diferencias significativas entre los sexos para edades, percentil de grasa, RCQ, NAFH, NAF, TMB con (p OBJECTIVES: To determinate the relationship between different rates of physical activity and adiposity predictors in male and female adolescents. METHODS: One hundred and eleven children (57 boys and 54 girls with average age of 11.62 ± 0.72 were measured. As adiposity predictors, the BMI, the body fat percentage, and the waist

  16. International EMS Systems

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom


    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system......Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  17. Sport and male sexuality.

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L


    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  18. A poliomielite em Sergipe

    Hélio A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo retrospectivo da poliomielite em Sergipe. Dividem o estudo em três períodos levando em consideração a taxa de notificação de casos positivos e enfatizam o período que vai de 1979 a 1989, pelo estudo de 159 casos consecutivos. As seguintes informações foram levantadas para cada caso: sexo, idade, procedência, estado vacinai anterior e evolução clínica. São também avaliadas a incidência anual, relação incidência/cobertura vacinai e distribuição geográfica. Tecem comentários sobre os surtos epidêmicos ocorridos em 1984 e 1986, sobre as alterações na circulação do poliovírus selvagem (P1 para P3 e sobre problemas relacionados à não aquisição de imunidade em crianças com esquema vacinal completo. Consideram a poliomielite controlada no Estado, mas enfatizam a necessidade de manutenção de Vigilância epidemiológica efetiva para todos os casos de paralisia aguda e flácida em menores de 14 anos de idade.

  19. EM type radioactive standards. Radioaktivni etalony EM


    The standard contains technical specifications and conditions of production, testing, packing, transport and storage of EM type planar calibration standards containing radionuclides /sup 14/C, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 204/Tl, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am and natural U. The terminology is explained, the related Czechoslovak standards and legal prescriptions given and amendments to these prescriptions presented.

  20. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens and male sterile cytoplasm of chaisma frequency in pearl millet inbreds and hybrids

    Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, R.M.; Vijay Laxmi


    Chiasma frequency was recorded in normal and treated [10, 20, 30 Kr γ-rays, 0.2% ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) and 10 Kr γ-rays + 0.2% EMS] populations of 7 inbreds and 3 hybrids of pearl millet. Inbreds in general showed lower chiasma frequency than hybrids. However, inbred Bi13B showed the highest chiasma frequency. The male sterile cytoplasm reduced the chaisma frequency and increased the among-plant-variability in the inbreds and, therefore, possibly in the hybrids which had male sterile cytoplasm. γ-rays were more effective than EMS in reducing chiasma frequency. In most of the genotypes 10Kr γ-rays and 0.2% EMS promoted chiasma frequency. The combination treatments showed greater effect than γ-rays and EMS applied individually. Hybrids as a group, showed lower variation for chiasma number than inbreds in response to the mutagenic treatments. (author)

  1. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> Leaves

    Yong Qin


    Full Text Available The extract from <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on <em>G. bilobaem> leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November. In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of <em>G. bilobaem> leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of <em>G.> biloba em>leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  2. Sterilization of males Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with gamma irradiation for control in cultures of economic importance; Esterilização de machos de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) com irradiação gama visando o controle em culturas de importância econômica

    Araujo, Marcio Martins


    Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824), causes direct and indirect damage on crops by feeding and acting as virus vector for diverse groups of plants. The main control form is the use of agrochemicals so, aiming to manage the population without environment impact, the present work had as objective to determine the dose of gamma radiation that provides male sterility, its foliar consumption and gonads histological changes. Adult males were submitted to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the third day after emergence at doses of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy at 0,808 KGy/ hour rate, totaling 20 replicates/ dose. The sterilizing dose was based on the fertility of sexually mature non-irradiated females mated by irradiated males. The couples were individualized in 'arenas' and fed with leaflets Phaseolus vulgaris L. with black gauze moistened for oviposition. Eggs were treated and arranged in plastic containers lined with filter paper. After hatching, larvae were transferred to a larger container with a cover cap containing fine vermiculite and maize seedlings (Zea mays L.), which were replaced every 10 days, until adult emergence. After the 4{sup th} day of irradiation, a leaf disc with 3.2 cm in diameter was available for 24 hours for each couple. The discs were scanned and analyzed in ImageJ software. To evaluate the gonads, 3 males with 8 days of age were used per dose. They were dissected in PBS, through the Hematoxylin-Eosin technique the laminas were evaluated under an optical microscope. We observed that male sterility occurred from 75 Gy and the average longevity of this group was of 12.5 days. Consumption of the leaf area by couples composed by a sterile male was 42.9% and the testicular histological analysis demonstrated tissue disorganisation and gaps between germ cells at the highest doses of 75 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  3. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Yijun Fan


    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  4. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    A.M. Paci


    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  5. A non-exercise prediction model for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. DOI:

    Magnus Benetti


    Full Text Available The most accurate tool for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness is cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET. However, CPET requires expensive equipment, trained technicians and time, which limits their use in population studies. In view of this issue, the present study aims to develop regression equations for predicting the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults using simple measurement variables. The study used data from 8,293 subjects, 5,291 male and 3,235 female (age range, 18 to 65 years. The sample was recruited in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina. To develop equations for prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, the data associated were: fitness, age, body mass, height, resting heart rate, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking. After statistical analyses, two equations for men and two for women were developed. The complete equations showed an adjusted R2 = 0.531 and a standard error of estimate (SEE = 7.15 ml-1∙kg-1∙min for men and R2 = 0.436 and SEE = 5.68 ml-1∙kg-1∙min for women. We conclude that the model developed for prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness is feasible and practical for prediction of VO2peak in epidemiological studies or when CPET cannot be performed.

  6. Perspectivas de jovens universitários da Região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul em relação à paternidade Las perspectivas de jóvenes universitarios de la región norte del estado de Rio Grande do Sul en relación a la paternidad Perspectives about paternity by young male university students from the northern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Cleci Terezinha Perosa


    Full Text Available A visão do jovem em relação à paternidade e envolvimento com futuros filhos tem sido um assunto de veiculação ainda incipiente na nossa realidade. Este estudo, descritivo, qualitativo e exploratório, teve como objetivos estudar as perspectivas de jovens universitários da Região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul quanto à paternidade, estudar sua visão em relação à sua criação e educação para a paternidade e identificar como as instituições (família, grupo de amigos, escola influenciam no seu desenvolvimento e modo de pensar. Realizou-se na Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões, RS, com oito jovens universitários com idades entre 20 e 24 anos. Os dados coletados por grupo focal e entrevistas foram analisados mediante análise temática e apontaram para relevância da família, o papel do pai, estabilidade financeira, a importância da companheira, o papel do matrimônio e o jeito de ser pai na construção de suas vidas e paternidade.La visión del joven en relación a la paternidad y la relación con futuros hijos es un asunto que ha aparecido de forma reciente e incipiente en nuestra realidad. Este estudio, descriptivo, cualitativo y exploratorio, tuvo como objetivos: estudiar las perspectivas de los jóvenes universitarios de la Región Norte de Rio Grande do Sul, en lo que se refiere a la paternidad; estudiar su visión en relación a su creación y educación para la paternidad e identificar como las instituciones (familia, grupo de amigos, escuela influyen en su desarrollo y modo de pensar. Se realizó en la Universidad Regional Integrada del Alto Uruguay y de las Misiones, en Rio Grande do Sul, con ocho jóvenes universitarios con edades entre 20 y 24 años. Los datos recolectados, por grupo focal y entrevistas, fueron analizados mediante análisis temático y apuntaron para la relevancia de la familia; el papel del padre, la estabilidad financiera, la importancia de la compañera, el papel del

  7. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

    Alami Anouar


    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  8. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Giovanni Ferrara


    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  9. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Naoji Kubota


    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  10. Site fidelity of male roe deer in a Mediterranean fragmented area

    Claudia Melis


    Full Text Available Abstract We present data on site fidelity based on 7 adult male roe deer <em>Capreolus capreolusem> (L., which were studied for two years (March 1999-February 2001 by radiotelemetry. The median site fidelity of roe deer between year 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 was 63%. Throughout the year 2000, the analysis of distance between core areas (50% kernel centres revealed 2 tactics of habitat use by adult males: "annually site-faithful" males, who occupied the same home range over the year and "seasonally site-faithful" males, who moved to a different area during the cold months. Being resident throughout the year could privilege territory holders, already present at the beginning of the territorial season in respect to late-coming males. This supports the view of the "always stay" territorial behaviour, as a "low risk-low gain" strategy maximizing high survival and long tenure. Riassunto Fedeltà al territorio dei maschi di capriolo in un'area mediterranea frammentata Sette maschi adulti di capriolo <em>Capreolus capreolusem> L. sono stati seguiti per due anni, dal Marzo 1999 al Febbraio 2001, con metodi radiotelemetrici. La sovrapposizione mediana degli <em>home rangeem> (fedeltà, fra il 1999-2000 e il 2000-2001, è risultata del 63%. Nel corso del 2000, l'analisi della distanza fra <em>core areaem> (50% kernel ha rivelato due tattiche di uso dell'habitat: "maschi fedeli annualmente", che hanno occupato lo stesso <em>home rangeem> durante tutto l'anno, e "maschi fedeli stagionalmente", che si sono spostati in un'area diversa durante i mesi freddi. Essere residente per tutto l'anno potrebbe risultare vantaggioso per i maschi che si trovino già sul posto all'inizio della stagione territoriale, rispetto a maschi che abbiano trascorso l'inverno altrove. Questi risultati concordano con la teoria che i caprioli adottino un comportamento territoriale "permanente", come parte di una strategia a

  11. Retratos em movimento.

    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da relação do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma definição estética do que seria um retrato cinematográfico, sempre em tensão com os critérios formais e padrões estilísticos que historicamente constituíram o retrato pictórico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa questão com a importância que se deu à representação do close-up de rosto nas primeiras décadas do cinema, quando foi atribuído aos filmes um papel inédito no estudo da fisionomia e da expressão facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresentação põe em crise as noções de subjetividade e identidade em que a definição clássica do retrato se apoiava.

  12. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Heather A. Clark


    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  13. Coaching the alpha male.

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie


    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  14. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  15. Effects of Exercise on Memory Retrieval in Passive Avoidance Learning in Young Male Wistar Rats

    H Saadati


    Full Text Available

    <em>Background and Objectivesem>>

    Exercise seems to be a simple and widely practiced behavior that activates molecular and cellular signaling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. There has been more attention to the effects of exercise on nervous system and memory during recent years. So, we decided to examine the effects of treadmill exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval in young rats by passive avoidance learning.



    In this study fifty male Wistar rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Those in the control group were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min, 24 hrs, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised in treadmill one hour at 17 m/min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and tested 10 min and 24 hrs later. Data were analyzed using T and paired T tests.

    The other two groups for research effects of exercise in memory retrieval first were trained and tested 10 days and 24 hrs later and then exercised in treadmill like the other two groups; the latter groups were tested after exercise.



    The obtained results showed that short–term (10 days and long – term(3 months exercise before training had significant (P<0.05 effects on memory consolidation in passive avoidance learning, but no difference was observed in latency time in passive avoidance between short–term (10 days and long–term(3 months exercise groups after training with before exercise.



    Our results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement on learning and memory consolidation but there were no significant effects on memory retrieval

  16. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter


    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  17. Nietzsche em voga

    Borromeu, Carlos


    Resumo:Texto publicado em 1941, na revista de orientação católica A Ordem, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu autor considera que Nietzsche teria negado a moral tradicional, concebendo em seu lugar outra, porém imoral e brutal. Acusa o filósofo, por fim, de ser responsável pela Guerra ora e curso na Europa. Abstract:Text published in 1941 in the Catholic orientation magazine, A Ordem, in Rio de Janeiro. The author believes that Nietzsche would have denied traditional morality, conceiving another in it...

  18. The aging male project

    Farid Saad


    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  19. Responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Hemiptera: Alydidae to color and male-lured traps

    Maurício Ursi Ventura


    Full Text Available In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow. Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White, red and blue traps captured significantly more N. parvus males than black traps. In 1999, the same treatments were used and additionally included the factor presence (X absence of males in cages in the traps. Four males were confined in the cages together with pigeon pea seeds and water. Control traps received only pigeon pea seeds and water. No responses were found for color comparisons. Male-lured traps captured significantly more males than control traps.Em 1998, as respostas relativas de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae a cores em armadilhas foram avaliadas no campo. As cores foram impressas (preto, verde, amarelo, vermelho e azul, em papel alcalino branco e coberto com plástico transparente. Também se incluiu papel branco e folha de alumínio, como tratamentos. Armadilhas verdes capturaram mais insetos que outras armadilhas (exceto amarelo. Armadilhas amarelas capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas azuis, pretas e alumínio. Armadilhas brancas, vermelhas e azuis capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas pretas. Em 1999, os mesmos tratamentos foram usados e também se incluiu fator presença (X ausência de machos em gaiolas nas armadilhas. Quatro machos foram confinados nas gaiolas junto com sementes de guandu e água. Testemunhas receberam somente sementes de guandu e água. Não foram obtidas respostas significativas à cores. Armadilhas com machos capturaram

  20. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

    Conxita Avila


    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  1. Avaliação muscular isocinética da articulação do joelho em atletas das seleções brasileiras infanto e juvenil de voleibol masculino Evaluación muscular isocinetica de la articulación de la rodilla en atletas de las selecciones brasileras infanto y juveniles de voleibol masculino Isokinetic muscle evaluation of the knee joint in athletes of the Under-19 and Under-21 Male Brazilian National Volleyball Team

    Natalia Franco N. Bittencourt


    Full Text Available O salto vertical é inerente à prática do voleibol e demanda grande capacidade de geração de força e trabalho da musculatura envolvida, principalmente do músculo quadríceps. Devido a esta demanda, desequilíbrios entre os músculos extensores e flexores podem estar presentes, levando à sobrecarga das estruturas musculotendíneas da articulação do joelho. Sendo assim, torna-se necessário o estabelecimento de parâmetros de função muscular relacionados a esta articulação em atletas de voleibol. Portanto o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, através de dinamometria isocinética, torque máximo, trabalho máximo, razão agonista/antagonista e índice de fadiga de flexores e extensores de joelho em duas categorias do voleibol. Os testes isocinéticos de flexão e extensão do joelho foram realizados no modo concêntrico-concêntrico, na posição sentada, nas velocidades de 60 e 300º/s em 36 atletas (20 da categoria Infanto-Juvenil e 16 da Juvenil. Os dados possibilitaram estabelecer parâmetros de função muscular da articulação do joelho em atletas das Seleções Brasileiras Infanto-Juvenil e Juvenil de Voleibol Masculino do ano de 2003. Estes atletas apresentaram valores de torque máximo e trabalho máximo normalizados pela massa corporal para quadríceps superiores às médias da população de atletas e não-atletas. Quando comparadas as categorias, os atletas juvenis apresentaram significativamente valores maiores de razão agonista/antagonista e trabalho máximo de flexores de joelhos na velocidade de 60°/s. Além disso, a razão agonista/antagonista foi inferior ao valor de referência esperado em ambas as categorias, caracterizando a predominância da musculatura extensora sobre a flexora. O índice de fadiga encontra-se próximo ao esperado para a maior parte dos atletas. O presente estudo pode servir de base para comparações em futuros estudos que avaliem a função muscular isocinética de atletas de voleibol

  2. Tráfego veicular e mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório em homens adultos Tráfico vehicular y mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio en hombres Motor vehicle traffic and cardiovascular mortality in male adults

    Mateus Habermann; Nelson Gouveia


    OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre indicadores de exposição à poluição por tráfego veicular e mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas informações sobre vias e volume de tráfego no ano de 2007 fornecidas pela companhia de engenharia de tráfego local. Mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório no ano de 2005 entre homens > 40 anos foram obtidas do registro de mortalidade do Programa de Aprimoramento de Informações de Mortalidade do ...

  3. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Günther K. Bonn


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  4. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Il-Kwon Park


    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  5. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 °C

    Mohammad Anis


    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  6. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.


    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  7. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Rita Barradas Barata


    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  8. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

    Lizarazo H. Karol


    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  9. Poesia em Revista: Oroboro

    Helena Alves Gouveia


    Full Text Available A serpente que engole a si mesma é uma figura curiosa do simbolismo de um processo de contínua transformação, de um movimento circular incessante, rumo à infinitude, sem traços de fim ou começo. Oroboro é um nome de origem grega que remete a esta serpente que se morde e penetra em si mesma ao engolir o próprio rabo. Mas também é o nome da revista de cultura editada em Curitiba pelos artistas-editores Ricardo Corona e Eliana Borges.

  10. Hipervitaminose D em animais

    Paulo V. Peixoto


    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura, são apresentados dados referentes ao metabolismo da vitamina D, bem como aos principais aspectos toxicológicos, clínicos, bioquímicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos, ultraestruturais, imuno-histoquímicos e radiográficos de animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente por essa vitamina, em diferentes espécies. Este estudo objetiva demonstrar a existência de muitas lacunas no conhecimento sobre mineralização fisiológica e patológica, em especial na mediação hormonal do fenômeno, bem como alertar para os riscos de ocorrência dessa intoxicação.

  11. A democracia em Cuba

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche


    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  12. Tuberculose Infantil em Portugal

    Carapau, João


    Dos números recentemente publicados pela Direcção Geral da Saúde / Núcleo de Tuberculose e Doenças Respiratórias relativos aos anos de 1992 e 1993 e pelo Instituto Nacional de Estatística relativos a 1994, conclui-se que os casos de Tuberculose (TB) notificados pouco têm decrescido nos últimos 15 anos: descida média anual de 6,3% para os casos em geral e 14% para os menores de 15 anos; a taxa global de incidência apurada em 1994 voltou a subir — 51,1 (52,4 no Continente). Para o autor a me...

  13. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    ... a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating and regular physical activity, to help promote better mental health. Many effective treatments are available for depression. So don't try to tough out male ...

  14. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  15. Universidade em ruinas?

    Katuta, Ângela Massumi; UEL/CCE/Departamento de Geociências


    A Universidade, desde as suas origens no século XII, sempre esteve atrelada a instituições e setores hegemônicos da sociedade. Segundo Trindade (2000), a sua “invenção” ocorreu em plena Idade Média na Europa, sob a proteção da Igreja romana, sendo que as Universidades de Bolonha (1108) e Paris (1211) foram as primeiras a serem criadas 

  16. Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Male Infertility

    L P Deodbar


    Full Text Available Semen examination with special reference to semen analysis and culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum was carried out in 50 male infertile patients in the age group of 25 to 40 years, attending a private infertility clinic. Isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 14 (28% patients and the abnormalities in count and motility of spermatozoa suggest that ureaplasmas may play a role in human male infertility.

  17. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.


    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  18. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  19. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

    Jung-Ha Kang


    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  20. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Kurokawa Yasushi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  1. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  2. Coping religioso-espiritual e consumo de alcoólicos em hepatopatas do sexo masculino Coping religioso-espiritual y consumo alcohólico en hepatópatas de sexo masculino Religious-spiritual coping and the consumption of alcoholic beverages in male patients with liver disease

    Maria Evangelista Martins


    Full Text Available Estudo transversal realizado com o objetivo de avaliar uso do Coping Religioso-Espiritual (CRE e verificar suas possíveis modulações com o padrão de consumo de alcoólicos em pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de hepatologia entre abril e dezembro de 2009, utilizando o CAGE, o AUDIT e a escala CRE. Foram encontradas associações entre coping religioso-espiritual negativo (CREN e consumo de alcoólicos na vida no último ano e com a combinação resultante. Sujeitos identificados como CAGE negativos com uso de baixo risco no último ano tiveram frequência acima da esperada na categoria abaixo da mediana. Os identificados como CAGE positivo com uso de médio risco foram relativamente mais frequentes na categoria acima da mediana (p=0,017. Resultados reforçam a relevância do CREN na avaliação de eventos relacionados com a saúde.Estudio transversal realizado con el objetivo de evaluar el uso del Coping Religioso Espiritual (CRE y verificar sus posibles modulaciones con el estándar de consumo de alcohol en pacientes atendidos en ambulatorio de hepatología entre abril y diciembre de 2009, utilizando el CAGE, el AUDIT y la escala CRE. Se encontraron asociaciones entre coping religioso espiritual negativo (CREN y consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en la vida, en el último año y con la combinación resultante. Sujetos identificados como CAGE negativos con abuso de bajo riesgo en el último año tuvieron frecuencia por sobre la esperada en la categoría por debajo de la mediana. Los identificados como CAGE positivo con abuso de mediano riesgo fueron relativamente más frecuentes en la categoría por encima de la mediana (p=0,017. Los resultados refuerzan la importancia del CREN en la evaluación de eventos relacionados a la salud.This cross-sectional study was performed with the objective to evaluate the use of Religious Spiritual Coping (RSC and verify its relationship with the pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption in patients attending

  3. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes masculinos nas macrorregiões do Brasil, 1980-2000 Predominio del sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes masculinos de cinco regiones del Brasil, 1980-2000 Prevalence of overweight and obesity in male adolescents from five regions of Brazil, 1980-2000

    Vera Lucia de Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e a tendência temporal do sobrepeso/obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo masculino. Métodos: Utilizou-se como fonte de informações o Banco de Dados do Exército Brasileiro. Esses dados foram coletados entre 1980 e 2000 e consta de 4.031.297 adolescentes entre 17 e 19 anos de idade. Foram realizados cinco cortes transversais, e quantificou-se a prevalência do sobrepeso/obesidade. Considerou-se sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal (IMC entre 25 e 29,9 Kg/m2, e obesidade, IMC > 30 Kg/m2(OMS26. Em todos os estados brasileiros, a prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior que a de obesidade, apesar de a velocidade de incremento ter sido mais alta para obesidade. Ao ser comparada a prevalência do início (1980 com a do final do estudo (2000, observou-se, no Brasil, uma razão de prevalência de 2,58 para sobrepeso e de 8,18 para obesidade. As prevalências de sobrepeso/obesidade mostraram curvas ascensionais com tendência temporal crescente. As informações obtidas neste estudo apontam a necessidade de ações concretas para a prevenção de doenças crônicas em adultos jovens brasileiros.El objetivo de este estudio fué determinar el predominio y la tendencia temporal de sobrepeso / obesidad en brasileños de adolescentes del sexo masculino. Métodos: Se utilizó como fuente de información el banco de datos del Ejército brasileño. Esos datos eran reunido entre 1980 a 2000, y consiste en 4.031.297 adolescentes entre 17 y 19 años de edad. Se realizaron cinco cortes transversales y se cuantificó la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad. Fué considerado sobrepeso el índice de masa corporal (IMC entre 25 y 29,9 Kg/m2, y la obesidad con el mismo índice IMC > 30 Kg/m2(OMS26. En todos los estados brasileños, el predominio de sobrepeso fué mayor que el de la obesidad, a pesar de la velocidad de incremento haber sido mayor para obesidad. La prevalência del principio ser comparado (1980

  4. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Katherine A. Aronstein


    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  5. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Diaz, A M


    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  6. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

    Amjad M. Qandil


    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  7. Male density affects large-male advantage in the golden silk spider, Nephila clavipes

    Clare C. Rittschof


    Across a variety of animal taxa, the outcome of male--male contests depends on male body size; winners are usually the larger males or the males with bigger weapons. However, high male density can either increase or reverse large-male advantage because density changes the frequency and intensity of male--male interactions. In the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes, large males have a competitive advantage in male--male contests. However, this species shows more than 2-fold variation in ma...

  8. Management of male breast cancer

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v


    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  9. Anestesia Diploica em Endodontia

    Macedo, Ricardo Ribeiro Veiga de


    Trabalho final do 5º ano com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dentária apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Objetivos Comparar a eficácia das técnicas de anestesia convencionais, a anestesia infiltrativa periapical, com a anestesia diploica. Metodologia Foram selecionados 32 voluntários, saudáveis, aos quais foram administradas ambas as técnicas anestésicas no dente 1.4. Numa primeira fase os...

  10. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes


    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde Este estudo é sobre a Síndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout está presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as variáveis socioprofissionais que poderão exercer influência no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  11. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam


    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  12. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    Heidy Schwartsova


    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  13. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka


    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  14. [Male sexuality in the elderly].

    Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F


    Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.

  15. Male contraception: history and development.

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe


    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Maznah Ismail


    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  17. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.


    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  18. O insight em psiquiatria

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso


    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  19. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Reynaldo A. Brandt


    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  20. A democracia em Cuba

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar


    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  1. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick


    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  2. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    Chotirmall, S H


    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  3. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    ... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  4. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  5. Male parentage in army ants

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J


    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  6. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.


    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  7. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit


    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  8. Lifestyle causes of male infertility.

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi


    To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking conception.

  9. Morfhological assesment in elite argentineans male gymnasts

    Francisco José Berral de la Rosa


    Full Text Available There is limited information on anthropometric variables of male gymnasts. Kineanthropometry investigates human body shape, composition and proportionality, related to function. It is a useful tool in sport medicine, as it allows for the understanding of morphological characteristics of subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric profi le of elite male gymnasts – members of the national Argentinean team. The sample included 25 gymnasts, older than 18 years and divided into two categories – junior and senior. They were measured in 43 anthropometric variables: body mass, stature, sitting height, arm span, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds. The procedures followed the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry guidelines. Based on the measures, Heath and Carter’s somatotype, Kerr´s mass-fractioning-method of body composition and proportionality applying Ross’ Phantom-strategy were computed. Body structure of Argentinean gymnasts was composed by 54 % of muscle mass and 17.5 % of fat mass. The results showed that Argentinean gymnasts have similar biotype characteristics to other international elite gymnasts. However, they tend to be smaller, heavier and with wider girths of chest, waist, thigh and calf. Therefore it is supposed that these gymnasts are in biomechanical disadvantage, which in turn interferes with performance in competitive events. RESUMO Atualmente existe uma informação limitada sobre as características antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos. A Cineantropometría que estuda a forma, composiçao corporal e a proporcionalidade do corpo humano em relação a sua função é uma ferramenta idonea para ser utilizada em medicina do esporte, permitindo conhecer as características morfológicas dos sujeitos. Este estudo tem como propósito descrever as variáveis antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos da seleção nacional da Argentina. A amostra foi de 25 ginastas masculinos

  10. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel


    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  11. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Fábio B. Rosa


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  12. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Xuemei Liu


    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  13. <em>N>-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Plutella xylostella em>(L. and SAR Study

    Song Yang


    Full Text Available A series of <em>N>-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for <em>in vitroem> insecticidal activity against <em>Plutella xylostellaem>. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.


    Costa, Samuel Alves Barbi; Côrtes, Larissa Silveira; Coelho Netto, Taiana; Freitas Junior, Moacyr Moreira de


    Este artigo se propõe a analisar a evolução dos prestadores de serviços de saneamento do estado de MinasGerais entre os anos de 2005 e 2010 com base nos indicadores do Sistema Nacional de Informações em Saneamento(SNIS). Foram definidos parâmetros técnicos para a análise dos indicadores, classificados os resultados como satisfatórios(verdes) ou insatisfatórios (vermelhos). Esta categorização atende a concepção da Regulação Sunshine, trazendo à tona omonitoramento do progresso das ações no set...

  15. Em favor da talassografia

    Jean-Louis Boudou


    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  16. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar


    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  17. Análise do perfil facial masculino adulto jovem, esteticamente agradável, em fotografias padronizadas: comparação da medição manual com a computadorizada Facial profile analysis of esthetically harmonious young male adults in standardized photographs: comparison of manual versus computerized measurements

    Isabella Cabral Alexandre Schlickmann


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o perfil facial masculino adulto jovem, através de fotografias padronizadas e comparar a medição manual com a medição computadorizada por meio do software Cef X (CDT. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 40 indivíduos brasileiros brancos, com média de idade de 21,9 anos, que possuíam perfis agradáveis, oclusão normal, sem histórico de tratamento ortodôntico prévio. As fotografias coloridas de 10cm x 15cm foram obtidas de forma padronizada, com o indivíduo na posição natural da cabeça. As fotografias foram medidas manualmente, utilizando-se paquímetro digital e transferidor, e também através de computador, utilizando-se o programa Cef X (CDT. Trinta e seis variáveis faciais foram analisadas por meio de medidas lineares, angulares e proporcionais. RESULTADOS: as médias da medição manual e da medição por computador foram diferentes estatisticamente para 24 variáveis. No método por computador, somente uma medida mostrou diferença significativa entre a primeira e a segunda medição, enquanto na manual oito mostraram diferença. CONCLUSÕES: considerando-se que houve diferença entre as medições manual e por computador, deve-se utilizar as médias respectivas para cada tipo de medição. Os dois tipos de medição são confiáveis, entretanto a medição por computador é mais precisa. Devido à praticidade e agilidade da medição por computador, esta seria a mais indicada.Aim: To analyze the young male adult facial profile using standardized photographs and compare manual measuring procedures to the measuring procedures with the software Cef X (CDT. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 Brazilian Caucasian individuals, with an average age of 21.9 years, who possessed pleasant profiles, normal occlusion, and no history of previous orthodontic treatment. Colored photographs measuring 10cm x 15cm were taken in a standard way with the subject in natural head position. The photographs were measured manually

  18. Androgens and the ageing male

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E


    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  19. Some dynamics of male chauvinism.

    Woods, S M


    Male chauvinism was studied in the psychoanalytic therapy of 11 men. It refers to the maintenance of fixed beliefs and attitudes of male superiority, associated with overt or covert depreciation of women. Challenging chauvinist attitudes often results in anxiety or other symptoms. It is frequently not investigated in psychotherapy because it is ego-syntonic, parallels cultural attitudes, and because therapists often share similar bias or neurotic conflict. Chauvinism was found to represent an attempt to ward off anxiety and shame arising from one or more of four prime sources: unresolved infantile strivings and regressive wishes, hostile envy of women, oedipal anxiety, and power and dependency conflicts related to masculine self-esteem. Mothers were more important than fathers in the development of chauvinism, and resolution was sometimes associated with decompensation in wives.

  20. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment

    Peeyush Kumar; Nitish Kumar; Devendra Singh Thakur; Ajay Patidar


    Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty. There is a clear need to increase the awareness of hypogonadism throughout the medical profession, especially in primary care physicians who are usually the first port of call for the patient. Hypogonadism can significantly reduce the quality of life and has resulted in the loss of livelihood and separatio...

  1. Leptin levels in infertile males

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.


    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  2. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin


    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest


    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  4. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Diana Anderson


    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  5. [Male contraception and its perspectives].

    Belaisch, J


    Doctors specializing in male contraception are aware of the very real difficulties hindering the development of an effective method in this field. Others believe that the reason this type of contraception is lagging behind is male chauvinism or a certain fear that men have of losing their virility along with their fertilizing capacity. Since available methods of contraception (condom, vasectomy) have low levels of acceptability and reversibility, research has proceeded along other avenues. 1) Gossypol reduces the number and motility of spermatozoa but its general side effects are not exceptional. 2) Restraining hormonal action (progrestogens, LH-RH agonists) also reduce testicular function and for this reason, require simultaneous administration of androgens. Thus far this has not been resolved; azoospermia is not obtained in every case and when it is, it does not necessarily last. 3) A method involving the epididymis, with a view to preventing spermatozoa from acquiring their normal motility and fertilizing capacity by affecting protein and enzyme synthesis, is also being studied. Perhaps, as has been suggested by the Bicetre Hospital research team, we should be content with methods applicable to certain categories of men. Male contraception would then develop step by step rather than by huge bounds as female contraception. full text


    Guy Hamelin


    Full Text Available Na sua obra, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142 destaca duas noções metafísicas que fundamentam sua teoria lógica: o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">statusem> e o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">dictum propositionisem>, ao causar, respectivamente, a imposição (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">impositioem> dos termos universais e o valor de verdade das proposições. Trata-se de expressões que se referem a naturezas ontológicas peculiares, na medida em que não são consideradas coisas (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">resem>, mesmo que constituem causas. Todavia, também não são nada. Abelardo as chama de ‘quase coisas’ (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">quasi resem>. No presente artigo, explicamos, primeiro, essas duas noções essenciais da lógica abelardiana, antes de tentar, em seguida, encontrar a fonte dessa metafísica particular. Em oposição a comentadores importantes da lógica de Abelardo, que estimam que haja uma forte influência platônica sobre essa concepção específica, defendemos antes, com apoio de textos significativos e de acordo com o nominalismo abelardiano, que a maior ascendência sobre a metafísica do nosso autor é a do estoicismo, sobretudo, antigo.In his work, Peter Abelard (1079-1142 highlights two metaphysical notions, which sustain his logical theory: the <em>status> and the <em>dictum propositionisem>, causing respectively both the imposition (<em>impositio> of universal terms and the thuth-value of propositions. Both expressions refer to peculiar ontological natures, in so far as they are not considered things (<em>res>, even if they constitute causes. Nevertheless, neither are they ‘nothing’. Abelard calls them ‘quasi-things’ (<em>quasi resem>. In the present article, we expound first these two essential notions of Abelardian logic before then trying to find the source of this particular metaphysics. Contrary to some important

  7. Ploidia de DNA em astrocitomas: estudo em 66 pacientes brasileiros



    Full Text Available A determinação do conteúdo de DNA nuclear (fração de fase S e ploidia de DNA foi realizada por meio de análise de imagem em 66 astrocitomas, a partir de material fixado em formalina e seccionado em cortes de 5 micrômetros corados pela técnica de Feulgen. Nossos resultados mostraram forte relação entre a idade do paciente, grau histológico e sobrevida , com a ploidia de DNA e o percentual de células em fase de síntese. A análise da atividade proliferativa de astrocitomas intracranianos é a nosso ver muito útil no entendimento do comportamento biológico , do prognóstico e para o planejamento terapêutico dessas lesões.

  8. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    M Modaresi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  9. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.


    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  10. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Yuangang Zu


    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  11. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Muñoz Karen


    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  12. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, <em>Rhinolophus hipposiderosem> (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

    Adwan Shehab


    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat <em>Rhinolophus hipposiderosem> was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore <em>Rhinolophus hipposiderosem> (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  13. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Cremer Sylvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  14. Conjuntivite em animais de companhia

    Gonçalves, Mariana Inês Pereira Coelho


    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A conjuntivite é a doença ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada em Medicina Veterinária, tanto em cães como em gatos. O facto de a conjuntiva ser uma membrana mucosa tão exposta a agentes externos faz com que esteja bastante suscetível a sofrer lesões, com consequente inflamação. Nesta dissertação abordam-se os diferentes tipos de conjuntivite, que são classificados de acordo com a sua etiologia. No Hospita...

  15. Conhecimento e interesse em economia

    João Antonio de Paula


    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da necessidade de preservar o pluralismo em economia. Discute: i a natureza do conhecimento e de sua produção; ii as especificidades da produção do conhecimento em economia e os condicionamentos histórico-culturais do conhecimento; iii as implicações da hegemonia de certa concepção de método em economia.The article argues the need to preserve the pluralism in economics. The article examines: i the nature of the knowledge and of its production; ii the specificity of the knowledge production in economics and the historical and cultural conditionings of the knowledge; iii the implications of the hegemony of a certain methodological conception in economics.

  16. Semen proteomics and male infertility.

    Jodar, Meritxell; Soler-Ventura, Ada; Oliva, Rafael


    Semen is a complex body fluid containing an admixture of spermatozoa suspended in secretions from the testes and epididymis which are mixed at the time of ejaculation with secretions from other accessory sex glands such as the prostate and seminal vesicles. High-throughput technologies have revealed that, contrary to the idea that sperm cells are simply a silent delivery vehicle of the male genome to the oocyte, the sperm cells in fact provide both a specific epigenetically marked DNA together with a complex population of proteins and RNAs crucial for embryogenesis. Similarly, -omic technologies have also enlightened that seminal fluid seems to play a much greater role than simply being a medium to carry the spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract. In the present review, we briefly overview the sperm cell biology, consider the key issues in sperm and seminal fluid sample preparation for high-throughput proteomic studies, describe the current state of the sperm and seminal fluid proteomes generated by high-throughput proteomic technologies and provide new insights into the potential communication between sperm and seminal fluid. In addition, comparative proteomic studies open a window to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms of infertility and the discovery of potential biomarkers with clinical significance. The review updates the numerous proteomics studies performed on semen, including spermatozoa and seminal fluid. In addition, an integrative analysis of the testes, sperm and seminal fluid proteomes is also included providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation, maturation and transit of spermatozoa. Furthermore, the compilation of several differential proteomic studies focused on male infertility reveals potential pathways disturbed in specific subtypes of male infertility and points out towards future research directions in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Male homosexuality: nature or culture?

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Blanchard, Ray; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bancroft, John


    Debate continues on whether or not male homosexuality (MH) is a result of biological or cultural factors. The debate persists despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Biological theorists produced evidence, however, that these are not always robust. On the other hand, social theorists, without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, with good argument, methods and results of the other side. The aim of this Controversy is to understand the reasons of both perspectives. Two scientists (R.B. and A.C.C.) with expertise in the area of biology of MH were asked to contribute their opinions. The nurture position is discussed by a third expert in sexology (J.B.). Expert opinion supported by the critical review of the currently available literature. The role of the Controversy's editor (E.A.J.) is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. The two experts of the biological issue answer with their data to the questions: “Is male homosexuality partly explainable by immunology?” and “How is male homosexuality a Darwinian paradox?”, respectively. Genetic and immunological factors, birth order, and fertility of relatives are largely discussed. Finally, the expert sustaining the idea that culture and experiences are important determining factors in sexual orientation used a psychosocial and holistic perspective to explain his position. The JSM's readers should recognize that there are several biological factors in MH. However, these findings do not seem to be able to explain all cases of homosexuality. Some others may be due to particular environmental factors. The issue is complicated and multifactorial, suggesting that further research should be undertaken to produce the final answer to the question raised in this Controversy section.

  18. The male breast: radiological abnormalities

    Maranhao, Norma; Costa, Isis; Nascimento, Raquel Cristine Gomes do


    Mammography of male breast account for less than 1% of mammographic examinations in most breast services. Due to the low incidence of breast cancer in men the significant majority of mammographic diagnosis reveals benign diseases, mostly gynecomastia. Therefore it is most important to identify features of benign conditions, such as gynecomastia, in order to reduce the number of unnecessary surgical biopsies performed in these patients, for the same reason suspicious lesions must be recognized as well. Indications for mammography in men include evaluation of palpable mass, recent onset of breast nipple-areolar skin changes or papillary discharge, and previous history of cancer. (author)

  19. Androgens and the ageing male

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E


    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...

  20. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Anderson, Diana


    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  1. Synthesis, radiolabeling and biodistribution of a new opioid glucuronide derivative. Ethyl-morphine glucuronide (em-glu)

    Enginar, H.


    In current study, ethyl-morphine (em) was synthesized from the morphine and glucuronidated via enzymatic mechanism. The conjugated glucuronide ethyl-morphine (em-glu) was radiolabeled with 131 I using iodogen method. The quality control studies of radiolabeled compound ( 131 I-em-glu) were done with Thin Layer Radio Chromatography to confirm the radiolabeling efficiency. Biodistribution studies of 131 I labeled em-glu were run on healthy male Albino Wistar rats. The distribution figures demonstrated that 131 I-em-glu was eliminated through the small intestine, large intestine and accumulated in urinary bladder both receptor blocked and unblocked biodistribution studies. A greater uptake of the radiolabeled substance was observed in the m.pons, hypothalamus and mid brain than in the other branches of the rats' brains. (author)

  2. Job strain and male fertility.

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn


    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  3. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  4. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming


    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

    Hongbin Xiao


    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  6. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Roger I. Vargas


    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  7. Psychobiology of Male Homosexuality: Recent Findings

    Annicchiarico Iseda, Ivan Darío; Universidad Nacional de Colombia


    In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes of male homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexuality differs from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally, evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biological condition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexual men, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to male homosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral dif...

  8. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.


    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  9. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig


    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  10. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Pallav Sengupta


    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  11. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats

    M Sofiabadi


    Full Text Available

    <em>Background and Objectives:em> Iron overload is detrimental for the body and can create damage to different body tissues, such as myocardium by producing oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant factors can neutralize iron induced damages. According to available reports, L-arginine as a precursor nitric oxide production has antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the histological effects of iron overload on ventricular muscle and preventive role of L-arginine in male rats.
    <em>Methods:> In this experiment, 40 male rats with weight range of 300-250g were divided at random into five equal groups including:1- Control, 2- Iron (10mg/kg, ip, 3- Iron(10mg/kg, ip+L-arginine (1mg/ml, po, 4- Iron (50mg/kg, ip and 5- Iron (50mg/kg,ip+L-arginine(1mg/ml,po. After treatment (6 weeks, the animals were anesthetized and the samples of left apical ventricular myocardium were taken out and morphological studies were done following fixation with 10% formalin and H&E staining. Microscopic parameters under study were cell swelling, vessel dilatation and hypercongestion, cell necrosis and tissue deformity. The type and severity of damage to the tissue were also noted. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistical procedure, and Pvalue≤0.05 were considered to be significant. 
    <em>Results:> The data showed moderate changes in the ventricular myocardium of group 2 that was significant in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The ventricular myocardium of group 3 showed low changes and wasn't significant in comparison to control group (P=0.84. The ventricular myocardium of the group 4 showed severe changes in comparison to the control group (P<0.01. The low change showed in the ventricular myocardium of group 5 that wasn't significant in comparison to the control group.

    <em>Conclusion:> This study showed

  12. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.


    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  13. Caribbean male: macho and insensitive?


    185, 50, and 104 men aged 15-44 years were interviewed, respectively, in Barbados, St. Lucia, and Grenada in three attitudinal studies designed to get an objective look at male attitudes in the region on family planning and human sexuality. Qualitative information was obtained on fertility and contraceptive use, attitudes toward premarital sex, fidelity and relationships, and influences upon male behavior. Men wanted an average of 2.5 children in Barbados, 4 in St. Lucia, and 3.5 in Grenada. Monogamy was not paramount, with 56% of Grenadian men reporting having overlapping sexual relations. There was also a substantial tolerance for illegitimacy, especially among married men and men with post-secondary education. In St. Lucia, relationships are conducted on the man's terms. For example, men may have sexual relationships with multiple women, but it is unacceptable for women to have other men. Most men, however, agreed that fathers should have a say in the upbringing of their children and should visit and support them financially even if the parents do not live together. Many respondents had unstable relationships with their fathers, and a large proportion had not lived with them. 63% of respondents knew their fathers had outside women. Men were aware and supportive of family planning, and generally try to use contraception. 78% of men interviewed in Grenada and 75% of men interviewed in St. Lucia endorse birth control, while 52% of the respondents in St. Lucia practice family planning. Younger, relatively inexperienced men were most typically in need of more knowledge and greater practice of family planning. Family planning programs should be targeted accordingly.

  14. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    Edwardson, J.R.


    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  15. <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> como promotor del crecimiento vegetal del maracuyá (<em>Passiflora edulisem> var. <em>flavicarpa> Degener

    Cubillos-Hinojosa Juan


    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un experimento en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la cepa nativa TCN-014 y la cepa comercial TCC-005 de <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> sobre la germinación y el crecimiento temprano del maracuyá. Se adecuaron inóculos de 104, 106 y 108 conidias/mL para cada cepa y se aplicaron a semillas de maracuyá; se evaluó el número de semillas germinadas durante 15 días; se calculó el porcentaje de germinación, el índice de velocidad de germinación y el tiempo medio de germinación. Posteriormente las semillas germinadas se llevaron a condiciones de invernadero y transcurridos dos meses se midió la altura de las plántulas, el grosor del tallo, el número de hojas, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco total. Todos los tratamientos estimularon la germinación de las semillas y el desarrollo de las plántulas; sin embargo la cepa nativa en concentraciones 106 y 108 conidias/mL mostró resultados superiores frente a la cepa comercial. Los resultados sugieren una acción efectiva de <em>T. harzianumem> como promotor de crecimiento vegetal, mostrando que tiene potencial para la elaboración de un bioproducto útil para el manejo ecológico del cultivo de maracuyá.

  16. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

    Amorim António


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  17. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  18. Candidíase em pacientes aidéticos

    C.E.O.P. Campos


    Full Text Available Trinta e cinco aidéticos entre 19 e 55 anos admitidos e tratados de candidíase no Hospital Emílio Ribas, SP, com ELISA positivo para HIV e confirmado pelo Western Blot. Tuberculose em 9 sendo 2 com pericardite; neurotoxoplasmose em 6; neurocriptococose em 5; herpes labial em 4; pneumocistose em 3 e sarcoma de Kaposi em 2, achavam-se associadas. A concentração inibitória mínima 50% (MIC 50% para os azoles foi: ketoconazol= 2,2 µg/ml; itraconazol- 21,0 µg/ml; fluconazol = 19,0 µg/ml. O MIC 50% para ospolienos: nistatina- 50,0 µg/ml; anfotericina B= 0,12 µg/ml e para 5 fluorcitosina= 1,6 µg/ml nas 35 amostras de Candida isoladas. Testes não paramétricos de Siegel revelaram significante identificação (80% das Candida albicans na candidíase, e que a dose de AMB não modificou o número de óbitos, precoce e tardio, ocorridos nesses aidéticos. O uso prévio dos azoles e da nistatina explicaria, talvez, o elevado MIC 50% observado nas amostras de Candida isoladas.A total of 35 in patients admitted at Emilio Ribas Hospital - São Paulo, Brazil, with digestive candidiasis and AIDS clinical diagnostic were evaluated 10 month later, being 29 male and 6 female; white outnumbering black with age ranged from 30 to 50 years old. Agar Sabouraud culture and tube germinative tests identified 28 (80% Candida albicans out 35 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50% was against azoles (ketoconazole= 2.2 µg/ml; itraconazole = 21.0 µg/ml and fluconazole- 19.0 µg/ml; polyenes (ny statine - 50.0 µg/ml and amphotericin B= 0.12 µg/ml and 5 fluorcytosine= 1.6µg/ml. Siegeltests showed significant Candida albicans proportions in strains isolated from 35 AIDS patients. There was no significant relation between AMB dosis and early or late death. Conclusions: candidiasis in AIDS patients showed high MIC 50% to azoles and nystatine and significant Candida albicans proportion in all strains isolated from AIDS patients. Previous amphotericin B

  19. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Inês Ferreira


    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  20. Acessibilidade web em redes sociais

    Loureiro, Janaína Rolan


    A acessibilidade tem sido uma preocupação em diversas áreas nos últimos anos e, em relação à Web, trata-se de um direito garantido por lei às pessoas com deficiência. Muitos estudos visando avaliar e melhorar a Acessibilidade Web foram realizados desde que este direito foi instituído, culminando com o surgimento de tecnologias assistivas, ferramentas de avaliação automatizadas e diretrizes para padronizar o desenvolvimento de sites acessíveis. Porém, alguns domínios ainda c...

  1. Efeito da enxertia em mandioca

    Bomfim, Nayra Nascimento


    Enxertos de duas espécies silvestres (M. glaziovii e M. fortalezensis) sobre M. esculenta, mandioca, foram estudados morfologicamente, anatomicamente e citogeneticamente e a fim de se avaliar possíveis efeitos devido à interação entre enxerto e porta-enxerto. Foram feitas análises anatômicas das raízes dos porta-enxertos UnB 201 e UnB 122 (variedades de M. esculenta), em comparação com as variedades não enxertadas. Analisou-se a meiose em enxerto da espécie M. glaziovii que apresentava morfol...




    Nesse trabalho, mostramos como simular um fluido em duas dimensões em um domínio com fronteiras arbitrárias. Nosso trabalho é baseado no esquema stable fluids desenvolvido por Joe Stam. A implementação é feita na GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), permitindo velocidade de interação com o fluido. Fazemos uso da linguagem Cg (C for Graphics), desenvolvida pela companhia NVidia. Nossas principais contribuições são o tratamento das múltiplas fronteiras, o...

  3. Factores de risco em implantologia

    Sousa, Inês Silveira e Luz Nunes de


    A Implantologia tem ganho popularidade na medicina dentária pelos resultados previsíveis em reabilitações de áreas edêntulas, permitindo minimizar as consequências funcionais, fonéticas e estéticas que advém da perda de dentes através de uma solução fixa que satizfaz os pacientes. Esta é uma revisão da literatura existente sobre factores de risco, fracassos e complicações inerentes ao tratamento com implantes dentários. Categorizam-se os factores de risco em implantologia co...

  4. Thermal Studies of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II Complexes of Some <em>N-Alkyl-N>-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates

    Peter A. Ajibade


    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II complexes of <em>N-ethyl-N>-phenyl and <em>N-butyl-N>-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product.

  5. Sexual Violence Among Male Inmates.

    Hilinski-Rosick, Carly M; Freiburger, Tina L


    Inmate misconduct has been a widely studied topic for many decades. General studies of misconduct have found that there are certain factors that contribute to misconduct, including age, gender, sentence length, and facility type. Few studies, however, have examined the factors predicting sexual offenses in a prison conduct. Although many studies of victims of sexual offenses in prison have been conducted, there is a lack of studies examining the perpetrators of prison sexual violence. The current study attempted to expand this body of literature by examining the correlates of sexual misconduct among a sample of male inmates incarcerated in the state of North Carolina during 2010. Deprivation and importation theories of inmate behavior were used to guide the analysis, and measures of deprivation and importation factors were both included in the analytical models. Findings indicate that Black, nonmarried, younger inmates, who had more previous incarcerations and had been incarcerated longer, had greater odds of having a sexual infraction. Additional findings, as well as policy implications, are discussed.

  6. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Anselmo, J G


    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  7. The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.

    Seto, Michael C


    In this article, I return to the idea that pedophilia, a sexual interest in prepubescent children, can be considered a sexual orientation for age, in conjunction with the much more widely acknowledged and discussed sexual orientation for gender. Here, I broaden the scope to consider other chronophilias, referring to paraphilias for age/maturity categories other than young sexually mature adults. The puzzle of chronophilias includes questions about etiology and course, how chronophilias are related to each other, and what they can tell us about how human (male) sexuality is organized. In this article, I briefly review research on nepiophilia (infant/toddlers), pedophilia (prepubescent children), hebephilia (pubescent children), ephebophilia (postpubescent, sexually maturing adolescents), teleiophilia (young sexually mature adults, typically 20s and 30s), mesophilia (middle-aged adults, typically 40s and 50s), and gerontophilia (elderly adults, typically 60s and older) in the context of a multidimensional sexual orientations framework. Relevant research, limitations, and testable hypotheses for future work are identified.

  8. Microwave heating for male contraception

    Jiang, H.B.


    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  9. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment

    Peeyush Kumar


    Full Text Available Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty. There is a clear need to increase the awareness of hypogonadism throughout the medical profession, especially in primary care physicians who are usually the first port of call for the patient. Hypogonadism can significantly reduce the quality of life and has resulted in the loss of livelihood and separation of couples, leading to divorce. It is also important for doctors to recognize that testosterone is not just a sex hormone. There is an important research being published to demonstrate that testosterone may have key actions on metabolism, on the vasculature, and on brain function, in addition to its well-known effects on bone and body composition. This article has been used as an introduction for the need to develop sensitive and reliable assays for sex hormones and for symptoms and treatment of hypogonadism.

  10. Male Hypogonadism. A Case Report

    Lisandro Hernández Madrazo


    Full Text Available The case of a 26 years old male patient who attended the Internal Medicine consultation at the La Fortaleza Integral Diagnostic Center in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela because of decreased external genitalia size, with poor development from childhood and swelling of the breasts is presented. Physical examination showed a trunk of feminoid configuration caused by adipose tissue accumulated in the lower abdomen, breast and pubic; wide pelvis; lower limb dominance over higher limbs; enucoid proportions; volume diffusely  increased in both breasts (gynecomastia; deposit of fatty tissue at the pelvic girdle, and absent or sparse facial, axillary and pubic hair. We observed decreased size, poor pigmentation, and soft consistency in penis and testicles. Exam was performed on plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, thus concluding, by the Endocrinology Service at the Maracaibo University Hospital, to be the case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of improvable cause. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism in adults is unusual in medical practice, a fact that provides with relevance the case we present.


    Zoran Đokić


    Full Text Available Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS, is also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used for therapeutic purposes and training. EMS is causing muscle contractions via electrical impulses. The survey was conducted as a case study. The study was conducted on subject of 3 male of different ages. The study lasted 4 weeks, and the respondents have not used any type of training or activity, which would affect the development of explosive strength of the lower extremities. Electrical stimulation was performed in the evening, every other day, with COMPEX mi sport apparatus (Medical SA - All rights reserved - 07/06 - Art. 885,616 - V.2 model. In 4 week period, a total of 13 treatments were performed on selected muscle groups - quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius. Program of plyometric training (Plyometric (28 min per treatment, for each muscle group were applied. The main objective of this study was to quantify and compare explosive leg strength, using different vertical jump protocols, before and after the EMS program. The initial and final testing was conducted in the laboratory of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism in Novi Sad, on the contact plate AXON JUMP (Bioingeniería Deportiva, VACUMED, 4538 Westinghouse Street Ventura, CA 93 003 under identical conditions. In all three of the respondents indicated an increase in vertical jump in all applied protocols.

  12. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya


    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  13. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua


    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong


    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

    Yuangang Zu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Mutation of Drosophila dopamine receptor DopR leads to male-male courtship behavior.

    Chen, Bin; Liu, He; Ren, Jing; Guo, Aike


    In Drosophila, dopamine plays important roles in many biological processes as a neuromodulator. Previous studies showed that dopamine level could affect fly courtship behaviors. Disturbed dopamine level leads to abnormal courtship behavior in two different ways. Dopamine up-regulation induces male-male courtship behavior, while down-regulation of dopamine level results in increased sexual attractiveness of males towards other male flies. Until now, the identity of the dopamine receptor involved in this abnormal male-male courtship behavior remains unknown. Here we used genetic approaches to investigate the role of dopamine receptors in fly courtship behavior. We found that a dopamine D1-like receptor, DopR, was involved in fly courtship behavior. DopR mutant male flies display male-male courtship behavior. This behavior is mainly due to the male's increased propensity to court other males. Expression of functional DopR successfully rescued this mutant phenotype. Knock-down of D2-like receptor D2R and another D1-like receptor, DAMB, did not induce male-male courtship behavior, indicating the receptor-type specificity of this phenomenon. Our findings provide insight into a possible link between dopamine level disturbance and the induced male-male courtship behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

    Min Huang


    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  18. Youth masculinities: compelling male heterosexuality.

    Richardson, Diane


    This article seeks to extend understandings of heterosexual masculine identities through an examination of young men's constructions of what motivates young men to engage in heterosexual practices and relationships, and what not having sex might mean for them. Using the masculinity literature and work on heterosexuality to frame the discussion and to contextualize the findings, it explores the complex dynamics that frame the relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Specifically, how dominant or 'hegemonic' discourses of heterosexuality shape young men's identities, beliefs and behaviour. It considers these questions using empirical data from a qualitative study of young people living in close-knit working-class communities in the North East of England, with a specific focus on cultural and social attitudes towards sexuality and sexual practices. Peer group networks are a key site for the construction and (re)production of masculinity and, therefore, an important arena within which gendered social approval and acceptance is both sought and gained. In this article, I explore the reasons why young men engage in specific types of heterosexual practice in order to gain social approval. A central question is the extent to which heterosexuality is compelling for young men. That young men do feel compelled to behave in certain ways sexually, behaviours that they may be uncomfortable with and/or dislike, and the fact that they feel they are restricted in terms of how they can talk about their experiences within their peer group networks, demonstrates the power of dominant discourses of masculinity in everyday life. This is addressed through an examination of the restrictive effects of normative discourses about male heterosexuality, including their privatizing effects, which suggest that youth masculinities are often experienced in ways that are highly contradictory requiring young men to adopt a range of strategies to deal with this.

  19. Action of Chitosan Against <em>Xanthomonas> Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>

    Yanli Wang


    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity and mechanism of two kinds of chitosan were investigated against twelve <em>Xanthomonas> strains recovered from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>. Results indicated that both chitosans markedly inhibited bacterial growth based on OD loss. Furthermore, the release of DNA and RNA from three selected strains was increased by both chitosans. However, the release of intracellular proteins was inhibited by both chitosans at different concentration and incubation times, except chitosan A at 0.1 mg/mL for 0.5 h incubation and 0.2 mg/mL for 2.0 h incubation increased the release of proteins, indicating the complexity of the interaction and cell membranes, which was affected by incubation time, bacterial species, chitosan type and concentration. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that chitosan caused changes in protoplast concentration and surface morphology. In some cells, the membranes and walls were badly distorted and disrupted, while other cells were enveloped by a thick and compact ribbon-like layer. The contrary influence on cell morphology may explain the differential effect in the release of material. In addition, scanning electron microscope and biofilm formation test revealed that both chitosans removed biofilm biomass. Overall, this study showed that membrane and biofilm play an important role in the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan.

  20. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.


    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  1. Paget disease of the male nipple.

    El Harroudi, T; Tijami, F; El Otmany, A; Jalil, A


    Breast cancer occurring in the mammary gland of men is infrequent. It accounts for 0.8% of all breast cancers, which is less than one per cent of all newly diagnosed male cancers and 0.2% of male cancer deaths. However, Paget disease of the male nipple is extremely rare. We report a single case of Paget disease with infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 61-year-old man.

  2. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Giovanni Amori


    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  3. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Michael Zitzmann


    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  4. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Muller, Martin N


    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José


    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  6. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  7. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Hongyu Zhang


    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  8. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Vittorio Guberti


    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  9. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  10. Enfermagem em cardiologia baseada em evidência

    Eneida Rejane Rabelo da Silva


    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos, dentro do cenário cardiovascular, estudos recentes do nosso grupo. Buscando melhores evidências de enfermagem investigamos por meio de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR estratégias de educação e acompanhamento destes pacientes (pctes. O primeiro ECR avaliou o impacto da educação individual e da orientação em grupo no conhecimento sobre doença e autocuidado em pctes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. No grupo intervenção, houve uma melhora do conhecimento dos cuidados essenciais (controle de sal e da ingesta hídrica, peso diário, realização de atividade física P=0,008, demonstrando que o atendimento em grupo é semelhante ao individual. No ambiente hospitalar, segundo ECR, comparamos o efeito da educação de enfermagem e seguimento telefônico após alta versus educação sem a monitorização por telefone. Demonstramos que intervenção educativa durante a internação melhora o conhecimento da doença, autocuidado e qualidade de vida (P

  11. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Svensson P Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  12. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem>

    Francesco Riga


    Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello <em>status> specifico della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem> e l?accertamento dell?areale distributivo rappresentano le azioni più importanti per la conservazione di un <em>taxon endemicoem> che si era creduto estinto. Nella penisola la specie presenta un areale discontinuo, il cui limite settentrionale è dato dal comune di Manciano (GR, sul versante tirrenico e da una linea che dalla provincia de L'Aquila arriva al Gargano. In Sicilia la distribuzione è relativamente continua anche in aree non protette. Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell?Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di <em>L. europaeusem>. Nell?Italia peninsulare <em>L. corsicanusem> è spesso presente in simpatria con popolazioni di <em>L. europaeusem>, mentre in Sicilia la lepre europea non ha originato popolazioni stabili, nonostante l?immissione di molte migliaia di individui. La distribuzione ecologica di <em>L. corsicanusem> ed analisi ambientali specifiche, suggeriscono l?adattamento prevalente agli ambienti a clima mediterraneo, benché essa sia presente anche a quote elevate (> 1.500 m s.l.m.. Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind./km². La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell?<em>habitat> delle lepri è un fenomeno potenzialmente pericoloso per la sopravvivenza delle popolazioni, determinando fenomeni di estinzione locale dovuti alle basse densità di popolazione, inducendo fenomeni di erosione della variabilità genetica e di riduzione della <em>fitness> degli individui. L?introduzione di <em>L. europaeusem> può costituire un importante fattore limitante sia per la possibile competizione

  13. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming


    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  14. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.


    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  15. A review of eating disorders in males

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.


    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  16. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    ABSTRACT. Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats.

  17. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  18. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male

    Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; da Cunha, Maria Ribeiro; Funch, Peter


    the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30–40 lm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron...

  19. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.


    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  20. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  1. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    Kornegoor, R.


    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  2. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Dickinson, Thad E.


    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  3. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  4. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J


    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  5. Approaches to male hypogonadism in primary care

    Lawrence, Kristi L.; Stewart, Felicia; Larson, Brandi M.


    Abstract: Evidence suggests that providers are not adhering to current testosterone replacement therapy guidelines when treating male hypogonadism. Understanding the diagnosis and management of this condition is further complicated by conflicting recommendations among available guidelines. NPs must select and follow the best guideline recommendations available to optimally treat male hypogonadism.

  6. Identification of <em>Colletotrichum> species causing anthracnose on Tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

    Martínez Erika P.


    Full Text Available

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several <em>Colletotrichum> species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the original hosting crop and the other two crops (crossed infection, by putting the fungi in contact with organs taken from the three fruit crops. Molecular identification of the <em>Colletotrichum> species was carried out through amplification of rDNA ITS regions by means of <em>C. gloeosporioidesem> (CgInt and <em>C. acutatumem> (CaInt2 specific primer PCR combining the use of ITS4 universal primer. The results indicate that <em>C. acutatumem> is the infectious agent in Tahiti lime and tree tomato, and so is <em>C. gloeosporioidesem> in mango. Although <em>C. acutatumem> is the infectious agent in two diferent fruit species, the strains proved to be specific of their original hosts.

  7. Registro de síndrome coronariana aguda em um centro de emergências em cardiologia Acute coronary syndrome registry at a cardiology emergency center

    Elizabete Silva dos Santos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características de pacientes (P com suspeita clínica de síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA, identificando-se o tratamento médico e a mortalidade hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos 860 pacientes com SCA de janeiro a dezembro de 2003. Analisamos características basais, modalidade de apresentação da SCA, medicamentos durante a internação, indicação de tratamento clínico ou de revascularização miocárdica (RM e mortalidade hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram 503 (58,3% pacientes do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 62,6 anos (±11,9. O diagnóstico na alta hospitalar foi de infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SST em 78 (9,1%, IAM sem SST em 238 (27,7%, angina instável (AI em 516 (60%, manifestação atípica da SCA (síncope ou dispnéia em dois (0,2% e dor torácica não cardíaca em 26 (3%. Foram medicados com betabloqueador em 87,9%, AAS em 95,9%, anti-trombínico em 89,9%, nitroglicerina EV em 86,2%, inibidor do receptor de glicoproteína (IGP IIb/IIIa em 6,4%, clopidogrel em 35,9%, inibidor da enzima conversora da angiotensina (IECA em 77,9% e estatina em 70,9%. A cinecoronariografia foi realizada em 72 pacientes (92,3% com IAM com SST e em 452 (59,8% com SCA sem SST (pOBJECTIVE: Describe clinical characteristics of patients (P admitted to hospital with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS, identifying medical treatment and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Evaluated were 860 patients with ACS from January through December, 2003. We evaluated baseline characteristics, ACS mode of presentation, medication during hospital stay, indication for clinical treatment or myocardial revascularization (MR and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Five hundred and three (58.3% were male, mean age 62.6 years (± 11.9. Seventy-eight (9.1% were discharged with the diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 238 (27.7% with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI, 516 (60

  8. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig


    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  9. Male infertility and its causes in human.

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo


    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  10. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.


    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  11. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Toshinobu Miyamoto


    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  12. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    A. Hamid A. Hadi


    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  13. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Maria Carolina Borges


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  14. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D


    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  15. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

    Geraldi João Wanderley


    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  16. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    Yamasaki,Elise M.; Brito,Marilene F.; Mota,Rinaldo A.; McIntosh,Douglas; Tokarnia,Carlos H.


    A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE). Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública...


    Hélio Teixeira MD.


    Full Text Available Competência no exercício da medicina depende de um processo evolutivo ao longo da vida do profissional, processo este fundamentado em eficiência, experiência e em princípios éticos. A eficiência depende da cultura médica, de habilidades técnicas e relacionamento interpessoal com o paciente. A experiência ao longo da vida vai refinando o médico, favorecendo o evolver do conhecimento e da sabedoria vivencial. Finalmente, a ética médica se fundamenta na justiça, compaixão e amor ao próximo. Didaticamente, distinguimos 3 fases da evolução profissional do médico: a infância profissional ou visão linear: o médico se restringe em geral ao atendimento da doença, negligenciando o doente. É quase exclusivamente técnico e tem percepção acanhada da medicina-arte. b Maturidade profissional ou visão humanística: resultado de evolução da personalidade, da cultura e da experiência do médico, agora voltado para o doente com sua doença. c Excelência profissional ou visão holística: estágio máximo que se pode alcançar, quando o médico vislumbra a si e ao seu cliente em todas suas dimensões integradas e atua como mestre, procurando despertar no paciente condições próprias de cura, oriundas de sua essência. Conclui-se que exercer medicina com competência significa desempenhar adequadamente a ciência e a arte médica.

  18. Qualidade de vida em doentes com asma

    Lara Noronha Ferreira


    e traduzem a utilidade atribuída ao seu estado de saúde.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (1: 23-55 Abstract: In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics.The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a representative sample of the Portuguese population with asthma.Most of the individuals did not report significant problems in the dimensions used, with the exception of the physical functioning, where individuals reported moderate limitations. The mean utility value was 0.86. Male gender, young, single, individuals with high educational attainment level, employed, individuals with high income and those residing in urban areas reported higher utility levels. As expected, those who were in a severe stadium of the disease reported lower mean utility levels than those who were in a less severe stadium of the disease. Normative values for the SF-6D were computed for patients with asthma by gender, age, marital status, educational attainment level, employment status, area of residence and average monthly net income.The preference-based measures used in this study distinguish patient groups with asthma in terms of socio-demographic groups. The normative values can be used in economic evaluation and clinical studies as they incorporate patients’ preferences and translate the value attributed to patients’ health state.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (1: 23-55 Palavras-chave: Asma, instrumentos de medição da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde baseados em preferências, qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, SF-6D, valores normativos, Key-words: Asthma, health

  19. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

    Jeanne F. Millogo


    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  20. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Marli Appel da Silva


    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  1. Complaints against an EMS system.

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy


    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  2. Adding large EM stack support

    Holst, Glendon


    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  3. Mutagenesis-based research aimed at obtaining resistance to Helminthosporium maydis, straint T, in maize with Texas male sterile cytoplasm

    Cornu, A.; Vuillaume, E.; Cassini, R.; Berville, A.


    Mutagenesis was used on the French line F7T, with Texas male sterile cytoplasm, in order to obtain plants resistant to Helminthosporium maydis. The M 3 seedlings were screened for resistance either by using a fungus culture filtrate or through contamination with the fungus itself. In the first tests, carried out after the seeds had been treated with an aqueous solution of EMS, a number of families exhibiting original types of resistance to Helminthosporium maydis, strain T, were isolated. (author)

  4. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    Bekkevold, Dorte


    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male reprodu...

  5. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J


    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  6. Nascimento da Raia-viola, Zapteryx brevirostris (Müller & Henle (Chondrichthyes, Rhinobatidae, em cativeiro Birth of guitarfish, Zapteryx brevirostris (Müller & Henle (Chondrichthyes, Rhinobatidae in captivity

    Manoel M. B. Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Um exemplar fêmea de Zapteryx brevirostris foi capturada na Ilha Queimada Grande, Itanhaém, São Paulo em 19/II/2002, e transportada para o cativeiro do Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudo em Chondrichthyes (NUPEC. Em 21/II/2002, a fêmea pariu seis filhotes (três machos e três fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro de nascimento de Z. brevirostris em cativeiro.A female of Zapteryx brevirostris were caught at Queimada Grande Island, Itanhaém, São Paulo on 19/II/2002, and transported to Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudo em Chondrichthyes (NUPEC captivities. At 21/II/2002, the female gave birth to six pups (three males and three females. This is a first birth record of Z. brevirostris in captivity.

  7. Validade da equação de Henry e Rees que estima a taxa metabólica de repouso em adolescentes masculinos Validez de la ecuación de Henry y Rees que estima la tasa metabólica de reposo en adolescentes masculinos Validity of the equation of Henry and Rees that estimates the resting metabolic rate in male adolescents

    Paulo Henrique S. Fonseca


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a validade da equação de predição da taxa metabólica de repouso proposta por Henry e Rees (1991 em adolescentes do sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência constituída de 52 meninos, entre dez e 17 anos, sendo mensuradas a massa corporal e a calorimetria indireta. A massa corporal foi substituída na equação de Henry e Rees para determinar a taxa metabólica de repouso predita. A calorimetria indireta foi determinada pelos valores do consumo de O2 e produção de CO2, e usada na equação de Weir (1949, considerada método padrão para o cálculo da taxa metabólica de repouso. Todas as medidas foram realizadas pela manhã, com o indivíduo em jejum de seis horas, em posição supina e em repouso muscular. Realizaram-se os seguintes procedimentos estatísticos: teste t pareado; erro constante (com diferença aceita entre as médias OBJETIVO: Analizar la validez de la ecuación de predicción de la tasa metabólica de reposo (TMR propuesta por Henry y Rees (1991 en adolescentes del sexo masculino. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con muestra de conveniencia constituida por 52 niños, entre 10 y 17 años, siendo medidas las variables a continuación: masa corporal y calorimetría indirecta (CI. La masa corporal fue sustituida en la ecuación de Henry y Rees (1991 para determinar la TMR predicha. La CI fue determinada por los valores del consumo de O2 y producción de CO2 y usada en la ecuación de Weir (1949, considerada como método estándar de la TMR. Todas las medidas fueron realizadas por la mañana, con el individuo en ayuno de 6 horas, en posición supina y en reposo muscular. Se realizaron los siguientes procedimientos estadísticos: prueba “t” pareada; error constante (EC - con diferencia aceptada entre los promedios menor que 5% y, para análisis de la concordancia entre los dos métodos, el procedimiento gráfico de Bland y Altman. RESULTADOS: La ecuación propuesta por

  8. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    Elise M. Yamasaki


    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE. Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.

  9. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  10. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  11. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K


    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor


    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  13. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players.

    Gorostiaga, E M; Granados, C; Ibáñez, J; Izquierdo, M


    This study compared physical characteristics (body height, body mass [BM], body fat [BF], and free fatty mass [FFM]), one repetition maximum bench-press (1RM (BP)), jumping explosive strength (VJ), handball throwing velocity, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, and running endurance in two handball male teams: elite team, one of the world's leading teams (EM, n = 15) and amateur team, playing in the Spanish National Second Division (AM, n = 15). EM had similar values in body height, BF, VJ, 5- and 15-m sprint running time and running endurance than AM. However, the EM group gave higher values in BM (95.2 +/- 13 kg vs. 82.4 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 72.4 +/- 7 kg, p vs. 83 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 21.8 +/- 1.6 m . s (-1), p vs. 22.9 +/- 1.4 m . s (-1), p individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) and individual values of ball velocity during a standing throw. Significant correlations were observed in EM, but not in AM, between the individual values of velocity during 3-step running throw and the individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) (r = 0.72, p individual values of power at 100 % of body mass during half-squat actions (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). The present results suggest that more muscular and powerful players are at an advantage in handball. The differences observed in free fatty mass could partly explain the differences observed between groups in absolute maximal strength and muscle power. In EM, higher efficiency in handball throwing velocity may be associated with both upper and lower extremity power output capabilities, whereas in AM this relationship may be different. Endurance capacity does not seem to represent a limitation for elite performance in handball.

  14. A Case of Male Goltz Syndrome

    Bhaswati Ghoshal


    Full Text Available We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia, a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported.

  15. Haemorrhagic SLE In A Young Male

    Rajagopal R


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease that tends to occur in early adult life. The peak age of onset of the first symptom or sign in females is about 38 years and later in men, at about 44 years. Females outnumber men in this illness in a ratio of about 8 : 1. Cutaneous lesions in male have not been properly investigated and some studies in male with SLE have shown that the illness may present with atypical skin lesions. A case of SLE in a 20 year male who developed sudden onset of haemorrhagic vesiculobullous butterfly rash is described.

  16. Solitary neurofibroma in the male breast

    Smith Mark EF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurofibroma of the male breast outside of neurofibromatosis is extremely rare with only one previous case having been reported. Case presentation A 48 year old male patient with a neurofibroma in the breast presenting with gynaecomastia is reported. Clinical and mammogram findings with fine needle aspiration cytology and full histology are presented. Conclusion To our knowledge this is only the second case of a neurofibroma in a male breast in the English literature and the first report to include the mammographic findings.

  17. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian


    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  18. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer

    Meijer, Mathias; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Green, Anders


    A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess...... the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride. Individual...

  19. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O


    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

    Chunjian Zhao


    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  1. Reduction of dopamine level enhances the attractiveness of male Drosophila to other males.

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike


    Dopamine is an important neuromodulator in animals and its roles in mammalian sexual behavior are extensively studied. Drosophila as a useful model system is widely used in many fields of biological studies. It has been reported that dopamine reduction can affect female receptivity in Drosophila and leave male-female courtship behavior unaffected. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to decrease the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila, and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male homosexual courtship behavior. We find that reduction of dopamine level can induce Drosophila male-male courtship behavior, and that this behavior is mainly due to the increased male attractiveness or decreased aversiveness towards other males, but not to their enhanced propensity to court other males. Chemical signal input probably plays a crucial role in the male-male courtship induced by the courtees with reduction of dopamine. Our finding provides insight into the relationship between the dopamine reduction and male-male courtship behavior, and hints dopamine level is important for controlling Drosophila courtship behavior.

  2. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D


    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  3. Border Injuries: An Analysis of Prehospital Demographics, Mechanisms, and Patterns of Injuries Encountered by USBP EMS Agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector.

    Baker, Russell A


    Study Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), use, injury mechanisms, prehospital assessments, and injuries among those receiving aid from the United States Border Patrol (USBP) in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. This is a time-series, retrospective analysis of all prehospital data for injuries among patients receiving care from USBP EMS on the US Mexico border in the El Paso sector from February 6, 2014 to February 6, 2016. A total of 473 documented EMS encounters occurred in this two-year period and demonstrated a male gender predominance (male 63%; female 37%) with the most prominent ages between 22-40 years old. The most prevalent EMS call types were medical (55%) and trauma (42%). The most common chief complaints were an injured or painful extremity (35%) and rash (13%). The most common USBP EMS provider primary impression was traumatic injury (34%), followed by fever/infection (17%) and extremity injury (7%); however, the most common secondary impression was also extremity injury (20%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall (26%) and motor vehicle accident (MVA; 22%). The USBP EMS was the first provider on scene in 96% of the MVAs. The author reports on injury patterns, mechanisms, chief complaints, EMS impressions, as well as demographics of patients reporting to USBP EMS. A knowledge of these injury patterns will be useful to EMS administrators and physicians along the US Mexico border. Baker RA . Border injuries: an analysis of prehospital demographics, mechanisms, and patterns of injuries encountered by USBP EMS agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):431-436.

  4. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Longino Contoli


    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  5. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto


    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  6. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

    Bianca Tessele


    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  7. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  8. Condition-dependent female preference for male genitalia length is based on male reproductive tactics.

    Hernandez-Jimenez, Armando; Rios-Cardenas, Oscar


    There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored. Here, we show that female preference for male genitalia length in two livebearing fishes depends on the type of reproductive tactic of the males being evaluated as well as the body condition of the female. In a species where all males coax females to acquire matings (courters), females preferred males with short genitalia. In a species with genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics (courter males that only court and produce courter sons, sneaker males that use the coercive tactic of sneak chase and produce sneaker sons), female preference depended on an interaction between male tactic and female condition: females in good condition preferred courter males with short genitalia, and sneaker males with long genitalia. Our results suggest that female preference for male traits favourable to their sons may be an important factor contributing to the diversification of male genitalia. Despite the contrasting selection for genitalia length that our female preference tests suggest, we found no significant differences in genitalia length between coaxing (courters) and coercive (sneakers) males. Our study represents a starting point to more clearly understand the role of alternative reproductive tactics and variation in female mate preference in the evolution of male genitalia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W


    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  10. Sociodemographic Findings in an Infertile Male Population

    Tayfun Güngör


    CONCLUSION: This study claims that the previously established risk factors which are considered to be associated with infertility might influence less or interfere with male infertility in more subtle ways.

  11. Zika Virus in the Male Reproductive Tract

    Liesel Stassen


    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies. Mouse and macaque models have begun to unravel the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection in the male reproductive tract, with the testes and prostate gland implicated as potential reservoirs for persistent ZIKV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the male reproductive tract, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection at this site, and prospects for vaccines and therapeutics against persistent ZIKV infection.

  12. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.


    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal

  13. Hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility: Clinical case scenarios

    Zeinab Dabbous


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the evaluation, treatment and impact of hyperprolactinaemia on male infertility and testicular function, as hyperprolactinaemia is commonly detected during the evaluation of infertile men. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines to identify all studies exploring hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility. Results: Elevated levels of serum prolactin have a detrimental effect on male reproduction through inhibition of the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary gland, and a direct effect on spermatogenesis. Treatment of confirmed hyperprolactinaemia with dopamine agonists leads to significant improvements in both semen parameters and hormone levels. Conclusion: Hyperprolactinaemia, both directly and indirectly, has a negative effect on sperm production, and its detection and management in men seeking fertility is mandatory. Keywords: Prolactin, Male infertility, Dopamine agonists, Testosterone, Pituitary adenoma

  14. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception.

    Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D


    The world's population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male's reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Profile Gonococcal Uretheritis in Male

    D D Ganguli


    Full Text Available A study of 125 uncomplicated urethritis in males were selected at and analysed from different angles in view the changing facets of gonococcal infection and its impact at the present time.


    P. A. Kulikova


    Full Text Available Background: Development of the new methods of treatment of primary male hypogonadism is an urgent medical problem. Its solution requires a suitable experimental model of the disease. Aim: The creation of new experimental model of primary male hypogonadism. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on the male Wistar rats, hypogonadism was modeled by temporary ligation of the distal part of the spermatic cord. Results: It was shown that three-day ligation of the spermatic cord led to persistent disturbance of the testosterone-producing and reproductive functions. These manifestations were reversible at shorter duration of the exposure. Conclusion: The created model of primary male hypogonadism is characterized by the persistent testosterone-producing and reproductive functions disturbance, technical availability, non-toxicity to the other organs and systems. Availability of the model provides new opportunities for the development of approaches to treating diseases of the reproductive organs in men.

  17. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob


    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  18. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Spanish Testicular biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Male Infertility updates ... analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes ...

  19. God as Father: The maleness of God

    D. T. Williams


    Full Text Available It is fashionable today to try to avoid sexist language in theology, despite the Bible’s consistent use of the masculine pronoun when referring to God. Although such an attempt has largely been engendered by modem culture, the maleness of God is not simply a hangover from a patriarchal society, but reflects a fundamental maleness in God’s dealing with man. It emphasises the idea of redemption by grace alone over against creation, and such aspects as the adoption of Christians as sons. The maleness of Christ likewise has not simply been cultural, but is significant theologically. This is not to deny any femininity in God, but to assert that male features predominate. Such an idea does not reduce the status of women, but rather an emphasis on redemption raises it. Raising the status of women in society would in fact reduce the pressure to demasculinize God.

  20. Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

    Levin, Terry L.; Han, Bokyung; Little, Brent P.


    The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the male urethra is presented. The embryologic basis of each anomaly, when known, is discussed. Clinical and imaging features of each entity are presented. (orig.)

  1. Historicidade da filosofia em Hegel e Heidegger

    Christian Iber


    Gostaria de discutir, em forma de teses, a temática da historicidade da filosofia em contraste e na sua divergência em Hegel e Heidegger. Diferente do historicismo, que não soluciona o problema da historicidade da filosofia, porque ele dissolve tendencialmente a filosofia na história da filosofia e não coloca em especial a questão da verdade, Hegel e Heidegger desenvolvem uma teoria genuinamente filosófica da história da filosofia do interesse filosófico pela verdade. Esse interesse genuiname...

  2. The Male Gender Role and Depression

    Liljegren, Tom


    Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male...

  3. Ectopic ureterocele in the male infant

    Ekloef, O.; Loehr, G.; Ringertz, H.; Thomasson, B.


    An account is given of a series of ectopic ureterocele present in 14 male infants. The malformation is found to be more complex than in the female. The ipsilateral renal function is severely impaired or abolished and obstruction to the bladder outflow common. Associated dilatation and elongation of the posterior urethra during micturition may result in a valvelike appearance. Eversion of the male ureterocele is common and possible mechanisms to account for this event are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Male microchimerism and survival among women

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo


    During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status.......During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status....

  5. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  6. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu


    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  7. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey


    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery.

  8. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Johan O. Westman


    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  9. A Favela posta em Cena

    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro


    As publicações do Observatório das Favelas nos instigam na construção de um espaço transgressor Possível como necessidade de uma ação urgente, contudo a perspectiva do Impossível como projeto nos promove a revelar os limites, as normas e as ideologias que perpassam as ações internas ao Estado, já que este se constitui agente fundamental da engrenagem da produção de desigualdades e em sua força legitimadora realiza a ideologia mais eficiente.

  10. Maquinas virtuais em ambientes seguros

    Arthur Bispo de Castro


    Resumo: Desde o início da computação a idéia de máquinas virtuais vem sendo aplicada para estender o multiprocessamento, multi-programação e multi-acesso, tornando os sistemas multi-ambiente. O contínuo aumento no poder de processamento dos computadores fez com que máquinas muito rápidas estivessem ao alcance de qualquer usuário, surgindo PCs com processamento, espaço em disco e memória suficiente para comportar mais de um sistema compartilhando o mesmo hardware. Basicamente, o objetivo das m...

  11. A metrologia em diferentes equipamentos

    Gomes, Andreia Oliveira


    A seleção de um equipamento metrológico pode tornar-se uma difícil tarefa, dado que hoje em dia existe uma grande variedade. Quando se pretende adquirir ou até mesmo apenas saber qual o melhor equipamento para o controlo dimensional de um ou mais objetos, a opção pode não ser clara devido às inúmeras características associadas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia que permita a qualquer pessoa com conhecimentos mínimos, saber o que há-de escolher, com bas...

  12. A melancolia em Al Berto

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza


    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...


    Asrif Asrif


      Oral Tradition of Male-Male: Death Anthem Ciacia: Sosiological Studies and an Effort to Pass It On to the next Generation. Male-Male is lyrics sung upon the death of a member of the society who is considered a perfect person. This oral tradition shows the society appreciation towards the person through the expression of sadness, longing, partience and praises. Male-Male serves various functions; both private functions (the singer and host, and societal function (the guests. For th singer and the host, this tradition serves as consolation, caring towards other members, dissemination of social values and religion, prestige, and passing on a tradition. For the society, Male-Male functions as a self remainder of death, strengthening faith, increasing empathy and solidarity. Efforts to guarantee the continuity of this tradition by the next generation are required. Formal effortcan be made through schools, and the informal ones can be made through the strengthening of tradition bodies. Keywords: Oral tradition, Male-Male, Sociology, and Passing the tradition

  14. Self-restraint and sterility in workers of <em>Acromyrmex> and <em>Atta> leafcutter ants

    Dijkstra, Michiel Bendert; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan


    Queens of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta) are highly multiply mated, resulting in a potential queenworker and worker-worker conflict over who should produce the males in the colony. We studied whether this conflict is expressed, by determining the amount of reproductive egg-laying by worker...

  15. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Krzysztof Piksa


    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  16. Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B


    Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Estratégia e estrutura: em busca do alinhamento organizacional em um clube social esportivo

    Cruz Junior,Augusto de Toledo; Carvalho,Marly Monteiro de; Laurindo,Fernando José Barbin


    A literatura descreve tipologias de formas organizações, que podem ser divididas em organização baseada em trabalho e organização baseada em conhecimento. A forma de representação mais utilizada é o organograma. Contudo, esta forma de representação não consegue ilustrar adequadamente a dinâmica de funcionamento da organização, sobretudo em organizações em que o conhecimento e a experiência são os ativos-chave. Com o objetivo de investigar o processo de alinhamento entre estratégia e estrutura...

  18. Efeito de três diferentes fontes de extrato de pituitárias na indução gonadal em machos e fêmeas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1146 Effects of three different sources of pituitary extract on gonadal inducer in male and female pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1146

    Jayme Aparecido Povh


    Full Text Available Machos e fêmeas de (Piaractus mesopotamicus foram induzidas com extrato de hipófise de frango de corte (BCPE, coelho (RPE e de carpa (CPE. Os parâmetros vigor espermático, motilidade progressiva, taxa de fertilização e eclosão de acordo com a origem do sêmen, não apresentou diferença (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. O tratamento com BCPE produziu o menor volume de sêmen (p 0,05 para o taxa de espermatozóides com anormalidades nos tratamentos, mas as patologias secundárias foram elevadas (p P. mesopotamicusMale and female pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus were induced with broiler chicken (BCPE, rabbit (RPE, and carp (CPE pituitary extracts. The parameters for spermatic vigor, progressive motility, fertilization and hatching rate, according to semen origin, did not show any differences among the treatments (p > 0.05. RPE produced the lowest (p 0.05 in the total rate of abnormal spermatozoa among the treatments, but the secondary pathologies were higher (p 0.05 between BCPE and CPE were found for accumulated thermal unit, number of oocytes/spawning grams, fertilization and hatchery rates according to treatment origin. The result indicates that BCPE use is recommended for gonadal induction of P. mesopotamicus

  19. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

    Anne Fausto-Sterling


    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  20. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  1. Dois funcionalistas franceses em confronto

    Rafael Eugenio Hoyos-Andrade


    Full Text Available

    Comparamos, neste artigo, de modo aproximativo e provisório, dois modelos de análise sintática e dois métodos de representação gráfica dessas análises: trata-se dos modelos e métodos de André Martinet e Lucien Tesnière. Depois de algumas considerações introdutórias relativas ao funcionalismo dos autores em causa, arrolamos um conjunto de características que aproximam ou opõem os seus respectivos modelos. Apresentamos, em seguida, no intuito de beneficiar os estudantes universitários de sintaxe, as representações gráficas de um mesmo enunciado segundo o método estemático de Tesnière e segundo o método de visualização das relações sintáticas de Martinet, para concluir que os dois modelos/métodos, embora diferentes, poderiam eventualmente ser integrados num único sistema de análise e representação.

  2. PEG Enhancement for EM1 and EM2+ Missions

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), is currently being designed. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm. Due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions. In order to accommodate mission design for EM-2 and beyond, PEG has been significantly improved since its use on the Space Shuttle program. The current version of PEG has the ability to switch to different targets during Core Stage (CS) or EUS flight, and can automatically reconfigure for a single Engine Out (EO) scenario, loss of communication with the Launch Abort System (LAS), and Inertial Navigation System (INS) failure. The Thrust Factor (TF) algorithm uses measured state information in addition to a priori parameters, providing PEG with an improved estimate of propulsion information. This provides robustness against unknown or undetected engine failures. A loft parameter input allows LAS jettison while maximizing payload mass. The current PEG algorithm is now able to handle various classes of missions with burn arcs much longer than were seen in the shuttle program. These missions include targeting a circular LEO orbit with a low-thrust, long-burn-duration upper stage, targeting a highly eccentric Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) orbit, targeting a disposal orbit using the low-thrust Reaction Control System (RCS), and targeting a hyperbolic orbit. This paper will describe the design and implementation of the TF algorithm, the strategy to handle EO in various flight regimes, algorithms to cover off-nominal conditions, and other enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm. This paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle, and results show that the improved PEG

  3. Seminal fluid enhances competitiveness of territorial males' sperm in a fish with alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Poli, Federica; Locatello, Lisa; Rasotto, Maria B


    The most common adaptation to sperm competition in males is represented by an increase in the sperm number and/or quality released at mating, to raise their probability of egg fertilization. However, rapidly mounting evidence highlights that seminal fluid may directly influence the competitive fertilization success of a male by affecting either own and/or rival sperm performances. In the black goby, Gobius niger , an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics and high sperm competition level, sneaker males' ejaculates contain less seminal fluid and more sperm, that are also of better quality, than those of territorial males. However, territorial males, gain a higher paternity success inside natural nests. Here, we ask whether the seminal fluid can contribute to territorial males' reproductive success by enhancing their sperm performances and/or by decreasing those of sneaker males. Using sperm and seminal fluid manipulation and in vitro fertilization tests, we found that own seminal fluid influences the velocity and fertilization ability of sperm only in territorial males, making them as faster as those of sneakers and with similar fertilization rate. Moreover, both sneaker and territorial males' sperm remain unaffected by the seminal fluid of rival males. Thus, black goby males respond to the different level of sperm competition faced by differently allocating in sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate, with sneakers primarily investing in sperm of intrinsic high quality and territorial males relying on the effect of seminal fluid to increase the lower intrinsic quality of their sperm. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Promotores��� perspectives on a male-to-male peer network

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel


    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducte...

  5. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

    Paulo Cesar Sandler


    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  6. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo


    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Giedrius Gorianovas


    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  8. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.


    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  9. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J


    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Winskill, Peter; Carvalho, Danilo O; Capurro, Margareth L; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A; McKemey, Andrew R


    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m) and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m). Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  11. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Gul Soylu Ozler


    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  12. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment.

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage; Humaidan, Peter


    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment. Male infertility affects many aspects of a man's life and may cause a life crisis. Although infertility treatment is now commonplace in men, they often feel remote and disconnected from the treatment process. A descriptive survey. A questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions was completed by 210 Danish men undergoing fertility treatment. The questionnaire covered three issues: individual perception of male infertility, gender equality issues, and communication with health professionals in the clinic. Data were collected during 2008. Of the participants, 28% believed that their reduced sperm quality affected their perception of masculinity. 46% stated that equal involvement between partners was a very important element of the treatment; however, 63% said that the health professionals communicated primarily with their female partner. Finally, 62% found that there was a need for a deeper dialogue with the nurses concerning male infertility and 72% lacked information about the psychological consequences of male infertility. In general, participants wanted a more open and balanced dialogue about infertility treatment and the role of the male partner during this process. Infertile men want health professionals to view them on equal terms with their partner. When treating the infertile man, there is a further need to develop more inclusive communication skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

    Mohd Z. Asmawi


    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  14. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter


    that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  15. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  16. Female perception of male body odor.

    Sergeant, Mark J T


    Olfaction is one of the most crucial forms of communication among nonhuman animals. Historically, olfaction has been perceived as being of limited importance for humans, but recent research has documented that not only do humans have sensitive olfactory abilities, but also odors have the potential to influence our physiology and behavior. This chapter reviews research on olfactory communication among humans, focusing on the effects of male bodily odors on female physiology and behavior. The process of body odor production and the detection of olfactory signals are reviewed, focusing on potential sex differences in these abilities. The effects of male body odors on female physiological and behavioral effects of body odors are considered. Finally, with specific regard to female mate choice, evidence regarding the influence of the major histocompatibility complex and fluctuating asymmetry on male olfactory cues is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro


    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  18. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter


    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common...

  19. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J


    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Ohta, Yasuo


    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  1. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail:; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)


    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  2. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    Lam, Samuel M


    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  3. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male.

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dehuri, Priyadarshini; Umamahesweran, Sandyya; Kamat, Rohan


    Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  4. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male

    Debasis Gochhait


    Full Text Available Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  5. Is male infertility a forerunner to cancer?

    Whitney R. Burns


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The frequency of testicular cancer and male infertility has been increasing in the past several decades. This article examines the relationship between male infertility and testicular cancer, concentrating particularly on causal links. RESULTS: Both of these disorders are associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome and have also been traced to mutations in genes involving DNA repair and tumor suppression, as well as environmental exposure. CONCLUSION: The identification and examination of these common points of origin supports the integration of testicular cancer screenings into the routine evaluation of infertile men.

  6. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea.

    Kim, DaiSik; Koo, Sung-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol


    To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents) aged 0-64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14-29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14-16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17-19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7%) had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14-16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication

  7. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Nieschlag, Eberhard


    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    Lehane, Christine Marie


    , thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...... that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes...

  9. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P


    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a male patient

    Sibarani, H.; Zubir, Z.


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Female to male ratio is approximately 9:1.A 20 years old male was admitted to HAM Hospital 3 months ago with chief complaint pain in both knees joint. After anamneses, physical examination and laboratory test the patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient tested positive for ANA and anti-ds-DNA antibody test. The patient was with giving non-biologic DMARDS @myfortic 360mg, methylprednisolone, chloroquine and other symptomatic drugs.

  11. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman


    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Steroid sulfatase gene in XX males.

    Mohandas, T K; Stern, H J; Meeker, C A; Passage, M B; Müller, U; Page, D C; Yen, P H; Shapiro, L J


    The human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine at their distal short arms during male meiosis. Recent studies indicate that the majority of XX males arise as a result of an aberrant exchange between X and Y chromosomes such that the testis-determining factor gene (TDF) is transferred from a Y chromatid to an X chromatid. It has been shown that X-specific loci such as that coding for the red cell surface antigen, Xg, are sometimes lost from the X chromosome in this aberrant exchange. The ste...

  13. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    establishing the level of male partner involvement and influence of couple knowledge and perception on male involvement in choice of ... access to care and provision of emotional and ..... although the male partners are key decision makers.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    ... male-limited precocious puberty Familial male-limited precocious puberty Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial male-limited precocious puberty is a condition that causes early sexual development ...

  15. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Scott, Kathryn P.


    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    ... deafness and male infertility Sensorineural deafness and male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...


    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes


    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  19. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Alessandro Rudatis


    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  20. Behavior of ergatoid males in the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda

    Heinze, Jürgen; Künholz, S.; Schilder, K.; Hölldobler, B.


    Ergatoid males of the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda, attack and frequently kill young males during or shortly after eclosion. Smaller colonies therefore contain typically only one adult male, which may inseminate all alate queens which are reared in the colony over a few weeks. In larger colonies, several males may be present, however, fighting among adult males was not observed. We discuss the significance of male fighting behavior in ants.

  1. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou


    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.


    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  3. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de


    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes).

  4. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    Thomas, Devon


    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  5. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    Lessells, C.M.


    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  6. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    Stinson, David W.


    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  7. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  8. What makes a nest-building male successful? Male behavior and female care in penduline tits

    Szentirmai, [No Value; Komdeur, J; Szekely, T; Szentirmai, István

    Why do females increase parental effort when caring for the offspring of attractive males? First, attractive males may be poor fathers so that their females are compelled to increase their own contribution in order to fledge some young (the partner-compensation hypothesis). Second, females mated to

  9. Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining Male Teachers: Policy Issues in the Male Teacher Debate

    Mills, Martin; Martino, Wayne; Lingard, Bob


    Frequent calls for more male teachers are being made in English-speaking countries. Many of these calls are based upon the fact that the teaching profession has become (even more) 'feminized' and the presumption that this has had negative effects for the education of boys. The employment of more male teachers is sometimes suggested as a way to…

  10. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent


    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo


    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  12. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

    Acosta, Atzel Candido; Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza da; Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; Pinheiro-Júnior, José Wilton; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido


    Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão rela...

  13. O "Popular" em Egberto Gismonti

    Rúrion Soares Melo


    Full Text Available Nossa música, rica e moderna, não pode ser integralmente enquadrada em tipologias. Este artigo destaca a importância do material musical e da autonomia nos procedimentos composicionais, e propõe que a compreensão das obras de Egberto Gismonti não pode se restringir aos elementos propriamente "brasileiros" do "nacional-popular".Brazilian music, rich and modern, cannot be integrally fit in typologies. This article detaches the importance of the musical material and the autonomy in the compositional procedures, and considers that the understanding of the work of Egberto Gismonti cannot be restricted to strictly "Brazilian" elements of the "nacional-popular".

  14. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Aiqiu, Gu; Yuxuan, Geng; Baogo, Zhu [Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)


    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M{sub 2} population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  15. Medidas e forma em geometria

    Edjan Fernandes dos Santos


    O trabalho traz inicialmente uma abordagem histÃrica, da GrÃcia (com os pitagÃricos), com o matemÃtico Eudoxo, fazendo referÃncia a talvez à maior obra matemÃtica, os livros de Euclides. Em seguida, trazemos definiÃÃes e construÃÃes sobre os nÃmeros reais com um corpo completo, os conceitos de Ãnfimo, supremo, sequÃncias infinitas com destaque as convergentes, sequÃncia de Cauchy e os trÃs teoremas fundamentais para o curso de cÃlculo, o teorema do anulamento, do valor intermediÃrio e de Weie...


    Profª Drª Nery Reiner


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, voltado para a criação poética de Manoel de Barros, é focalizar o conceito da obra de arte como jogo. Escolhemos Manoel de Barros, porque o lúdico, a brincadeira e o humor estão sempre presentes em sua obra. A escolha dos dados, o encaixe de palavras escolhidas a dedo, no eixo paradigmático, formam um caleidoscópio, mostrando novas estruturas, deixando explícito o desejo de brincar com os elementos linguísticos e da natureza. Para este trabalho, escolhemos, para análise, pequenos poemas semelhantes aos haicais japoneses e outros menores ainda, com dois ou até um verso apenas. Contaremos, nesta pesquisa, com a ajuda de teóricos como Johan Huizinga, Ezra Pound, Octavio Paz, Lévi-Strauss, Olga Savary e Alfredo Bosi.

  17. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of New <em>N>-acylhydrazone Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid

    Wen Gu


    Full Text Available A series of new <em>N>-acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized in good yields through the reactions of dehydroabietic acid hydrazide with a variety of substituted arylaldehydes. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, ESI-MS, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. From the crystal structure of compound 4l, the C=N double bonds of these <em>N>-acylhydrazones showed (<em>E>-configuration, while the NMR data of compounds 4aq indicated the existence of two rotamers for each compound in solution. The target compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against four microbial strains. The result suggested that several compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activities. Particularly, compound 4p exhibited good antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> and <em>Bacillus subtilisem> comparable to positive control. The possible antibacterial metabolism and the strategy for further optimization of this compound were also discussed.

  18. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Rosen, M.; And Others


    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  19. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.


    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  20. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie


    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.


    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  2. Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

    Jørn Olsen


    Full Text Available Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life, puberty, and the time of ejaculation; longitudinal data over decades of time are required. The ongoing monitoring of semen quality and quantity should continue, and surveys monitoring fertility and waiting TTP should also be designed.


    than 83 per cent of the male skulls were from young adults 19 - 30 months old, and nearly 83 per cent of the ... Territorial springbok advertising display (Bigalke 1972). 3. ... food, which is utilized by its owner, conspecifics and other herbivores.

  4. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    Davis, N F


    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  5. The length of the male urethra

    Tobias. S. Kohler


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  6. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Shuster S


    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  7. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens


    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  8. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D


    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  9. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray


    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  10. Deterioration of male reproductive functions in hyperprolactinaemia

    A. Kooy (Adriaan)


    textabstractSince the early seventies, chronic hyperPRLaemia due to hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, drug abuse, hypothyroidism or other causes, has been recognized as a cause of reproductive dysfunctions in both women and men. Possible mechanisms by which PRL exerts its effects on male

  11. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Hendel, Andrea


    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  12. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  13. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter


    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cr...

  14. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi


    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  15. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  16. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie


    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  17. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  18. Relationship between blood groups and male infertility

    Ahmed, I.; Naeem, M.; Samad, A.; Nasir, A.; Aman, Z.; Ahmed, S.; Manan, F.


    Background: Blood is man's complete and unchangeable identity. The ABO and Rh groups are recognised as major and clinically significant blood groups. Blood group antigens are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also have been utilised in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relation of humans. The objective the present study is to examine the blood group antigens in infertile men for assessing the relationship to male infertility and to know the frequency of various blood groups among infertile males in our population. Method: A total of 1,521 patients along with 460 proven fathers as controls were recruited for the present study from both rural and urban areas of Pakistan and referred to Department of Reproductive Physiology/Health, Public Health Divisions, NIH, Islamabad, during 2002 to 2006. Blood grouping (ABO) and Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test. Results: Overall distribution of blood groups in the studied population of 1,521 subjects was 35.50%, 28.27%, 26.89% and 9.34% for blood groups O, B, A and AB respectively. The ratio of control to patient was 1:3.3. Conclusions: The present preliminary study revealed that in our population the prevalence of male infertility in blood group O is invariably higher than in all other ABO blood groups, showing a strong relationship between blood group O and male infertility. (author)

  19. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia


    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...

  20. Breaking Male Dominance in Old Democracies

    Dahlerup, D.; Leyenaar, M.H.


    Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of women’s political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland,

  1. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.P.


    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we

  2. [Suicide in female and male physicians

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Luijks, H.D.P.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. DESIGN: Systematic literature search. METHOD: A literature search was performed in the

  3. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B


    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  4. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone


    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  5. Eating disorders in males: A review


    regarding the abnormality of reproductive hormone function ... This paper reviews the existing literature on males with eating disorders in an ... through the work of Gerald Russell.7 The term “bulimia” is .... a critical time for adolescents, as an eating disorder could po- ..... Gender Related Aspects of Eating Disorders: A Guide.

  6. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  7. A Global Overview of Male Escort Websites.

    Kumar, Navin; Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Harrington, Taylor


    This article details a preliminary dataset of global male escort sites to give insight into the scale of the online market. We conducted a content analysis of 499 Web sites and also measured traffic to these sites. Our analysis examined the structural characteristics of escort services, geographical and regulatory contexts, and resilience of such services. Results suggest that most sites are independent and not affiliated to escort agencies, and the majority cater to male escorts soliciting male clients, with a number of sites for female clientele and couples. These Web sites are dispersed globally, with Asian, European, and South American countries the major hubs in the market and a small number of large multinational sites based in the United States and Europe figuring as a major presence in markets. Although still subject to high levels of regulation in many parts of the world, the data suggest that male escorting is becoming more visible in diverse cultural contexts as measured by the number of Web sites appearing in public spaces.

  8. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    Keamy, Ron Kim


    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  9. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes


    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  10. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  11. Male or female? Brains are intersex

    Daphna eJoel


    Full Text Available The underlying assumption in popular and scientific publications on sex differences in the brain is that human brains can take one of two forms male or female, and that the differences between these two forms underlie differences between men and women in personality, cognition, emotion and behavior. Documented sex differences in brain structure are typically taken to support this dimorphic view of the brain. However, neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in utero and throughout life to determine the structure of the brain, and that because these interactions are complex, the result is a multi-morphic, rather than a dimorphic, brain. More specifically, here I argue that human brains are composed of an ever-changing heterogeneous mosaic of male and female brain characteristics (rather than being all male or all female that cannot be aligned on a continuum between a male brain and a female brain. I further suggest that sex differences in the direction of change in the brain mosaic following specific environmental events lead to sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Clipboard Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine?


    'period of infertility' in the male monkeys was reversible. However, one thing to note is that not all the monkeys recruited for the study induced high titre antibodies to Eppin – not surprisingly, as the response to any immunogen varies from individual to individual. However, this might turn out to be a stumbling block when it ...

  13. Diversity of Nuptial Plumages in Male Ruffs

    Van Rhijn, J.; Jukema, J.; Piersma, T.


    Nuptial ornament diversity was studied in 1814 individual male Ruffs that were caught in their spring staging areas in Friesland, The Netherlands. Ornaments (hereafter called plumages) comprised of a ruff, two head tufts and facial wattles. Individual feathers were found to be plain (white, black or

  14. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.


    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  15. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta


    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  16. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  17. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

    Yasuhiro Ozeki


    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  18. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

    Egoitz Salsamendi


    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  19. Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D


    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small “sneaker” males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy un...

  20. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.


    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of c...