WorldWideScience

Sample records for male damselflies calopteryx

  1. Do allopatric male Calopteryx virgo damselflies learn species recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, Katja; Haukilehto, Elina; Raatikainen, Kaisa J; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Miettinen, Minna; Högmander, Harri; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2012-03-01

    There is a growing amount of empirical evidence that premating reproductive isolation of two closely related species can be reinforced by natural selection arising from avoidance of maladaptive hybridization. However, as an alternative for this popular reinforcement theory, it has been suggested that learning to prefer conspecifics or to discriminate heterospecifics could cause a similar pattern of reinforced premating isolation, but this possibility is much less studied. Here, we report results of a field experiment in which we examined (i) whether allopatric Calopteryx virgo damselfly males that have not encountered heterospecific females of the congener C. splendens initially show discrimination, and (ii) whether C. virgo males learn to discriminate heterospecifics or learn to associate with conspecifics during repeated experimental presentation of females. Our experiment revealed that there was a statistically nonsignificant tendency for C. virgo males to show initial discrimination against heterospecific females but because we did not use sexually naïve individuals in our experiment, we were not able to separate the effect of innate or associative learning. More importantly, however, our study revealed that species discrimination might be further strengthened by learning, especially so that C. virgo males increase their association with conspecific females during repeated presentation trials. The role of learning to discriminate C. splendens females was less clear. We conclude that learning might play a role in species recognition also when individuals are not naïve but have already encountered potential conspecific mates.

  2. Strong geographical variation in wing aspect ratio of a damselfly, Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Zygoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hassall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geographical patterns in body size have been described across a wide range of species, leading to the development of a series of fundamental biological rules. However, shape variables are less well-described despite having substantial consequences for organism performance. Wing aspect ratio (AR has been proposed as a key shape parameter that determines function in flying animals, with high AR corresponding to longer, thinner wings that promote high manoeuvrability, low speed flight, and low AR corresponding to shorter, broader wings that promote high efficiency long distance flight. From this principle it might be predicted that populations living in cooler areas would exhibit low AR wings to compensate for reduced muscle efficiency at lower temperatures. I test this hypothesis using the riverine damselfly, Calopteryx maculata, sampled from 34 sites across its range margin in North America. Nine hundred and seven male specimens were captured from across the 34 sites (mean = 26.7 ± 2.9 SE per site, dissected and measured to quantify the area and length of all four wings. Geometric morphometrics were employed to investigate geographical variation in wing shape. The majority of variation in wing shape involved changes in wing aspect ratio, confirmed independently by geometric morphometrics and wing measurements. There was a strong negative relationship between wing aspect ratio and the maximum temperature of the warmest month which varies from west-east in North America, creating a positive relationship with longitude. This pattern suggests that higher aspect ratio may be associated with areas in which greater flight efficiency is required: regions of lower temperatures during the flight season. I discuss my findings in light of research of the functional ecology of wing shape across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa.

  3. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship, but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  4. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  5. K.A.Subramanian (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    K.A.Subramanian (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. .... This dragonfly is very common near marshes, ponds and big wells. .... black and yellow dragonfly with amber coloured wings. Male: Eyes: Eyes are.

  6. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  7. Spectral sensitivities and color signals in a polymorphic damselfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-chang Huang

    Full Text Available Animal communication relies on conspicuous signals and compatible signal perception abilities. Good signal perception abilities are particularly important for polymorphic animals where mate choice can be a challenge. Behavioral studies suggest that polymorphic damselflies use their varying body colorations and/or color patterns as communication signal for mate choice and to control mating frequencies. However, solid evidence for this hypothesis combining physiological with spectral and behavioral data is scarce. We investigated this question in the Australian common blue tail damselfly, Ischnura heterosticta, which has pronounced female-limited polymorphism: andromorphs have a male-like blue coloration and gynomorphs display green/grey colors. We measured body color reflectance and investigated the visual capacities of each morph, showing that I. heterosticta have at least three types of photoreceptors sensitive to UV, blue, and green wavelength, and that this visual perception ability enables them to detect the spectral properties of the color signals emitted from the various color morphs in both males and females. We further demonstrate that different color morphs can be discriminated against each other and the vegetation based on color contrast. Finally, these findings were supported by field observations of natural mating pairs showing that mating partners are indeed chosen based on their body coloration. Our study provides the first comprehensive evidence for the function of body coloration on mate choice in polymorphic damselflies.

  8. Differences in Mating Propensity Between Immature Female Color Morphs in the Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Insecta : Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Ana Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa; Van Gossum, Hans

    Female-limited color polymorphisms occur in a variety of animal taxa where excessive male sexual harassment may explain the coexistence of multiple female color morphs. In the color polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans, mature and immature female color morphs coexist at the mating site where males

  9. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. E

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    orange coloured segments at the base and end of the abdomen. Male: Eyes: Dark olivaceous ... K.A.Subramanian (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. E-Book of .... Usually perches on dry twigs near streams.

  10. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-07-18

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes.

  11. The evolutionary history of colour polymorphism in Ischnura damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Rivas-Torres, Anais; Wellenreuther, Maren; Bybee, Seth; Hansson, Bengt; Velasquez-Vélez, María I; Realpe, Emilio; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús R; Villalobos, Fabricio; Dumont, Henri

    2018-05-10

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a colouration that is similar to the male, and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific colouration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time, and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system. We found that the ances tral female colour of Ischnura was monomorphic and aurantiaca and that colour morph status changed over time; characterised by many gains and losses across the species tree. Our results further showed that colour polymorphism is significantly more frequent among polyandric species, whereas monandric species tend to be monomorphic. Research on some Ischnura species has shown that colour morphs have evolved to reduce male mating harassment, and our finding that the same phenotypic morphs have evolved multiple times (convergent evolution) suggests that several species in this genus might be experiencing similar selective pressures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion of achiasmiatic meiosis. Biochem. Genet. 19, 1237–. 1245. Cooper G., Miller P. L. and Holland P. W. H. 1994 Molecular genetic analysis of sperm competition in the damselfly Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden). Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 263,. 1343–1349. Huxley J. S. 1928 Sexual differences in linkage in Gammar-.

  13. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Sánchez Herrera

    Full Text Available The study of color polymorphisms (CP has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI. Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this

  14. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Herrera, Melissa; Kuhn, William R; Lorenzo-Carballa, Maria Olalla; Harding, Kathleen M; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Beatty, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the

  15. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  16. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map of the damselfly ... particular, odonates are emerging model systems for biotic effects of .... sex with highest variance in reproductive success (Trivers. 1988).

  17. Ethological uniqueness of a damselfly with no near relatives: the relevance of behaviour as part of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero-Rivera, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically isolated species may contribute unique characters to biological diversity, particularly at the level of ethodiversity. To test this idea, we analysed the territorial and reproductive behaviour of Pseudolestes mirabilis (Zygoptera, Pseudolestidae, an endemic damselfly from Hainan island, China, and the only representative of its family. Our hypothesis was that the uniqueness of this taxon would be evident in its behaviour. We found that the agonistic encounters between males were usually very short (less than 2 min and consisted of a face–to–face display with both males maintaining a close distance while flying using only the forewings. No other odonate flies with only two wings in territorial contests. Furthermore, a small proportion of fights were escalated and lasted about one hour, with clear exhibition of the coloured hindwings. Males also confronted wasps (Eustenogaster nigra that used the same microhabitat in a similar way, albeit for short time. Females were found in low numbers. This limited copulatory frequency and most males did not mate in the whole day. Unexpectedly for a damselfly with coloured wings, precopulatory courtship was almost absent, suggesting that intrasexual selection is behind the evolution of coloured wings in this species. Copulation lasted an average of seven minutes, with a first stage of rivals’ sperm removal (64 % of sperm removed and a second stage of insemination. In agreement with our initial hypothesis, copulatory behaviour was unique: males did not translocate sperm to their vesicle before each mating but translocated sperm after copulation, a behaviour that cannot be easily explained. These exclusive characteristics point to the relevance of this species as an exceptional taxon that merits high conservation priority.

  18. Ecology of endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum in post-mining streams in relation to their restoration

    OpenAIRE

    TICHÁNEK, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores various aspects of ecology of endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum, the specialists for lowland headwaters, in post-mining streams of Radovesicka spoil. The first part of thesis is manuscript which has been already submitted in Journal of Insect Conservation. In the first part, we focused on population estimate of the local population using capture-recapture method, and explored its habitat requirements across life stages and spatial scales. In the next part, I assess m...

  19. Limiting hydrophobic behavior and reflectance response of dragonfly and damselfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aideo, Swati Nawami; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-11-01

    In this work, through water contact angle (CA) measurements, we explore hydrophobic behavior of different parts of the hind wings of a dragonfly, Gynacantha Dravida and of a damselfly, Pseudagrion Microcephalum. As we move from the basal to distal region, the contact angle (θ) was found to vary in the range of 120-136° for both the species. Moreover, the wing of the dragonfly was seen to be more hydrophobic than that of the damselfly one. An attempt has also been made to link roughness factor (rφ) and solid-water fraction (φ) through the simplified Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models. We noticed that, rφ and φ tend to follow a linear relation that gives rφ = 1.47 in the limit, Δθ segment was believed to be stronger than that of the basal part, the edge parts of the dragonfly and damselfly wings exhibited exponential associated growing trends with increasing wavelength. The relative reflectance response, corresponding to ∼494 nm and 370 nm peaks, gets nearly doubled for the edge specimen as compared to the distal and basal parts. The edge- specimen, which comprises of rectangular shaped, periodic microstructures, displayed carotenoid based two broad peak maxima at ∼422 nm and ∼494 nm. The surface roughness which arises through the distribution of oblate-shaped nano-fibrils is believed to be the basis of sub-surface volume scattering. Interrelating nanostructure surface roughness based wettability and reflectance characteristics would provide new insights on structure-property relationship in naturally available soft matter systems including templates of biological origin.

  20. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  1. Quantification of wing and body kinematics in connection to torque generation during damselfly yaw turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Bode-Oke, Ayodeji T.; Dong, HaiBo

    2017-01-01

    This study provides accurate measurements of the wing and body kinematics of three different species of damselflies in free yaw turn flights. The yaw turn is characterized by a short acceleration phase which is immediately followed by an elongated deceleration phase. Most of the heading change takes place during the latter stage of the flight. Our observations showed that yaw turns are executed via drastic rather than subtle changes in the kinematics of all four wings. The motion of the inner and outer wings were found to be strongly linked through their orientation as well as their velocities with the inner wings moving faster than the outer wings. By controlling the pitch angle and wing velocity, a damselfly adjusts the angle of attack. The wing angle of attack exerted the strongest influence on the yaw torque, followed by the flapping and deviation velocities of the wings. Moreover, no evidence of active generation of counter torque was found in the flight data implying that deceleration and stopping of the maneuver is dominated by passive damping. The systematic analysis carried out on the free flight data advances our understanding of the mechanisms by which these insects achieve their observed maneuverability. In addition, the inspiration drawn from this study can be employed in the design of low frequency flapping wing micro air vehicles (MAV's).

  2. Biogeographic evaluation of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana-Bria, L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are one of the most diverse groups of animals in terrestrial ecosystems, and are thus a good model system to study macrogeographic patterns in species’ distributions. Here we perform a biogeographical analysis of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian Country (Eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the species present in this territory with those in the adjacent territories of Catalonia and Aragon, and with those present in the whole Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we update the list of species of dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian territory (65 species, and discuss the current status of two of them: Macromia splendens and Lindenia tetraphylla. Our results highlight that the Valencian Country has a higher proportion of Ethiopian elements but a lower proportion of Eurosiberian elements than Catalonia and Aragon. We also emphasize the importance of volunteer work in providing new knowledge on this group of iconic insects, and the relevance of museum collections in preserving them. The role of climate change in the distribution of Odonata is also discussed.

  3. How Insects Initiate Flight: Computational Analysis of a Damselfly in Takeoff Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Zeyghami, Samane; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2017-11-01

    Flight initiation is essential for survival in biological fliers and can be classified into jumping and non-jumping takeoffs. During jumping takeoffs, the legs generate most of the initial impulse. Whereas the wings generate most of the forces in non-jumping takeoffs, which are usually voluntary, slow, and stable. It is of interest to understand how non-jumping takeoffs occur and what strategies insects use to generate the required forces. Using a high fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulation, we identify the flow features and compute the wing aerodynamic forces to elucidate how flight forces are generated by a damselfly performing a non-jumping takeoff. Our results show that a damselfly generates about three times its bodyweight during the first half-stroke for liftoff while flapping through a steeply inclined stroke plane and slicing the air at high angles of attack. Consequently, a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) is formed during both the downstroke and upstroke on all the four wings. The formation of the LEV, however, is inhibited in the subsequent upstrokes following takeoff. Accordingly, we observe a drastic reduction in the magnitude of the aerodynamic force, signifying the importance of LEV in augmenting force production. This work was supported by National Science Foundation [CBET-1313217] and Air Force Research Laboratory [FA9550-12-1-007].

  4. Effectiveness of birds, butterflies, dragonflies, damselflies and invertebrates as indicators of freshwater ecological integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, Lackson; Siachoono, Stanford

    2015-04-01

    Human activities such as mining and agriculture are among the major threats to biodiversity globally. Discharges from these activities have been shown to negatively affect ecological processes, leading to ecosystem degradation and species loss across biomes. Freshwater systems have been shown to be particularly vulnerable, as discharges tend to spread rapidly here than in other ecosystems. Hence, there is need to routinely monitor the quality of these systems if impacts of discharges from human activities are to be minimised. Besides the use of conventional laboratory techniques, several studies have recently shown that organisms such as birds, butterflies, dragonflies, damselflies and invertebrates are also good indicators of ecological integrity and should therefore be used as alternatives to monitoring the quality of various ecosystems. However, most of these studies have only studied one or two of these organisms against ecosystem health, and it remains unclear whether all of them respond similarly to changes in different drivers of environmental change. We investigated the response of the diversity of birds, butterflies, dragonflies, damselflies and invertebrates to changing water quality along the Kafue River in Zambia. Sampling was done at 13 different sampling points stretching over a distance of 60Km along the river. At each point, both the diversity of each organism and the water quality were assessed. Water quality was determined by testing its temperature, pH, redox, electrical conductivity, turbidity and copper parameters. We then tested how the diversity of each organism responded to changes in these water parameters. All water parameters varied significantly across sampling points. The diversity of birds and damselflies remained unaffected by any of the water parameters used. However, the diversity of butterflies reduced with increasing pH, turbidity and copper, albeit it remained unaffected by other water parameters. The diversity of dragonflies

  5. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) as a bridge between ecology and evolutionary genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Seth; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Duryea, M Catherine; Futahashi, Ryo; Hansson, Bengt; Lorenzo-Carballa, M Olalla; Schilder, Ruud; Stoks, Robby; Suvorov, Anton; Svensson, Erik I; Swaegers, Janne; Takahashi, Yuma; Watts, Phillip C; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups. We argue that the unique features of this group combined with their complex life cycle, flight behaviour, diversity in ecological niches and their sensitivity to anthropogenic change make odonates a promising and fruitful taxon for genomics focused research. Future areas of research that deserve increased attention are also briefly outlined.

  6. Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae. Roundup was more toxic than glyphosate with negative effects on survival, behaviour and most of the physiological traits being present at lower concentrations (food intake, escape swimming speed) or even only present (survival, sugar and total energy content and muscle mass) following Roundup exposure. This confirms the toxicity of the surfactant POEA. Notably, also glyphosate was not harmless: a realistic concentration of 2mg/l resulted in reduced growth rate, escape swimming speed and fat content. Our results therefore indicate that the toxicity of Roundup cannot be fully attributed to its surfactant, thereby suggesting that also the new generation of glyphosate-based herbicides with other mixtures of surfactants likely will have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological studies comparing the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations typically ignore behaviour while the here observed differential effects on behaviour likely will negatively impact damselfly populations. Our data highlight that risk assessment of pesticides ignoring sublethal effects may contribute to the negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biodiversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-12-01

    One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic.

  8. Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outomuro, David; Söderquist, Linus; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Cortázar-Chinarro, María; Lundgren, Cecilia; Johansson, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studied the form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolution of flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performance affect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we show that wing shape is under antagonistic selection with regard to sexual and natural selection in a scrambling damselfly. In a field setting, natural selection (survival) favored individuals with long and slender forewings and short and broad hindwings. In contrast, sexual selection (mating success) favored individuals with short and broad forewings and narrow-based hindwings. Both types of selection favored individuals of intermediate size. These results suggest that individuals face a trade-off between flight energetics and maneuverability and demonstrate how natural and sexual selection can operate in similar directions for some wing traits, that is, wing size, but antagonistically for others, that is, wing shape. Furthermore, they highlight the need to study flight evolution within the context of species' mating systems and mating behaviors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Delayed effects of chlorpyrifos across metamorphosis on dispersal-related traits in a poleward moving damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Therry, Lieven; Bervoets, Lieven; Bonte, Dries; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    How exposure to contaminants may interfere with the widespread poleward range expansions under global warming is largely unknown. Pesticide exposure may negatively affect traits shaping the speed of range expansion, including traits related to population growth rate and dispersal-related traits. Moreover, rapid evolution of growth rates during poleward range expansions may come at a cost of a reduced investment in detoxification and repair thereby increasing the vulnerability to contaminants at expanding range fronts. We tested effects of a sublethal concentration of the widespread pesticide chlorpyrifos on traits related to range expansion in replicated edge and core populations of the poleward moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum reared at low and high food levels in a common garden experiment. Food limitation in the larval stage had strong negative effects both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. Exposure to chlorpyrifos during the larval stage did not affect larval traits but caused delayed effects across metamorphosis by increasing the incidence of wing malformations during metamorphosis and by reducing a key component of the adult immune response. There was some support for an evolutionary trade-off scenario as the faster growing edge larvae suffered a higher mortality during metamorphosis. Instead, there was no clear support for the faster growing edge larvae being more vulnerable to chlorpyrifos. Our data indicate that sublethal delayed effects of pesticide exposure, partly in association with the rapid evolution of faster growth rates, may slow down range expansions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Behaviour and physiology shape the growth accelerations associated with predation risk, high temperatures and southern latitudes in Ischnura damselfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Swillen, Ine; De Block, Marjan

    2012-09-01

    1. To better predict effects of climate change and predation risk on prey animals and ecosystems, we need studies documenting not only latitudinal patterns in growth rate but also growth plasticity to temperature and predation risk and the underlying proximate mechanisms: behaviour (food intake) and digestive physiology (growth efficiency). The mechanistic underpinnings of predator-induced growth increases remain especially poorly understood. 2. We reared larvae from replicated northern and southern populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans in a common garden experiment manipulating temperature and predation risk and quantified growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency. 3. The predator-induced and temperature-induced growth accelerations were the same at both latitudes, despite considerably faster growth rates in the southern populations. While the higher growth rates in the southern populations and the high rearing temperature were driven by both an increased food intake and a higher growth efficiency, the higher growth rates under predation risk were completely driven by a higher growth efficiency, despite a lowered food intake. 4. The emerging pattern that higher growth rates associated with latitude, temperature and predation risk were all (partly or completely) mediated by a higher growth efficiency has two major implications. First, it indicates that energy allocation trade-offs and the associated physiological costs play a major role both in shaping large-scale geographic variation in growth rates and in shaping the extent and direction of growth rate plasticity. Secondly, it suggests that the efficiency of energy transfer in aquatic food chains, where damselfly larvae are important intermediate predators, will be higher in southern populations, at higher temperatures and under predation risk. This may eventually contribute to the lengthening of food chains under these conditions and highlights that the prey identity may determine the influence of

  12. Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa, in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jen-Pan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However, the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene climatic cycles, paleo-drainages or mountain vicariance of Taiwan shaped the evolutionary diversification of a subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa. Results E. formosa populations originated in the middle Pleistocene period (0.3 Mya and consisted of two evolutionarily independent lineages. It is likely that they derived from the Pleistocene paleo-drainages of northern and southern Minjiang, or alternatively by divergence within Taiwan. The ancestral North-central lineage colonized northwestern Taiwan first and maintained a slowly growing population throughout much of the early to middle Pleistocene period. The ancestral widespread lineage reached central-southern Taiwan and experienced a spatial and demographic expansion into eastern Taiwan. This expansion began approximately 30,000 years ago in the Holocene interglacial period. The ancestral southern expansion into eastern Taiwan indicates that the central mountain range (CMR formed a barrier to east-west expansion. However, E. formosa populations in the three major biogeographic regions (East, South, and North-Central exhibit no significant genetic partitions, suggesting that river drainages and mountains did not form strong geographical barriers against gene flow among extant populations. Conclusions The present study implies that the antiquity of E. formosa's colonization is associated with its high dispersal ability and larval tolerance to the late Pleistocene dry grasslands. The effect of late Pleistocene

  13. Reflectance spectra and mating patterns support intraspecific mimicry in the colour polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gossum, Hans; Bots, Jessica; Van Heusden, Jasper; Hammers, Martijn; Huyghe, Katleen; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    Coexistence of female colour morphs in animal populations is often considered the result of sexual conflict, where polymorphic females benefit from reduced male sexual harassment. Mate-searching males easily detect suitable partners when only one type of female is present, but become challenged when

  14. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819

  15. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  16. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  17. Exposure to a widespread non-pathogenic bacterium magnifies sublethal pesticide effects in the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum: From the suborganismal level to fitness-related traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    While there is increasing concern that pesticide stress can interact with stress imposed by antagonistic species including pathogens, it is unknown whether this also holds for non-pathogenic bacteria. We exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos and a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Both exposure to chlorpyrifos and E. coli reduced growth rate and fat storage, probably due to the observed energetically costly increases in physiological defence (glutathione-S-transferase and Hsp70) and, for E. coli, immune defence (phenoloxidase). Moreover, these stressors interacted for both fitness-related traits. Most importantly, another fitness-related trait, bacterial load, increased drastically with chlorpyrifos concentration. A possible explanation is that the upregulation of phenoloxidase in the presence of E. coli changed into a downregulation when combined with chlorpyrifos. We argue that the observed interactive, partly synergistic effects between pesticides and widespread non-pathogenic bacteria may be common and deserves further attention to improve ecological risk assessment of pesticides. -- Highlights: ► Non-pathogens such as the bacterium E. coli are ignored in ecotoxicology. ► Both E. coli and chlorpyrifos impaired fitness-related traits in damselfly larvae. ► E. coli modulated and magnified effects of chlorpyrifos on physiology and fitness. ► Bacterial load was magnified >10× in the presence of chlorpyrifos. ► Risk assessment of pesticides should consider synergisms with non-pathogens. -- Non-pathogenic bacteria reduce fitness-related traits and can synergistically interact with sublethal pesticide effects for physiological and fitness-related traits

  18. Characterization of natural photonic crystals in iridescent wings of damselfly Chalcopteryx rutilans by FIB/SEM, TEM, and TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David M; Ellsworth, Ashley A; Fisher, Gregory L; Valeriano, Wescley W; Vasco, Juan P; Guimarães, Paulo S S; de Andrade, Rodrigo R; da Silva, Elizabeth R; Rodrigues, Wagner N

    2018-02-05

    The iridescent wings of the Chalcopterix rutilans damselfly (Rambur) (Odonata, Polythoridae) are investigated with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The electron microscopy images reveal a natural photonic crystal as the source of the varying colors. The photonic crystal has a consistent number and thickness (∼195 nm) of the repeat units on the ventral side of the wing, which is consistent with the red color visible from the bottom side of the wing in all regions. The dorsal side of the wing shows strong color variations ranging from red to blue depending on the region. In the electron microscopy images, the dorsal side of the wing exhibits varied number and thicknesses of the repeat units. The repeat unit spacings for the red, yellow/green, and blue regions are approximately 195, 180, and 145 nm, respectively. Three-dimensional analysis of the natural photonic crystals by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry reveals that changes in the relative levels of Na, K, and eumelanin are responsible for the varying dielectric constant needed to generate the photonic crystal. The photonic crystal also appears to be assembled with a chemical tricomponent layer structure due to the enhancement of the CH 6 N 3 + species at every other interface between the high/low dielectric constant layers.

  19. Integrating multiple stressors across life stages and latitudes: Combined and delayed effects of an egg heat wave and larval pesticide exposure in a damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegula, Szymon; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses. Exposure of eggs to the heat wave had no effect on larval traits, yet had delayed costs (lower fat and flight muscle mass) in the adult stage thereby crossing two life history transitions. These delayed costs were only present in central-latitude populations potentially indicating their lower heat tolerance. Exposure of larvae to the pesticide reduced larval growth rate and prolonged development time, and across metamorphosis reduced the adult fat content and the flight muscle mass, yet did not affect the adult heat tolerance. The pesticide-induced delayed emergence was only present in the slower growing central-latitude larvae, possibly reflecting stronger selection to keep development fast in the more time-constrained high-latitude populations. We observed no synergistic interactions between the egg heat wave and the larval pesticide exposure. Instead the pesticide-induced reduction in fat content was only present in animals that were not exposed to the egg heat wave. Our results based on laboratory conditions highlight that multistressor studies should integrate across life stages to fully capture cumulative effects of pollutants with other stressors related to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  2. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  3. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  4. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  6. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  7. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  9. Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa Ana; Hammers, Martijn; Hansson, Bengt; Van Gossum, Hans; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Galicia Mendoza, Dalia Ivette; Wellenreuther, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous

  10. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  11. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  12. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    Studying Odonates. .... efforts to conserve, and prudently use, India's rich heritage of biodiversity. This is the ... Thanks to the work of Fraser, the Indian odonate fauna is well documented in ... English names to families and species of odonates.

  13. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  14. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  15. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  16. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  18. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  19. Male mating biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  20. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  1. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  2. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  3. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  4. Male Body Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  5. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  6. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  7. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  8. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  9. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  10. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  11. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  12. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  15. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  16. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  18. TRICHOMONAS URETHRITIS IN MALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Ector

    1955-01-01

    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  19. Lycopene and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  20. Male breast pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  1. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  2. Endometriosis in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E

    1985-07-01

    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Male Body Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  4. Gender-disturbed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S B

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  5. First description of reproductive behavior of the Amazonian damselfly Chalcopteryx rutilans (Rambur (Odonata, Polythoridae Primeira descrição do comportamento reprodutivo da libélula amazônica Chalcopteryx rutilans (Rambur (Odonata, Polythoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Resende

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polythoridae comprise a widespread group of species in the New World tropics, but little is known about their behavior or life history. Here, we described the reproductive behavior of Amazonian Chalchopteryx rutilans, using mark-recapture techniques. Males were resident and territorial, though we found disputes (complex flight manoeuvres to be rare. Trunks (rotting wood were important to male persistence in sites, as these are the locations preferred by females for oviposition. The mating system of C. rutilans may be comparable to the resource limitation category, described by Conrad & Pritchard (1992, where males cannot control female access to oviposition sites. So, female choice becomes important and apparently, the observed displays (in which males flash the coppery coloration of their hind wings may be related to attraction of females to territories, as in a lek system.A família Polythoridae compreende diversas espécies tropicais, das quais muito pouco se conhece sobre o comportamento ou história de vida. Neste trabalho, nós descrevemos o comportamento reprodutivo da espécie amazônica Calchopteryx rutilans, utilizando técnica de marcação e recaptura. Os machos foram residentes e territorialistas, apesar das disputas (que envolvem manobras de vôo complexas serem raras. A ocorrência de troncos caídos sobre os igarapés foi importante para a persistência dos machos nos territórios, uma vez que as fêmeas utilizam estes locais para postura dos ovos. O sistema de acasalamento de C. rutilans parece similar ao "sistema com limitação de recurso", descrito por Conrad & Pritchard (1992, onde os machos não são capazes de controlar o acesso das fêmeas aos recursos de oviposição. Nestes casos, as fêmeas podem escolher os machos e, aparentemente, as freqüentes exibições dos machos (mostrando a coloração interna cobreada de suas asas podem estar relacionadas à atração de fêmeas aos territórios, semelhante ao sistema tipo

  6. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  7. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  8. Imaging of male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario

    2003-01-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  9. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  10. Imaging of male urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  11. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  13. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  14. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  15. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  16. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating and regular physical activity, to help promote better mental health. Many effective treatments are available for depression. So don't try to tough out male ...

  17. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  18. Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Deodbar

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen examination with special reference to semen analysis and culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum was carried out in 50 male infertile patients in the age group of 25 to 40 years, attending a private infertility clinic. Isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 14 (28% patients and the abnormalities in count and motility of spermatozoa suggest that ureaplasmas may play a role in human male infertility.

  19. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  20. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  1. DNA barcodes for dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) of Mindanao, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Princess Angelie S; Sing, Kong-Wah; Lee, Ping-Shin; Nuñeza, Olga M; Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T; Wilson, John-James

    2018-03-01

    Reliable species identification provides a sounder basis for use of species in the order Odonata as biological indicators and for their conservation, an urgent concern as many species are threatened with imminent extinction. We generated 134 COI barcodes from 36 morphologically identified species of Odonata collected from Mindanao Island, representing 10 families and 19 genera. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0 to 6.7% with four species showing more than 2%, while interspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0.5 to 23.3% with seven species showing less than 2%. Consequently, no distinct gap was observed between intraspecific and interspecific DNA barcode divergences. The numerous islands of the Philippine archipelago may have facilitated rapid speciation in the Odonata and resulted in low interspecific sequence divergences among closely related groups of species. This study contributes DNA barcodes for 36 morphologically identified species of Odonata reported from Mindanao including 31 species with no previous DNA barcode records.

  2. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  3. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  4. Male density affects large-male advantage in the golden silk spider, Nephila clavipes

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. Rittschof

    2010-01-01

    Across a variety of animal taxa, the outcome of male--male contests depends on male body size; winners are usually the larger males or the males with bigger weapons. However, high male density can either increase or reverse large-male advantage because density changes the frequency and intensity of male--male interactions. In the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes, large males have a competitive advantage in male--male contests. However, this species shows more than 2-fold variation in ma...

  5. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  6. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  7. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  8. [Male sexuality in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F

    2012-10-01

    Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.

  9. Male contraception: history and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  11. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  12. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  13. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  14. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  15. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  16. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  17. Lifestyle causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2018-03-01

    To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking conception.

  18. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  20. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  1. Some dynamics of male chauvinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S M

    1976-01-01

    Male chauvinism was studied in the psychoanalytic therapy of 11 men. It refers to the maintenance of fixed beliefs and attitudes of male superiority, associated with overt or covert depreciation of women. Challenging chauvinist attitudes often results in anxiety or other symptoms. It is frequently not investigated in psychotherapy because it is ego-syntonic, parallels cultural attitudes, and because therapists often share similar bias or neurotic conflict. Chauvinism was found to represent an attempt to ward off anxiety and shame arising from one or more of four prime sources: unresolved infantile strivings and regressive wishes, hostile envy of women, oedipal anxiety, and power and dependency conflicts related to masculine self-esteem. Mothers were more important than fathers in the development of chauvinism, and resolution was sometimes associated with decompensation in wives.

  2. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peeyush Kumar; Nitish Kumar; Devendra Singh Thakur; Ajay Patidar

    2010-01-01

    Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty. There is a clear need to increase the awareness of hypogonadism throughout the medical profession, especially in primary care physicians who are usually the first port of call for the patient. Hypogonadism can significantly reduce the quality of life and has resulted in the loss of livelihood and separatio...

  3. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  4. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  6. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  7. [Male contraception and its perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch, J

    1982-11-01

    Doctors specializing in male contraception are aware of the very real difficulties hindering the development of an effective method in this field. Others believe that the reason this type of contraception is lagging behind is male chauvinism or a certain fear that men have of losing their virility along with their fertilizing capacity. Since available methods of contraception (condom, vasectomy) have low levels of acceptability and reversibility, research has proceeded along other avenues. 1) Gossypol reduces the number and motility of spermatozoa but its general side effects are not exceptional. 2) Restraining hormonal action (progrestogens, LH-RH agonists) also reduce testicular function and for this reason, require simultaneous administration of androgens. Thus far this has not been resolved; azoospermia is not obtained in every case and when it is, it does not necessarily last. 3) A method involving the epididymis, with a view to preventing spermatozoa from acquiring their normal motility and fertilizing capacity by affecting protein and enzyme synthesis, is also being studied. Perhaps, as has been suggested by the Bicetre Hospital research team, we should be content with methods applicable to certain categories of men. Male contraception would then develop step by step rather than by huge bounds as female contraception. full text

  8. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  9. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  10. Semen proteomics and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Soler-Ventura, Ada; Oliva, Rafael

    2017-06-06

    Semen is a complex body fluid containing an admixture of spermatozoa suspended in secretions from the testes and epididymis which are mixed at the time of ejaculation with secretions from other accessory sex glands such as the prostate and seminal vesicles. High-throughput technologies have revealed that, contrary to the idea that sperm cells are simply a silent delivery vehicle of the male genome to the oocyte, the sperm cells in fact provide both a specific epigenetically marked DNA together with a complex population of proteins and RNAs crucial for embryogenesis. Similarly, -omic technologies have also enlightened that seminal fluid seems to play a much greater role than simply being a medium to carry the spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract. In the present review, we briefly overview the sperm cell biology, consider the key issues in sperm and seminal fluid sample preparation for high-throughput proteomic studies, describe the current state of the sperm and seminal fluid proteomes generated by high-throughput proteomic technologies and provide new insights into the potential communication between sperm and seminal fluid. In addition, comparative proteomic studies open a window to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms of infertility and the discovery of potential biomarkers with clinical significance. The review updates the numerous proteomics studies performed on semen, including spermatozoa and seminal fluid. In addition, an integrative analysis of the testes, sperm and seminal fluid proteomes is also included providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation, maturation and transit of spermatozoa. Furthermore, the compilation of several differential proteomic studies focused on male infertility reveals potential pathways disturbed in specific subtypes of male infertility and points out towards future research directions in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Male homosexuality: nature or culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Blanchard, Ray; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bancroft, John

    2010-10-01

    Debate continues on whether or not male homosexuality (MH) is a result of biological or cultural factors. The debate persists despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Biological theorists produced evidence, however, that these are not always robust. On the other hand, social theorists, without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, with good argument, methods and results of the other side. The aim of this Controversy is to understand the reasons of both perspectives. Two scientists (R.B. and A.C.C.) with expertise in the area of biology of MH were asked to contribute their opinions. The nurture position is discussed by a third expert in sexology (J.B.). Expert opinion supported by the critical review of the currently available literature. The role of the Controversy's editor (E.A.J.) is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. The two experts of the biological issue answer with their data to the questions: “Is male homosexuality partly explainable by immunology?” and “How is male homosexuality a Darwinian paradox?”, respectively. Genetic and immunological factors, birth order, and fertility of relatives are largely discussed. Finally, the expert sustaining the idea that culture and experiences are important determining factors in sexual orientation used a psychosocial and holistic perspective to explain his position. The JSM's readers should recognize that there are several biological factors in MH. However, these findings do not seem to be able to explain all cases of homosexuality. Some others may be due to particular environmental factors. The issue is complicated and multifactorial, suggesting that further research should be undertaken to produce the final answer to the question raised in this Controversy section.

  12. The male breast: radiological abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranhao, Norma; Costa, Isis; Nascimento, Raquel Cristine Gomes do

    1998-01-01

    Mammography of male breast account for less than 1% of mammographic examinations in most breast services. Due to the low incidence of breast cancer in men the significant majority of mammographic diagnosis reveals benign diseases, mostly gynecomastia. Therefore it is most important to identify features of benign conditions, such as gynecomastia, in order to reduce the number of unnecessary surgical biopsies performed in these patients, for the same reason suspicious lesions must be recognized as well. Indications for mammography in men include evaluation of palpable mass, recent onset of breast nipple-areolar skin changes or papillary discharge, and previous history of cancer. (author)

  13. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...

  14. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  15. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  16. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  17. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Psychobiology of Male Homosexuality: Recent Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico Iseda, Ivan Darío; Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes of male homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexuality differs from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally, evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biological condition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexual men, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to male homosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral dif...

  19. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  20. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  1. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  2. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  3. Caribbean male: macho and insensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    185, 50, and 104 men aged 15-44 years were interviewed, respectively, in Barbados, St. Lucia, and Grenada in three attitudinal studies designed to get an objective look at male attitudes in the region on family planning and human sexuality. Qualitative information was obtained on fertility and contraceptive use, attitudes toward premarital sex, fidelity and relationships, and influences upon male behavior. Men wanted an average of 2.5 children in Barbados, 4 in St. Lucia, and 3.5 in Grenada. Monogamy was not paramount, with 56% of Grenadian men reporting having overlapping sexual relations. There was also a substantial tolerance for illegitimacy, especially among married men and men with post-secondary education. In St. Lucia, relationships are conducted on the man's terms. For example, men may have sexual relationships with multiple women, but it is unacceptable for women to have other men. Most men, however, agreed that fathers should have a say in the upbringing of their children and should visit and support them financially even if the parents do not live together. Many respondents had unstable relationships with their fathers, and a large proportion had not lived with them. 63% of respondents knew their fathers had outside women. Men were aware and supportive of family planning, and generally try to use contraception. 78% of men interviewed in Grenada and 75% of men interviewed in St. Lucia endorse birth control, while 52% of the respondents in St. Lucia practice family planning. Younger, relatively inexperienced men were most typically in need of more knowledge and greater practice of family planning. Family planning programs should be targeted accordingly.

  4. Sexual Violence Among Male Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilinski-Rosick, Carly M; Freiburger, Tina L

    2018-04-01

    Inmate misconduct has been a widely studied topic for many decades. General studies of misconduct have found that there are certain factors that contribute to misconduct, including age, gender, sentence length, and facility type. Few studies, however, have examined the factors predicting sexual offenses in a prison conduct. Although many studies of victims of sexual offenses in prison have been conducted, there is a lack of studies examining the perpetrators of prison sexual violence. The current study attempted to expand this body of literature by examining the correlates of sexual misconduct among a sample of male inmates incarcerated in the state of North Carolina during 2010. Deprivation and importation theories of inmate behavior were used to guide the analysis, and measures of deprivation and importation factors were both included in the analytical models. Findings indicate that Black, nonmarried, younger inmates, who had more previous incarcerations and had been incarcerated longer, had greater odds of having a sexual infraction. Additional findings, as well as policy implications, are discussed.

  5. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  6. The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I return to the idea that pedophilia, a sexual interest in prepubescent children, can be considered a sexual orientation for age, in conjunction with the much more widely acknowledged and discussed sexual orientation for gender. Here, I broaden the scope to consider other chronophilias, referring to paraphilias for age/maturity categories other than young sexually mature adults. The puzzle of chronophilias includes questions about etiology and course, how chronophilias are related to each other, and what they can tell us about how human (male) sexuality is organized. In this article, I briefly review research on nepiophilia (infant/toddlers), pedophilia (prepubescent children), hebephilia (pubescent children), ephebophilia (postpubescent, sexually maturing adolescents), teleiophilia (young sexually mature adults, typically 20s and 30s), mesophilia (middle-aged adults, typically 40s and 50s), and gerontophilia (elderly adults, typically 60s and older) in the context of a multidimensional sexual orientations framework. Relevant research, limitations, and testable hypotheses for future work are identified.

  7. Microwave heating for male contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  8. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty. There is a clear need to increase the awareness of hypogonadism throughout the medical profession, especially in primary care physicians who are usually the first port of call for the patient. Hypogonadism can significantly reduce the quality of life and has resulted in the loss of livelihood and separation of couples, leading to divorce. It is also important for doctors to recognize that testosterone is not just a sex hormone. There is an important research being published to demonstrate that testosterone may have key actions on metabolism, on the vasculature, and on brain function, in addition to its well-known effects on bone and body composition. This article has been used as an introduction for the need to develop sensitive and reliable assays for sex hormones and for symptoms and treatment of hypogonadism.

  9. Male Hypogonadism. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Hernández Madrazo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 26 years old male patient who attended the Internal Medicine consultation at the La Fortaleza Integral Diagnostic Center in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela because of decreased external genitalia size, with poor development from childhood and swelling of the breasts is presented. Physical examination showed a trunk of feminoid configuration caused by adipose tissue accumulated in the lower abdomen, breast and pubic; wide pelvis; lower limb dominance over higher limbs; enucoid proportions; volume diffusely  increased in both breasts (gynecomastia; deposit of fatty tissue at the pelvic girdle, and absent or sparse facial, axillary and pubic hair. We observed decreased size, poor pigmentation, and soft consistency in penis and testicles. Exam was performed on plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, thus concluding, by the Endocrinology Service at the Maracaibo University Hospital, to be the case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of improvable cause. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism in adults is unusual in medical practice, a fact that provides with relevance the case we present.

  10. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  11. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mutation of Drosophila dopamine receptor DopR leads to male-male courtship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, He; Ren, Jing; Guo, Aike

    2012-07-06

    In Drosophila, dopamine plays important roles in many biological processes as a neuromodulator. Previous studies showed that dopamine level could affect fly courtship behaviors. Disturbed dopamine level leads to abnormal courtship behavior in two different ways. Dopamine up-regulation induces male-male courtship behavior, while down-regulation of dopamine level results in increased sexual attractiveness of males towards other male flies. Until now, the identity of the dopamine receptor involved in this abnormal male-male courtship behavior remains unknown. Here we used genetic approaches to investigate the role of dopamine receptors in fly courtship behavior. We found that a dopamine D1-like receptor, DopR, was involved in fly courtship behavior. DopR mutant male flies display male-male courtship behavior. This behavior is mainly due to the male's increased propensity to court other males. Expression of functional DopR successfully rescued this mutant phenotype. Knock-down of D2-like receptor D2R and another D1-like receptor, DAMB, did not induce male-male courtship behavior, indicating the receptor-type specificity of this phenomenon. Our findings provide insight into a possible link between dopamine level disturbance and the induced male-male courtship behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Youth masculinities: compelling male heterosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2010-12-01

    This article seeks to extend understandings of heterosexual masculine identities through an examination of young men's constructions of what motivates young men to engage in heterosexual practices and relationships, and what not having sex might mean for them. Using the masculinity literature and work on heterosexuality to frame the discussion and to contextualize the findings, it explores the complex dynamics that frame the relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Specifically, how dominant or 'hegemonic' discourses of heterosexuality shape young men's identities, beliefs and behaviour. It considers these questions using empirical data from a qualitative study of young people living in close-knit working-class communities in the North East of England, with a specific focus on cultural and social attitudes towards sexuality and sexual practices. Peer group networks are a key site for the construction and (re)production of masculinity and, therefore, an important arena within which gendered social approval and acceptance is both sought and gained. In this article, I explore the reasons why young men engage in specific types of heterosexual practice in order to gain social approval. A central question is the extent to which heterosexuality is compelling for young men. That young men do feel compelled to behave in certain ways sexually, behaviours that they may be uncomfortable with and/or dislike, and the fact that they feel they are restricted in terms of how they can talk about their experiences within their peer group networks, demonstrates the power of dominant discourses of masculinity in everyday life. This is addressed through an examination of the restrictive effects of normative discourses about male heterosexuality, including their privatizing effects, which suggest that youth masculinities are often experienced in ways that are highly contradictory requiring young men to adopt a range of strategies to deal with this.

  15. Paget disease of the male nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harroudi, T; Tijami, F; El Otmany, A; Jalil, A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer occurring in the mammary gland of men is infrequent. It accounts for 0.8% of all breast cancers, which is less than one per cent of all newly diagnosed male cancers and 0.2% of male cancer deaths. However, Paget disease of the male nipple is extremely rare. We report a single case of Paget disease with infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 61-year-old man.

  16. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  17. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  19. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  20. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  1. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  2. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  3. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  4. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats.

  5. Exogenous melatonin administration is beneficial for male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A concern in the use of exogenous melatonin as a therapeutic intervention is that it may interfere with reproductive function. Herein, we report that chronic exogenous melatonin administration does not impair male reproductive function during ageing and at old age in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: ...

  6. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; da Cunha, Maria Ribeiro; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30–40 lm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron...

  7. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  8. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  9. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  10. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  11. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  12. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  13. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  14. Approaches to male hypogonadism in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Kristi L.; Stewart, Felicia; Larson, Brandi M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Evidence suggests that providers are not adhering to current testosterone replacement therapy guidelines when treating male hypogonadism. Understanding the diagnosis and management of this condition is further complicated by conflicting recommendations among available guidelines. NPs must select and follow the best guideline recommendations available to optimally treat male hypogonadism.

  15. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  16. Male infertility and its causes in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  17. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  18. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  19. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  20. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male reprodu...

  1. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  2. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  3. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  4. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  6. A Case of Male Goltz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia, a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported.

  7. Haemorrhagic SLE In A Young Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease that tends to occur in early adult life. The peak age of onset of the first symptom or sign in females is about 38 years and later in men, at about 44 years. Females outnumber men in this illness in a ratio of about 8 : 1. Cutaneous lesions in male have not been properly investigated and some studies in male with SLE have shown that the illness may present with atypical skin lesions. A case of SLE in a 20 year male who developed sudden onset of haemorrhagic vesiculobullous butterfly rash is described.

  8. Solitary neurofibroma in the male breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Mark EF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurofibroma of the male breast outside of neurofibromatosis is extremely rare with only one previous case having been reported. Case presentation A 48 year old male patient with a neurofibroma in the breast presenting with gynaecomastia is reported. Clinical and mammogram findings with fine needle aspiration cytology and full histology are presented. Conclusion To our knowledge this is only the second case of a neurofibroma in a male breast in the English literature and the first report to include the mammographic findings.

  9. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  10. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Green, Anders

    2018-01-01

    A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess...... the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride. Individual...

  11. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  12. Reduction of dopamine level enhances the attractiveness of male Drosophila to other males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Dartevelle, Laurence; Yuan, Chunyan; Wei, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Ferveur, Jean-François; Guo, Aike

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neuromodulator in animals and its roles in mammalian sexual behavior are extensively studied. Drosophila as a useful model system is widely used in many fields of biological studies. It has been reported that dopamine reduction can affect female receptivity in Drosophila and leave male-female courtship behavior unaffected. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to decrease the dopamine level in dopaminergic cells in Drosophila, and investigated the consequence of this manipulation on male homosexual courtship behavior. We find that reduction of dopamine level can induce Drosophila male-male courtship behavior, and that this behavior is mainly due to the increased male attractiveness or decreased aversiveness towards other males, but not to their enhanced propensity to court other males. Chemical signal input probably plays a crucial role in the male-male courtship induced by the courtees with reduction of dopamine. Our finding provides insight into the relationship between the dopamine reduction and male-male courtship behavior, and hints dopamine level is important for controlling Drosophila courtship behavior.

  13. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  14. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  15. Condition-dependent female preference for male genitalia length is based on male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jimenez, Armando; Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2017-12-06

    There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored. Here, we show that female preference for male genitalia length in two livebearing fishes depends on the type of reproductive tactic of the males being evaluated as well as the body condition of the female. In a species where all males coax females to acquire matings (courters), females preferred males with short genitalia. In a species with genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics (courter males that only court and produce courter sons, sneaker males that use the coercive tactic of sneak chase and produce sneaker sons), female preference depended on an interaction between male tactic and female condition: females in good condition preferred courter males with short genitalia, and sneaker males with long genitalia. Our results suggest that female preference for male traits favourable to their sons may be an important factor contributing to the diversification of male genitalia. Despite the contrasting selection for genitalia length that our female preference tests suggest, we found no significant differences in genitalia length between coaxing (courters) and coercive (sneakers) males. Our study represents a starting point to more clearly understand the role of alternative reproductive tactics and variation in female mate preference in the evolution of male genitalia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  17. Sociodemographic Findings in an Infertile Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Güngör

    2008-08-01

    CONCLUSION: This study claims that the previously established risk factors which are considered to be associated with infertility might influence less or interfere with male infertility in more subtle ways.

  18. Zika Virus in the Male Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Stassen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies. Mouse and macaque models have begun to unravel the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection in the male reproductive tract, with the testes and prostate gland implicated as potential reservoirs for persistent ZIKV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the male reproductive tract, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection at this site, and prospects for vaccines and therapeutics against persistent ZIKV infection.

  19. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal

  20. Hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility: Clinical case scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Dabbous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the evaluation, treatment and impact of hyperprolactinaemia on male infertility and testicular function, as hyperprolactinaemia is commonly detected during the evaluation of infertile men. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines to identify all studies exploring hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility. Results: Elevated levels of serum prolactin have a detrimental effect on male reproduction through inhibition of the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary gland, and a direct effect on spermatogenesis. Treatment of confirmed hyperprolactinaemia with dopamine agonists leads to significant improvements in both semen parameters and hormone levels. Conclusion: Hyperprolactinaemia, both directly and indirectly, has a negative effect on sperm production, and its detection and management in men seeking fertility is mandatory. Keywords: Prolactin, Male infertility, Dopamine agonists, Testosterone, Pituitary adenoma

  1. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

    2010-11-01

    The world's population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male's reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Profile Gonococcal Uretheritis in Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Ganguli

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 125 uncomplicated urethritis in males were selected at and analysed from different angles in view the changing facets of gonococcal infection and its impact at the present time.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF THE PRIMARY MALE HYPOGONADISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kulikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of the new methods of treatment of primary male hypogonadism is an urgent medical problem. Its solution requires a suitable experimental model of the disease. Aim: The creation of new experimental model of primary male hypogonadism. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on the male Wistar rats, hypogonadism was modeled by temporary ligation of the distal part of the spermatic cord. Results: It was shown that three-day ligation of the spermatic cord led to persistent disturbance of the testosterone-producing and reproductive functions. These manifestations were reversible at shorter duration of the exposure. Conclusion: The created model of primary male hypogonadism is characterized by the persistent testosterone-producing and reproductive functions disturbance, technical availability, non-toxicity to the other organs and systems. Availability of the model provides new opportunities for the development of approaches to treating diseases of the reproductive organs in men.

  4. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  5. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Testicular biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Male Infertility updates ... analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes ...

  6. God as Father: The maleness of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Williams

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available It is fashionable today to try to avoid sexist language in theology, despite the Bible’s consistent use of the masculine pronoun when referring to God. Although such an attempt has largely been engendered by modem culture, the maleness of God is not simply a hangover from a patriarchal society, but reflects a fundamental maleness in God’s dealing with man. It emphasises the idea of redemption by grace alone over against creation, and such aspects as the adoption of Christians as sons. The maleness of Christ likewise has not simply been cultural, but is significant theologically. This is not to deny any femininity in God, but to assert that male features predominate. Such an idea does not reduce the status of women, but rather an emphasis on redemption raises it. Raising the status of women in society would in fact reduce the pressure to demasculinize God.

  7. Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Terry L.; Han, Bokyung; Little, Brent P.

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the male urethra is presented. The embryologic basis of each anomaly, when known, is discussed. Clinical and imaging features of each entity are presented. (orig.)

  8. The Male Gender Role and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male...

  9. Ectopic ureterocele in the male infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Loehr, G.; Ringertz, H.; Thomasson, B.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of a series of ectopic ureterocele present in 14 male infants. The malformation is found to be more complex than in the female. The ipsilateral renal function is severely impaired or abolished and obstruction to the bladder outflow common. Associated dilatation and elongation of the posterior urethra during micturition may result in a valvelike appearance. Eversion of the male ureterocele is common and possible mechanisms to account for this event are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Male microchimerism and survival among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status.......During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status....

  11. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  12. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu

    2012-01-01

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  13. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery.

  14. TRADISI LISAN MALE-MALE: NYANYIAN KEMATIAN DALAM MASYARAKAT CIACIA: KAJIAN SOSIOLOGIS DAN UPAYA PEWARISAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrif Asrif

    2016-08-01

      Oral Tradition of Male-Male: Death Anthem Ciacia: Sosiological Studies and an Effort to Pass It On to the next Generation. Male-Male is lyrics sung upon the death of a member of the society who is considered a perfect person. This oral tradition shows the society appreciation towards the person through the expression of sadness, longing, partience and praises. Male-Male serves various functions; both private functions (the singer and host, and societal function (the guests. For th singer and the host, this tradition serves as consolation, caring towards other members, dissemination of social values and religion, prestige, and passing on a tradition. For the society, Male-Male functions as a self remainder of death, strengthening faith, increasing empathy and solidarity. Efforts to guarantee the continuity of this tradition by the next generation are required. Formal effortcan be made through schools, and the informal ones can be made through the strengthening of tradition bodies. Keywords: Oral tradition, Male-Male, Sociology, and Passing the tradition

  15. Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B

    2016-12-01

    Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Seminal fluid enhances competitiveness of territorial males' sperm in a fish with alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Federica; Locatello, Lisa; Rasotto, Maria B

    2018-05-29

    The most common adaptation to sperm competition in males is represented by an increase in the sperm number and/or quality released at mating, to raise their probability of egg fertilization. However, rapidly mounting evidence highlights that seminal fluid may directly influence the competitive fertilization success of a male by affecting either own and/or rival sperm performances. In the black goby, Gobius niger , an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics and high sperm competition level, sneaker males' ejaculates contain less seminal fluid and more sperm, that are also of better quality, than those of territorial males. However, territorial males, gain a higher paternity success inside natural nests. Here, we ask whether the seminal fluid can contribute to territorial males' reproductive success by enhancing their sperm performances and/or by decreasing those of sneaker males. Using sperm and seminal fluid manipulation and in vitro fertilization tests, we found that own seminal fluid influences the velocity and fertilization ability of sperm only in territorial males, making them as faster as those of sneakers and with similar fertilization rate. Moreover, both sneaker and territorial males' sperm remain unaffected by the seminal fluid of rival males. Thus, black goby males respond to the different level of sperm competition faced by differently allocating in sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate, with sneakers primarily investing in sperm of intrinsic high quality and territorial males relying on the effect of seminal fluid to increase the lower intrinsic quality of their sperm. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Promotores��� perspectives on a male-to-male peer network

    OpenAIRE

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducte...

  18. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  20. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  1. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskill, Peter; Carvalho, Danilo O; Capurro, Margareth L; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A; McKemey, Andrew R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m) and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m). Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  3. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  4. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-09-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment. Male infertility affects many aspects of a man's life and may cause a life crisis. Although infertility treatment is now commonplace in men, they often feel remote and disconnected from the treatment process. A descriptive survey. A questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions was completed by 210 Danish men undergoing fertility treatment. The questionnaire covered three issues: individual perception of male infertility, gender equality issues, and communication with health professionals in the clinic. Data were collected during 2008. Of the participants, 28% believed that their reduced sperm quality affected their perception of masculinity. 46% stated that equal involvement between partners was a very important element of the treatment; however, 63% said that the health professionals communicated primarily with their female partner. Finally, 62% found that there was a need for a deeper dialogue with the nurses concerning male infertility and 72% lacked information about the psychological consequences of male infertility. In general, participants wanted a more open and balanced dialogue about infertility treatment and the role of the male partner during this process. Infertile men want health professionals to view them on equal terms with their partner. When treating the infertile man, there is a further need to develop more inclusive communication skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...

  6. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  7. Female perception of male body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Mark J T

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction is one of the most crucial forms of communication among nonhuman animals. Historically, olfaction has been perceived as being of limited importance for humans, but recent research has documented that not only do humans have sensitive olfactory abilities, but also odors have the potential to influence our physiology and behavior. This chapter reviews research on olfactory communication among humans, focusing on the effects of male bodily odors on female physiology and behavior. The process of body odor production and the detection of olfactory signals are reviewed, focusing on potential sex differences in these abilities. The effects of male body odors on female physiological and behavioral effects of body odors are considered. Finally, with specific regard to female mate choice, evidence regarding the influence of the major histocompatibility complex and fluctuating asymmetry on male olfactory cues is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  9. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common...

  10. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  13. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  14. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dehuri, Priyadarshini; Umamahesweran, Sandyya; Kamat, Rohan

    2018-01-01

    Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  15. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Gochhait

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  16. Is male infertility a forerunner to cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney R. Burns

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The frequency of testicular cancer and male infertility has been increasing in the past several decades. This article examines the relationship between male infertility and testicular cancer, concentrating particularly on causal links. RESULTS: Both of these disorders are associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome and have also been traced to mutations in genes involving DNA repair and tumor suppression, as well as environmental exposure. CONCLUSION: The identification and examination of these common points of origin supports the integration of testicular cancer screenings into the routine evaluation of infertile men.

  17. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DaiSik; Koo, Sung-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2012-12-11

    To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents) aged 0-64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14-29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14-16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17-19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7%) had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14-16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication

  18. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    , thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...... that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes...

  20. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a male patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibarani, H.; Zubir, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Female to male ratio is approximately 9:1.A 20 years old male was admitted to HAM Hospital 3 months ago with chief complaint pain in both knees joint. After anamneses, physical examination and laboratory test the patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient tested positive for ANA and anti-ds-DNA antibody test. The patient was with giving non-biologic DMARDS @myfortic 360mg, methylprednisolone, chloroquine and other symptomatic drugs.

  2. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Steroid sulfatase gene in XX males.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohandas, T K; Stern, H J; Meeker, C A; Passage, M B; Müller, U; Page, D C; Yen, P H; Shapiro, L J

    1990-01-01

    The human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine at their distal short arms during male meiosis. Recent studies indicate that the majority of XX males arise as a result of an aberrant exchange between X and Y chromosomes such that the testis-determining factor gene (TDF) is transferred from a Y chromatid to an X chromatid. It has been shown that X-specific loci such as that coding for the red cell surface antigen, Xg, are sometimes lost from the X chromosome in this aberrant exchange. The ste...

  4. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    establishing the level of male partner involvement and influence of couple knowledge and perception on male involvement in choice of ... access to care and provision of emotional and ..... although the male partners are key decision makers.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male-limited precocious puberty Familial male-limited precocious puberty Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial male-limited precocious puberty is a condition that causes early sexual development ...

  6. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deafness and male infertility Sensorineural deafness and male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  9. Behavior of ergatoid males in the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen; Künholz, S.; Schilder, K.; Hölldobler, B.

    1993-01-01

    Ergatoid males of the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda, attack and frequently kill young males during or shortly after eclosion. Smaller colonies therefore contain typically only one adult male, which may inseminate all alate queens which are reared in the colony over a few weeks. In larger colonies, several males may be present, however, fighting among adult males was not observed. We discuss the significance of male fighting behavior in ants.

  10. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  12. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes).

  13. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  14. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  15. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  16. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  17. What makes a nest-building male successful? Male behavior and female care in penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, [No Value; Komdeur, J; Szekely, T; Szentirmai, István

    Why do females increase parental effort when caring for the offspring of attractive males? First, attractive males may be poor fathers so that their females are compelled to increase their own contribution in order to fledge some young (the partner-compensation hypothesis). Second, females mated to

  18. Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining Male Teachers: Policy Issues in the Male Teacher Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Martino, Wayne; Lingard, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Frequent calls for more male teachers are being made in English-speaking countries. Many of these calls are based upon the fact that the teaching profession has become (even more) 'feminized' and the presumption that this has had negative effects for the education of boys. The employment of more male teachers is sometimes suggested as a way to…

  19. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  1. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  3. Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Olsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life, puberty, and the time of ejaculation; longitudinal data over decades of time are required. The ongoing monitoring of semen quality and quantity should continue, and surveys monitoring fertility and waiting TTP should also be designed.

  4. DISPROPORTIONATE MORTALITY OF MALES IN A POPULATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than 83 per cent of the male skulls were from young adults 19 - 30 months old, and nearly 83 per cent of the ... Territorial springbok advertising display (Bigalke 1972). 3. ... food, which is utilized by its owner, conspecifics and other herbivores.

  5. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  6. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  7. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  8. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  9. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D

    1999-01-01

    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  10. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  11. Deterioration of male reproductive functions in hyperprolactinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kooy (Adriaan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSince the early seventies, chronic hyperPRLaemia due to hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, drug abuse, hypothyroidism or other causes, has been recognized as a cause of reproductive dysfunctions in both women and men. Possible mechanisms by which PRL exerts its effects on male

  12. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  13. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  14. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cr...

  15. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  17. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  18. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  19. Relationship between blood groups and male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Naeem, M.; Samad, A.; Nasir, A.; Aman, Z.; Ahmed, S.; Manan, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Blood is man's complete and unchangeable identity. The ABO and Rh groups are recognised as major and clinically significant blood groups. Blood group antigens are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also have been utilised in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relation of humans. The objective the present study is to examine the blood group antigens in infertile men for assessing the relationship to male infertility and to know the frequency of various blood groups among infertile males in our population. Method: A total of 1,521 patients along with 460 proven fathers as controls were recruited for the present study from both rural and urban areas of Pakistan and referred to Department of Reproductive Physiology/Health, Public Health Divisions, NIH, Islamabad, during 2002 to 2006. Blood grouping (ABO) and Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test. Results: Overall distribution of blood groups in the studied population of 1,521 subjects was 35.50%, 28.27%, 26.89% and 9.34% for blood groups O, B, A and AB respectively. The ratio of control to patient was 1:3.3. Conclusions: The present preliminary study revealed that in our population the prevalence of male infertility in blood group O is invariably higher than in all other ABO blood groups, showing a strong relationship between blood group O and male infertility. (author)

  20. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia

    1996-01-01

    environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...

  1. Breaking Male Dominance in Old Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlerup, D.; Leyenaar, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of women’s political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland,

  2. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we

  3. [Suicide in female and male physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Luijks, H.D.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. DESIGN: Systematic literature search. METHOD: A literature search was performed in the

  4. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  6. Eating disorders in males: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    regarding the abnormality of reproductive hormone function ... This paper reviews the existing literature on males with eating disorders in an ... through the work of Gerald Russell.7 The term “bulimia” is .... a critical time for adolescents, as an eating disorder could po- ..... Gender Related Aspects of Eating Disorders: A Guide.

  7. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  8. A Global Overview of Male Escort Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navin; Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Harrington, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This article details a preliminary dataset of global male escort sites to give insight into the scale of the online market. We conducted a content analysis of 499 Web sites and also measured traffic to these sites. Our analysis examined the structural characteristics of escort services, geographical and regulatory contexts, and resilience of such services. Results suggest that most sites are independent and not affiliated to escort agencies, and the majority cater to male escorts soliciting male clients, with a number of sites for female clientele and couples. These Web sites are dispersed globally, with Asian, European, and South American countries the major hubs in the market and a small number of large multinational sites based in the United States and Europe figuring as a major presence in markets. Although still subject to high levels of regulation in many parts of the world, the data suggest that male escorting is becoming more visible in diverse cultural contexts as measured by the number of Web sites appearing in public spaces.

  9. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  10. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  11. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  12. Male or female? Brains are intersex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna eJoel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption in popular and scientific publications on sex differences in the brain is that human brains can take one of two forms male or female, and that the differences between these two forms underlie differences between men and women in personality, cognition, emotion and behavior. Documented sex differences in brain structure are typically taken to support this dimorphic view of the brain. However, neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in utero and throughout life to determine the structure of the brain, and that because these interactions are complex, the result is a multi-morphic, rather than a dimorphic, brain. More specifically, here I argue that human brains are composed of an ever-changing heterogeneous mosaic of male and female brain characteristics (rather than being all male or all female that cannot be aligned on a continuum between a male brain and a female brain. I further suggest that sex differences in the direction of change in the brain mosaic following specific environmental events lead to sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Clipboard Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    'period of infertility' in the male monkeys was reversible. However, one thing to note is that not all the monkeys recruited for the study induced high titre antibodies to Eppin – not surprisingly, as the response to any immunogen varies from individual to individual. However, this might turn out to be a stumbling block when it ...

  14. Diversity of Nuptial Plumages in Male Ruffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rhijn, J.; Jukema, J.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Nuptial ornament diversity was studied in 1814 individual male Ruffs that were caught in their spring staging areas in Friesland, The Netherlands. Ornaments (hereafter called plumages) comprised of a ruff, two head tufts and facial wattles. Individual feathers were found to be plain (white, black or

  15. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  16. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  17. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  18. Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small “sneaker” males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy un...

  19. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of c...

  20. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  1. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  2. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  3. Men and masculinities in forensic psychiatric care: an interview study concerning male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

    2009-09-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department.

  4. Postnatal nutrition influences male attractiveness and promotes plasticity in male mating preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-12-01

    Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits. These results suggest that early-life dietary conditions can induce multiple and long-lasting effects on male and female reproductive traits. Moreover, the results seem to reflect a previously unreported case of adaptive plasticity in mate choice in response to a nutritionally mediated reduction in sexual attractiveness.

  5. Increased Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Desert Locusts during Infection with an Entomopathogenic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Lisa M; Cooper, Amy L; Griffith, Gareth W; Santer, Roger D

    2017-07-18

    Same-sex sexual behaviour occurs across diverse animal taxa, but adaptive explanations can be difficult to determine. Here we investigate male-male mounting (MMM) behaviour in female-deprived desert locust males infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Over a four-week period, infected locusts performed more MMM behaviours than healthy controls. Among infected locusts, the probability of MMM, and the duration of time spent MMM, significantly increased with the mounting locust's proximity to death. In experimental trials, infected locusts were also significantly more likely than controls to attempt to mount healthy males. Therefore, we demonstrate that MMM is more frequent among infected than healthy male locusts, and propose that this may be explained by terminal reproductive effort and a lowered mate acceptance threshold in infected males. However, during experimental trials mounting attempts were more likely to be successful if the mounted locusts were experimentally manipulated to have a reduced capacity to escape. Thus, reduced escape capability resulting from infection may also contribute to the higher frequency of MMM among infected male locusts. Our data demonstrate that pathogen infection can affect same-sex sexual behaviour, and suggest that the impact of such behaviours on host and pathogen fitness will be a novel focus for future research.

  6. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  7. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  8. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40 and the second group (n = 98 reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7.The results show that 29% (n = 40 of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8 who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002 than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  9. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors affecting aggressive behaviour of spawning migratory males towards mature male parr in masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Maekawa, K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether dominant migratory males (adopting fighter tactics) of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou would more aggressively attack large mature male parr (adopting sneaker tactics) as large mature male parr are expected to have the potential to cause a greater decrease in fertilization success. The frequency of aggressive behaviour was not related to the body size of males, and it increased with the frequency of interactions with mature male parr. The fertilization success of mature male parr was much lower than migratory males, and no relationship was observed between fertilization success and aggressive behaviour. The low fertilization success of mature male parr, despite infrequent aggressive behaviour by migratory males, indicates that there might be little benefit for migratory males to attack mature male parr more aggressively according to their body size.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  12. Activity, tail loss, growth and survivorship of male Psammodromus algirus

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Milla, Alfredo; Veiga, José Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Males with autotomized tail were sighted more often and moved longer distances than males with complete tail. There were no significant differences in survival between the two groups. The increase of snout-vent lenght at emergence the following year was significantly lower for males with autotomized tail than for males with complete tail.

  13. Diploid male production in a leaf-cutting ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, S.; Boomsma, J.; Baer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    1. In haplodiploid social insects where males are haploid and females are diploid, inbreeding depression is expressed as the production of diploid males when homozygosity at the sex-determining locus results in the production of diploid individuals with a male phenotype. Diploid males are often a...

  14. Perceptions of Credibility of Male and Female Syndicated Political Columnists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsager, Julie L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines perceptions of the credibility of male and female syndicated political columnists. Finds that college students exhibited little prejudice against female versus male bylines in political interpretive columns. Finds a small tendency for male readers to evaluate male bylines higher in stereotypical ways, but female readers do not do this.…

  15. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  16. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  17. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.

  18. Radiography of the male breast in gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, T.J.; Maekaeraeinen, H.P.; Kallioinen, M.J.; Kiviniemi, H.O.; Salmela, P.I. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Pathology, Surgery, and Internal Medicine)

    1992-03-01

    In order to investigate the role of imaging methods in the evaluation of the male breast we reviewed the mammograms and ultrasonograms (US) performed in 40 men with breast enlargement or pain. The patients, whose breasts were examined by either mammography or US or both, ranged in age from 14 to 83 years. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia in 35 patients, lipomas in one, abscess or sequelae to abscess in 2, and normal in 2. In gynecomastia the subareolar density was of varying shape and size or showed a diffuse pattern of heterogeneous density occupying the whole breast on mammography, and a retromammillar hypoechoic focus, a diffuse heterogeneous area, or a combination of these was observed at US. Mammography is recommended for the evaluation of the male breast if the differential diagnosis between gynecomastia and fatty enlargement is not clinically evident, and in all cases of unilateral breast symptoms. US is a complementary method to mammography. (orig.).

  19. Periductal mastitis in a male breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai

    2006-01-01

    Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination

  20. Radiography of the male breast in gynecomastia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, T.J.; Maekaeraeinen, H.P.; Kallioinen, M.J.; Kiviniemi, H.O.; Salmela, P.I.

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of imaging methods in the evaluation of the male breast we reviewed the mammograms and ultrasonograms (US) performed in 40 men with breast enlargement or pain. The patients, whose breasts were examined by either mammography or US or both, ranged in age from 14 to 83 years. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia in 35 patients, lipomas in one, abscess or sequelae to abscess in 2, and normal in 2. In gynecomastia the subareolar density was of varying shape and size or showed a diffuse pattern of heterogeneous density occupying the whole breast on mammography, and a retromammillar hypoechoic focus, a diffuse heterogeneous area, or a combination of these was observed at US. Mammography is recommended for the evaluation of the male breast if the differential diagnosis between gynecomastia and fatty enlargement is not clinically evident, and in all cases of unilateral breast symptoms. US is a complementary method to mammography. (orig.)

  1. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia P Hagenaars

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40-69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8. By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82% those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention.

  2. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Saskia P; Hill, W David; Harris, Sarah E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Gale, Catharine R; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; Marioni, Riccardo E

    2017-02-01

    Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40-69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8). By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82%) those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention.

  3. Acoustic passaggio pedagogy for the male voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Kenneth Wood

    2013-07-01

    Awareness of interactions between the lower harmonics of the voice source and the first formant of the vocal tract, and of the passive vowel modifications that accompany them, can assist in working out a smooth transition through the passaggio of the male voice. A stable vocal tract length establishes the general location of all formants, including the higher formants that form the singer's formant cluster. Untrained males instinctively shorten the tube to preserve the strong F1/H2 acoustic coupling of voce aperta, resulting in 'yell' timbre. If tube length and shape are kept stable during pitch ascent, the yell can be avoided by allowing the second harmonic to rise above the first formant, creating the balanced timbre of voce chiusa.

  4. [Male Urinary Incontinence--a Taboo Issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara-Hocke, Marko; Hermanns, Thomas; Poyet, Cédric

    2016-03-02

    Male urinary incontinence is an underestimated and frequently not broached issue. The urinary incontinence is divided into stress-, urge incontinence and hybrid forms as well as overflow incontinence. The fact that there are increasingly more men over 60 means that the prevalence of the urinary incontinence is up to 40%, and urinary incontinence will increasingly gain importance in daily routine practice. Many investigations and therapies can be realized by the general practitioner. Already simple therapy approaches can lead to a considerable clinical improvement of male urinary incontinence. If the initial therapy fails or pathological results (i. e. microhaematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, raised residual urine and so on) are found, the patient should be referred to a urologist.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some...... suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood...... studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable...

  6. Integrative data analysis of male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edsgard, Stefan Daniel

    of such data in conjunction with data from publicly available repositories. This thesis presents an introduction to disease genetics and molecular systems biology, followed by four studies that each provide detailed clues to the etiology of male reproductive disorders. Finally, a fifth study illustrates......-wide association data with respect to copy number variation and show that the aggregated effect of rare variants can influence the risk for testicular cancer. Paper V provides an example of the application of RNA-Seq for expression analysis of a species with an unsequenced genome. We analysed the plant...... of this thesis is the identification of the molecular basis of male reproductive disorders, with a special focus on testicular cancer. To this end, clinical samples were characterized by microarraybased transcription and genomic variation assays and molecular entities were identified by computational analysis...

  7. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  8. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  9. Male Pragmatism in Ethical Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Kray, Laura J.; Haselhuhn, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Why do men have more lenient ethical standards than women? To address this question, we test the male pragmatism hypothesis, which posits that men rely on their social and achievement motivations to set ethical standards more so than women. Across two studies, motivation was both manipulated and measured before examining ethicality judgments. Study 1 manipulated identification with two parties in an ethical dilemma and found that men were more egocentric than women. Whereas men’s ethicality...

  10. A study on male homosexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, R.; Viswanath, Sudha; Elangovan, P.; Saravanan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Male homosexual behavior carries a high risk of transmitting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ignorance regarding the associated high risk, indulgence inspite of no natural homosexual orientation and not using protective barrier methods can affect the sexual health of adolescents and adults. Aim: (1) To assess the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) having a natural homosexual orientation compared to those who had acquired the homosexual behavior initially under...

  11. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(AB), maintainer S/sub 1/(C-S/sub 1/) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 1/s(D-S/sub 1/, E-S/sub 1/) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 2/(D-S/sub 2/) are produced. In the case that D-S/sub 2/ seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F/sub 1/(DE) should be produced from D-S/sub 1/ x E-S/sub 1/. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCD) or hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCDE) are for practical use.

  12. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    Scientific interest in morbidity in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has increased considerably over the last few decades. The elevated risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood in individuals born SGA has been well documented, whereas data on gonadal development are...... of individual study results, the combined evidence from all data leaves little doubt that fetal growth restriction is associated with increased risk of male reproductive health problems, including hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer....

  13. [Cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hali, Fouzia; Khadir, Khadija; Idhammou, Wassima; Bensardi, Fatima-Zahra; Lefriyekh, Mohamed-Rachid; Benider, Abdelatif; Zamiati, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2011-11-01

    The appearance of skin symptoms in male breast is the main reason for consultation in our context. The aim of this study is to describe the various cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer through a series of cases collected in a dermatology department. A retrospective study was conducted in the dermatology department at the CHU Ibn Rochd January 1988 to December 2009. All cases of male breast cancer initially diagnosed in dermatology were included. The various epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic data were collected from medical records. Twenty cases were collected. The mean age was 61.25 years. Skin invasion by tumor was found in all patients, and it was the reason for consultation. It was a cutaneous involvement at the nipple and areola (17 cases) and at the periareolar skin (three cases). The clinical appearance of skin involvement was vegetative type in 12 cases, infiltrating with nipple retraction in five cases and nodule with skin change in three cases. The average period of consultation was 25 months. The axillary lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients and distant metastases in eight patients. The cutaneous metastases outside breast were noted in six patients. The histological types were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 15 cases (75%), papillary carcinoma in two cases (10%) and non-specific carcinoma in three cases (15%). The treatment was surgery in 14 patients and consisted of radical mastectomy with complete axillary nodal dissection according to Patey. Complementary therapies, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, were indicated in 14 patients. Our single-center study with dermatological recruitment illustrates the frequency and variety of skin disease in male breast cancer and demonstrates that they are still the main reason for consultation in our context. Better information for public and practitioners would allow earlier diagnosis and a more favourable prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  15. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  16. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extens...

  17. The osteoporotic male: Overlooked and undermanaged?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Madeo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Madeo, Lucia Zirilli, Giovanni Caffagni, Chiara Diazzi, Alessia Sanguanini, Elisa Pignatti, Cesare Carani, Vincenzo RochiraDepartment of Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolism, and Geriatrics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Ospedale S.Agostino – Estense di Baggiovara, Modena, ItalyAbstract: Age-related bone loss in men is a poorly understood phenomenon, although increasing data on the pathophysiology of bone in men is becoming available. Most of what we know on bone pathophysiology derives from studies on women. The well-known association between menopause and osteoporosis is far from been disproven. However, male osteoporosis is a relatively new phenomenon. Its novelty is in part compensated for by the number of studies on female osteoporosis and bone pathophysiology. On the other hand, the deeper understanding of female osteoporosis could lead to an underestimation of this condition in the male counterpart. The longer life-span exposes a number of men to the risk of mild-to-severe hypogonadism which in turn we know to be one of the pathogenetic steps toward the loss of bone mineral content in men and in women. Hypogonadism might therefore be one among many corrigible risk factors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse against which clinicians should act in order to prevent osteoporosis and its complications. Treatments with calcium plus vitamin D and bisphophonates are widely used in men, when osteoporosis is documented and hypogonadism has been excluded. The poor knowledge on male osteoporosis accounts for the lack of well shared protocols for the clinical management of the disease. This review focuses on the clinical approach and treatment strategy for osteoporosis in men with particular attention to its relationship with male hypogonadism.Keywords: bone loss, BMD, age-related hypogonadism, sex steroids

  18. Some morphometric relationships of hatchery reared male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, length-weight (LWR), length-length relationships (LLR) and condition factor (K) of male Oreochromis mossambicus from Nursery Unit Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan were examined. The range of the total length (TL) was determined to be 13.20 to 18.10 cm. This study shows that b-value in the LWR (W = aLb) for ...

  19. [Acceptability of male circumcision among male miners in Baise of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Liang, Xu; Chen, Jian; Yang, Xiao-bo; Jiang, Jun-jun; Deng, Wei; Zou, Yun-feng; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Liu, Zhi-hao; Liang, Hao

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the acceptability of male circumcision among male miners in Baise, Guangxi, China. A questionnaire-based survey on the willingness to be circumcised (WTC) and its influential factors were conducted among Guangxi male miners recruited by random cluster sampling. Of 569 subjects who were surveyed, 143 (25.13%) expressed their willingness to be circumcised. Univariate analysis showed that marital status, education level, and the awareness of the hazards of phimosis and redundant prepuce and reasons for circumcision were significantly different between WTC group and the non-WTC group (all Pminers WTC. Male miners in this area have low WTC. Education on the basic knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and circumcision may help promote the application of circumcision.

  20. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

  1. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  2. Circatrigintan cycle of testosterone in human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celec, P.; Kudela, M.; Bursky, P.; Ostatnikova, D.; Zdenek PUTZ, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the influence of testosterone on physical and mental well-being has become a focus of research attention. Testosterone is no more considered the m ale hormone . It was proved to influence woman's behaviour and mental functioning as well as that of a man. Cyclic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in women are known. To search for the infradian variations of human male testosterone levels in a follow up study, which was held in autumn 1999 (one month of continuous sampling) and in autumn 2000 (two and a half months of continuous sampling). Testosterone was determined in saliva, which contains biologically active fraction, unbound to proteins. In autumn 2000 sampling of 31 males (mean age 21.3 ± 1.3) collected saliva in the morning 30 minutes after waking-up every second day during one month and every third day during the following 6 weeks. Saliva was deeply frozen and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of our preliminary study (based on samples collected in 1999) indicated circatrigintan variations of male salivary testosterone. By the use of two different methods (zones of minimum-moving averages and analysis of variance) circatrigintan and circavigintan cycles of salivary testosterone were found in the collected data of our subjects. The article considerates clinical applications of variation of hormonal levels. (authors)

  3. Male lifespan and the secondary sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Literature speculating on the fetal origins of later life morbidity often invokes the "damaged cohort" theory, i.e., that maternal responses to exogenous shocks induce "stress reactivity" in fetuses and thereby shorten the lifespan of males in utero during stressful times. A rival, or "culled cohort," theory posits that exogenous shocks to gravid females induce spontaneous abortions of frail male fetuses, leaving relatively hardy survivors who enjoy, on average, lifespans longer than males in less stressed birth cohorts. A recent test based on archival data from Sweden supported the culled cohort theory. Several characteristics of the Swedish data, however, raise questions regarding the external validity of the findings. We repeat the test with data from Denmark, Iceland, and England and Wales. We use time-series methods that control for trends, seasonal cycles, and other forms of autocorrelation that could confound the test. None of the results supports the "damaged cohort" theory. Consistent with the Swedish findings and with evolutionary theory, we find support in Iceland and England and Wales for the "culled cohort" theory. We discuss the implications of our findings for basic research as well as for public health.

  4. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  5. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  6. Competition for trophies triggers male generosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sophia Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.

  7. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  8. The Young Male Cigarette and Alcohol Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Vincke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many health risks of tobacco and alcohol use, high levels of smoking and drinking are being persisted. Moreover, young men engage more in these behaviors as compared to women. As male physical risk-taking behavior gains attractiveness in short-term mating contexts and given that smoking and drinking have considerable physical costs, this study explores the possibility that tobacco and alcohol use is part of a male short-term mating strategy. By means of a between-subjects experiment (N = 239, women’s perceptions of young male smoking and drinking were investigated. The experiment showed that women perceive men who smoke and drink as being more short-term oriented in their sexuality than nonusers. Moreover, both tobacco and (especially alcohol use brought some attractiveness benefits in short-term mating contexts. A follow-up study (N = 171 confirmed that men’s behavior corresponds with women’s perceptions. Overall, these findings show that cigarette and alcohol use can operate as a short-term mating strategy.

  9. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  10. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  11. Ex-Corporation: On Male Birth Fantasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kanz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1890 and 1933, male birth fantasies became a widespread phenomenon in European culture. One of the key examples of male birth fantasies is Filippo Tommaso Marinetti’s “African” novel Mafarka the Futurist. The novel’s protagonist, Mafarka, gives birth to a child by his will power and by drawing on diverse formations of knowledge, from alchemy to theories of evolution. In addition to the consideration given the psycho-historical, cultural, and scientific contexts of male birth fantasies in the avant-garde, the contribution reflects on sibling encryptment within the relationship to the mother as one more aspect of a span of genealogy one might term “Maternal Modernity.” Christine Kanz is Professor of German Literature at Ghent University in Belgium. Her contribution refers to her 2009 book Maternale Moderne. Männliche Gebärphantasien zwischen Kultur und Wissenschaft, 1890- 1933. In addition she edited several collections and authored another book on Ingeborg Bachmann, and numerous articles and reviews in the area of interdisciplinary studies. Before entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe, class of Daniel Roth, in 2008, Adam Cmiel trained in various media in Bad Dürkheim, Hamburg, Mannheim, and Trier. He has participated in nine exhibitions since the onset of his studies in Karlsruhe.

  12. Selenium: its potential role in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Esterhuyse, J.S.; Truter, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, biomedical research is showing interest in the anti-oxidant activity of selenium. This could be due to compelling evidence that reported that oxidative damage to cells and cell membranes is one of the causative agents in the pathogenesis of many disease states including male infertility. Selenium is a trace element which may be found in soil, water and some foods and is considered to be an essential element which plays an active role in several metabolic pathways and is believed to perform several important roles in the human body. These roles include anti-oxidative activities at cellular level and participating in different enzyme systems. Selenium also serves as a vital component in the maintenance of muscle cell and red blood cell integrity, playing a role in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It has also been reported that selenium is essential in the detoxification of toxic metals in the human system, foetal respiration and energy transfer reactions as well as in the production of sperm cells. It is thought that male infertility can be the result of a selenium deficiency as the absence of selenium in the testicular tissues induces degeneration which results in the active impairment of sperm motility as the first indication of impending infertility. This review paper investigates the role of selenium in male infertility. (author)

  13. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  15. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  16. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectio...

  17. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Ryan T.; Ohl, Dana A.; Sigman, Mark; Smith, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Current means of evaluation of male factor infertility remains routine semen analysis including seminal volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. However, approximately 15% of patients with male factor infertility have a normal semen analysis and a definitive diagnosis of male infertility often cannot be m...

  18. Review on research of suppression male fertility and male contraceptive drug development by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-08-01

    Male contraceptive development in the present scenario is most viable aspect of research due to uncontrolled population growth in the world. In this respect investigators are busy to find out a safe male contraceptive drug. Researchers have started their finding for a suitable drug from natural sources because these are safe and easily acceptable for common man, most of natural sources are plants and their products. In this review 137 plants and their effects on reproduction and reproductive physiology are summarized. Some of them have intense effect on male reproductive system and do not produce any side effects. Reproductive toxicological studies are also important aspects of these kinds of researches, so it is important that drugs are safe and widely acceptable. An ideal male contraceptive can influence semen, testes, hormone level, accessory reproductive organs and general physiology of animals and produced some alterations. Many plants in this review are showing antifertility as well as antispermatogenic effects, so these may be used for further study for contraceptives development but it is important to find out the mechanism of reaction and further laboratory and clinical research on some plants are needed for final male contraceptive drug development. In conclusion this review will help for finding suitable plant products for male contraceptive clinical and laboratory studies.

  19. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  20. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  1. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic...

  2. Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection by male choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2008-09-01

    There are many examples of male mate choice for female traits that tend to be associated with high fertility. I develop quantitative genetic models of a female trait and a male preference to show when such a male preference can evolve. I find that a disagreement between the fertility maximum and the viability maximum of the female trait is necessary for directional male preference (preference for extreme female trait values) to evolve. Moreover, when there is a shortage of available male partners or variance in male nongenetic quality, strong male preference can evolve. Furthermore, I also show that males evolve to exhibit a stronger preference for females that are more feminine (less resemblance to males) than the average female when there is a sexual dimorphism caused by fertility selection which acts only on females.

  3. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  4. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.

  5. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  6. Professional recognition of female and male doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, M; Arrizabalaga, P; Londoño, M C; Padrós, J

    2014-03-01

    The awards for the excellence of the Official College of Physicians of Barcelona (COMB) were instituted in 2004 to recognize the excellence of the professional exercise. The winners are yearly chosen by juries appointed by the board of government, whose members propose for the award doctors who, in their opinion, have an exemplary professional and human behaviour. The number of male and female doctors who have obtained this recognition has been analysed in relation with the sex distribution in the juries. Likewise it has been compared the ratios men-to-women of those who have been rewarded and this ratio among physicians of more than 45 years. Between the awarded physicians the ratio men-to-women was of 2.7/1 (range, from 1.2/1 for awardees in primary care to 6/1 in research). The men-to-women ratio among those who were awarded was in parallel to the man-to-women ratios of the juries. The ratio between men and women among members of the COMB of more than 45 years was 1.4/1, whereas in those who were awarded it was of 2.7/1. The increase in the proportion of women in the juries in the last four years has been followed by an increase in the number of female physicians awarded. This data demonstrates that the predominance of male doctors among those who were awarded does not depend so much on the age factor, but basically on the proportion of male and female doctors in the juries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. The control of male sexual responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Frédérique; Carrier, Serge; Charvier, Kathleen; Guertin, Pierre A; Journel, Nicolas Morel

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spinal mediation of erection and its underlying mechanism with nitric oxide (NO), followed by the description of the ejaculation process, its neural mediation and its coordination by the spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE), followed by the occurrence of climax as a multisegmental sympathetic reflex discharge. Brain modulation of these reflexes will be discussed through neurophysiological evidence involving structures such as the medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the nucleus para-gigantocellularis (nPGI), and through neuropharmacological evidence involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and oxytocin. The pharmacological developments based on these mechanisms to treat male sexual dysfunctions will complete this review, including phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitors and intracavernous injections (ICI) for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions (ED), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of premature ejaculation, and cholinesterase inhibitors as well as alpha adrenergic drugs for the treatment of anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Evidence from spinal cord injured studies will be highlighted upon each step.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  9. Hypopituitarism patterns among adult males with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Junxiang; Qiu, Mingxing; Qi, Songtao; Li, Danling; Peng, Yuping

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize hypopituitarism in adult males with prolactinomas. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 102 consecutive patients, classified under three categories based on adenoma size at diagnosis: 1.0-2.0cm (group A), 2.1-4.0cm (group B), and >4.0cm (group C). Further, 76 patients had successful outcomes at follow-up. We compared different forms of pituitary hormone dysfunction (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and hypocortisolism) based on the maximal adenoma diameter. Serum prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the maximal adenoma diameter (r=0.867; P=0.000). Of the patients, 89.2% presented with pituitary failure, which included 74.5% with growth hormone deficiency, 71.6% with hypogonadism, 28.4% with hypothyroidism, and 12.7% with hypocortisolism. The three groups did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in the incidence of hypopituitarism, including the extent of pituitary axis deficiency, at presentation and following treatment. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the degree of hypogonadism in cases of acquired pituitary insufficiency at diagnosis (P=0.000). In adult males with prolactin-secreting adenomas, the most common form of pituitary hormone dysfunction was growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism, whereas hypocortisolism was less common. The maximal adenoma diameter and prolactin secretion did not determine hormone insufficiency in adult males with prolactinomas, but these factors did affect the degree of both hypogonadism and hypothyroidism. Smaller tumors were found to recur more frequently than large tumors, and recovery was more common in cases of growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...

  11. Male-pattern alopecia and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J L; Halim, M M; Meyrick, G; Jeans, W D; Murphy, D

    1979-05-01

    Cutaneous processes which are thought to be influenced by androgenic stimulation include the development of male-pattern alopecia, terminal hair distribution, sebum excretion rate, maximal sweat secretion rate and skin thickness. We measured these indices in forty-eight normal men, together with muscle, fat and bone thickness and plasma testosterone. There was a significant correlation between hair density on the forearm, leg and chest, but no other significant correlations were found. We conclude that bald men are no more 'masculine' than those with good scalp hair growth, if masculinity is defined in terms of end-organ response to androgenic stimulation.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the male pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, J.L.; Rouanet, J.P.; Pujol, J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present their preliminary results in the investigation of the male pelvis by means of a 0.35 Tesla superconductor apparatus. They present the different sequences used. The signal of the various pelvic organs in man is analysed together with the different anatomical possibilities. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to present very important advantages. The authors consider that the major limitations involve the prostate: new sequences of investigation, in particular a long TR, should be used for the purposes of tissue differentiation [fr

  13. Male contraception: what is on the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana

    2008-10-01

    Male contraception remains an important area of research. Methods can inhibit sperm production or can be targeted to inhibit sperm functions such as motility, orientation or interaction with the egg. Hormonal methods appear to be safe and effective in proof of concept studies but efforts are underway to improve delivery options or lead time until full efficacy is achieved. Nonhormonal methods are based on numerous targets that impact sperm production or function. Several agents that inhibit the sperm-specific or testis-specific targets have been identified and studies in animals have shown promising results.

  14. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  15. Female Versus Male Entrepreneurship within Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardelean Dorina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a topic much debated and analyzed by many research institutions and organizations. In recent years, the total number of entrepreneurs has been increasing significantly, female entrepreneurship being the one that has increased a lot. In this study, we are going to present and analyze the results of studies conducted at European level regarding the comparative evolution of male versus female entrepreneurship. The main conclusion that emerges from the analysis of the results obtained is that the number of women entrepreneurs is almost equal to that of men entrepreneurs in many European countries.

  16. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...

  17. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  18. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  19. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, G R; van Roijen, J H; Pierik, F H; Vreeburg, J T M; Weber, R F A

    2003-03-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dysfunction may cause severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal spermatogenesis. However, information on spermatogenesis in oligozoospermic men is lacking, since testicular biopsy is not routinely performed. Men with a sperm concentration of scoring method. A testicular biopsy was performed in 78 men with severe oligozoospermia. The medical history showed male accessory gland infection in 12.8%, previous hernia repair in 14.1% and a history of cryptorchidism in 12.8%. A normal or slightly disturbed spermatogenesis (Johnsen score >8) was present in 39/78 (50%) of the men. Hernia repair occurred more often in men with normal spermatogenesis. A varicocele was predominantly seen in men with a disturbed spermatogenesis. FSH was significantly lower ( Preproductive tract is a frequent cause of severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular volume and a normal FSH. In other cases, an epididymal dysfunction might explain the oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular biopsy score.

  20. Recent methodological advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Y; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Landmark WHO-sponsored trials showed decades ago that male hormonal contraception (MHC) is an effective male-directed contraceptive approach. Considerable progress has been made particularly in the last 5 years, establishing for the first time the reversibility of MHC and its short-term safety. Methodological advances in recent years include the pooling of information and individual-level integrated analysis; the first-time use of centralized semen analysis and fluorescence to detect low sperm concentrations; the establishment of sperm quality reference ranges in fertile men; the measurement of blood steroid concentrations by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; and the inclusion of placebo groups to delineate clearly possible adverse effects of androgens and progestins in men. We report integrated analyses of factors that are important in predicting suppression and recovery of spermatogenesis after MHC clinical trials for the past 15 years. These are the best data available and will provide guidance and reassurance for the larger-scale Phase III specific regimen efficacy studies that will be required to bring MHC to the population (market). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Male hormonal contraception: past, present, future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Hegyi, Borbála Eszter; Badó, Attila; Németh, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    In certain regions of the world the enormous rate of population growth raises economic and public health concerns and widely accessible contraceptive methods would be desired. In contrast, in other countries the use of effective contraception is a question of individual preferences. Today, most of the reliable contraceptive methods are applied by women, while the options for male methods are quite limited. It is well known that significant portion of pregnancies are still unplanned and several data revealed men's willingness to take part in family planning. Based on these needs, remarkable efforts have been made to develop a suitable hormonal contraceptive agent for men. With the exogenous suppression of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the inhibition of the testicular testosterone production and the spermatogenesis can be achieved. In the beginning, testosterone-derivatives, or testosterone-progestin combinations were administered, later synthetic androgen agents were developed. Despite of these efforts, unfortunately, there is no safe, widely feasible male hormonal contraception to date, but in the future this goal can be achieved by solving the key hurdles. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1819-1830.

  2. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  3. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  4. Only for Males: Gendered Perception of Wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Umar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling has generally been considered to be a masculine sport. To increase female participation in the sport, managers and administrators will need to understand how wrestling is perceived differently by the genders. A focus group interview was conducted with eight participants from both genders to examine how wrestling was perceived. The findings suggested that wrestling was regarded more as a form of violent entertainment rather than as a sport. A survey instrument was then constructed using statements made by the focus group. The survey was administered to 155 respondents of which 56% were females. The mean age of the respondents was 19.8 years. The findings from the survey concurred with the findings from the focus group interview. Wrestling is considered to be a violent and gendered form of entertainment. However, gender differences exist with females more likely to see wrestling as a form of entertainment as compared to males. Females are also more likely to view wrestling as violent and consequently, they tend to see wrestling as more suited for male participation. The findings suggest that sports managers and administrators will need to manage the perception that wrestling is a form of violent entertainment among females by creating opportunities for women to experience the sport and to correct their perception of the sport.

  5. True polyploid meiosis in the human male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Peter L; Madan, Kamlesh

    2018-05-21

    Polyploidy does not usually occur in germinal cells of mammals and other higher vertebrates. We describe a unique example of mosaic autotetraploidy in the meiosis of a human male. Although the original observations were made in the late 1960s, we did not publish them at that time, because we expected to detect further examples that could be described together. However, this did not occur and we have now decided to make the observations available to demonstrate that polyploidy in mammalian male meiosis can arise at a higher frequency than expected by random polyploidization of individual meiotic cells, by either DNA duplication or cell fusion prior to synapsis. This is the first description of a population of primary spermatocytes exhibiting multivalent formation at leptotene /diakinesis in human spermatogenesis, with ring, chain, frying pan and other types of quadrivalents, typical of autotetraploidy. As many of the polyploid configurations showed apoptotic breakdown, it is likely that diploid and/or aneuploid spermatozoa would have rarely or never resulted from this mosaic autotetraploid meiosis.

  6. Reproductive toxicological aspects of chromium in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, E.

    1994-01-01

    To expand our present understanding of the effects of chromium on male fertility a number of studies were designed to achieve this through the use of chromium intoxicated experimental animals and through investigation of sexual hormones and sperm quality in welders. Also in view of the lack of an experimental model for effects of noxious substance on the epididymal spermatozoa the main objectives of the series of studies reviewed here were: A. To establish a model for evaluation of epididymal sperm count and motility in the rat. B. To investigate and compare the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on epididymal spermatozoa. Further to describe the effects of low-dose long-time exposure of rats to the most toxicological interesting chromium oxidative state - hexavalent chromium. C. By the use of autoradiography and γ-countinuing to expand the present knowledge on the distribution of chromium in the body with special reference to the male reproductive organs. D. To describe the effects of exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fume on levels of sexual hormones and semen parameters in welders. (EG)

  7. An update on male hypogonadism therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Men who have symptoms associated with persistently low serum total testosterone level should be assessed for testosterone replacement therapy. Acute and chronic illnesses are associated with low serum testosterone and these should be recognized and treated. Once the diagnosis of male hypogonadism is made, the benefits of testosterone treatment usually outweigh the risks. Without contraindications, the patient should be offered testosterone replacement therapy. The options of testosterone delivery systems (injections, transdermal patches/gels, buccal tablets, capsules and implants) have increased in the last decade. Testosterone improves symptoms and signs of hypogonadism such as sexual function and energy, increases bone density and lean mass and decreases visceral adiposity. In men who desire fertility and who have secondary hypogonadism, testosterone can be withdrawn and the patients can be placed on gonadotropins. New modified designer androgens and selective androgen receptor modulators have been in preclinical and clinical trials for some time. None of these have been assessed for the treatment of male hypogonadism. Despite the lack of prospective long-term data from randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone treatment on prostate health and cardiovascular disease risk, the available evidence suggests that testosterone therapy should be offered to symptomatic hypogonadal men.

  8. The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Ratrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Adulthood male hypogonadism (HG) is the most common form of HG. Although testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) is the most common way of treating HG, other options are available depending on patient's needs and expectations. We analyze alternative options to TRT as a medical intervention in treating HG. Gonadotropin (Gn) therapy is the treatment of choice in men with secondary HG (sHG), who require fertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy represents an alternative to Gn for inducing spermatogenesis in patients with sHG, however, its use is limited by the poor patient compliance and high cost. In obese HG men, lifestyle modifications and, in particular, weight loss should be the first step. Recent data suggest that antiestrogens represent a successful treatment for sHG. Other potential therapeutic options include the stimulation of hypothalamic activity (i.e., kisspeptin and neurokinin-B agonists). Conversely, the possibility of increasing Leydig cell steroid production, independently from Gn stimulation, seems unreliable. Understanding the nature of male HG and patient's needs are mandatory before choosing among treatment options. For primary HG only TRT is advisable, whereas for the secondary form several alternative possibilities can be offered.

  9. Predictive Toxicology and Computer Simulation of Male ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Under control of androgen signaling, urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis. A systemic parameter sweep was used to examine the sensitivity of crosstalk between genetic deficiency and envi

  10. Vitamin D and male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent worldwide condition and affects people of all ages. The most important role of vitamin D is the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus to maintain muscle and bone homeostasis. Furthermore, in recent years it has been discovered that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely distributed in many organs and tissues where vitamin D can perform other actions that include the modulation of the immune response, insulin secretion, anti-proliferative effect on cells of vascular smooth muscle, modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and regulates cell growth in several organs. The VDR is widely distributed in the male reproductive system. Vitamin D induces changes in the spermatozoa's calcium and cholesterol content and in protein phosphorylation to tyrosine/threonine residues. These changes could be involved in sperm capacitation. Vitamin D seems to regulate aromatase expression in different tissues. Studies analyzing seasonal variations of sex steroids in male populations yield conflicting results. This is probably due to the wide heterogeneity of the populations included according to age, systemic diseases and obesity.

  11. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features [Leung et al., accepted manuscript]. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis, both under control of androgen signaling [Leung et al., manuscript in preparation]. A systemic parameter sweep w

  12. Male obesity and semen quality: Any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obose Rufus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men. Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2: normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2. The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology. Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4% while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%. Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2% were overweight and 44 (21.4% were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese (p=0.813. Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.

  13. The diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male and the paths of male sexual desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tramontano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM and the controversies and disputes over it, based on the re-medicalization of sexuality. The analysis is based on interviews with urologists and endocrinologists, and the different approaches of these two medical specialties elucidate divergent conceptions of body and sexuality present in the biomedical knowledge, and the struggle for hegemony in the scientific field. By comparing the meanings attributed to ADAM and to another male sexual dysfunction, the Erectile Dysfunction (ED, we intend to reflect about the difficulties inherent in the biological reduction of sexuality and the reiteration of gender norms in the medical discourse concerning the male body and sexuality.

  14. Assessment of Polyscias fruticosa (L. Harm (Araliaceae leaf extract on male fertility in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX BOYE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyscias fruticosa is used widely as food, disease remedy and as an ornamental across Afro-Asian countries. For instance, P. fruticosa is used traditionally as an anti-asthma, anti-tussive, and a muco-suppressant herbal remedy for asthmatics in Ghana. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological basis of the ethnobotanical uses of P. fruticosa, however, its effect on the reproductive system remains completely unknown. Aim of study: This study assessed effects of Polyscias fruticosa leaf extract (PFE on male fertility and toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: after crude preparation of PFE, it was subjected to qualitative phytochemical, thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Effect of PFE was assessed on male fertility and toxicity by using healthy adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to: normal saline (5 ml/kg po, n = 5, Clomiphene Citrate (50 mg/kg po; n = 5 and PFE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg po; n = 5 respectively groups and treated for 21 days. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and male fertility parameters (left testis weight, relative testis weight, caudal epididymal weight, caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and assessment of male sex hormones and testicular histology were assessed. Results: There were no significant changes in bodyweight, weight of left testis, weights of right and left caudal epididymides between treatments groups (PFE and clomiphene citrate and control. Caudal epididymal sperm count increased in PFE (100 and 500 mg/kg-treated rats relative to control. Sperm motility relatively increased in PFE-treated rats compared to control. Sperm abnormality decreased in PFE-treated rats; especially in PFE (100 mg/kg group compared to control. Serum testosterone levels decreased inversely with serum luteinizing hormone (LH levels in PFE-treated rats compared to control. There were minimal

  15. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya. ... A community based cross-sectional study was done in Mombasa Old Town area, whereby males ... The study unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by ...

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Administrative Competencies of Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Competencies of Male and Female Secondary School. Principals ... analysis. The results showed that male principals were not ... Human skills refer to one's ability and judgement in working with and through ..... Business Review (33), 1 33-42.

  17. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  18. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in Choice of ... many practice this and the influence of the couple knowledge and perception on male ... Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.

  19. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Reproductive Functions of Male Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Reproductive Functions of Male Wistar Rats Exposed to Nicotine. ... smoke, and its effects on male reproductive system and fertility are well documented. ... The drugs were orally administered for thirty-five days.

  20. Low skilled, mature (male) workers and lifelong learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    what characterises low skilled male workers socio-culturally - and how does this influence their participation in lifelong learning?......what characterises low skilled male workers socio-culturally - and how does this influence their participation in lifelong learning?...

  1. WOMAN AS OBJECT OF MALE GAZE IN SOME WORKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkiruka

    marketing and sale of the product, but also an object of male gaze. ... Edward Manet, whose painting Olympia, thought to be inspired by Titian‟s ... encountered in Western art history, whereas unidentifiable nude males were infrequently.

  2. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism...... must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls...... were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest...

  3. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  4. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...

  5. Acceptability of medical male circumcision among traidtionally non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMTU Medical Journal ... Background: Male circumcision (MC) can reduce men's risk of contracting Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) ... non-circumcising males accessing health care in Makambako Hospital, Njombe Region, Tanzania.

  6. Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the management of infertile couples at the Kenyatta National Hospital. ... that may influence male participation in the management of the infertile couples attending the KNH Infertility Clinic.

  7. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  8. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Infertility is ... one-third of infertility cases are caused by male reproductive issues, one-third by female reproductive issues, ...

  9. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  10. A clinicopathological study of urethritis in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Khawer; Mumtaz, Babar; Raza, Naeem

    2009-12-01

    To determine the etiology and frequency of different types of urethritis in adult males. A case series. The Dermatology Department of PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from June 2004 to December 2007. One hundred male patients having complaints of urethral discharge and dysuria reporting in the skin OPD were included in the study. Patients who had received systemic treatment for their complaints and those who had other systemic infections were excluded. A detailed history including history of sexual contact was taken. Dermatological examination including examination of external genitalia was also performed. All these patients were subjected to complete physical examination, complete urine examination, urethral pus for gram staining and culture, endo-urethral swab with urethral loop for seeing Chlamydia antigen by fluorescent microscopy, cultures for ureaplasma and Wet mount specimen microscopy for trichomonas along with HIV (serum ELISA) test. Non-gonococcal urethritis was diagnosed on the presence of more than five polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high power field in at least five fields of Gram stained urethral smear, in the absence of Gram negative diplococci. The mean age was 29.2 + or - 5.8 years. Seventy (70%) cases were diagnosed as gonococcal urethritis and 30 (30%) cases as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). History of illicit sexual exposure was available in 25 (25%) patients. The interval period between initiation of symptoms and reporting of patient in gonococcal urethritis was 4 to 30 days (mean 12.8 days) and 4 days to 2 months (mean 20.7 days) in non-gonococcal urethritis. The patients with gonococcal urethritis presented with purulent discharge in 66 (84%) cases, and dysuria in 49 (70%) cases. In the NGU group, 25 (80%) cases had mucoid discharge and 18 (65%) had dysuria. in 70%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated, Chlamydia trachomatis in 16%, ureaplasma in 8%, and Trichomonas vaginalis in 4%. No organism could be detected in 2% cases. HIV test was

  11. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

      Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varico...

  12. Male Hormonal Contraception: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contrace...

  13. The effect of age on encounters between male crab spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Helen H. Hu; Douglass H. Morse

    2004-01-01

    In males that compete aggressively for females, size and age may determine which males obtain access to these females. In the present study, we use the crab spider, Misumena vatia, a species with males that do not grow after becoming sexually mature adults, to test the hypothesis that age affects the success of males competing for access to females. M. vatia is an excellent species to test this hypothesis because it is possible to disentangle age from size, characters that typically vary toge...

  14. Sexually selected nest-building--Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O; Kvarnemo, C

    2003-09-01

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  15. Free-ranging male koalas use size-related variation in formant frequencies to assess rival males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals.

  16. Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos TOKUDA, Jean P. BOUBLI, Patrícia IZAR, Karen B. STRIER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships. In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels. Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005, and in July 2005. Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called “N” males were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males (“MU” males, which were more connected to one another. Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques. Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques, MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males. Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2: 342-352, 2012].

  17. Idiopathic Subareolar Breast Abscess in a Male Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of left breast abscess in a young male patient who presented with acute onset swelling left breast. Imaging studies helped in accurate diagnosis and the case was managed by subareolar incision and drainage. Subareolar breast abscess is an uncommon entity in male and should be kept as a differential diagnosis for male breast swellings. PMID:25738061

  18. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the male breast: a rare case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (malignant myoepithelioma) of the breast is a rare entity and in the male breast it is even rarer. Two cases of benign myoepithelioma in the male breast have been reported so far. Here we report, probably the first case of Myoepithelial carcinoma in a male breast with clinical features mimicking ...

  19. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  20. library of genic multiple-allele inherited male-steri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... male sterility; AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism;. DDRT-PCR, differential ... production of hybrid seed (Bino, 1985). ... percentage of male-sterile plants in an ideal male-sterile .... and presence or absence of pollen, the flower buds were ..... Diurnal changes of photosynthetic and physiological.

  1. Male greater sage-grouse detectability on leks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2016-01-01

    It is unlikely all male sage-grouse are detected during lek counts, which could complicate the use of lek counts as an index to population abundance. Understanding factors that influence detection probabilities will allow managers to more accurately estimate the number of males present on leks. We fitted 410 males with global positioning system and very high...

  2. Superheroes v demons: Constructing identities of male student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents research undertaken among male teachers and it explores their perceptions and experiences of working in early years contexts. It examines prevalent, contrary discourses and their impact on the construction of male teachers' identities. Public discourses in relation to male teachers reveal contradictions ...

  3. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  4. Prevalence and acceptability of male circumcision in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups and having heard of the HIV protective effect of male circumcision were significant predictors for male circumcision acceptability, and among women with a non-circumcised sexual partner, Black African and Coloured population groups and higher education were predictors for male circumcision acceptability.

  5. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium prov...

  6. Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos TOKUDA; Jean P. BOUBLI; Patrícia IZAR; Karen B. STRIER

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships.In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels.Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005,and in July 2005.Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called "N" males) were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males ("MU" males),which were more connected to one another.Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques.Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques,MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males.Nonetheless,there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males.Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2):342-352,2012].

  7. Social Responsibility Personality Differences between Male and Female Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, Alan M.; Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to explore in what ways, if any, male public relations practitioners differ from their female counterparts in their level of social responsibility. Subjects were 105 public relations practitioners (60% female and 40% male) and 215 college students (71% female and 29% male), who completed the Berkowitz-Lutterman SRS Scale. The…

  8. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  9. Evaluation and treatment of male hypogonadism in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kim Anne

    2016-08-18

    Male hypogonadism is increasing in prevalence, particularly in the older male population. Signs and symptoms associated with hypogonadism are often nonspecific and may be difficult to categorize. This article discusses parameters for screening patients at risk, reviews how to establish the diagnosis of primary or secondary male hypogonadism, and offers important considerations for treatment of patients with hypogonadism.

  10. Evaluation of the safety of the Taraklamp male circumcision device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Male circumcision has been proved to be an effective additional means of preventing transmission of the HIV virus from females to males in heterosexual relationships with efficacy of up to 60%. Many methods and devices for adult male circumcision have now been developed. However, there are still concerns ...

  11. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  12. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  13. Nuclear-cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.; van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for male

  14. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  15. Male Diaphorina citri searching responses to vibrational communication signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prototype devices have been developed that mimic D. citri female replies to male communication signals and lure males to a trap. The objective is to trap a high proportion of males that have landed on a host tree and have begun searching for females. This presentation describes the construction and ...

  16. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  17. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mejido, José Antonio; Delgado-Jiménez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Laura; Sánchez-Sevilla, Miguel; Iglesias-Bravo, Eva; Caballero-Fernández, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    male breast cancer is a disease with low incidence, which is further reduced when it comes to bilateral synchronous presentation. There are few published cases in recent years. The aim is to establish guidelines for the management of this disorder that is so rare. a 75-year-old with tumors in both breasts, which were completely resected with removal of palpable nodes. The histopathological study reported ductal carcinoma. The indicated treatment was adjuvant tamoxifen and radiotherapy. The patient is currently in a disease-free period. this is a rare disease, whose main treatment is surgery, hence the importance of early diagnosis. Most cases require adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy because they are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage.

  18. Male contraception: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Current contraceptive options available to men include withdrawal, condoms, and vasectomy, each of which has its own drawbacks. In this chapter we will describe the pros and cons for each, as well as methodological and product updates. Statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control on acceptance and satisfaction will be included. Advances in vasectomy and reversal will be presented. Methods to develop new contraceptive technologies fall into two categories: hormonal and non-hormonal. Many targets and strategies have been proposed for non-hormonal male contraception within the testis. Targets include structural components in the testis, as well as enzymes, ion channels and other proteins specific to spermatozoa. Here we provide an overview of the spermatogenic mechanisms and proteins that have received research interest to date. We also discuss potential novel targets, such as ubiquitin specific proteases, that warrant greater research emphasis.

  19. Phenotype Manifestations of Polysomy X At Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Ćatović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter Syndrome is the most frequent form of male hypogonadism. It is an endocrine disorder based on sex chromosome aneuploidy. Infertility and gynaecomastia are the two most common symptoms that lead to diagnosis. Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome is made by karyotyping. Over 20 years period (1985-2004 124 patients have been sent to “Center for Human Genetics” of Faculty of Medicine in Sarajevo from different medical centres within Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with diagnosis suspecta Klinefelter syndrome, azoospermia, sterilitas primaria and hypogonadism for cytogenetic evaluation. Normal karyotype was found in 99 (79,8% subjects, and karyotype was changed in 25 (20,2% subjects. Polysomy X was found in 14 (11,3% examinees. Polysomy X was expressed at the age of sexual maturity in the majority of the cases. Our results suggest that indication for chromosomal evaluation needs to be established at a very young age.

  20. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  1. Deafness, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and knuckle pads with male-to-male transmission: Bart-Pumphrey syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Viana de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 22-year-old male patient and his father, both presenting with congenital sensorineural deafness, diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and knuckle pads. These findings are similar to those previously described in the Bart-Pumphrey syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder. Several conditions including keratoderma and deafness are briefly reviewed.

  2. The Effect of Male Confederate Presence, Betting, and Accuracy of Play on Males' Gambling on Blackjack

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Casey L.; Terrance, Cheryl; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the actions of a confederate can alter participants' gambling behavior. In the present experiment, male participants played Blackjack either alone or in the presence of a confederate. The confederate either quit early in the session or played for the entire session. Across sessions in which the confederate played…

  3. The lived experiences of male on male rape: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Roos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of sexual assault upon males has been largely overlooked by society. Opsomming Seksuele geweld van mans teenoor mans is ‘n fenomeen wat grootliks deur die samelewing misken word. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  4. Cytological studies of sterility in male progeny of mutagen-exposed male parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Cornett, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic male sterility results primarily from certain types of balanced reciprocal translocations, and, more rarely, from certain numerical sex-chromosome anomalies. Sterile male offspring sired following exposure of male meiotic or postmeiotic stages to radiation or chemical mutagens are not uncommon and are predominantly carriers of balanced translocations. The chromosome breakpoints of these translocations are generally located near the ends of autosomes or anywhere in the sex chromosomes. Sterile offspring from mutagen-treated spermatogonial stem cells, on the other hand, are not only rare but most of them have no readily detectable chromosomal anomalies. Those that have are either carriers of balanced translocations, or are sex-chromosome trisomics or mosaics (XYY, XXY, XY//XYY, XO//XY, etc.). The nature of the exchange in spermatogonia-derived sterile translocations is not clear and awaits detailed study. In addition, the data base is not yet sufficient for determining the role of induced nondisjunction in the production of genetic male sterility. Accordingly, they have an ongoing project that attempts to study associations between the nature of genetic fertility impairments and the detailed chromosomal genotype, and between chromosomal causes of sterility and the nature of mutagenic treatments that produce them

  5. Male-to-male transmission in extended pedigrees with multiple cases of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallmayer, J.; Spiker, D.; Lotspeich, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-16

    Despite strong genetic influences in autism, the true mode of inheritance remains unknown. Sex differences in autism have been described in both singleton and multiplex families: boys outnumber girls by 3 or 4 to 1, and so a sex-linked mode of transmission must also be considered. The key characteristic of X-linkage is that all sons of affected men are unaffected (no male-to-male transmission). In the present study, which is part of an ongoing linkage project in autism, we describe 77 multiplex autism families, 11 of who are affected cousin or half-sibling families. By using these families, it is possible to trace the path of genetic transmission and observe whether the hypothesis of X-linkage is tenable. Of 11 extended pedigrees from 77 multiplex families, six show male-to-male transmission; in these families, X-linkage can be excluded as the genetic basis for their autism. The data from the other five families are compatible with either an autosomal or an X-linked mode of transmission. The key point to emerge, then, is that autism cannot be exclusively an X-linked disorder; there must be an autosomal mode of transmission at least in some families. Thus we must consider the alternative hypotheses that autism is either entirely autosomal, or it is genetically heterogeneous, involving at least one autosomal locus with gender-specific expression, as well as a possible locus on the X-chromosome. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  6. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Aitken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1. The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1 needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.

  8. Male contraception: a clinically-oriented review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, George A; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of available female contraceptive methods, many pregnancies (~50%) are still undesired. Many men (>60%) want to participate equally with their partner in family planning; however, male contraceptive methods (MCMs) account for only 14% of those used worldwide and no pharmaceutical MCM is available so far. The only two MCMs currently available are condoms, which despite protecting against sexually transmitted diseases have high failure rates (~19%), and vasectomy, which though very efficient (99%) is poorly reversible (<50%). Among MCMs under investigation, male hormonal contraceptives (MHCs) are those that have come closest to commercialization. The action of MHCs relies on the disruption of spermatogenesis that exogenous androgen administration evokes by suppressing the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Various regimens of androgens as monotherapy or in combination with progestins have been tested in clinical trials achieving a Pearl Index <1.0 (equal to that of the female oral contraceptive pill); however, concerns regarding the variable response rates observed (non-responders: 5-20%), the impracticality of parenteral administration and long-term prostate-associated or cardiovascular morbidity have deflected the interest of the pharmaceutical industry from further research. Non-hormonal contraception methods may be, at least theoretically, more specific by selectively disrupting spermatogenesis and sperm transport or fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, only a few have been tested in clinical trials (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance, RISUG, and Intra Vas Plugs); most of them are still in pre-clinical development or have been abandoned due to toxicity (gossypol). Consequently, until a reliable, safe and practical MCM is developed, women will continue to bear most of the contraception burden.

  9. Erectile Dysfunction in Males on Hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, E.; Iftikhar, R.; Ghazanfar, A.; Afzal, M.; Mir, A. W.; Mansoor, K.; Taj, R.; Samiullah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The determine the frequency of erectile dysfunction in males on hemodialysis. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and duration: Hemodialysis unit, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from October 2011 to April 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 150 married male patients of end stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis were included in the study. Patients with cognitive and/or communication deficits and on hemodialysis for less than 06 months were excluded from the study. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). Frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: Mean age of the patients were 52.89 = 8.25 years. Mean duration of hemodialysis was 34 +- 9.62 months. The underlying etiology of end stage renal disease were diabetic nephropathy 69(46%), hypertensive nephropathy 51(34%), obstructive nephropathy 18(12%), glomerulonephritis 9(6%), autosomal polycystic kidney disease 3(2%). Mean IIEF-5 score was 13.29 +- 6.38. The frequency of erectile dysfunction was 74%. The majority of the patients, 73(48.7%) had moderate erectile dysfunction, while 24 (16%) had severe and 14 (9.3%) had mild erectile dysfunction. Out of total 150 patients enrolled, 39 (26%) patients had no erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: ED is a highly prevalent problem in men with ESRD. Physicians are urged to recognize the high prevalence of erection problems in men with ESRD and proactively question all patients regarding their sexual function. This will not only improve the recognition of this condition among these patients but also improve the quality of life after adequate treatment. (author)

  10. Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, W

    1993-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.

  11. Components of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; McGovern, W.L.; Wagner, T.L.; Willers, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of age at the time of irradiation on attractiveness, mating ability, sperm transfer, prior mating, and longevity as factors of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. The amount of sperm transferred by irradiated males appeared to be the most important factor in competitiveness. More sperm was transferred by virgin males irradiated on day 5 than by virgin males irradiated on day 2, and males irradiated on day 5 had greater impact on egg hatch than those irradiated on day 2. The amount of sperm in spermathecae of females mated to virgin mates irradiated on day 5 was indistinguishable from that in females mated to virgin control males. Mating ability of males of all treatments was similar. Comparable numbers of boll weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 or 5 d during the first 4-5 d after irradiation, but thereafter, generally more weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 d or with control males. Attractiveness of males irradiated at 2 d was generally comparable to that of control males. More than 91% of irradiated males individually caged on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants lived for 10 d in the field, and 40% lived for 14 d; all individually caged control males lived 14 d. When released into cotton fields, however, the numbers of both irradiated and control males declined sharply over 14 d. Thus, the potential for an effective 2-wk life span in the field suggested by the caged study did not appear to apply to laboratory-reared weevils released into cotton fields

  12. Analysis of biochemical characteristics of maize anthers from male fertilizable plant and male sterile plant induced by space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingbi; Rong Tingzhao; Zhang Caibo; Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Ya'an; Zhu Yingguo; Cao Moju; Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Ya'an; Wuhan Univ., Wuhan

    2007-01-01

    The contents of soluble sugar, starch, protein and free praline in anthers were analyzed and compared between male fertilizable and male sterile induced by space flight at different developmental stages. The results showed that all contents were lower in male sterile anthers than in fertilisable ones. With anther developing, the contents of soluble starch, protein and free proline increased obviously in male fertilizable anthers, but not in sterile ones. (authors)

  13. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  14. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  15. Male Headship as Male Agency: An Alternative Understanding of a ‘Patriarchal’ African Pentecostal Discourse on Masculinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinken, A.S. van

    2011-01-01

    In some Christian circles in Africa, male headship is a defining notion of masculinity. The central question in this article is how discourses on masculinity that affirm male headship can be understood. A review of recent scholarship on masculinities and religion shows that male headship is often

  16. Male choice in the stream-anadromous stickleback complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S McKinnon

    Full Text Available Studies of mating preferences and pre-mating reproductive isolation have often focused on females, but the potential importance of male preferences is increasingly appreciated. We investigated male behavior in the context of reproductive isolation between divergent anadromous and stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, using size-manipulated females of both ecotypes. Specifically, we asked if male courtship preferences are present, and if they are based on relative body size, non-size aspects of ecotype, or other traits. Because male behaviors were correlated with each other, we conducted a principal components analysis on the correlations and ran subsequent analyses on the principal components. The two male ecotypes differed in overall behavioral frequencies, with stream-resident males exhibiting consistently more vigorous and positive courtship than anadromous males, and an otherwise aggressive behavior playing a more positive role in anadromous than stream-resident courtship. We observed more vigorous courtship toward smaller females by (relatively small stream-resident males and the reverse pattern for (relatively large anadromous males. Thus size-assortative male courtship preferences may contribute to reproductive isolation in this system, although preferences are far from absolute. We found little indication of males responding preferentially to females of their own ecotype independent of body size.

  17. Dominance relationships among siamang males living in multimale groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Intense intolerance among males is considered to be an important mechanism maintaining the uni-male organization traditionally attributed to socially monogamous gibbons. Long-term field work, however, has revealed the existence of stable, socially polyandrous groups in at least two populations, raising questions about the mechanism that allows two adult males to co-reside in the same group. I collected 21 months of behavioral data on 7 two-male groups of wild siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra (Indonesia) to test the hypothesis that dominance relationships regulate the interactions of adult male siamangs and ultimately facilitate multi-male social groups. A dominant male could clearly be identified in each dyad, based on a consistent direction of agonistic interactions, displacements and the maintenance of an advantageous position in the canopy. Males identified as dominant enjoyed greater social access to the resident female and monopolized copulations. These results suggest that gibbons possess the psycho-social flexibility to regulate intra-sexual aggression and live in multi-male social units under certain social conditions. I discuss the effects that relatedness between males and female choice have in determining this grouping pattern, and the role of male intolerance in the maintenance of primate mating systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evolution of male-killer suppression in a natural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Male-killing bacteria are widespread in arthropods, and can profoundly alter the reproductive biology of their host species. Here we detail the first case of complete suppression of a male killer. The nymphalid butterfly Hypolimnas bolina is infected with a strain of the bacterium Wolbachia, wBol1, which kills male host embryos in Polynesian populations, but does not do so in many areas of Southeast Asia, where both males and female adults are naturally infected, and wBol1-infected females produce a 1:1 sex ratio. We demonstrate that absence of male killing by wBol1 is associated with dominant zygotic suppression of the action of the male killer. Simulations demonstrate host suppressors of male-killer action can spread very rapidly, and historical data indicating the presence of male killing in Southeast Asia in the very recent past suggests suppressor spread has been a very recent occurrence. Thus, male killer/host interactions are much more dynamic than previously recognised, with rapid and dramatic loss of the phenotype. Our results also indicate that suppression can render male killers completely quiescent, leading to the conclusion that some species that do not currently express a male killer may have done so in the past, and thus that more species have had their biology affected by these parasites than previously believed.

  19. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  20. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ah young [Dept. of Pathology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  1. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young; Yang Ik; Jung, Ah young

    2011-01-01

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  2. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  3. Heat stress affects male reproduction in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Manh; Bressac, Christophe; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-03-01

    In insects, reproductive success and survival are affected by temperature. Reproduction is more sensitive than other physiological traits. While the effects of heat stress on females are well known, the effects on males are less clear. Hymenopteran parasitoids are valuable for studying the consequences of heat stress on male reproduction. In these species, through arrhenotoquous parthenogenesis, the sex ratio of the offspring is directly dependent on the sperm stock acquired by females during copulation. In the lab, heat temperature treatments (32-44°C) were applied for 3 days in the pupal stage of Anisopteromalus calandrae males, and development was completed at 30°C. Three different effects were observed depending on the temperature: mortality above 42°C, sterility of emerging males at 40°C, and sub-fertility at 38°C. This sub-fertility is characterized by a dramatic decrease in male sperm supplies, of up to 7% compared to control males. In the course of ageing, the sperm stock of sub-fertile males increases but never reaches the level of control males. Survival was significantly higher in control (30°C) males than those treated at 38°C. Male mating ability was similar whatever the treatment (control and 38°C), but females mated with 38°C-treated males stored 100 times less sperm on average than those mated with control males. The offspring sex ratio of females mated with 38°C-treated males was strongly male biased. The physiological mechanisms are as yet unknown. The relationship between temperature, sperm stock and sex ratio should be taken into account in the management of parasitoids for integrated pest management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 35990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flying Earwig Hawaiian Damselfly and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... believed to be terrestrial or semiterrestrial in habit (Kennedy 1934, p. 345; Preston 2007a). The biology... diverted from streams. Our response: In this final rule, we have clarified that water is diverted to power... existing diversion, and we believe that any additional increased water diversion for hydroelectric power...

  5. From damselflies to pterosaurs: how burst and sustainable flight performance scale with size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, J H

    1994-04-01

    Recent empirical data for short-burst lift and power production of flying animals indicate that mass-specific lift and power output scale independently (lift) or slightly positively (power) with increasing size. These results contradict previous theory, as well as simple observation, which argues for degradation of flight performance with increasing size. Here, empirical measures of lift and power during short-burst exertion are combined with empirically based estimates of maximum muscle power output in order to predict how burst and sustainable performance scale with body size. The resulting model is used to estimate performance of the largest extant flying birds and insects, along with the largest flying animals known from fossils. These estimates indicate that burst flight performance capacities of even the largest extinct fliers (estimated mass 250 kg) would allow takeoff from the ground; however, limitations on sustainable power output should constrain capacity for continuous flight at body sizes exceeding 0.003-1.0 kg, depending on relative wing length and flight muscle mass.

  6. Low larval densities in northern populations reinforce range expansion by a Mediterranean damselfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therry, Lieven; Swaegers, Janne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2016-01-01

    indicated higher food availability at low conspecific densities. Interestingly, the initial density treatment had stronger effect than densities experienced at the time of quantification on survival during the pre-freezing winter period and body condition estimates at the end of the experiment, indicating...... also delayed effects of the initial density treatment. Survival throughout a freezing period indicated extreme winter conditions are not likely a limiting factor in the range expansion of this Mediterranean species. 4. The increased survival and individual growth rates (through causing shifts......1. Contemporary climate change triggers a poleward range shift in many species. A growing number of studies document evolutionary changes in traits accelerating range expansion (such as growth rate and dispersal-related traits). In contrast, the direct impact of decreasing conspecific densities...

  7. The endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum in post-mining streams: population size, habitat requirements and restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichánek, Filip; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2016), s. 701-710 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : drainage ditches * headwaters * insect conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-016-9902-x

  8. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Omar A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM. Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. Conclusion The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  9. Male-male relationships in J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crous

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Kochin (2002:8 makes the following interesting observation regarding the life of the main character, David Lurie, in Coetzee’s novel, “Disgrace” (1999, and his observation will be explored in detail when analysing the novel, and in particular the presentation of masculinities: “Lurie has no relationship of depth with men. His one effort is with Isaacs, Melanie’s father, and seems to be more of a quest for the sources of Melanie’s beauty than the expression of a desire for friendship with a man.” The focus of my investigation is on male-male relationships and the way in which they impact on the other characters in the novel. What contribution does the novel make to the debate on masculinity within the context of South African literary studies?

  10. Treatment of Male Infertility: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Vlajković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of germ cells is a process starting in fetus and completed only in puberty. Spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis throughout the reproductive life of mammals. They are undifferentiated cells defined by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into mature spermatozoa. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the local tissue microenvironment. The human testis is prone to damage, either for therapeutic reasons or because of toxic agents from the environment. For preservation of fertility, patients who will undergo radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have an attractive possibility to keep in store and afterwards make a transfer of spermatogonial stem cells. Germ cell transplantation is not yet ready for the human fertility clinic, but it may be reasonable for young cancer patients, with no other options to preserve their fertility. Whereas this technique has become an important research tool in rodents, a clinical application must still be regarded as experimental, and many aspects of the procedure need to be optimized prior to a clinical application in men. In future, a range of options for the preservation of male fertility will get a new significance.

  11. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity, male infertility, and the sperm epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T; Hotaling, James M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a common problem among reproductive-age men that can both cause and exacerbate male-factor infertility by means of endocrine abnormalities, associated comorbidities, and direct effects on the fidelity and throughput of spermatogenesis. Robust epidemiologic, clinical, genetic, epigenetic, and nonhuman animal data support these findings. Recent works in the burgeoning field of epigenetics has demonstrated that paternal obesity can affect offspring metabolic and reproductive phenotypes by means of epigenetic reprogramming of spermatogonial stem cells. Understanding the impact of this reprogramming is critical to a comprehensive view of the impact of obesity on subsequent generations. Furthermore, and perhaps more importantly, conveying the impact of these lifestyle changes on future progeny can serve as a powerful tool for obese men to modify their behavior. Reproductive urologists and endocrinologists must learn to assimilate these new findings to better counsel men about the importance of paternal preconception health, a topic recently being championed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Male urethral strictures and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Lindsay A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Male urethral stricture disease is prevalent and has a substantial impact on quality of life and health-care costs. Management of urethral strictures is complex and depends on the characteristics of the stricture. Data show that there is no difference between urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy in terms of long-term outcomes; success rates range widely from 8–80%, with long-term success rates of 20–30%. For both of these procedures, the risk of recurrence is greater for men with longer strictures, penile urethral strictures, multiple strictures, presence of infection, or history of prior procedures. Analysis has shown that repeated use of urethrotomy is not clinically effective or cost-effective in these patients. Long-term success rates are higher for surgical reconstruction with urethroplasty, with most studies showing success rates of 85–90%. Many techniques have been utilized for urethroplasty, depending on the location, length, and character of the stricture. Successful management of urethral strictures requires detailed knowledge of anatomy, pathophysiology, proper patient selection, and reconstructive techniques. PMID:24346008

  14. Radiographic characteristics of male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Chang Yun; Kook, Shin Ho

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate mammographic findings of breast cancer in men. This study includes 9 man with breast cancer diagnosed pathologically by radical mastectomy. Clinical and pathologic data were obtained by review of patients medical record. Mammograms were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 9 patients, eight had masses with spiculated margin or schirrous pattern with irregular margin. One patient had no specific evidence of breast cancer mammographically. Microcalcifications were seen in three patients, these calcifications were irregular in shape and were clustered. Of the 8 cases, four patients had the masses at the right breast, four at the left breast. Locations of breast cancer were subareolar (n=4) and were eccentric (n=4) from the nipple. The most common location was the upper outer quadrant. On histologic evaluation, 7 cases were infiltrating ductal carcinomas, one case was mucinous adenocarcinoma, and the remainder was proved as combined form of intraductal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis were found in 4 cases. Mammographic findings of male breast carcinoma were that of subareolar or eccentrically located mass. Calcifications were same to the patterns of calcification as female breast cancer

  15. RISUG: An intravasal injectable male contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Lohiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades RISUG has been drawing attention in the field of male contraception. It promises to sterile men for a period of up to 10-15 years. According to recent studies in animal models, it proves to be completely reversible. Practically, there are no better options available that can assure complete sterility and precise reversibility. Regardless of so much of information available, RISUG is still holding up for many reasons, firstly, the available information engender bewilderment such as what is this copolymer, how does it work and is reversal really possible? Secondly, advancement of this outstanding invention is drastically slow and thirdly, effects of long-term contraception with RISUG and reports on evaluation of anomalies (if any in F 1 , F 2 progenies, are lacking. In this review the lacunae as well as advances in the development of RISUG in the light of published work and available resources are pointed out. Formulation of the RISUG, its mode of action and clinical trials have been addressed with particular emphasis.

  16. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. RESULTS obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined.

  17. Stature Estimation for Bosnian Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Sarajlić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Trotter and Gleser formulae to determine the stature of recovered missing persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina have been used. The purpose of this study is to develop appropriate stature estimation formulae from the length of the femur, tibia and fibula for use in the Bosnia and Herzegovina to help in identifications of the victims. Research was undertaken on 50 male cadavers, of individuals who died between the ages of 23 to 54 years. The cadaver length was measured and the length of the long bones was obtained from X-ray photographs. The length of the cadavers of the individuals who died after age of 45 years was corrected according to Giles' table. This study established that using Trotter and Gleser's formulae underestimate stature of tall people in the current population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Smallest standard error of estimate is observed in the formula that uses the sum of the length of femur and fibula. There are no statistically significant differences between the length of the bones from the left and right sides of the body. Therefore, formulae developed from the average length of bone pairs are recommended for use.

  18. Quantitative evaluations of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Ishino, A; Hanzawa, N; Uzuka, M; Okazaki, K; Adachi, K; Imamura, S

    1994-07-01

    Several methods for the evaluation of hair growth have been reported; however, none of the hitherto reported methods are satisfactory as unbiased double blind studies to evaluate the efficacy of hair growth agents. In the present paper, we describe quantitative evaluation methods for hair growth by measuring the anagen ratio and hair diameters in 56 Japanese subjects aged 23-56 for 3 years. The average anagen ratio decreased by 3.8% in 3 years. The average hair diameters showed a statistically significant decrease each year totalling 3.4 microns. Subjects were sorted according to their anagen ratio into 4 groups. Each group showed different distribution patterns of hair diameters. The higher anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thicker hair diameters and the lower anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thinner hair diameters. The number of thicker hairs decreased and the high frequency peak shifted to thinner hair diameters in 3 years. These methods are useful to evaluate both the progression of male pattern baldness and the effects of hair growth agents with double blind studies in an unbiased quantitative fashion.

  19. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diliberto, J.J.; Usha, G.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14 CO 2 , and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  20. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  1. Interictal hyposexuality in male patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Diosely C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of androgens between hyposexual and non-hyposexual patients with epilepsy. Adult male patients with epilepsy were investigated. Serum levels of testosterone (T and free-T, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured and the free androgen index (FAI was calculated. While there were no differences between hyposexual and non-hyposexual patients in the serum levels of T, free-T, and estradiol, or to the FAI, the serum levels of SHBG were significantly higher in hyposexual patients than in non-hyposexual patients. Thus, the effects of increased SHBG upon serum levels of testosterone biologically active in patients with epilepsy and hyposexuality were not detected by the methods used in this study. Four (44% of nine hyposexual patients who were re-evaluated after two years follow-up improved sexual performance. Thus, clinical treatment that results in good seizure control may improve sexual performance in some patients with epilepsy.

  2. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiah Donta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband′s alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  3. Male erectile dysfunction: integrating psychopharmacology and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Eugene F; Trinidad, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance, is the most common sexual problem in men. ED arises when there is disruption of the complex interplay between vascular, neurologic, hormonal and psychologic factors necessary for normal erectile function. It may have a significant effect on quality of life and portend undetected cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for development of ED include advancing age, tobacco use, a history of pelvic irradiation or surgery and antipsychotic use (Table 1) [1]. Treatment guidelines continue to evolve for optimal management of ED. In this article, we review diagnostic and treatment strategies for ED relevant to psychiatrists. We present an integrative approach to the treatment of ED based on a review of the urologic and psychiatric literature. ED is multifactorial in origin and responsive to a variety of therapeutic interventions, including psychopharmacology and psychotherapy in which cognitive underpinnings of poor sexual performance, including diminished self-esteem, lack of confidence and perceived failures in the male role, are examined. Psychiatrists can readily perform a basic workup for ED as they integrate both a medical and therapeutic model when confronted with such patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of age on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Later parenting is considered by many to have advantages, parents-to-be may feel themselves more stable to rear children. In addition, many men start a second family later in life. Thus, paternal age becomes an emerging issue. Aging affects male fertility by a scope of factors, which are not fully understood to date. Generally, the amount of produced sperm cells as well as their motility decreases with age, as testicular histological architecture deteriorates. Decreased fecundity and an increased risk for disturbed pregnancies occur with advancing paternal age. Some rare autosomal dominant pathologies are clearly related to paternal age. Altered patterns of epigenetics/gene expression in aging sperm seem to affect a range of neurocognitive disorders and also metabolic dyshomeostasis across generations. Such effects refer to men older than 40 years and may have impact on socio-economic issues. Nevertheless, councelling of older men seeking paternity should be patient-oriented and weigh statistical probabilities against the right for individual life-planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of dimethoate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effects and biochemical changes caused by dimethoate, an organophosphorus insecticide, at two different doses which represents 1/50 of LD 5 0 (4.3 mg/kg body weight/day) or 1/10 of LD 5 0 (21.5 mg/kg body weight/day). After thirty days of daily oral administrations to male rats, serum total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were estimated. Also, its toxic effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose levels were studied. The glucose level at the early periods after the treatment with dimethoate using D-(U-I4C) glucose was studied. The results showed significant increases in serum total lipids, triglycerides, y-globulin and glucose levels. On the other hand, cholesterol, HDL, total protein and albumin levels in serum of rats were decreased after dimethoate treatment. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study indicated that dimethoate has harmful effects on the parameters under investigation after thirty days of daily treatments and also on glucose level after few hours of its administration compared to control rats

  6. Aromatase and estrogen receptors in male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Serge; Delalande, Christelle; Silandre, Dorothée; Bourguiba, Sonia; Lambard, Sophie

    2006-02-26

    Aromatase is a terminal enzyme which transforms irreversibly androgens into estrogens and it is present in the endoplasmic reticulum of numerous tissues. We have demonstrated that mature rat germ cells express a functional aromatase with a production of estrogens equivalent to that of Leydig cells. In humans in addition to Leydig cells, we have shown the presence of aromatase in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells. In most tissues, high affinity estrogen receptors, ERalpha and/or ERbeta, mediate the role of estrogens. Indeed, in human spermatozoa, we have successfully amplified ERbeta mRNA but the protein was not detectable. Using ERalpha antibody we have detected two proteins in human immature germ cells: one at the expected size 66 kDa and another at 46 kDa likely corresponding to the ERalpha isoform lacking exon 1. In spermatozoa only the 46 kDa isoform was present, and we suggest that it may be located on the membrane. In addition, in men genetically deficient in aromatase, it is reported that alterations of spermatogenesis occur both in terms of the number and motility of spermatozoa. All together, these observations suggest that endogenous estrogens are important in male reproduction.

  7. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transrectal Ultrasonographic Findings of Obstructive Male Infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Il; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Park, Heung Il; Park, Kwang Seong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the transrectal ultrasound in infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. We performed transrectal US in 26 infertile patients in whom obstructive lesions of sperm transport system were suspected in physical examination and laboratory data. 7.0 MHz transrectal transducer was used and the content of analysis of sonographic findings was the presence of vas deferens, seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. Also, we measured the width of seminal vesicle and diameter of ejaculatory duct. Transrectal US revealed an accurate diagnosis in 12 infertile men who had obstructive lesions and associated abnormalities in distal sperm transport system, two of congenital bilateral absence of the vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, two of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens and seminal vesicle, three of dilatation of seminal vesicles, and five of dilatation of ejaculatory ducts and proximal ducts. The other 14 patients who had normal findings on transrectal US were revealed to have testicular failure (10 patients) and obstruction of proximal sperm transport system (4 patients) which were beyond the field-of-view of transrectal US. Transrectal US is the useful diagnostic method for the evaluation of infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. It can possibly decrease the need for the invasive vasography and may be helpful in the guidance of appropriate management of male infertility

  9. Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small “sneaker” males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the “fair raffle”) and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the “loaded raffle”). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker “jack” males against sperm from dominant “hooknose” males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  10. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  11. Ultraviolet reflectance affects male-male interactions in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus ultramarinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alonso-Alvarez; Claire Doutrelant; Gabriele Sorci

    2004-01-01

    Several animal species have been shown to use phenotypic traits to assess the competitive ability of opponents and adjust their aggressiveness depending on the likelihood to win the contest. In birds, these phenotypic traits usually involve patches of colored feathers. The benefit to harbor honest signals of male quality is the avoidance of wasteful aggressive interactions. Recent work has shown that ultraviolet (UV) plumage reflectance is an important signal used by females during mate choic...

  12. Postnatal nutrition influences male attractiveness and promotes plasticity in male mating preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, José C; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of m...

  13. Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Zachary J; Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-05-01

    In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dyadic relationships and operational performance of male and female owners and their male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Kurt; Schöberl, Iris; Bauer, Barbara; Thibeaut, Anne-Marie; Wedl, Manuela

    2009-07-01

    In the paper we investigate how owner personality, attitude and gender influence dog behavior, dyadic practical functionality and the level of dog salivary cortisol. In three meetings, 12 female and 10 male owners of male dogs answered questionnaires including the Neo-FFI human personality inventory. Their dyadic behavior was video-taped in a number of test situations, and saliva samples were collected. Owners who scored highly in neuroticism (Neo-FFI dimension one) viewed their dogs as social supporters and spent much time with them. Their dogs had low baseline cortisol levels, but such dyads were less successful in the operational task. Owners who scored highly in extroversion (Neo-FFI dimension two) appreciated shared activities with their dogs which had relatively high baseline cortisol values. Dogs that had female owners were less sociable-active (dog personality axis 1) than dogs that had male owners. Therefore, it appears that owner gender and personality influences dyadic interaction style, dog behavior and dyadic practical functionality.

  15. The male handicap: male-biased mortality explains skewed sex ratios in brown trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, P; Labbé, L; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior.

  17. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  18. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  19. Metabolic and affective consequences of fatherhood in male California mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Garland, Theodore; Chappell, Mark A; Andrew, Jacob R; Saltzman, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Food intake, blood glucose and lipid levels, blood insulin and leptin levels, body composition, pain sensitivity, and depression-like behavior were compared in males from three reproductive groups: virgin males (VM, housed with another male), non-breeding males (NB, housed with a tubally ligated female), and breeding males (BM, housed with a female and their first litter). We found statistically significant (Pfatherhood influences several metabolic, morphological, and affective measures in male California mice. Overall, the changes we observed in breeding males were minor, but stronger effects might occur in long-term breeding males and/or under more challenging environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    %. The frequency of overweight and obesity was 40 and 34 %, respectively. The rate of questionnaire indications of narcotic use in the history and the incidence of hepatitis, tuberculosis, and HIV infection were < 20 %. The multifactorial genesis of infertility was shown by the findings that more than half of the examined men (57.9 % had 3–5 infertility risk factors; 22.3 % of the men had 6 or 7 factors and only 12.4 % had a mere 1 or 2 factors. In the normal weight men, the high frequency of an industrial chemical factor was associated with the higher rate of manual labor. In the obese men, the high proportion of cases of regular alcohol consumption (83.7 % was related to the higher rate of intellectual labor. The prevalence of chronic prostatitis in the obesity group was 65.1 %, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than that in the whole male sample (37 %. The frequency of emotional stress in this group was > 40 %.Conclusion. The sociomedical risk factors of infertility make the most significant contribution to the development of male infecundity. Moreover, among the contemporary men there is a social group of persons at high risk of infertility; these are 30–40-year-old men who have constitutional prerequisites to the development of obesity accompanied by the high rate of chronic hepatitis, who are engaged in intellectual labor and experience frequent emotional stresses, for relief of which they regularly consume alcohol.