WorldWideScience

Sample records for male contraceptive development

  1. Male contraception: history and development.

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  4. Non-hormonal male contraception: A review and development of an Eppin based contraceptive.

    O'Rand, Michael G; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G

    2016-01-01

    Developing a non-hormonal male contraceptive requires identifying and characterizing an appropriate target and demonstrating its essential role in reproduction. Here we review the development of male contraceptive targets and the current therapeutic agents under consideration. In addition, the development of EPPIN as a target for contraception is reviewed. EPPIN is a well characterized surface protein on human spermatozoa that has an essential function in primate reproduction. EPPIN is discussed as an example of target development, testing in non-human primates, and the search for small organic compounds that mimic contraceptive antibodies; binding EPPIN and blocking sperm motility. Although many hurdles remain before the success of a non-hormonal male contraceptive, continued persistence should yield a marketable product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  6. Review on research of suppression male fertility and male contraceptive drug development by natural products.

    Bajaj, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-08-01

    Male contraceptive development in the present scenario is most viable aspect of research due to uncontrolled population growth in the world. In this respect investigators are busy to find out a safe male contraceptive drug. Researchers have started their finding for a suitable drug from natural sources because these are safe and easily acceptable for common man, most of natural sources are plants and their products. In this review 137 plants and their effects on reproduction and reproductive physiology are summarized. Some of them have intense effect on male reproductive system and do not produce any side effects. Reproductive toxicological studies are also important aspects of these kinds of researches, so it is important that drugs are safe and widely acceptable. An ideal male contraceptive can influence semen, testes, hormone level, accessory reproductive organs and general physiology of animals and produced some alterations. Many plants in this review are showing antifertility as well as antispermatogenic effects, so these may be used for further study for contraceptives development but it is important to find out the mechanism of reaction and further laboratory and clinical research on some plants are needed for final male contraceptive drug development. In conclusion this review will help for finding suitable plant products for male contraceptive clinical and laboratory studies.

  7. Advances in Male Contraception

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  8. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  9. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  10. Contraceptive Development.

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  11. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  12. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Male contraception and its perspectives].

    Belaisch, J

    1982-11-01

    Doctors specializing in male contraception are aware of the very real difficulties hindering the development of an effective method in this field. Others believe that the reason this type of contraception is lagging behind is male chauvinism or a certain fear that men have of losing their virility along with their fertilizing capacity. Since available methods of contraception (condom, vasectomy) have low levels of acceptability and reversibility, research has proceeded along other avenues. 1) Gossypol reduces the number and motility of spermatozoa but its general side effects are not exceptional. 2) Restraining hormonal action (progrestogens, LH-RH agonists) also reduce testicular function and for this reason, require simultaneous administration of androgens. Thus far this has not been resolved; azoospermia is not obtained in every case and when it is, it does not necessarily last. 3) A method involving the epididymis, with a view to preventing spermatozoa from acquiring their normal motility and fertilizing capacity by affecting protein and enzyme synthesis, is also being studied. Perhaps, as has been suggested by the Bicetre Hospital research team, we should be content with methods applicable to certain categories of men. Male contraception would then develop step by step rather than by huge bounds as female contraception. full text

  14. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  15. Current Developments In Contraception

    Cem Yaşar Sanhal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contraception (birth control prevents pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. There are different kinds of birth control that act at different points in the process. The rapid increase in the world population makes it mandatory to develop new contraceptive methods. According to WHO data, every year 200 billion new pregnancies occur and more than 50 billion of them are classified as unintended. To avoid complications of these unintended pregnancies and abortions, the contraception and kinds of contraceptive methods should be well known and understood. Recently, new hormonal contraceptive choices and regimen were adminestered and studies about male contraception and immunocontraception were performed. In this review, we discussed about the new development and progress on contraception.

  16. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  17. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Male Hormonal Contraception: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contrace...

  19. Developments in contraception.

    Weisberg, Edith

    2014-02-01

    Although the contraceptive options for women have expanded considerably in the last decade, these methods are often not being offered to women as choices because clinicians are not well informed, limiting the ability of women to control their fertility. Areas covered include the use of oestradiol instead of ethinyl oestradiol and improved progestogens utilised in hormonal contraceptives, and new delivery systems have enabled the development of long-acting methods, which require less action on the part of the user, and thereby, reduce failure rates. Effective emergency contraceptive methods have become more readily available over the counter. However, male contraception, despite much research, still remains elusive. This manuscript will provide an assessment of recent advances and controversies in contraception and make suggestions about improved availability.

  20. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception.

    Cheng, C Yan; Mruk, Dolores D

    2010-11-01

    The world's population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male's reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  2. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  3. Male hormonal contraception: looking back and moving forward.

    Roth, M Y; Page, S T; Bremner, W J

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception for men. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. [Male hormonal contraception: past, present, future].

    Pásztor, Norbert; Hegyi, Borbála Eszter; Badó, Attila; Németh, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    In certain regions of the world the enormous rate of population growth raises economic and public health concerns and widely accessible contraceptive methods would be desired. In contrast, in other countries the use of effective contraception is a question of individual preferences. Today, most of the reliable contraceptive methods are applied by women, while the options for male methods are quite limited. It is well known that significant portion of pregnancies are still unplanned and several data revealed men's willingness to take part in family planning. Based on these needs, remarkable efforts have been made to develop a suitable hormonal contraceptive agent for men. With the exogenous suppression of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the inhibition of the testicular testosterone production and the spermatogenesis can be achieved. In the beginning, testosterone-derivatives, or testosterone-progestin combinations were administered, later synthetic androgen agents were developed. Despite of these efforts, unfortunately, there is no safe, widely feasible male hormonal contraception to date, but in the future this goal can be achieved by solving the key hurdles. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1819-1830.

  5. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations.

    Plana, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  6. Male contraception: past, present and future.

    Payne, Christopher; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Current contraceptive options available to men include withdrawal, condoms, and vasectomy, each of which has its own drawbacks. In this chapter we will describe the pros and cons for each, as well as methodological and product updates. Statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control on acceptance and satisfaction will be included. Advances in vasectomy and reversal will be presented. Methods to develop new contraceptive technologies fall into two categories: hormonal and non-hormonal. Many targets and strategies have been proposed for non-hormonal male contraception within the testis. Targets include structural components in the testis, as well as enzymes, ion channels and other proteins specific to spermatozoa. Here we provide an overview of the spermatogenic mechanisms and proteins that have received research interest to date. We also discuss potential novel targets, such as ubiquitin specific proteases, that warrant greater research emphasis.

  7. Male contraception: a clinically-oriented review.

    Kanakis, George A; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of available female contraceptive methods, many pregnancies (~50%) are still undesired. Many men (>60%) want to participate equally with their partner in family planning; however, male contraceptive methods (MCMs) account for only 14% of those used worldwide and no pharmaceutical MCM is available so far. The only two MCMs currently available are condoms, which despite protecting against sexually transmitted diseases have high failure rates (~19%), and vasectomy, which though very efficient (99%) is poorly reversible (<50%). Among MCMs under investigation, male hormonal contraceptives (MHCs) are those that have come closest to commercialization. The action of MHCs relies on the disruption of spermatogenesis that exogenous androgen administration evokes by suppressing the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Various regimens of androgens as monotherapy or in combination with progestins have been tested in clinical trials achieving a Pearl Index <1.0 (equal to that of the female oral contraceptive pill); however, concerns regarding the variable response rates observed (non-responders: 5-20%), the impracticality of parenteral administration and long-term prostate-associated or cardiovascular morbidity have deflected the interest of the pharmaceutical industry from further research. Non-hormonal contraception methods may be, at least theoretically, more specific by selectively disrupting spermatogenesis and sperm transport or fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, only a few have been tested in clinical trials (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance, RISUG, and Intra Vas Plugs); most of them are still in pre-clinical development or have been abandoned due to toxicity (gossypol). Consequently, until a reliable, safe and practical MCM is developed, women will continue to bear most of the contraception burden.

  8. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  9. Microwave heating for male contraception

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  10. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New approaches to male non-hormonal contraception.

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Amory, John K

    2013-03-01

    A non-hormonal male contraceptive is a contraceptive that does not involve the administration of hormones or hormone blockers. This review will focus on the use of lonidamine derivatives and inhibitors of retinoic acid biosynthesis and function as approaches to male non-hormonal contraception. Two current lonidamine derivatives, adjudin and H2-gamendazole, are in development as male contraceptives. These potent anti-spermatogenic compounds impair the integrity of the apical ectoplasmic specialization, resulting in premature spermiation and infertility. Another approach to male contraceptive development is the inhibition of retinoic acid in the testes, as retinoic acid signaling is necessary for spermatogenesis. The administration of the retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in mice. Similarly, oral dosing of WIN 18,446, which inhibits testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis, effectively contracepts rabbits. Hopefully, one of these approaches to non-hormonal male contraception will prove to be safe and effective in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  13. The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education.

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1983-01-01

    Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

  14. RISUG: An intravasal injectable male contraceptive

    N K Lohiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades RISUG has been drawing attention in the field of male contraception. It promises to sterile men for a period of up to 10-15 years. According to recent studies in animal models, it proves to be completely reversible. Practically, there are no better options available that can assure complete sterility and precise reversibility. Regardless of so much of information available, RISUG is still holding up for many reasons, firstly, the available information engender bewilderment such as what is this copolymer, how does it work and is reversal really possible? Secondly, advancement of this outstanding invention is drastically slow and thirdly, effects of long-term contraception with RISUG and reports on evaluation of anomalies (if any in F 1 , F 2 progenies, are lacking. In this review the lacunae as well as advances in the development of RISUG in the light of published work and available resources are pointed out. Formulation of the RISUG, its mode of action and clinical trials have been addressed with particular emphasis.

  15. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  16. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  17. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  18. Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception.

    Marsiglio, W

    1993-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.

  19. Testicular cell junction: a novel target for male contraception.

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some studies were performed using animal models to decipher if the Sertoli-germ cell junction in the testis is a target for male fertility regulation. Some of these study models were based on the use of hormones and/or chemicals to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (e.g., androgen-based implants or pills) and others utilized a panel of chemical entities or synthetic peptides to perturb spermatogenesis either reversibly or non-reversibly. Among them, adjudin, a potential male contraceptive, is one of the compounds exerting its action on the unique adherens junctions, known as ectoplasmic specializations, in the testis. Since the testis is equipped with inter-connected cell junctions, an initial targeting of one junction type may affect the others and these accumulative effects could lead to spermatogenic arrest. This review attempts to cover an innovative theme on how male infertility can be achieved by inducing junction instability and defects in the testis, opening a new window of research for male contraceptive development. While it will still take much time and effort of intensive investigation before a product can reach the consumable market, these findings have provided hope for better family planning involving men.

  20. Male contraception: what is on the horizon?

    Blithe, Diana

    2008-10-01

    Male contraception remains an important area of research. Methods can inhibit sperm production or can be targeted to inhibit sperm functions such as motility, orientation or interaction with the egg. Hormonal methods appear to be safe and effective in proof of concept studies but efforts are underway to improve delivery options or lead time until full efficacy is achieved. Nonhormonal methods are based on numerous targets that impact sperm production or function. Several agents that inhibit the sperm-specific or testis-specific targets have been identified and studies in animals have shown promising results.

  1. Recent methodological advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Liu, Peter Y; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Landmark WHO-sponsored trials showed decades ago that male hormonal contraception (MHC) is an effective male-directed contraceptive approach. Considerable progress has been made particularly in the last 5 years, establishing for the first time the reversibility of MHC and its short-term safety. Methodological advances in recent years include the pooling of information and individual-level integrated analysis; the first-time use of centralized semen analysis and fluorescence to detect low sperm concentrations; the establishment of sperm quality reference ranges in fertile men; the measurement of blood steroid concentrations by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; and the inclusion of placebo groups to delineate clearly possible adverse effects of androgens and progestins in men. We report integrated analyses of factors that are important in predicting suppression and recovery of spermatogenesis after MHC clinical trials for the past 15 years. These are the best data available and will provide guidance and reassurance for the larger-scale Phase III specific regimen efficacy studies that will be required to bring MHC to the population (market). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversible, non-barrier male contraception: status and prospects.

    Hoesl, C E; Saad, F; Pöppel, M; Altwein, J E

    2005-11-01

    Male, non-barrier, contraceptive options are limited to vasectomy and inadequate methods such as withdrawal and periodic abstinence. Herein we give an overview of current research on male contraception by pharmacological means. Literature search of PubMed documented publications and abstracts from meetings. Cross-cultural surveys show men's willingness to carry contraceptive responsibility. Clinical trials substantiate that hormonal contraception involving suppression of gonadotropins holds the best promise to provide a male pharmacological contraceptive. Androgens have been demonstrated to induce reversible infertility particularly in combination with certain progestins and GnRH antagonists. Advances in non-endocrine contraception include intervention with triptolide derivatives, alkylated imino sugars, and immunization by eppin. The prospect of a pharmacological, male contraceptive has been considerably advanced in recent years. Long-term studies involving a greater number of subjects may result in a safe, reversible and effective means. Asia is likely to be the first market for male, hormonal contraceptive methods. The clinical evaluation of non-endocrine approaches may ultimately lead to an alternative to hormone-based male contraception.

  3. University of Venda's male students' attitudes towards contraception and family planning.

    Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani

    2016-07-08

    Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.

  4. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    EB

    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  5. Approaches to the identification of new nonhormonal targets for male contraception.

    Kopf, Gregory S

    2008-10-01

    Fertility control is a global health issue with major personal and societal impact. Although, currently, there are several different options for contraception, the technologies behind these are antiquated, and the options for male-based contraception (i.e., withdrawal, condom and vasectomy) are inadequate. The genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic revolutions have provided new tools and new targets for contraceptive development, and the results of such approaches have identified gene products that play critical roles in male reproduction, thus expanding the array of potential targets for novel and innovative male-based contraceptives. This article will review the types of targets being considered in the development of nonhormonal male contraceptives and the technologies used to identify and validate these targets.

  6. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  7. Male hormonal contraception: concept proven, product in sight?

    Matthiesson, Kati L; McLachlan, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    Current male hormonal contraceptive (MHC) regimens act at various levels within the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, principally to induce the withdrawal of the pituitary gonadotrophins and in turn intratesticular androgen production and spermatogenesis. Azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia result from the inhibition of spermatogonial maturation and sperm release (spermiation). All regimens include an androgen to maintain virilization, while in many the suppression of gonadotrophins/spermatogenesis is augmented by the addition of another anti-gonadotrophic agent (progestin, GnRH antagonist). The suppression of sperm concentration to 1 x 10(6)/ml appears to provide comparable contraceptive efficacy to female hormonal methods, but the confidence intervals around these estimates remain relatively large, reflecting the limited number of exposure years reported. Also, inconsistencies in the rapidity and depth of spermatogenic suppression, potential for secondary escape of sperm into the ejaculate and onset of fertility return not readily explainable by analysis of subject serum hormone levels, germ cell number or intratesticular steroidogenesis, are apparent. As such, a better understanding of the endocrine and genetic regulation of spermatogenesis is necessary and may allow for new treatment paradigms. The development of an effective, consumer-friendly male contraceptive remains challenging, as it requires strong translational cooperation not only between basic scientists and clinicians but also between public and private sectors. At present, a prototype MHC product using a long-acting injectable testosterone and depot progestin is well advanced.

  8. 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENTR): the population council's contribution to research on male contraception and treatment of hypogonadism.

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Kumar, Narender; Sitruk-Ware, Régine

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone is an essential part of all regimens for hormonal male contraception tested to date. Initial efficacy trials revealed that the half-life of the testosterone preparations available at that time was too short to be used for male contraception. The ensuing search for long-acting preparations yielded testosterone buciclate and undecanoate as well as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT). Following description of the principle of male hormonal contraception and the efficacy trials performed to date, the systematic development of MENT for substitution of male hypogonadism and use in male contraception by the Population Council is reviewed here. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Contraception and Adolescent Males: An Opportunity for Providers.

    Richards, Molly J; Peters, Marissa; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Kaul, Paritosh

    2016-03-01

    To examine young men's awareness of emergency contraception (EC) and its association with their contraceptive decision-making contributions within a relationship. A convenience sample of English-speaking male patients aged 13-24 years were surveyed regarding their childbearing intentions, contraceptive awareness (including EC), perceived contraceptive knowledge, and communication about birth control with providers and within a relationship. An ethnically diverse sample of adolescent males was recruited with a mean age of 18.9 years. Most had previously been sexually active (75%) and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy (84%) and 61% reported ever having spoken to a health care provider about birth control (other than condoms), but only 42% had heard of EC. Participants who had heard of EC were more likely to have spoken to a health care provider about contraception in the past (51.5% vs. 29.8%; p = .050), to feel they should participate in contraceptive decisions in a relationship (97.4% vs. 76.5%; p = .006), and to have discussed contraception with a partner (76.9% vs. 29.2%; p contraceptive decisions within a relationship if they do not desire fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. University of Venda’s male students’ attitudes towards contraception and family planning

    Morwe, Keamogetse G.; Tshitangano, Takalani

    2016-01-01

    Background Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. Aim This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students’ sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Methods Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. Results This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students’ negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. Conclusion The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students’ sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda. PMID:27542288

  11. New technologies in contraception

    Rowlands, Sam

    2009-01-01

    New technologies in both reversible contraception and sterilisation are described. The review includes recent advances in the development of oral contraception, emergency contraception, injectable contraception, vaginal rings, subdermal implants, transdermal contraception, intrauterine devices, spermicides and barrier methods. It also covers methods of transcervical female sterilisation and more easily reversible male sterilisation. The emphasis is on the technology and its safety and effecti...

  12. Impact of male partner's awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria.

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E

    2015-09-10

    Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners' awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners' contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women's expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses' desire to use contraceptives. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners' desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses' use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70-3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses' use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82-6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23-1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67-0.97) were also significantly associated with women's expressed desire to use modern contraception. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly

  13. Acceptability of a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive in a randomized controlled trial☆, ☆☆, ★

    Roth, Mara Y.; Shih, Grace; Ilani, Niloufar; Wang, Christina; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Blithe, Diana L.; Amory, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fifty percent of pregnancies in the United States are unintended despite numerous contraceptive methods available to women. The only male contraceptive methods, vasectomy and condoms, are used by 10% and 16% of couples, respectively. Prior studies have shown efficacy of male hormonal contraceptives in development, but few have evaluated patient acceptability and potential use if commercially available. The objective of this study is to determine if a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive regimen, containing testosterone and Nestorone® gels, would be acceptable to study participants as a primary contraceptive method. Study Design As part of a three-arm, 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of testosterone and nestorone gels at two academic medical centers, subjects completed a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of the regimen. Of the 99 men randomized, 79 provided data for analysis. Results Overall, 56% (44/79) of men were satisfied or extremely satisfied with this gel-based method of contraception, and 51% (40/79) reported that they would recommend this method to others. One third of subjects (26/79) reported that they would use this as their primary method of contraception if it were commercially available today. However, men with concerns about sexually transmitted disease were significantly less satisfied than men without such concerns (p=0.03). Conclusions A majority of the men who volunteered to participate in this trial of an experimental male hormonal contraceptive were satisfied with this transdermal male hormonal contraceptive. If commercially available, a combination of topical nesterone and testosterone gels could provide a reversible, effective method of contraception that is appealing to men. Implications A substantial portion of men report they would use this transdermal male contraceptive regimen if commercially available. This method would provide a novel, reversible method of contraception for men, whose

  14. A selective androgen receptor modulator for hormonal male contraception.

    Chen, Jiyun; Hwang, Dong Jin; Bohl, Casey E; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2005-02-01

    The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies, including hormonal male contraception. The identification of an orally bioavailable SARM with the ability to mimic the central and peripheral androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone would represent an important step toward the "male pill". We characterized the in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity of (S)-3-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)propionamide (C-6), a novel SARM developed in our laboratories. C-6 was identified as an androgen receptor (AR) agonist with high AR binding affinity (K(i) = 4.9 nM). C-6 showed tissue-selective pharmacologic activity with higher anabolic activity than androgenic activity in male rats. The doses required to maintain the weight of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and levator ani muscle to half the size of the maximum effects (i.e., ED(50)) were 0.78 +/- 0.06, 0.88 +/- 0.1, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mg/day, respectively. As opposed to other SARMs, gonadotropin levels in C-6-treated groups were significantly lower than control values. C-6 also significantly decreased serum testosterone concentration in intact rats after 2 weeks of treatment. Marked suppression of spermatogenesis was observed after 10 weeks of treatment with C-6 in intact male rats. Pharmacokinetic studies of C-6 in male rats revealed that C-6 was well absorbed after oral administration (bioavailability 76%), with a long (6.3 h) half-life at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These studies show that C-6 mimicked the in vivo pharmacologic and endocrine effects of testosterone while maintaining the oral bioavailability and tissue-selective actions of nonsteroidal SARMs.

  15. Clipboard Eppin: A candidate male contraceptive vaccine?

    Unknown

    'period of infertility' in the male monkeys was reversible. However, one thing to note is that not all the monkeys recruited for the study induced high titre antibodies to Eppin – not surprisingly, as the response to any immunogen varies from individual to individual. However, this might turn out to be a stumbling block when it ...

  16. Contraception.

    Bourne, G L

    1967-01-01

    Contraception is discussed in this article. Abstinence is the only certain method of contraception. The normal pregnancy rate in the normal unprotected population would be somewhere between 60 to 80 pregnancies per 100 woman-years. Contraceptive methods vary in effectiveness. The failure rate of the safe period method is between 10-50 per 100 woman-years while the failure rate of spermicidal pessaries and creams is somewhere between 20 and 80 per 100 woman-years. Occlusive diaphragms fit over the anterior vaginal wall, such as the Dutch cap, or over the cervix itself, such as the cervical or Dumas cap. The failure rate of the Dumas cap is about 4 per 100 woman-years and the Dutch cap 6 per 100 woman-years. Perhaps the ideal female contraceptive is just around the corner in the alteration of cervical mucus by changing its pH or other constituents so that it becomes a spermicidal barrier or causes either sperm agglutination or a reduction of sperm motility. Between 8% and 15% of plastic IUDs are extruded spontaneously and a further 10% may be removed because of pain, intermenstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia. They are well tolerated in about 80% of patients, in whom the failure rate is about 2 per 100 woman years. The douche and sponge are unacceptable and unreliable methods of contraception. The main advance in contraceptive technique over the past 10 years has been the introduction of the oral contraceptives. The combined type of pill was developed first, followed by the sequential type. It has been estimated that between half a million and 1 million women in this country now take oral contraceptive pills and nothing detrimental has so far been proved about the method in spite of persistent and widely published doubts about its possible dangers. The failure rate of the oral contraceptives is less than 1 per 100 woman years.

  17. Do knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives predict male involvement in Ayete, Nigeria?

    Sanusi, A; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Onoviran, Oghemetega O

    2014-12-01

    Male involvement is crucial to female contraceptive use. This study examined how male knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives influence involvement in contraceptive use. A cross-sectional survey of 389 men from Ayete, Nigeria was used to regress a continuous male involvement score on demographic variables, knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception and a scored male perception variable using Ordinary Least Squares regression. Controlling for perception, the knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception was not significantly associated with a change in male involvement (p=0.264). Increasing positive perception was associated with higher male involvement scores (p=0.001). Higher educated males, those with a current desire to have children and males whose partners were currently using a method had greater male involvement scores (pcultural perceptions, in addition to providing in-depth knowledge of contraceptive methods.

  18. Potential Factors Associated with Contraceptive Intention Among Adolescent Males in Taiwan

    Ruey-Hsia Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of contraceptive intention in adolescent males in Taiwan. It used a cross-sectional design and a sample of 1,000 vocational high school male students to determine the potential factors associated with contraceptive intention. Data were collected on an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, including personal background variables, prior sexual experience, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive attitude, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, perception of support from significant others, and parental-adolescent communication about contraception. A total of 230 participants (23% had prior sexual experience, 13% (30 of whom reported being involved in their girlfriends' pregnancies. Of the participants, 45% recognized the use of condoms as the most favorable contraceptive method for future sexual intercourse. Second to condom use, the combination of the calendar method and condom use was also popular (13.1%. Multiple stepwise regression indicated that better contraceptive attitudes, higher contraceptive self-efficacy, no prior sexual experience, more perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, and higher perception of support from significant others were predictors of higher contraceptive intention. The above predicting factors explained 31.9% of the total variance for contraceptive intention among adolescents. These results provide health professionals with important information to understand the reality adolescents encounter and to design effective contraceptive programs for male adolescents.

  19. Constraints in the development of contraceptives for men.

    Puri, C P; Gopalkrishnan, K; Iyer, K S

    2000-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to develop a male contraceptive and the studies have provided very useful information in this field. At least five different strategies to develop a male contraceptive have been pursued, namely: inhibition of sperm production, interference with sperm function, interruption of sperm transport, prevention of sperm deposition, and prevention of sperm-egg interaction. Of all these approaches, inhibition of sperm production by using androgens either alone or in combination with progestins have given the most encouraging results. A number of clinical trials substantiate that it is indeed possible to have a reversible, effective and safe hormonal method of contraception. A postmeiotic and epididymal approach to interfere with sperm function or the secretory and metabolic processes of the epididymis is another attractive option of male contraceptive development. A number of chemical compounds have been identified which interfere with sperm function in the epididymis without affecting sperm production, however, the compounds evaluated so far were found to be toxic. Interruption of sperm transport through the vas either by vasectomy or percutaneous intravasal injection of liquids which form cure-in-place plugs is also an attractive option. However, reversibility of the methods is of concern in their wide scale use. The major constraint in developing a long-acting male contraceptive seems to be the need for greater investment for product development. The clinical trials for evaluating the efficacy and safety of the new products and formulations stretch over several years and require enormous financial commitment. Nevertheless, the long-term gain of having a long-acting reversible contraceptive for men is far greater than the financial commitments over few years. Male attitude towards using methods of family planning is much more favourable than originally believed. The pharmaceutical industry as well as the health care providers therefore

  20. Effect of Male Partner's Support on Spousal Modern Contraception in a Low Resource Setting.

    Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace

    2016-09-01

    As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.

  1. Males and Morals: Teenage Contraceptive Behavior Amid the Double Standard

    Scales, Peter

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)

  2. Contraceptive development: why the snail's pace?

    Kaeser, L

    1990-01-01

    Current contraceptive methods are not well-suited to many Americans. More safe and effective methods would be desirable. A report, "Developing New Contraceptives: Obstacles and Opportunities" was released in January 1990. It summarized 2 years of data collection by the Committee on Contraceptive Development which includes pharmaceutical company executives, physicians, reproductive biologists, public health, legal, and public policy experts, demographers, and economists. Barrier facing the development of new methods in the US were analyzed and ways to speed up research suggested. Particularly ill served are teenagers, young mothers, and comparatively older couples. The health risks of pregnancy, delivery, and labor "may be underrated." The pill is now the most common form of contraception in the US, followed by female sterilization, condoms, and vasectomy. 95% of women, aged 15-44, who have ever had intercourse, have used 1 or more contraceptive methods. Contraceptive discontinuation and failure rates are high, too. No fundamentally new contraceptives have been approved for use since the IUD and the pill in the 60s. Modifications of existing methods are in clinical trials. Obstacles cited were attitudes of the public, federal regulations and product liability, and the organization of and resources available for research. Public attitudes are very conservative. There is no great demand for more products. Since the 1960s, only 1 large pharmaceutical company (Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp.) is still involved in contraceptive research. Activity by small firms, nonprofit organizations, and universities has increased. Federal research funding in reproductive biology has only increased modestly since the mid 1970s. Private foundation support has dramatically declined. The time involved in the great costs of data required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval have reduced research incentives. The average time it takes to get FDA approval has increased in the past 20

  3. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Mommers, E.; Kersemaekers, W.M.; Elliesen, J.; Kepers, M.; Apter, D.; Behre, H.M.; Beynon, J.; Bouloux, P.M.; Costantino, A.; Gerbershagen, H.P.; Gronlund, L.; Heger-Mahn, D.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Lange, C.; Lindenberg, S.; Meriggiola, M.C.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Nieschlag, E.; Perheentupa, A.; Solomon, A.; Vaisala, L.; Wu, F.C.; Zitzmann, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess spermatogenesis suppression and safety of a new combination of an etonogestrel (ENG) implant combined with testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections for male contraception. This is the first large placebo-controlled study for male hormonal contraception.

  4. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in Sobi barracks, Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T

    2013-06-01

    There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.

  5. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  6. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: a new target for male contraception?

    Qin, Ying; Han, Yan; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Li, Hong-Gang; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is closely related to male reproduction. With the aim of investigating the possibility for uPA as a potential contraceptive target, in the present work, Kunming male mice were immunized by human uPA subcutaneous injection at three separate doses for 3 times. Then the potency of the anti-human uPA antibody in serum was analyzed, and mouse fertility was evaluated. Serum antibody titers for human uPA in immunized groups all reached 1:10,240 or higher levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and mating experiments revealed that pregnancy rates and the mean number of embryos implanted after mating declined obviously (P male mice. Sperm function tests suggested that the sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm motility, and in vitro fertilization rate for the cauda epididymis sperm in uPA-immunized groups were lower than those in the controls (P male mice could effectively reduce their fertility, and uPA could become a new target for immunocontraception in male contraceptive development.

  7. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners.

    Welling, Lisa L M; Puts, David A; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological side effects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity and greater overall sexual jealousy than women not using hormonal contraceptives. Recently, researchers have found that using hormonal contraceptives with higher levels of synthetic estradiol, but not progestin, is associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported jealousy in women. Here, we extend these findings by examining the relationship between mate retention behavior in heterosexual women and their male partners and women's use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that women using hormonal contraceptives report more frequent use of mate retention tactics, specifically behaviors directed toward their partners (i.e., intersexual manipulations). Men partnered with women using hormonal contraceptives also report more frequent mate retention behavior, although this relationship may be confounded by relationship satisfaction. Additionally, among women using hormonal contraceptives, the dose of synthetic estradiol, but not of synthetic progesterone, positively predicts mate retention behavior frequency. These findings demonstrate how hormonal contraceptive use may influence behavior that directly affects the quality of romantic relationships as perceived by both female and male partners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Liability concerns in contraceptive research and development.

    Segal, S J

    1999-12-01

    The history of liability claims in the US against contraceptive products is among the issues that discourage manufacturers from investing in discovery and development in this field. Other factors are the high cost of new drug development, elevated insurance rates for contraceptives, and the desire to avoid controversy that can disturb corporate tranquility. General features of the American legal system influence the large number and cost of product liability claims in the US compared to Europe. These differences pertain to issues such as the role of judges, how lawyers receive their compensation, and the use of expert scientific testimony. The history of litigation in the US against pharmaceutical products and devices pertaining to women's health suggests that interventions that involve the reproductive system are held to different standards or elicit different emotional responses than other pharmaceutical products or devices.

  9. The influence of male partners on contraceptive usage in sub-Saharan Africa-Lagos experience

    Omololu Adegbola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning programs, researches, and studies have focused mainly on women with little attention to men′s role in the contraceptive choices by the couple. Men′s exclusion from these programs has serious implications on the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple. Objective: To determine the influence of male partners on contraceptive use of their spouses. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study at a Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. It was conducted from January 1 to April 30, 2010, where all consecutive consenting pregnant women were given structured questionnaires to give to their partners so as to evaluate the contribution of the male partners to contraceptives use in their spouses as well as assess their awareness and knowledge of contraception. Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test as appropriate while continuous variables by t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 370 respondents, only 51.9% (192 knew about female contraceptive methods, while 50% (185 were willing to allow their wives to use contraception. Barrier method (17.3% and periodic abstinence (15.7% were the leading preferred choice for their wives. However, bilateral tubal ligation was the least preferred method (1.6%. Previous counseling of male partner significantly influenced their decision to allow their wives to use contraceptives (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Involving the male partner in family planning counseling plays an important role in increasing the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple.

  10. Encouraging contraceptive uptake by motivating men to communicate about family planning: the Malawi Male Motivator project.

    Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Gilles, Kate; Hartmann, Miriam; Ng'ombe, Thokozani; Guest, Greg

    2011-06-01

    We examined the effect of a peer-delivered educational intervention, the Malawi Male Motivator intervention, on couples' contraceptive uptake. We based the intervention design on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. In 2008 we recruited 400 men from Malawi's Mangochi province who reported not using any method of contraception. We randomized them into an intervention arm and a control arm, and administered surveys on contraceptive use at baseline and after the intervention. We also conducted in-depth interviews with a subset of intervention participants. After the intervention, contraceptive use increased significantly within both arms (P communication within couples were the only significant predictors of uptake (P communication skills are essential mechanisms for successfully enabling men to help couples use a contraceptive.

  11. The control of male fertility by spermatid-specific factors: searching for contraceptive targets from spermatozoon's head to tail

    Chen, Su-Ren; Batool, Aalia; Wang, Yu-Qian; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Chang, Chawn-Shang; Cheng, C Yan; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility due to abnormal spermatozoa has been reported in both animals and humans, but its pathogenic causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. On the other hand, contraceptive options for men are limited, and a specific, reversible and safe method of male contraception has been a long-standing quest in medicine. Some progress has recently been made in exploring the effects of spermatid-specifical genetic factors in controlling male fertility. A comprehensive search of PubMed for articles and reviews published in English before July 2016 was carried out using the search terms ‘spermiogenesis failure', ‘globozoospermia', ‘spermatid-specific', ‘acrosome', ‘infertile', ‘manchette', ‘sperm connecting piece', ‘sperm annulus', ‘sperm ADAMs', ‘flagellar abnormalities', ‘sperm motility loss', ‘sperm ion exchanger' and ‘contraceptive targets'. Importantly, we have opted to focus on articles regarding spermatid-specific factors. Genetic studies to define the structure and physiology of sperm have shown that spermatozoa appear to be one of the most promising contraceptive targets. Here we summarize how these spermatid-specific factors regulate spermiogenesis and categorize them according to their localization and function from spermatid head to tail (e.g., acrosome, manchette, head-tail conjunction, annulus, principal piece of tail). In addition, we emphatically introduce small-molecule contraceptives, such as BRDT and PPP3CC/PPP3R2, which are currently being developed to target spermatogenic-specific proteins. We suggest that blocking the differentiation of haploid germ cells, which rarely affects early spermatogenic cell types and the testicular microenvironment, is a better choice than spermatogenic-specific proteins. The studies described here provide valuable information regarding the genetic and molecular defects causing male mouse infertility to improve our understanding of the importance of spermatid

  12. Cognitive Development and Adolescent Contraception: Integrating Theory and Practice.

    Gruber, Enid; Chambers, Christopher V.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that cognitive skills that develop during adolescence are crucial to successful contraceptive practice and that practitioners must understand special developmental setting in which adolescent sexual growth and experimentation occur in order to impact contraceptive use. Demonstrates how health and medical providers can work together to…

  13. Social constructions of the male contraception pill: When are we going to break the vicious circle?

    Dismore, Lorelle; Van Wersch, Anna; Swainston, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Social constructions of men towards the availability of a male hormonal contraceptive, the 'male pill', were explored. A qualitative approach applying semi-structured interviews and scenarios with 22 men (mean age 35 years) from the North East of England revealed two core constructs and six sub-constructs using a Thematic-Construct Analysis in line with the method of Toerien and Wilkinson and Clarke and Kitzinger. Verbal accounts were inductively used to balance the deductively created two core constructs 'Constructing the male pill norm: dominant system of sensemaking' and 'Living by the male pill norm' to represent a normative framework within a changing ideology of shared responsibility in contraceptive choice. Constructing the male pill norm was divided into two sub-constructs: 'Male pill: we are going to join the women and become responsible - too!' and 'Male pill: you look so girly - what are they going to think of me?' The 'Living by the male pill norm' was further divided into four sub-constructs 'Male pill - thank you for giving me promises not to have to become a dad as yet!'; 'Male pill: thank you for the idea of fun - sorry about my morals!'; 'Male pill: in stable relations - yes, I would have you now - sorry, I am too late!' and 'Male pill, we love you - but we are too anxious - we are not ready as yet!' From this male discourse, it is clear that discussions over the male pill follow the line of a vicious circle. In order to establish long-term side effects, Phase IV studies are necessary, and these cannot commence without the male hormonal contraception being a marketable product. So, unless this circle gets broken by some brave men, the male pill will remain a virtual rotating idea for a long time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Sperm calcineurin inhibition prevents mouse fertility with implications for male contraceptive.

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Mashiko, Daisuke; Muto, Masanaga; Nozawa, Kaori; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Isotani, Ayako; Inaba, Kazuo; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-10-23

    Calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine A and FK506, are used as immunosuppressant drugs, but their adverse effects on male reproductive function remain unclear. The testis expresses somatic calcineurin and a sperm-specific isoform that contains a catalytic subunit (PPP3CC) and a regulatory subunit (PPP3R2). We demonstrate herein that male mice lacking Ppp3cc or Ppp3r2 genes (knockout mice) are infertile, with reduced sperm motility owing to an inflexible midpiece. Treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or FK506 creates phenocopies of the sperm motility and morphological defects. These defects appear within 4 to 5 days of treatment, which indicates that sperm-specific calcineurin confers midpiece flexibility during epididymal transit. Male mouse fertility recovered a week after we discontinued treatment. Because human spermatozoa contain PPP3CC and PPP3R2 as a form of calcineurin, inhibition of this sperm-specific calcineurin may lead to the development of a reversible male contraceptive that would target spermatozoa in the epididymis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Attitudes about Partner Communication Regarding Contraceptive Use among Hispanic Male College Students

    Villarreal, Koreena M.; Wiley, David C.; Housman, Jeff; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine cultural factors that influence Hispanic male college students' intention to communicate with partners about contraception use. Participants: A sample of 239 self-identified Hispanic participants enrolled in at least 1 college course participated in this study in the spring 2014…

  16. Forgettable contraception.

    Grimes, David A

    2009-12-01

    The term "forgettable contraception" has received less attention in family planning than has "long-acting reversible contraception." Defined here as a method requiring attention no more often than every 3 years, forgettable contraception includes sterilization (female or male), intrauterine devices, and implants. Five principal factors determine contraceptive effectiveness: efficacy, compliance, continuation, fecundity, and the timing of coitus. Of these, compliance and continuation dominate; the key determinants of contraceptive effectiveness are human, not pharmacological. Human nature undermines methods with high theoretical efficacy, such as oral contraceptives and injectable contraceptives. By obviating the need to think about contraception for long intervals, forgettable contraception can help overcome our human fallibility. As a result, all forgettable contraception methods provide first-tier effectiveness (contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years.

  17. Couple based family planning education: changes in male involvement and contraceptive use among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Tilahun, Tizta; Coene, Gily; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-07-21

    Family planning contributes substantially in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Recently, male involvement has gained considerable attention in family planning programs but the implementation thereof remains a challenge. In that context, our study aimed at measuring the effect of a six-month-long family planning education program on male involvement in family planning, as well as on couples' contraceptive practice. We conducted a quasi-experimental research among 811 married couples in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Our study consisted of an intervention and a control group for comparative purpose; and surveyed before and after the implementation of the intervention. The intervention consisted of family planning education, given to both men and women at the household level in the intervention arm, in addition to monthly community gatherings. During the intervention period, households in the control group were not subject to particular activities but had access to routine health care services. We obtained follow-up data from 760 out of 786 (96.7%) couples who were originally enrolled in the survey. Findings were compared within and between groups before and after intervention surveys. At the baseline, contraceptive use in both control and intervention households were similar. After the intervention, we observed among men in the intervention arm a significantly higher level of willingness to be actively involved in family planning compared to the men in the control arm (p family planning issues was less reported within the control group, both in the case of men and women ((p = 0.031) and (p family planning educational intervention, which includes both spouses and promotes spousal communication, might be useful to foster contraceptive practice among couples. The results also offer practical information on the benefits of male involvement in family planning as a best means to increase contraceptive use. Thus, providing opportunities to reinforce

  18. Development of a brief questionnaire to assess contraceptive intent.

    Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Rocca, Corinne H

    2015-11-01

    We sought to develop and validate an instrument that can enable providers to identify young women who may be at risk of contraceptive non-adherence. Item response theory based methods were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Contraceptive Intent Questionnaire, a 15-item self-administered questionnaire, based on theory and prior qualitative and quantitative research. The questionnaire was administered to 200 women aged 15-24 years who were initiating contraceptives. We assessed item fit to the item response model, internal consistency, internal structure validity, and differential item functioning. All items fit a one-dimensional model. The separation reliability coefficient was 0.73. Participants' overall scores covered the full range of the scale (0-15), and items appropriately matched the range of participants' contraceptive intent. Items met the criteria for internal structure validity and most items functioned similarly between groups of women. The Contraceptive Intent Questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid tool. Future testing is needed to assess predictive ability and clinical utility. The Contraceptive Intent Questionnaire may serve as a valid tool to help providers identify women who may have problems with contraceptive adherence, as well as to pinpoint areas in which counseling may be directed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The efficacy of ultrasound treatment as a reversible male contraceptive in the rhesus monkey.

    VandeVoort, Catherine A; Tollner, Theodore L

    2012-09-12

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound as a contraceptive approach has involved nonhuman primates as well as rats and dogs. The current study was undertaken to determine whether this treatment could be a method for reversible contraception, using a model with testes size similar to adult humans. Two methods of ultrasound exposure were used, either the transducer probe at the bottom of a cup filled with saline (Cup) or direct application to the surface of the scrotum (Direct). Four adult rhesus (Macaca mulatta) males with normal semen parameters were treated with therapeutic ultrasound at 2.5 W/cm(2) for 30 min. Treatment was given 3 times, one every other day on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule. For each male, semen quality was evaluated a minimum of three times over several months prior to ultrasound exposure and weekly for two months following ultrasound treatment. Semen samples from all males, regardless of exposure method, exhibited a decrease in the percentage of motile sperm following ultrasound treatment. There was an average reduction in motility of 40% the week following treatment. Similarly, curvilinear velocity and the percentage of sperm with a normally shaped flagellum were also reduced in all males following ultrasound treatment. A significant reduction in the total number of sperm in an ejaculate (total sperm count) was only observed in males that received ultrasound via the cup method. Following treatment via the cup method, males exhibited up to a 91.7% decrease in average total sperm count (n = 2). Sperm count did not approach pre-treatment levels until 8 weeks following ultrasound exposure. The sustained reduction in sperm count, percent motility, normal morphology, and sperm vigor with the cup exposure method provides proof of principle that testicular treatment with ultrasound can be an effective contraceptive approach in humans.

  1. The efficacy of ultrasound treatment as a reversible male contraceptive in the rhesus monkey

    VandeVoort Catherine A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of therapeutic ultrasound as a contraceptive approach has involved nonhuman primates as well as rats and dogs. The current study was undertaken to determine whether this treatment could be a method for reversible contraception, using a model with testes size similar to adult humans. Methods Two methods of ultrasound exposure were used, either the transducer probe at the bottom of a cup filled with saline (Cup or direct application to the surface of the scrotum (Direct. Four adult rhesus (Macaca mulatta males with normal semen parameters were treated with therapeutic ultrasound at 2.5 W/cm(2 for 30 min. Treatment was given 3 times, one every other day on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule. For each male, semen quality was evaluated a minimum of three times over several months prior to ultrasound exposure and weekly for two months following ultrasound treatment. Results Semen samples from all males, regardless of exposure method, exhibited a decrease in the percentage of motile sperm following ultrasound treatment. There was an average reduction in motility of 40% the week following treatment. Similarly, curvilinear velocity and the percentage of sperm with a normally shaped flagellum were also reduced in all males following ultrasound treatment. A significant reduction in the total number of sperm in an ejaculate (total sperm count was only observed in males that received ultrasound via the cup method. Following treatment via the cup method, males exhibited up to a 91.7% decrease in average total sperm count (n = 2. Sperm count did not approach pre-treatment levels until 8 weeks following ultrasound exposure. Conclusions The sustained reduction in sperm count, percent motility, normal morphology, and sperm vigor with the cup exposure method provides proof of principle that testicular treatment with ultrasound can be an effective contraceptive approach in humans.

  2. Disrupting the male germ line to find infertility and contraception targets.

    Archambeault, Denise R; Matzuk, Martin M

    2014-05-01

    Genetically-manipulated mouse models have become indispensible for broadening our understanding of genes and pathways related to male germ cell development. Until suitable in vitro systems for studying spermatogenesis are perfected, in vivo models will remain the gold standard for inquiry into testicular function. Here, we discuss exciting advances that are allowing researchers faster, easier, and more customizable access to their mouse models of interest. Specifically, the trans-NIH Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is working to generate knockout mouse models of every gene in the mouse genome. The related Knockout Mouse Phenotyping Program (KOMP2) is performing systematic phenotypic analysis of this genome-wide collection of knockout mice, including fertility screening. Together, these programs will not only uncover new genes involved in male germ cell development but also provide the research community with the mouse models necessary for further investigations. In addition to KOMP/KOMP2, another promising development in the field of mouse models is the advent of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas technology. Utilizing 20 nucleotide guide sequences, CRISPR/Cas has the potential to introduce sequence-specific insertions, deletions, and point mutations to produce null, conditional, activated, or reporter-tagged alleles. CRISPR/Cas can also successfully target multiple genes in a single experimental step, forgoing the multiple generations of breeding traditionally required to produce mouse models with deletions, insertions, or mutations in multiple genes. In addition, CRISPR/Cas can be used to create mouse models carrying variants identical to those identified in infertile human patients, providing the opportunity to explore the effects of such mutations in an in vivo system. Both the KOMP/KOMP2 projects and the CRISPR/Cas system provide powerful, accessible genetic approaches to the study of male germ cell development in the mouse. A

  3. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women's perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda.

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Jennings, Larissa; Reid, Alice; Nalwadda, Gorette; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2014-03-05

    Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner's use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women's perceptions regarding obstacles to men's support and uptake of modern contraceptives. A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15-54 and women aged 15-49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women's perceptions regarding barriers to men's involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Five themes were identified as rationale for men's limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman's domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women's use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men's meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men's supportive

  4. The relationship between males' attitudes to partner violence and use of contraceptive methods in Turkey.

    Akin, L; Ozaydin, N

    2005-09-01

    Interventions have been carried out to improve the reproductive health and status of women in Turkey. However, these efforts are limited due to lack of male involvement. Lifestyle risks such as partner violence need to be evaluated in terms of any effects on the use of contraception. Data collected from interviews of married women and their husbands for the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey and 1971 husbands were included in the study. The percentage of husbands who were against partner violence was 20.4%. However, 22 (0.9%) husbands had an attitude toward the use of violence against their wives. The frequency of contraceptive use was increased from the group of men who had unfavorable attitudes towards violence to the group of men who had favorable attitudes. A similar trend was found in the percentages of condom use for men, with multiple factors influencing contraceptive use. The study suggests that further investigations are needed for couple-related issues to improve the status of women in the community and to empower women for sexual health.

  5. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partners

    Banholzer Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little guidance regarding the risk of exposure of pregnant women/ women of childbearing potential to genotoxic or teratogenic compounds via vaginal dose delivered through seminal fluid during sexual intercourse. Method We summarize current thinking and provide clinical trial considerations for a consistent approach to contraception for males exposed to genotoxic and/or teratogenic compounds or to compounds of unknown teratogenicity, and for collection of pregnancy data from their female partners. Results Where toxicity testing demonstrates genotoxic potential, condom use is required during exposure and for 5 terminal plasma half-lives plus 74 days (one human spermatogenesis cycle to avoid conception. For non-genotoxic small molecules and immunoglobulins with unknown teratogenic potential or without a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL from embryo-fetal development (EFD studies and no minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL, condom use is recommended for males with pregnant partner/female partner of childbearing potential. For teratogenic small molecules with estimated seminal fluid concentration and a margin between projected maternal area under the curve (AUC and NOAEL AUC from EFD studies of ≥300 (≥100 for immunoglobulins or in the absence of a NOAEL with a margin between MABEL plasma concentration and maternal Cmax of ≥300 (≥10 for immunoglobulins, condom use is not required. However, condom use is required for margins below the thresholds previously indicated. For small molecules with available seminal fluid concentrations, condom use is required if margins are Pregnancy data should be proactively collected if pregnancy occurs during the condom use period required for males exposed to first-in-class molecules or to molecules with a target/class shown to be teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic in human or preclinical experiments. Conclusion These recommendations, based on a precaution

  6. A New Combination of Testosterone and Nestorone Transdermal Gels for Male Hormonal Contraception

    Ilani, Niloufar; Roth, Mara Y.; Amory, John K.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Dart, Clint; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender; Blithe, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Combinations of testosterone (T) and nestorone (NES; a nonandrogenic progestin) transdermal gels may suppress spermatogenesis and prove appealing to men for contraception. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of T gel alone or combined with NES gel in suppressing spermatogenesis. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator clinical trial conducted at two academic medical centers. Participants: Ninety-nine healthy male volunteers participated in the study. Interventions: Volunteers were randomized to one of three treatment groups applying daily transdermal gels (group 1: T gel 10 g + NES 0 mg/placebo gel; group 2: T gel 10 g + NES gel 8 mg; group 3: T gel 10 g + NES gel 12 mg). Main Outcome Variable: The main outcome variable of the study was the percentage of men whose sperm concentration was suppressed to 1 million/ml or less by 20–24 wk of treatment. Results: Efficacy data analyses were performed on 56 subjects who adhered to the protocol and completed at least 20 wk of treatment. The percentage of men whose sperm concentration was 1 million/ml or less was significantly higher for T + NES 8 mg (89%, P male range throughout the treatment period. Adverse effects were minimal in all groups. Conclusion: A combination of daily NES + T gels suppressed sperm concentration to 1 million/ml or less in 88.5% of men, with minimal adverse effects, and may be further studied as a male transdermal hormonal contraceptive. PMID:22791756

  7. Male access to emergency contraception in pharmacies: a mystery shopper survey.

    Bell, David L; Camacho, Elvis J; Velasquez, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy access to emergency contraception (EC) could involve men in pregnancy prevention. The objectives were to assess the availability and cost of EC. Male mystery shoppers visited 158 pharmacies in three neighborhoods in New York City. They asked for EC and its cost and noted weekend hours. Twenty-two (73.3%) of 30 pharmacies created barriers to get EC. The cost of EC was higher in the higher-socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhood (p<.001), and the higher-SES neighborhood pharmacies had a greater number of weekend hours (p<.001). Overall, males had a 20% probability of not being able to access EC. The national dialogue should include males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. "Astronauts in the Sperm World": The Renegotiation of Masculine Identities in Discourses on Male Contraceptives

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the predominance of modern contraceptive drugs for women has disciplined men and women to delegate responsibilities for contraception largely to women. Consequently, contraceptive use came to be excluded from hegemonic masculinity. The weak alignment of contraceptive technologies

  9. Cognitive Development, Egocentrism, Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive development, egocentrism, and self-esteem were examined in relation to contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for 300 high school and first-year college students. Adolescents with higher cognitive development and self-esteem scores had more knowledge about sexuality and contraception and were more likely to use contraceptives.…

  10. Indenopyride derivative RTI-4587-073(l): a candidate for male contraception in stallions.

    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Macpherson, Margo L; McDonnell, Sue M; Nollin, Maggie; Roser, Janet F; Love, Charles; Runyon, Scott; Thomas, Brian F; Troedsson, Mats H

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an indenopyridine derivative RTI-4587-073(l) was a good candidate for male contraception in horses. We hypothesized that a single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) causes significant suppression of testicular function in stallions without affecting sexual behavior. Three Miniature horse stallions received a single dose of 12.5 mg/kg RTI-4587-073(l) orally (group "treated"), whereas three other Miniature horse stallions received placebo only (group "control"). Semen was collected and evaluated from all stallions twice a week for three baseline weeks and 13 post-treatment weeks. Sexual behavior was video-recorded and analyzed. Testicular dimensions were measured using ultrasonography, and blood samples were drawn for endocrine evaluation once before treatment and once a week during the post-treatment period. Single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) caused severe oligoasthenozoospermia (low sperm number and low motility), shedding large numbers of immature germ cells in semen, and increased FSH concentrations in treated stallions. These effects were fully reversible within ∼71 days. However, libido and copulatory behavior remained unchanged throughout the entire experiment. We concluded that RTI-4587-073(l) was a promising candidate for male contraceptive in domestic stallions. Further research should be performed to test this compound for fertility control in wildlife and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contraceptive technology.

    Potts, M; Atkinson, L

    1984-06-01

    -the-counter sale in the US, and other disposable vaginal barriers might also be developed. The 1980s are likely to see some significant new ways of delivering well-known steroids for female contraception. US government policy forbids the support of research on abortion technology, and private pharmaceutical firms have been criticized for working in this field. In other parts of the world, research continues into the action of prostaglandins. Several developments are not likely to occur in the 1980s -- a contraceptive pill for males, analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone as new methods of fertility control for women, and a vaccine.

  12. Perspectiva masculina quanto a métodos contraceptivos Male perspectives on contraceptive methods

    Graciana Alves Duarte

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo dos anos, os programas de planejamento familiar preocuparam-se quase que exclusivamente em atingir apenas a população feminina. Mais recentemente essa atitude vem mudando, pois evidenciou-se que os homens têm forte influência sobre suas parceiras quanto ao uso de anticoncepcionais. Dentro deste contexto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo geral identificar a perspectiva e o papel masculino quanto à decisão de usar métodos contraceptivos. O tamanho amostral foi calculado em 776 homens de uma universidade paulista; foram selecionados 467 estudantes de graduação, 314 funcionários e 129 docentes, totalizando 910 sujeitos. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado e pré-testado. A análise dos dados encontra-se em andamento. Os métodos menos conhecidos pelos homens foram: Billings (29,9%, injetáveis (35,4% e os cremes/geléias (57,8%. Os demais foram mencionados por pelo menos 80% dos entrevistados. A proporção dos que disseram não conhecer qualquer meio de evitar a gravidez esteve em torno de 1,6%. Estes resultados são semelhantes aos encontrados por outros autores.Historically, family planning programs have targeted women almost exclusively. More recently it has become clear that men have a strong influence on their partners' use of contraception, either by opposing the use of any or one specific method, or by deciding that a woman has to either use a given method or be sterilized. In this context, our study aimed to evaluate the male perspective on the role of gender in the decision to use contraceptive methods and to have and raise children. The sample consisted of 776 males from a university in the State of São Paulo: 467 graduate students, 314 employees, and 129 teachers. A structured, previously tested questionnaire was used for the interviews. Data analysis is currently under way. The least familiar contraceptive methods were Billings (29.9%, injectables (35.4%, and jellies (57.8%. Some 80% of the interviewees

  13. Polyclonal VDAC3 antibody decreases human sperm motility: a novel approach to male contraception

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC mediate transport of anions, cations and ATP which play an important role in sperm motility. This study was aimed to examine the effect of polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum to human sperm motility.Methods: Polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum used in this study was produced in rabbits by immunization of VDAC3-specific synthetic peptides.  Preimmunserum was collected before immunization and used for control experiment. Recognition of VDAC3 antiserum to antigen in human sperm was performed by western blot. Thirty sperm samples obtained from fertile men which had high quality of sperm motility were washed and collected by Percoll gradient. Sperm motility was assessed by means of evaluation of sperm velocity (seconds per 0.1 mm distance and the number of unmoved sperm (million per ml which were observed 0 minute, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after addition of VDAC3 antiserum and preimmunserum as a control. Both data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software.Results: VDAC3 antiserum recognized VDAC3 protein in human sperm. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there were increasing numbers of unmoved spermatozoa after addition of anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 60 minutes observation compared with preimmunserum (control. We found also that sperm velocity decreased signifi cantly after giving anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with pre-immunee serum (control.Conclusion: VDAC3 antiserum can decrease motility of human sperm. and may provide a novel principle of male contraception in the future. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:5-10Keywords: VDAC3 antiserum, sperm, motility, contraception

  14. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  15. Men's contraceptive practices in France: evidence of male involvement in family planning.

    Le Guen, Mireille; Ventola, Cécile; Bohet, Aline; Moreau, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    To describe contraceptive practices of men in a relationship in France, where use of female-controlled methods is predominant, and to explore their involvement in managing contraception within the couple. Data are drawn from a national probability cross-sectional survey on sexual and reproductive health conducted in France in 2010. The study sample comprised 3373 men aged 15-49, 1776 of whom were asked about their current contraceptive practices after they reported that they were fecund and sexually active and did not currently want a child. Analyses were performed with logistic regression models. Few men aged 15-49 with a partner did not use contraception (3.4%). Most reported using only a female method (71.7%), 20.4% only cooperative methods, such as condoms, withdrawal and the rhythm method and 4.5% both. Among contraceptive users, withdrawal (7.7%) was more likely to be used by men with low incomes or low educational levels. Condom use was reported as a contraceptive method by 18.9% of men. Its prevalence was higher for those in new and noncohabiting relationships (36.1%) and lower for those in cohabiting relationships (12.4%), in which STIs/HIV prevention is less of a concern. Men's high awareness of contraceptive practices and their use of some cooperative methods reveal their involvement in contraceptive practices within the context of relationships. Condom use is associated with the prevention of STIs/HIV for noncohabiting men, but men who live with their female partner seem to use condoms mainly as a contraceptive method. Withdrawal appears to be associated with low level of education and financial difficulties. Finally, having engendered a pregnancy that was terminated appears to influence men's contraceptive practices. Studying men's contraceptive practices helps to understand their involvement in contraceptive management within relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marital status and female and male contraceptive sterilization in the United States.

    Eeckhaut, Mieke Carine Wim

    2015-06-01

    To examine female and male sterilization patterns in the United States based on marital status, and to determine if sociodemographic characteristics explain these patterns. Survival analysis of cross-sectional data from the female and male samples from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Not applicable. The survey is designed to be representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population, ages 15-44 years. None. Vasectomy and tubal sterilization. In the United States, vasectomy is the near-exclusive domain of married men. Never-married and ever-married single men, and never-married cohabiting men, had a low relative risk (RR) of vasectomy (RR = 0.1, 0.3, and 0.0, respectively), compared with men in first marriages. Tubal sterilization was not limited to currently married, or even to ever-married women, although it was less common among never-married single women (RR = 0.2) and more common among women in higher-order marriages (RR = 1.8), compared with women in first marriages. In contrast to vasectomy, differential use of tubal sterilization by marital status was driven in large part by differences in parity. This study shows that being unmarried at the time of sterilization--an important risk factor for poststerilization regret--was much more common among women than men. In addition to contributing to the predominance of female, vs. male, sterilization, this pattern highlights the importance of educating women on the permanency of sterilization, and the opportunity to increase reliance on long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Contraception in the future].

    Hamzaoui, R; Boukhris, M

    1994-02-01

    In the last decade, global use of contraceptive methods has increased. About 50% of couples of childbearing age use a modern contraceptive method. This evolution and a positive change in attitude towards male contraception has encouraged research in fertility regulation to enlarge and to improve acceptance of the contraceptive mix. Current injectable contraceptives interfere with the menstrual cycle. Research is exploring ways to minimize such secondary effects by reducing the total hormone dose and by changing the way the active product is delivered (e.g., microspheres). An injectable prototype is an analogue of levonorgestrel (HRP 002). A new IUD is made of leather suspended by a nylon suture which has been inserted into the uterine muscle. RU-486, often used to interrupt early pregnancy, is being tested as an oral contraceptive (OC). It inhibits secretion of gonadotropins and ovulation. It holds promise as an OC with no estrogen component. Since it also inhibits endometrial development and thus prevents implantation, it may someday be used for emergency contraception (i.e., postcoital contraception). New contraceptive implants under study include Norplant RII (2 rods of levonorgestrel lasting for 3 years), Implanon (desogestrel), and Capranor (biodegradable implant lasting 2 years). The female condom consists of a flexible polyurethane sheath with a flexible ring at each end. It has the potential to protect against sexually transmitted diseases since it covers the labial lips and is impermeable to HIV. France and Switzerland have both approved its use. It will enter the UK market at the end of the year. Approval for marketing has been sought in the US.

  19. [Contraceptive self efficacy in male and female adolescents: validation of the French version of the Levinson scale].

    Bilodeau, A; Forget, G; Tétreault, J

    1994-01-01

    The social learning theory of Bandura leads us to believe that contraceptive self-efficacy supports the adoption and the maintenance of effective contraceptive behaviours during the teenage years. Levinson has developed a validated measure of this concept which consists of an 18-item scale for sexually active girls. However there are no such scales in French or for sexually active boys. The health promotion program, entitled SEXPRIMER, which aims at reducing teenage pregnancy, has incorporated the French version of the Levinson scale, the adapted boy's version and the validity studies. A 15-item scale for girls and a 14-item scale for boys with respective reliability coefficients of .78 and .71 resulted from this program. A logistic regression analysis shows the predictive value of the measures in regard to contraceptive behaviours. According to Levinson's more recent studies, results indicate that new research on the factor matrix of the scale are relevant.

  20. Contraception with RISUG® and functional reversal through DMSO and NaHCO3 in male rabbits.

    Ansari, Abdul S; Badar, Ayesha; Balasubramanian, Krithika; Lohiya, Nirmal K

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate reversal of short- and long-term vas occlusion with reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Animals were divided into seven groups containing five animals each. Fortnightly, semen analysis revealed that sperm concentration and output steadily declined after vas occlusion and complete azoospermia was attained at 30-60 days postinjection. Spermatozoa reappeared at 60-75 days of reversal and normozoospermia was noticed between 135 days and 150 days in the reversal groups. All spermatozoa were found nonmotile prior to azoospermia and a gradual recovery in sperm motility was observed between 105 days and 135 days of reversal. A significant decline in viability of sperms was noticed during vas occlusion up to 30-60 days which recovered at 60-75 days postreversal and normalized by 75-105 days in the reversal groups. A significant enhancement in the sperm abnormalities was recorded in all vas occluded animals as well as those in initial periods of reversal. Other parameters, namely, semen volume, ejaculation time, pH, color, and consistency, remained unaltered during all phases of the study. Fertility test, at the intervals of 15 days, demonstrated that animals exhibited complete sterility during the entire period of vas occlusion. A gradual recovery in fertility was observed with the appearance of spermatozoa following vas occlusion reversal and 100% fertility was observed following 135-150 days of reversal. F1 progeny of reversed animals was found normal. The results suggest that reversal with DMSO or NaHCO3 is feasible, with normal progeny, following short- and long-term contraception.

  1. Development and conceptual validation of a questionnaire to help contraceptive choice: CHLOE (Contraception: HeLping for wOmen's choicE).

    Jamin, Christian Georges; Häusler, Gunther; Lobo Abascal, Paloma; Fiala, Christian; Lete Lasa, Luis Ignacio; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Micheletti, Marie-Christine; Fernández-Dorado, Ana; Pintiaux, Axelle; Chabbert-Buffet, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to facilitate choice of the most appropriate contraceptive method for individual women. A literature review was conducted to identify key aspects influencing contraceptive choice and inform development of a questionnaire for online completion. Questionnaire development was overseen by a steering committee consisting of eight gynaecologists from across Europe. The initial draft underwent conceptual validation through cognitive debriefing interviews with six native English-speaking women. A qualitative content analysis was conducted to accurately identify potential issues and areas for questionnaire improvement. A revised version of the questionnaire then underwent face-to-face and online evaluation by 115 international gynaecologists/obstetricians with expertise in contraception, prior to development of a final version. The final conceptually validated Contraception: HeLping for wOmen's choicE (CHLOE) questionnaire takes ≤10 min to complete and includes three sections to elicit general information about the individual, the health conditions that might influence contraceptive choice, and the woman's needs and preferences that might influence contraceptive choice. The questionnaire captures the core aspects of personalisation, efficacy and safety, identified as key attributes influencing contraceptive choice, and consists of 24 closed-ended questions for online completion prior to a health care provider (HCP) consultation. The HCP receives a summary of the responses. The CHLOE questionnaire has been developed to help women choose the contraception that best suits their needs and situation while optimising the HCP's time.

  2. Pharmacists' knowledge and interest in developing counseling skills relating to oral contraceptives.

    Amin, Mohamed E K

    2016-04-01

    Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18

  3. Contraceptive Evaluation.

    Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others

    The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…

  4. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  5. Establishment of human sperm-specific voltage-dependent anion channel 3 recombinant vector for the production of a male contraceptive vaccine

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant vector of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene for production of VDAC3 antibody, which is potential as male contraception vaccine.Methods: Target fragment sequence of VDAC3 gene was obtained through amplification of human sperm VDAC3 cDNA with primers covering exon 5 to exon 8. Its PCR product in size of 435 bp was cloned to the pET101/D-TOPO expression vector (5753 bp. E. coli bacteria were transformed with this vector. Cloning of VDAC3 fragment gene to the vector was confirmed by the using of XbaI restriction enzyme and PCR colony method with primers covering exons 5-8 of the human VDAC3 gene.Results: Alignment analysis of amplified fragment covering exon 5 to exon 8 of VDAC3 gene showed 94% homology to human VDAC3 gene from databank. After cloning to the expression vector and transformation to E. coli competent cells, twelve colonies could grow in culture media. Gel electrophoresis of sliced VDAC3 recombinant vector showed a single band in the size of 6181 bp in 8 colonies. After application of PCR colony and amplicon sequencing, the result showed a single band in the size of 435 bp and fragment sequence with 94% identity to human VDAC3 gene.Conclusion: The construction of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene recombinant vector was established in this study. In the future, this recombinant vector will be used to produce VDAC3 antibody for the development of a male contraception vaccine. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:61-5Keywords: Contraception, recombinant vector, sperm, VDAC3

  6. The preparation and application of N-terminal 57 amino acid protein of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a candidate male contraceptive vaccine

    Cheng Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, which is expressed only on Sertoli cells and plays a key role in spermatogenesis, has been paid attention for its potential in male contraception vaccine research and development. This study introduces a method for the preparation and purification of human FSHR 57-amino acid protein (FSHR-57aa as well as determination of its immunogenicity and antifertility effect. A recombinant pET-28a(+-FSHR-57aa plasmid was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star TM (DE3 and the FSHR-57aa protein was separated and collected by cutting the gel and recovering activity by efficient refolding dialysis. The protein was identified by Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a band of nearly 7 kDa and a purity of 97.4%. Male monkeys were immunized with rhFSHR-57aa protein and a gradual rising of specific serum IgG antibody was found which reached a plateau on day 112 (16 weeks after the first immunization. After mating of one male with three female monkeys, the pregnancy rate of those mated with males immunized against FSHR-57aa was significantly decreased while the serum hormone levels of testosterone and estradiol were not disturbed in the control or the FSHR-57aa groups. By evaluating pathological changes in testicular histology, we found that the blood-testis barrier remained intact, in spite of some small damage to Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the rhFSHR-57aa protein might be a feasible male contraceptive which could affect sperm production without disturbing hormone levels.

  7. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  8. Contraception technology: past, present and future.

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita; Mishell, Daniel R

    2013-03-01

    Steady progress in contraception research has been achieved over the past 50 years. Hormonal and nonhormonal modern contraceptives have improved women's lives by reducing different health conditions that contributed to considerable morbidity. However, the contraceptives available today are not suitable to all users, and the need to expand contraceptive choices still exists. Novel products such as new implants, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches and newer combinations of oral contraceptives have recently been introduced in family planning programs, and hormonal contraception is widely used for spacing and limiting births. Concerns over the adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives have led to research and development of new combinations with improved metabolic profile. Recent developments include use of natural compounds such as estradiol and estradiol valerate with the hope to decrease thrombotic risk, in combination with newer progestins derived from the progesterone structure or from spirolactone, in order to avoid the androgenic effects. Progesterone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators are highly effective in blocking ovulation and preventing follicular rupture and are undergoing investigations in the form of oral pills and in semi-long-acting delivery systems. Future developments also include the combination of a contraceptive with an antiretroviral agent for dual contraception and protection against sexually transmitted diseases, to be used before intercourse or on demand, as well as for continuous use in dual-protection rings. Although clinical trials of male contraception have reflected promising results, limited involvement of industry in that area of research has decreased the likelihood of having a male method available in the current decade. Development of nonhormonal methods is still at an early stage of research, with the identification of specific targets within the reproductive system in ovaries and testes, as well as

  9. Oral contraceptive discontinuation and its aftermath in 19 developing countries.

    Ali, Mohamed M; Cleland, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to document oral contraceptive (OC) discontinuation and switching in a large number of low- and middle-income countries, and to assess the effects of women's education and reason for use (spacing vs. limitation). An attempt was made to explain intercountry variations. Calendar data from 19 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1999 and 2005 were used. Data were analyzed by single- and multiple-decrement life tables and by Cox proportional hazard model. The probability of stopping OC use within 12 months for reasons that implied dissatisfaction with the method ranged from 15% in Indonesia to over 40% in Bolivia and Peru with a median value of 28%. On average, 35% switched to a modern method within 3 months and 16% to a less effective 'traditional' method. Both education and reason for use were strongly related to the probability of switching to a modern method. Discontinuation was lower and switching higher in countries judged to have strong family planning programs. Both discontinuation of use and inadequate switching to alternative methods are major but neglected problems in the family planning services of many developing countries.

  10. The current status of oral contraceptive clinical development in Japan.

    Kuwabara, Y

    1989-01-01

    Since the oral contraceptive guideline was issued in April 1987, Japanese pharmaceutical firms have been asking physicians to perform clinical studies of the low-dose OCs. At present, eight products from six companies are under clinical development. Ethinyl estradiol (30-35 micrograms per tablet) as an estrogen component is common to all the test drugs. The progestin component in each OC is norethindrone, levonorgestrel, or desogestrel. Phase I clinical studies on small numbers of healthy volunteers showed that they could tolerate the test drugs without any serious complaints. The effects on endocrine systems, including the inhibition of ovulation, were also examined. Pharmacokinetic parameters of active ingredients were comparable to those of Western women, and no substantial difference seemed to exist between Japanese and Western women. As an example, the results of phase I studies of OJK-777 (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7) are mentioned. Phase III clinical studies, which are "open studies," are now under progress with more than 3,000 women. The major objectives are to examine (1) how well the drugs are tolerated, and the dropout rates; (2) the effects on cycle control, especially bleeding patterns; (3) effects on the cardiovascular system, including coagulation and lipid metabolism; (4) effects on hormone secretions. Although some women have been taking the test drugs for more than 12 cycles, overall statistics are not yet available, because the guideline requires long-term administration (for more than 24 cycles). However, some characteristic features observed thus far are discussed.

  11. Importance of protamine phosphorylation to histone displacement in spermatids: can the disruption of this process be used for male contraception

    Balhorn, R.; Hud, N.V.; Corzett, M.; Mazrimas, J.

    1995-06-01

    Protamine is a small protein that packages DNA in the sperm of most vertebrates. Shortly after its synthesis, the serine and threonine residues in each protamine are phosphorylated and the modified proteins are deposited onto DNA, displacing the histones and other chromatin proteins. We have hypothesized that the phosphorylation of protamine 1 induces protamine dimerization and these dimers are required for efficient histone displacement. Histone displacement by protamines in late-step spermatids appears to be essential for the production of fertile sperm in man and other mammals, and the disruption of this process could provide a new approach for male contraception. As a first step towards testing this theory, we have initiated a set of in vitro experiments to determine whether of not protamine phosphorylation is essential for histone displacement. Thee results of these experiments, although incomplete, confirm that unphosphorylated protamine cannot effectively displace histone from DNA. Polyarginine molecules twice the size of a protamine molecule and salmine dimer were found to be more effective. These results are consistent with the theory that the disruption of protamine phosphorylation may prove to be a useful new approach for male contraception if it can be shown to facilitate or induce protamine dimerization.

  12. Postcoital contraception.

    McLaren, H C

    1977-02-05

    My colleague Dr. C.L. Brewer (January 15, p. 169) is within his rights to ask for a precise definition of abortion and contraception. I define abortion as the deliberate destruction of the embryo once it is embedded in the uterus. The absolutist on the abortion issue, until he is sure that an IUD never works by destroying an embedded embryo, must logically eschew this technique, advising his patient as to his ethical objections. She may then seek other advice once she has the facts. However, to insist that those who advise an IUD with the motive of contraception cannot herefore object to, say, intrauterine saline aimed at the destruction of a moving 27-week fetus is, in my view, stretching his argument. With further stretching it could be carried to absurdity in the rubella-early pregnancy dilemma: why not deliver the child, examine it carefully, and then if imperfect kill it with a silver hammer? Unthinkable, even if logical. Still, Dr. Brewer has a point and (with me) no doubt he will sympathize with Pope John and his advisers in their support for family spacing only by the avoidance of the fertile days - esthetically admirable but, alas, not always effective. How absurd the Catholic Church would now look if 10 years ago it had blessed the IUD only to find that it may operate not only by preventing the embedding of the zygot but by destroying it in situ - by definition an abortion. The future may settle the debate with hormones which convert the endometrium to a nonreceptive state so that a fetus is never embedded in the womb. Even better, we may develop a male hormone which prevents sperm from penetrating the ovum. Meantime, motive is important: contraception is not abortion and our abortionists should not dress up as delayed contraceptors. (Editor's note: This correspondence is now closed.)

  13. Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru

    Chirinos Jesús L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.

  14. Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Tazhmoye V Crawford4, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell5, Cynthia G Francis1, Neva South-Bourne11Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaBackground: Jamaica is a mid-range income developing country with an increasing population and public resource constraints. Therefore, reproductive health issues are of critical importance in Jamaica.Aim: We examined the use of contraceptives among women and the factors that influence these women to use contraceptives.Materials and method: In the current study we utilized the secondary dataset for the Reproductive Health Survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board. The investigation was carried out with a stratified random sample of 7168 women aged between 15 and 49. The measures included demographic variables, method of contraception used, being in a relationship, number of partners, pregnancy status, and sexual activity status, along with other variables.Results: The majority of participants used some method of contraception (64%. The most popular method of contraception was a condom (32%. Results of a multivariate analysis suggests that the explanatory variables for the method of contraception used are age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, social class (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95, being in a relationship (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.80–4.02, the rural–urban dichotomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32, being currently pregnant (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.02, currently having sex (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.95–2.70, number of partners (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57–2.17, the age at

  15. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Wen-Hong Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV. IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487, IVD-B (n = 485 or NSV (n = 487 groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV among the three groups (P > 0.05. The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

  16. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  17. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research

    Wight Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years. Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural. Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted

  18. Postinor -- the unique method of emergency contraception developed in Hungary.

    Camp, S

    1995-08-01

    In Hungary, an important form of emergency contraception (EC) is the pill containing 0.75 mg levonorgestrel, which is marketed by Gedeon Richter under the name Postinor in four-pill packages. Women are instructed to take one pill within an hour of any unprotected act of intercourse, up to four pills per month. The nature of the administration requires that women be in possession of the pills before they need them, and, while Postinor is marketed as an EC, the target market is young, unmarried women who experience infrequent intercourse. When it was first offered a decade ago, Postinor gained widespread use in place of contraception. The product was overused and there was a backlash in the medical community. Thus, the manufacturer changed its packaging instructions and removed the original 10-pill package from the market. While the price of the drug is considered prohibitive for use by adolescents, more than three million pills were sold in the past three years in Hungary and more than 60 million pills were sold in over 20 countries. Clinical studies show a failure rate of less than 1% and relatively few side effects (10-20% nausea and 20-40% bleeding) if not more than four pills per month are used. The World Health Organization is currently conducting trials to compare use of Postinor with the Yuzpe method. Results of these trials will be available in 1996.

  19. Emergency contraception

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  20. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  1. [Contraceptive practices among university students: the use of emergency contraception].

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Contin, Marcelo Vieira

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated contraceptive practices and especially the use of emergency contraception by 487 young students at a public university in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was sent by e-mail and completed online in December 2007. Contraceptive methods and use of emergency contraception were investigated. Female and male students reported a high proportion of contraceptive use, mainly condoms and the pill. Half of the students had already used emergency contraception, often when already using some other highly effective method. Among female students, multiple regression analysis showed that current age, age at sexual initiation, not having used condoms in sexual relations, condom failure, and knowing someone that has used emergency contraception were associated with use of the latter. The option for emergency contraception proved to be more closely related to inconsistencies in the use of regular methods than to lack of their use, and can thus be considered a marker for discontinuity in regular contraception.

  2. The impact of male contraception on dominance hierarchy and herd association patterns of African elephants (Loxodonta africana in a fenced game reserve

    L.S. Doughty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Overpopulation of African elephants (Loxodonta africana in fenced reserves in South Africa is becoming increasingly problematic to wildlife managers. With growing opposition to culling and the high cost of translocation, alternative management strategies focusing on male elephants are being investigated. In this study, hormonal treatment via Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH suppression, and surgical treatment via vasectomy were trialled. Focusing on behavioural responses, we tested the male dominance hierarchy for transitivity, and examined the rank order of individuals in relation to age and contraceptive treatment received. Additionally, we studied association patterns between males within the male population and with the female herds.Findings suggest that the treatment of one individual with GnRH suppressant is affecting the rank order of the dominance hierarchy, though it is still transitive, yet fluid (Landau’s linearity index h=0.7, as expected in a normal elephant population. Between males, association patterns were found to be weak. However, some males had relatively strong associations with the female herds, with association indices between 0.25 and 0.41. This suggests that the reduction on births is resulting in the males spending atypically large amounts of time with the female herds. The future conservation implications of this population control mechanism are discussed. Keywords: African elephant, Population control, Contraception, Social dynamics, Dominance, Association patterns

  3. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country.

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-08-01

    Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to 'evil' practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  4. [Contraception and adolescence].

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  5. The demographic impact and development benefits of meeting demand for family planning with modern contraceptive methods.

    Goodkind, Daniel; Lollock, Lisa; Choi, Yoonjoung; McDevitt, Thomas; West, Loraine

    2018-01-01

    Meeting demand for family planning can facilitate progress towards all major themes of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): people, planet, prosperity, peace, and partnership. Many policymakers have embraced a benchmark goal that at least 75% of the demand for family planning in all countries be satisfied with modern contraceptive methods by the year 2030. This study examines the demographic impact (and development implications) of achieving the 75% benchmark in 13 developing countries that are expected to be the furthest from achieving that benchmark. Estimation of the demographic impact of achieving the 75% benchmark requires three steps in each country: 1) translate contraceptive prevalence assumptions (with and without intervention) into future fertility levels based on biometric models, 2) incorporate each pair of fertility assumptions into separate population projections, and 3) compare the demographic differences between the two population projections. Data are drawn from the United Nations, the US Census Bureau, and Demographic and Health Surveys. The demographic impact of meeting the 75% benchmark is examined via projected differences in fertility rates (average expected births per woman's reproductive lifetime), total population, growth rates, age structure, and youth dependency. On average, meeting the benchmark would imply a 16 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive prevalence by 2030 and a 20% decline in youth dependency, which portends a potential demographic dividend to spur economic growth. Improvements in meeting the demand for family planning with modern contraceptive methods can bring substantial benefits to developing countries. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show formally how such improvements can alter population size and age structure. Declines in youth dependency portend a demographic dividend, an added bonus to the already well-known benefits of meeting existing demands for family planning.

  6. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria.

    Ozumba, B C; Obi, S N; Ijioma, N N

    2005-04-01

    The contraceptive information and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex. This study was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria, using a cross-sectional survey of 279 and 295 single women in Ngwo (rural) and Enugu (urban) community. The mean age of the population was 21.3 years. Contraceptive awareness was more among the urban than rural respondents (90.2% vs 34.1%). The major sources of contraceptive knowledge were mass media (68%) and peer groups (86.3%) for the urban and rural respondents, respectively. Most respondents in both groups had positive attitude towards contraception. More urban than rural respondents (68.3% vs 12.5%) began sexual activity during adolescence and the level of contraceptive use during first coitus were 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Of the currently sexually active respondents, 32.5% (rural) and 59.7% (urban) were using a form of modern contraception. Condoms, followed by oral pills were the most popular contraceptive method because they can easily procure them over the counter. Poor contraceptive information, highly critical behavior of family planning providers towards unmarried women seeking contraception and attitude of male partners militate against contraceptive practice. There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers.

  8. Developing mHealth Messages to Promote Postmenstrual Regulation Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh: Participatory Interview Study.

    Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn; Hossain, Altaf; Footman, Katharine; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Nuremowla, Sadid; Reiss, Kate

    2017-12-14

    Abortions are restricted in Bangladesh, but menstrual regulation is an approved alternative, defined as a procedure of regulating the menstrual cycle when menstruation is absent for a short duration. Use of contraception after menstrual regulation can reduce subsequent unintended pregnancy, but in Bangladesh, the contraceptive method mix is dominated by short-term methods, which have higher discontinuation and failure rates. Mobile phones are a channel via which menstrual regulation clients could be offered contraceptive support after leaving the clinic. This study aimed to support the development of a mobile phone intervention to support postmenstrual regulation family planning use in Bangladesh. It explored what family planning information women want to receive after having a menstrual regulation procedure, whether they would like to receive this information via their mobile phone, and if so, what their preferences are for the way in which it is delivered. We conducted participatory interviews with 24 menstrual regulation clients in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. Women were recruited from facilities in urban and peri-urban areas, which included public sector clinics supported by Ipas, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), and NGO clinics run by Marie Stopes. Main themes covered in the interviews were factors affecting the use of contraception, what information and support women want after their menstrual regulation procedure, how respondents would prefer to receive information about contraception, and other key issues for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, such as language and privacy. As part of the in-depth interviews, women were shown and played 6 different messages about contraception on the research assistant's phone, which they were given to operate, and were then asked to give feedback. Women were open to both receiving messages about family planning methods on their mobile phones and talking to a counselor about family

  9. Contraceptive issues of youth and adolescents in developing countries: highlights from the Philippines and other Asian countries.

    Alesna-Llanto, Emma; Raymundo, Corazon M

    2005-10-01

    This article highlights contraceptive issues in Asia, home to some 700 million adolescents. It starts with a description of the socio-cultural milieu of adolescents in South and Southeast Asia, their knowledge and use of contraceptives, the myriad barriers to access, and the many innovative programs to broaden contraceptive availability. The reproductive health needs of adolescents in poor countries cannot be solved by merely supplying them with contraceptives--these needs can only be fully addressed in the context of gender equality, poverty alleviation and the conviction that investing in the reproductive health of adolescents is a most urgent priority. Investing in the reproductive health of adolescents will have an impact not only on birth and abortion rates, maternal health, and the spread of STI/HIV but also on the demographics and economic development of the region--and beyond.

  10. Contraceptives with novel benefits.

    Su, Ying; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) agonists (progestins) and antagonists are developed for female contraceptives. However, non-contraceptive applications of newer progestins and PR modulators are being given more attention. The newer PR agonists including drospirenone, nomegestrol, trimegestone, dienogest and nestorone are being evaluated as contraceptives with health benefits because of their unique pharmacological properties. The selective PR modulators (SPRM; PR antagonists with PR agonistic properties) are under development not only for emergency contraception but also for other health benefits such as the treatment of endometritis and leiomyoma. After searching the literature from PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and patent database, this review focuses on the effects and mechanisms of these progestins, and SPRMs as contraceptives with other health benefits. PR agonists and antagonists that have novel properties may generate better contraceptive effects with other health benefits.

  11. Levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills use during breastfeeding; effect on infants' health and development.

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Mahmoud, Hanaa R; Yones, Entsar M; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Zakherah, Mahmoud S

    2018-02-20

    The current study aims to evaluate the effect of the use of single packet of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (LNG-ECPs) during breastfeeding on the health and development of the nursing infant. The current study was an ancillary observational cohort study carried out in a university hospital. We counseled all women delivered and planning birth-space and breastfeed for at least 1 year for participation during postpartum hospital stay. Eligible participants for inclusion in the randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929) were allocated to receive adequate Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) counseling (LAM-only group) or the LAM counseling in addition to counseling about LNG-ECPs use (LAM + emergency contraception (EC) group). These pills were to be used once if unprotected intercourse did occur after expiry of any of the LAM prerequisites and before the couples started to use a reliable method of contraception. We included the first 100 women in the LAM + EC who did use the pills and the first 100 women in the control group who completed the follow-up visits for 6 months to draw the infants' outcome. The primary outcome was the difference of anthropometric measurements of the infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcome was the difference in the Psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language development using Denver development screening test. There were no statistical significant differences between both the groups regarding the infants' weight, length, head circumference, chest circumference, and mid-arm circumference at each visit (p > .05). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences regarding all items (psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language) of Denver development screening test between the infants in LAM-only and LAM + EC groups (p = .081). The use of single packet of LNG-ECPs during breastfeeding not objectively affects health and development of nursing infants or subjectively

  12. Knowledge of emergency contraception among students in a tertiary institution in a developing country

    Adewunmi AA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiodun Adeniyi Adewunmi,1 Kabiru Afolarin Rabiu,1 Adetokunbo Olufela Tayo,1 Tawakwalit Abimbola Ottun,1 Bolu Sunday Adeboye,2 Raheem Akinwunmi Akindele31Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja-Lagos, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Specialist Hospital Akure Ondo State, 3Department Of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College Of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, NigeriaBackground: Emergency contraception (EC has been available in developing countries without prescription for some time. There is, however, little research into the extent of the knowledge of mode of action, effectiveness, and availability of this form of contraception in rural areas.Objectives: To assess the knowledge of EC with respect to mode of action, effectiveness, and availability in rural areas among students in a tertiary institution in a developing country.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to tertiary students in a university in rural area in a developing country. This questionnaire asked about their knowledge of the mode of action of EC, its availability over the counter, its cost, and the student's willingness to purchase it.Results: Some 488 of the 500 questionnaires were returned. One hundred and eight (22.1% of the students had used EC or bought it for a girlfriend at some stage in the past. Two hundred and forty four (50.0% knew the correct timeframe for its use, while 201 (41.2% were not aware of its availability over the counter in pharmacies, and 150 (30.7% felt unable to purchase EC in a pharmacy where they are known. One hundred (20.5% of the participants were aware of the cost of EC.Conclusion: The students had good knowledge of the timeframe for the use of EC, but lacked information regarding the availability and the cost of EC in the community.Keywords: developing country, emergency contraception, knowledge

  13. Contraceptive failure

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    Most studies focusing on contraceptive failure in relation to pregnancy have focused on contraceptive failure among women having induced abortions, thereby neglecting those women who, despite contraceptive failure, accept the pregnancy and intend to carry the fetus to term. To get a more complete...... picture of the problem of contraceptive failure, this study focuses on contraceptive failure among women with diverse pregnancy outcomes. In all, 3520 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital were included: 373 had induced abortions, 435 had spontaneous abortions, 97 had ectopic pregnancies......, and 2614 received antenatal care. The variables studied comprise age, partner relationship, number of births, occupational and economical situation, and contraceptive use.Contraceptive failure, defined as contraceptive use (condom, diaphragm, IUD, oral contraception, or another modern method...

  14. Use of contraceptives among adolescents in Kintampo, Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    Boamah EA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwaku Poku Asante, Emmanuel Mahama, Grace Manu, Emmanuel Kwesi Ayipah, Elisha Adeniji, Seth Owusu-Agyei Kintampo Health Research Center, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana Introduction: The use of contraceptives is essential in preventing unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and abortion-related complications that expose adolescents to health-related risks such as infertility and sometimes death. Objective: To assess contraceptive use among adolescents as evidence to develop appropriate interventions for adolescent sexual health programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted among 793 male and female adolescents (aged 15–19 years in the Kintampo area of Ghana from October 2010–May 2011. Results: Knowledge of at least one contraceptive method was high (88.9% among adolescents of both sexes (males 92.1% and females 86.6%. Knowledge of male condoms was highest (84.0%, and it was the most common contraceptive method used (82.0%. The use of other methods such as pills (7.9%, injection (0.9%, and foam (0.3%, amongst others, was low. About 22.9% of adolescents used contraceptives consistently. Among adolescents, consistent contraceptive use was significantly associated with discussions of contraceptive use between partners (P<0.01. Adolescents who discussed contraceptive use before their first sexual encounter were more likely to use contraceptives consistently when compared to those who had never discussed contraceptive use (odds ratio =0.06; 95% confidence interval: 0.02–0.17; P<0.01. Among sexually active adolescents, 30.0% had experienced pregnancy, with 34.0% of pregnancies resulting in abortions. Pregnancy was high among adolescents who did not use contraceptives consistently, as compared to those who did (6.4% versus 93.6%; P<0.01. The most common source of contraceptives was the chemical seller's/pharmacy shop (62.1%. Conclusion: Though a high number of

  15. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  16. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Enemuoh, Jane C; Ogbonna, Chinwe; Mbachu, Chinyere; Uzochukwu, Benjamin Sc; Lawson, Agathe; Ndyanabangi, Bannet

    2013-01-23

    Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD) and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public-private partnership arrangements should be explored so that universal

  17. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. Methods The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. Results The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD) and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs) and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. Conclusion The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public-private partnership arrangements

  18. Are modern contraceptives acceptable to people and where do they source them from across Nigeria?

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the extent that different modern contraceptives are acceptable to different populations groups and where they get the commodities from will help in developing specific interventions that will help to scale-up the availability of the contraceptives. Methods The study took place in urban and rural sites in six states across Nigeria. Data on acceptability and sources of the contraceptives was collected from at least 770 randomly selected mostly female householders from each state respectively using a questionnaire. Acceptability of the different contraceptives was scored by the respondents on a scale of 1 (lowest to 10 (highest. The relationships between acceptability and sources of the contraceptives with socio-economic status and geographic location of the respondents were examined. Results The use of modern contraceptives in general was acceptable to 87% of the respondents. Male condom was the most acceptable means of contraceptive with an average score of 5.0. It was followed by implants with and oral contraceptive pill with average scores of 4.0, whilst IUD was the least acceptable with an average score of 2.9. The private sector was the major source of contraceptives to different population groups. Both male and female condoms were mostly procured from patent medicine dealers (PMD and pharmacy shops. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs and implants were mostly sourced from public and private hospitals in the urban areas, whilst injectibles were mostly sourced from private hospitals. Oral contraceptives were mostly sourced from pharmacy shops and patent medicine dealers. There were SES and geographic differences for both acceptability and sources of the contraceptives. Also, the sources of different contraceptives depended on the type of the contraceptive. Conclusion The different contraceptives were acceptable to the respondents and the major source of the contraceptives was the private sector. Hence, public

  19. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  20. [Intrauterine contraception].

    Tauber, P F

    1984-09-01

    Approximately 60 million women worldwide use IUDs. Despite worldwide distribution, the total number of IUD carriers has barely increased since 1970. Due to its risks and side effects there is a retrograding tendency both in West Germany and the US. To generate positive development, 3 basic trends have emerged: 1) Restrictive usage of the pharmacologically inactive, 1st generation IUDs such as the Lippes Loop or the Saf-T-Coil, 2) the increasing usage of small plastic IUDs with bioactive alloys to decrease failure rates such as the copper (2nd generation) or hormone-releasing IUDs, and 3) improvements made by changing its design to reduce side effects without loss of contraceptive effectiveness. Almost all IUDs increase monthly blood loss by 50-100%. The risk of illness for women with IUDs is 2-3 times higher than for a woman without or with other contraceptive methods. About 20% of all expulsions occur unnoticed. There are 2 kinds of perforations: primary (iatrogenic), at time of insertion, and secondary, some time after insertion. The IUD failure rate is about 1-3 pregnancies/100 woman years. In case of pregnancy, the IUD must be removed immediately. IUD insertion requires consent of the woman and can be made to women from 16 years on, presupposing moral maturity. IUD insertion after a miscarriage or abortion does not lead to risks or complications. Due to its corrosive quality, the copper IUD can only remain inside the uterus for a limited time. IUDs could become an excellent contraceptive method if it were possible to decrease bleeding, design easily-removeable IUDs, and prolong their potential for duration in the body.

  1. Development and implementation of a quality assurance program for a hormonal contraceptive implant.

    Owen, Derek H; Jenkins, David; Cancel, Aida; Carter, Eli; Dorflinger, Laneta; Spieler, Jeff; Steiner, Markus J

    2013-04-01

    The importance of the distribution of safe, effective and cost-effective pharmaceutical products in resource-constrained countries is the subject of increasing attention. FHI 360 has developed a program aimed at evaluating the quality of a contraceptive implant manufactured in China, while the product is being registered in an increasing number of countries and distributed by international procurement agencies. The program consists of (1) independent product testing; (2) ongoing evaluation of the manufacturing facility through audits and inspections; and (3) post-marketing surveillance. This article focuses on the laboratory testing of the product. The various test methods were chosen from the following test method compendia, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), British Pharmacopeia (BP), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), or lot release tests mandated by Chinese regulatory requirements. Each manufactured lot is independently tested prior to its distribution to countries supported by this program. In addition, a more detailed annual testing program includes evaluation of the active ingredient (levonorgestrel), the final product and the packaging material. Over the first 4 years of this 5-year project, all tested lots met the established quality criteria. The quality assurance program developed for this contraceptive implant has helped ensure that a safe product was being introduced into developing country family planning programs. This program provides a template for establishing quality assurance programs for other cost-effective pharmaceutical products that have not yet received stringent regulatory approval and are being distributed in resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expanding contraceptive choice in the developing world: lessons from the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Republic of Zambia.

    d'Arcangues, Catherine M; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Say, Lale

    2013-12-01

    Women need different forms of contraception over their lifetime. In the developed world, they have access to some 20 different methods. In developing countries, only a few options are available. This paper focuses on four under-used methods: intrauterine devices, implants, emergency contraception and female condoms. It examines reasons for their low uptake, strategies used for their adoption, and challenges in sustaining these efforts, in two countries: Laos and Zambia. In-country documentation and reports from international partners were reviewed; questionnaires were sent and interviews carried out with ministry officials, senior providers, and local representatives of international organisations and international non-governmental organisations. In Laos, the family planning programme is relatively young; its challenges include ensuring the sustainability of services and supplies, improving the quality of IEC to dispel misconceptions surrounding contraception, and developing novel distribution systems to reach rural populations. Zambia has a much older programme, which lost ground in the face of competing health priorities. Its challenges include strengthening the supply chain management, coordinating the multiple groups of providers and ensuring the sustainability of services in rural areas. The contrast offered by Laos and Zambia illustrates the importance of regular evaluation to identify priority areas for improving contraceptive delivery.

  3. Effect of γ-dose rate and total dose interrelation on the polymeric hydrogel: A novel injectable male contraceptive

    Jha, Pradeep K.; Jha, Rakhi; Gupta, B.L.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional necessity to use a particular range of dose rate and total dose of γ-initiated polymerization to manufacture a novel polymeric hydrogel RISUG (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) made of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), for its broad biomedical application explores new dimension of research. The present work involves 16 irradiated samples. They were tested by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, etc. to see the interrelation effect of gamma dose rates (8.25, 17.29, 20.01 and 25.00 Gy/min) and four sets of doses (1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 kGy) on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and porosity analysis of the biopolymeric drug RISUG. The results of randomized experiment indicated that a range of 18-24 Gy/min γ-dose rate and 2.0-2.4 kGy γ-total doses is suitable for the desirable in vivo performance of the contraceptive copolymer.

  4. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The advance of the contraceptive revolution.

    Shah, I H

    1994-01-01

    Prior to 1965, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) had been estimated at below 10% for the less developed regions. In contrast, over 50% of couples were using a contraceptive method in 1990. The data from the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and the World Fertility Survey during the 1970s provided a global overview of current patterns of contraceptive practice during 1980-81 for 76 countries, with further updates covering 97 countries around 1983, 105 countries around 1987, and 117 countries around 1990. The 105 countries covered by the 1987 update included 85% of the world's population. In China CPR was reported at 70.6% in 1982 and 72.1% in 1988. There was great variation within the subregions: while on average 17% of couples in Africa used any contraceptive method around 1987, such use was reported as 31% in northern Africa and 13% in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa CPR is expected to rise to 26% by the year 2000, corresponding to a projected total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.33 births per woman. In Asia and Oceania 53% of couples were using contraceptives around 1987. However, the CPR was 72% in eastern Asia and 40% in other countries. In Latin America, CPR was estimated at 57% in 1987. Female sterilization (tubectomy) accounted for 38% of all use in the less developed regions in 1990. Nearly 1/2 of all couples using a contraceptive method in the less developed regions undergoes female or male sterilization, as compared to about 1/6 in the more developed regions. The most commonly used methods in the more developed regions in 1990 were the pill (16%), condom (14%), and withdrawal (13%). In the less developed regions, the main methods used in 1990 were tubectomy (20%), IUD (13%), pill (6%), and vasectomy (5%). The trends in family planning will be characterized by rapid growth in the number of contraceptive users in the developing world, from 381 million in 1990 to 567 million in the year 2000. However, to meet the potential requirements of

  6. History of oral contraception.

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  7. Contraceptive Sponge

    ... cause: Vaginal irritation or dryness Urinary tract or vaginal infection An increased risk of contracting STIs Toxic shock ... 24 hours to reduce the risk of an infection. Remove the contraceptive ... If your vaginal muscles are still holding the contraceptive sponge tightly, ...

  8. Impact of various progestins with or without transdermal testosterone on gonadotropin levels for non-invasive hormonal male contraception: a randomized clinical trial.

    Zitzmann, M; Rohayem, J; Raidt, J; Kliesch, S; Kumar, N; Sitruk-Ware, R; Nieschlag, E

    2017-05-01

    Although several progestins have been tested for hormonal male contraception, the effects of dosage and nature of various progestins on gonadotropin suppression combined with and without additional testosterone has not been performed in a comparative trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of four oral or transdermal progestins on the suppression of gonadotropins in healthy men: oral: cyproterone acetate (CPA), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone acetate (NETA), and transdermal: Nestorone ® (NES), all in combination with transdermal testosterone (T). Randomized clinical trial testing was performed with four progestins at two doses each. After a 2-week progestin-only treatment, transdermal T was added for further 4 weeks and was followed by a 3-week recovery period. Progestin-dose per day: CPA 10 mg/20 mg, NES 2 mg/3 mg/dose e.g. 200/300 μg/day absorbed, NETA 5 mg/10 mg, LNG 120 μg/240 μg. From an andrology outpatient clinic, 56 healthy men aged 18-50 years, with body mass index ≤33 kg × m -2 were included in the study. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied. Secondary outcome measure included were serum testosterone concentrations, sperm concentrations, and safety parameters. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that CPA and LNG had the strongest effect on LH/FSH suppression. Nevertheless, every substance showed significant inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion, especially in combination with transdermal T. A decrease in hematocrit and insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol subfractions and triglycerides was uniformly seen for every group. The combination of oral or transdermal progestins with a transdermal testosterone preparation is able to suppress gonadotropins. Further dose titration studies with sperm suppression as an end-point should be conducted to determine the lowest effective dose for hormonal male contraception. © 2017 American

  9. Recasting image of contraceptives.

    Rimon Jg; Kiragu, K

    1993-03-01

    Even though contraceptives are linked to sex which, along with sensuality and peer acceptance, is used to market consumer goods, contraceptives are promoted in a hygienic, clinical way. Glamorous images which divert from adverse health effects are used to sell unhealthy goods, e.g., alcohol and cigarettes, but technical and intimidating promotion techniques centering on risks are used to promote family planning (FP) products and services which actually save the lives of mothers and children and improve their health. Until recently, only the medical system provided FP products and services so consumers identified them with illness and a help-seeking behavior. The image of contraceptives must be remolded to gain people's attention. To avoid instilling mistrust of a method in consumers, even those who believe in birth spacing, it is important for images to be positive and to reflect accurate information. In Indonesia, the Dualima condom has been linked to responsible fatherhood thereby creating a positive image and removing the negative image of a condom being linked to illicit sex. In the US, condom adds show the user in control, especially in reference to AIDS. Prior to promotion of any contraceptive, complete, clear communication and marketing plans are needed to identify and to focus on consumers' perceived needs. A survey in Egypt shows that the most important attributes of a contraceptive are ease of use, healthiness, and effectiveness and that Egyptians considered IUDs to best fit these attributes. Images of contraceptive users often determine whether potential users do choose to use contraceptives. For example, in Cameroon and the Philippines, female users are considered to be smart, rich, educated, confident and in control of their lives. In the Philippines, male users are perceived to be loving, caring, and considerate husbands. The mass medias can improve providers' public image as was the case in Turkey and Egypt.

  10. New developments in oral contraception: clinical utility of estradiol valerate/dienogest (Natazia® for contraception and for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: patient considerations

    Nelson AL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anita L NelsonObstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: Natazia® is a new oral contraceptive with estradiol valerate and dienogest in a unique multiphasic formulation that includes a shortened hormone-free interval. This new formulation has been approved for both contraception and also as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in women who desire to use oral contraceptives as their method of birth control. It is marketed in the US as Natazia® and elsewhere as Qlaira®. This article will review the properties of each of the major new features of this pill: estradiol used in place of ethinyl estradiol, dienogest as the progestin, and the unique dosing pattern of this product. It will also summarize the results of the pivotal clinical trials of contraceptive effectiveness, bleeding patterns, safety and tolerability. The lessons learned from the clinical trials about the effectiveness of this formulation in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding will be summarized. Also, results of trials comparing this new pill to other popular formulations for "menstrually-related" symptoms and for potential female sexual dysfunction related to use of oral contraceptives will be presented. This review will suggest how all this information might be used to counsel women about how to use this pill most successfully.Keywords: oral contraceptives, estradiol valerate, dienogest, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, dynamic dosing

  11. Development and field testing of a decision support tool to facilitate shared decision making in contraceptive counseling.

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Judith; Steinauer, Jody; Swiader, Lawrence; Grumbach, Kevin; Hall, Cara; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    We developed and formatively evaluated a tablet-based decision support tool for use by women prior to a contraceptive counseling visit to help them engage in shared decision making regarding method selection. Drawing upon formative work around women's preferences for contraceptive counseling and conceptual understanding of health care decision making, we iteratively developed a storyboard and then digital prototypes, based on best practices for decision support tool development. Pilot testing using both quantitative and qualitative data and cognitive testing was conducted. We obtained feedback from patient and provider advisory groups throughout the development process. Ninety-six percent of women who used the tool in pilot testing reported that it helped them choose a method, and qualitative interviews indicated acceptability of the tool's content and presentation. Compared to the control group, women who used the tool demonstrated trends toward increased likelihood of complete satisfaction with their method. Participant responses to cognitive testing were used in tool refinement. Our decision support tool appears acceptable to women in the family planning setting. Formative evaluation of the tool supports its utility among patients making contraceptive decisions, which can be further evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. COMBINATION OF A MINIMAL DOSAGE OF DEPOT MEDROXY PROGESTERONE ACETATE AND JAVANESSE LONG PEPPER EXTRACT ON THE BODY WEIGHT, HEMATOLOGY, AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY OF MALE RATS AS A SAFETY CONTRACEPTION MODEL

    Nukman Moeloek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of male hormonal contraception is based on the decrease in the sperm concentration and it does notaffect libido and sexual potency. The combination of depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA + extract ofJavanese long pepper (JLP with dosages of 0.94 mg and 1.88 mg decreases the concentration of spermatozoa.However, it remains unknown whether the combination influences body weight, hematology, and blood biochemistry.Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effect of DMPA + JLP extracts on the body weight, hematology, and bloodbiochemistry of male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strains of Sprague-Dawley. The research uses a completelyrandomized design (CRD; one group control and two treatment groups. In the first group, the castration rats were givenoral administration extracts of JLP (CJ with doses of 0, 0.94, 1.88, 2.82, and 3.76 mg. In the second group, the ratswere injected with 1.25 mg DMPA and given an oral administration extract of JLP. Injection was given in week-0 and12. Administration was conducted every day from week 7-18. Analysis of the normality and homogeneity of data isdone before the test ANOVA. Data that is abnormal and not homogeneous are tested with non-parametric statisticalKruskal-Wallis. This study shows that the combination of minimal doses of DMPA and administration various doses ofextracts of JLP does not affect body weight and hematology (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrite, and the bloodbiochemistry of rats, such as the values of SGPT, SGOT, HDL, and triglycerides (p < 0.05, but rather the totalcholesterol and LDL (p < 0.05. Furthermore, it is concluded that the combination of the minimal dosage of DMPA andweaned various dosages of JLP extracts affect the total value and LDL cholesterol but do not influence body weight,nor hematology and blood biochemistry. Such combination can be drawn on for a male contraceptive model that is safeby taking into account the value of the total cholesterol and LDL

  13. The development of a testosterone stimulation test in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and its use in evaluating deslorelin contraception.

    Johnston, S D; Camacho, F C; Carrillo, L; Guy, N; Govea, J; Martinez, O; Parãs, A; Lisle, A T; D'Occhio, M

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the variability of testosterone secretion in the Virginia Opossum over a 24 h period and to develop a testosterone stimulation test that would provide an index of the prevailing testosterone biosynthetic capacity of the testes; the latter was used to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist contraceptive. Sexually-mature captive opossums (n = 12) located in Africam Safari (Mexico) sampled every 12 h over 24 h consistently showed basal (<0.21 ng mL(-1)) blood testosterone concentrations. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (2 microg mL(-1)) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG; 1000 IU) resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of plasma testosterone concentrations with maximal concentrations (3.9 ng mL(-1) and 5.8 ng mL(-1) respectively) occurring 120 min after injection. Plasma testosterone declined relatively rapidly to basal concentrations after 240 min with hCG but remained elevated after the same period of time with buserelin. Male opossums treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) a controlled-release deslorelin implant (Suprelorin; 4.7 mg deslorelin) were evaluated over a 10-week period for changes in testosterone secretion (hCG stimulation test) and sperm production (spermatorrhea). At the end of this period, the animals were hemi-castrated and their relative testicular quantitative histology compared. Testosterone concentration decreased over the course of the study in both treated and control animals (P < 0.0001) but there was no apparent effect of deslorelin on testosterone secretion, testicular histology (relative proportions of testicular cell types and seminiferous tubule diameter), or sperm production (presence of sperm in the cauda epididymis or urine).

  14. Recommendations of the International Symposium on Contraceptive Research and Development for the Year 2000 and Beyond.

    1993-01-01

    The government of Mexico and the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction organized an international symposium on "Contraceptive Research and Development for the Year 2000 and Beyond" that was held March 8-10, 1993 in Mexico City. 11 recommendations were established: 1) reproductive and sexual health should be given priority in both governmental and nongovernmental health research agendas, with coordination and collaboration between public and private sectors, nationally and internationally; 2) more funds should be provided by international donors for such research in developing countries; 3) women's health advocates and potential users should be represented on advisory bodies and in the decision making processes; 4) the existing health infrastructure and family planning services available, method potential, and safeguards concerning safety, effectiveness, and consent should be considered before adopting a new procedure; 5) "basic biomedical, technological, clinical, epidemiological, and social science research" leading to new or improved methods that are safe, effective, affordable, suitable for different age groups and designed in response to user's needs should receive increased support; 6) support should also be increased for "introductory, sociocultural, programmatic, operational, epidemiological, and qualitative research" that improves information, method, or service delivery; 7) research is needed on sexuality, gender roles, and gender relationships in different cultures; in particular, on discrimination and violence against women, sexual behavior, risk taking attitudes toward disease transmission and pregnancy, men's perceived needs, and the reasons for refusal of or inability to use services available; 8) industry, especially in developing countries, should collaborate with national regulatory agencies in order to expedite the process of development; 9) research should be undertaken

  15. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  16. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system

    Tsuruta James K; Dayton Paul A; Gallippi Caterina M; O'Rand Michael G; Streicker Michael A; Gessner Ryan C; Gregory Thomas S; Silva Erick JR; Hamil Katherine G; Moser Glenda J; Sokal David C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration ...

  17. The state of the contraceptive art.

    Tyrer, L B; Duarte, J

    1983-01-01

    The high failure rates of available contraceptive methods attest to the fact that the present technology is inadequate to meet the needs of many women, and new, safer, and highly effective contraceptive methods must be developed for both the female and the male. Previously, industry was largely responsible for the research and development of many of the currently available contraceptives, but at this time it is less than enthusiastic about carrying out further research because of the time and cost associated with the approval of new drugs. Additionally, because of the medico legal climate that exists today, particularly concerning present contraceptive drugs and devices, pharmaceutical companies are concentrating on developing drugs for the treatent of disease conditions, a less risky area. The US federal government, which currently is the single largest funder in the world of contraceptive and related research, is directing little attention to this particular area. The most obvious obstacles to enhanced federal support is the debate over the federal budget priorities. Other deterring factors include the controversy over abortion which has discouraged efforts to call attention to contraceptive research because of concern that it might result in funding cuts instead of increases. Another factor is the traditional allocation of 40% of National Institute of Health funds to population research and 60% to maternal and child health. An overview of currently available contraceptive methods covers oral contraception (OC), long lasting injectable contraception, IUDs, the condom, vaginal contraceptive sponge, the diagphragm, and fertility awareness techniques. Determining the actual benefits versus the risks of OC has proved difficult. OC has changed considerably since it came into use. The most serious side effects attributed to the OCs involve the cardiovascular system, specifically thromboembolism, stroke, and heart attack. The risk of developing these diseases has

  18. Emergency Contraception

    ... contraception include: your primary care doctor’s office college/university and women’s health centers public health departments hospital ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids ...

  19. Ongoing contraception after use of emergency contraception from a specialist contraceptive service.

    Cameron, Sharon T; Glasier, Anna; Johnstone, Anne; Rae, Leanne

    2011-10-01

    A consultation for emergency contraception (EC) gives way to an opportunity to provide women with an ongoing effective method of contraception. A review of the case notes of women seeking EC from a large family planning clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, was conducted to determine what percentage of women were provided with an effective method of ongoing contraception. Case notes of 460 women presenting for EC over a 2-year period were reviewed. Women were of mean age 26 years (range 15-49 years) and presented because they had used no contraception (47%), experienced condom failure (42%) or missed oral contraceptive pills (9%). Only 2% (n=11) were given an intrauterine device for EC. All women who had missed contraceptive pills prior to taking EC opted to continue this method. Only 23% (n=89) of women using no method or condoms at EC received supplies of an effective contraceptive method (pills, patch, injectable). Two thirds (n=263) of the women chose condoms for ongoing contraception. Research is required to develop strategies to improve the uptake of effective contraception after EC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contraception for the perimenopausal woman

    these women. Most of these methods also have beneficial non-contraceptive properties. Introduction. Falling pregnant in the perimenopausal years can potentially ... tinuation of use. The risk reduction in developing epithelial ovarian cancer in women using oral contraception is 40%. After 10 years of use the risk reduction.

  1. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  2. Contraceptive revolution.

    Segal, S J

    1994-06-01

    Global population will increase by almost 1 billion people in the 1990s, the largest 10-year increase ever recorded. In 1994 alone, population will surpass 5.7 billion. The prospect of double-digit billions of people is worrisome, especially since these numbers may affect global warming, supplies of fresh water, destruction of rain forests, industrial pollution, and sustainable development. Yet, many indicators of quality of life show that people enjoy a better quality of life today than they did 100 years ago. Between India's independence and now, life expectancy increased by 20 years, infant mortality decreased 2-fold, literacy increased, and the food supply stabilized. Even though India's population has almost tripled since 1947, its economy increased rapidly and is 1 of the world's top 10 economies. University enrollment stands at 4.5 million. Agricultural production has exceeded demand. India represents the potential for human achievement through technological advancement and social organization. If the world's first national family planning program had been more successful when it began in 1952 in an India of 350 million people, India's population would be around 500 million instead of the expected 1 billion in 2000. All countries need to achieve a sustainable balance between human numbers and needs and natural resources. Family planning is an essential, cost-effective part of any development strategy. Family planning use has reduced fertility from 6 to 3.6 in developing countries. In 1965, only 8% used contraception, while more than 50% use it now. The most remarkable family planning/fertility reduction successes are Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. Sufficient investment in family planning is needed if significant declines in fertility are to occur. More than 90% of the developing world's people are in countries with official family planning programs. Cost-effective assistance by donors and developing countries implementing

  3. Promoting contraceptive use more effectively among unmarried male migrants in construction sites in China: a pilot intervention trial

    He, D.; Cheng, Y.-M.; Wu, S.-Z.; Decat, P.; Wang, Z.-J.; Minkauskiene, M.; Moyer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Poor sexual and reproductive health status has been reported among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Therefore, some effective and feasible interventions are urgently needed. The authors developed a workplace-based intervention to compare 2 young labor migrant service packages (A and B) on the

  4. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    2013-11-25

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...

  5. Students' perceptions of contraceptives in university of ghana.

    Nana Nimo Appiah-Agyekum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives.Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments.Findings showed that students had little knowledge of contraceptives. The male and female condoms were the main contraceptive types reported out of the many modern and traditional methods of contraceptives. The main benefits of contraceptives were; ability to protect against STIs, abortions, unwanted pregnancy and psychological trauma. Whilst most respondents preferred future use of pills, side-effects of contraceptives were mostly reported for condoms than other contraceptive methods. Results showed that participants had bad attitudes towards unmarried contraceptive users.Generally, our findings show that detailed knowledge about contraceptives is low. There is a little gap of information on contraception knowledge, timing, and contraceptive types among university diploma students. Reproductive and maternal services should be available and accessible for tertiary students.

  6. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system

    Tsuruta James K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. Results We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. Conclusions The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the

  7. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system.

    Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Gallippi, Caterina M; O'Rand, Michael G; Streicker, Michael A; Gessner, Ryan C; Gregory, Thomas S; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G; Moser, Glenda J; Sokal, David C

    2012-01-30

    Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline) was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the result of repeated use, to verify that the contraceptive effect is

  8. title: fertility intentions, contraceptive awareness and contraceptive

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    2010 (Special Issue); 14(3): 65. ORIGINAL ... Abstract. This study measured contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use and fertility intentions among 1408 women of .... the topic of contraception must be approached in a .... Frequencies were run based on respon- ..... clinical characteristics of modern contraceptive users.

  9. Contraceptive knowledge and practice among senior secondary ...

    Two hundred and seventy (67.5%) of them had correct knowledge of the use of condoms while 48 (31.1%) of the sexually active respondents have ever used any form of contraceptive with no statistically significant difference between the male and female respondents (P = 0.338). The most common barrier to contraceptive ...

  10. Contraceptive prevalence and factors associated with usage of ...

    About 72% of the female respondents and 36.6% of the male respondents knew more than one method of family planning. The overall modern contraceptive prevalence rate was 28.6%(35.5% urban and 11% rural). Modern Contraceptive prevalence among married women was 32.1%. Injectable contraceptives were used ...

  11. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

    Tilahun Tizta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  12. Developing emergency department-based education about emergency contraception: adolescent preferences.

    Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Melissa K; Hayes, Katie L; Wittink, Marsha N; Barg, Frances K

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to identify adolescent preferences for emergency department (ED)-based education about emergency contraception. This was a cross-sectional computerized survey, using adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA). Patients were eligible if they were females ages 14 through 19 years old and were seeking care in one of two urban EDs. Patients were excluded if they were too ill to participate in the survey or if they were non-English speaking. Participants completed a computerized survey that used ACA, a technique that can be used to assess patients' relative preferences for services. ACA uses the individual's answers to update and refine questions through trade-off comparisons, so that each respondent answers a customized set of questions. The survey assessed preferences for the following attributes of emergency contraception education: who should deliver the education, if anyone (e.g., nurse, doctor); how the education should be delivered (e.g., by a person or via video); how often the education should be offered if patients were to frequent the ED (e.g., every time or only when asking for it); length (e.g., 5 minutes, 10 minutes); and chief complaint that would trigger the education (e.g., headache or stomach pain). A total of 223 patients were enrolled (37.2% at Hospital 1 and 62.8% at Hospital 2). The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 16.1 (±1.3) years. Just over half (55%) reported a history of sexual activity; 8% reported a history of pregnancy. Overall, the participants preferred education that was delivered by a person, specifically a doctor or nurse. They preferred a slightly longer education session and preferred education directed at patients seeking care in the ED for complaints potentially related to sexual activity. Adolescents have specific preferences for how education about emergency contraception would best serve their needs. This information can inform clinicians as they work to improve adolescents' knowledge about pregnancy prevention

  13. Developing Emergency Department–based Education About Emergency Contraception: Adolescent Preferences

    Mollen, Cynthia J.; Miller, Melissa K.; Hayes, Katie L.; Wittink, Marsha N.; Barg, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to identify adolescent preferences for emergency department (ED)-based education about emergency contraception. Methods This was a cross-sectional computerized survey, using adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA). Patients were eligible if they were females ages 14 through 19 years old and were seeking care in one of two urban EDs. Patients were excluded if they were too ill to participate in the survey or if they were non-English speaking. Participants completed a computerized survey that used ACA, a technique that can be used to assess patients’ relative preferences for services. ACA uses the individual’s answers to update and refine questions through trade-off comparisons, so that each respondent answers a customized set of questions. The survey assessed preferences for the following attributes of emergency contraception education: who should deliver the education, if anyone (e.g., nurse, doctor); how the education should be delivered (e.g., by a person or via video); how often the education should be offered if patients were to frequent the ED (e.g., every time or only when asking for it); length (e.g., 5 minutes, 10 minutes); and chief complaint that would trigger the education (e.g., headache or stomach pain). Results A total of 223 patients were enrolled (37.2% at Hospital 1 and 62.8% at Hospital 2). The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 16.1 (±1.3) years. Just over half (55%) reported a history of sexual activity; 8% reported a history of pregnancy. Overall, the participants preferred education that was delivered by a person, specifically a doctor or nurse. They preferred a slightly longer education session and preferred education directed at patients seeking care in the ED for complaints potentially related to sexual activity. Conclusions Adolescents have specific preferences for how education about emergency contraception would best serve their needs. This information can inform clinicians as they work to improve

  14. Contraception: Everyone's responsibility

    The use of modern methods of contraception in married women or women in union ... Contraception and Fertility Planning Policy and Service Delivery. Guidelines and .... methods. Injectable contraceptives have for a long time been offered.

  15. Emergency Contraception Website

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  16. Television and contraception.

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  17. Contraceptive knowledge, perceptions, and concerns among men in Uganda.

    Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Mathur, Sanyukta; Mullinax, Margo; DeCosta, Kelsea; Nakyanjo, Neema; Lutalo, Tom; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Santelli, John S

    2017-10-10

    Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women's decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Using in-depth interviews (N = 41), this qualitative study investigated major sources of knowledge about contraception and perceptions of contraceptive side effects among married Ugandan men. Men primarily reported knowledge of contraceptives based on partner's experience of side effects, partner's knowledge from health providers and mass media campaigns, and partner's knowledge from her peers. Men were less likely to report contraceptive knowledge from health care providers, mass media campaigns, or peers. Men's concerns about various contraceptive methods were broadly associated with failure of the method to work properly, adverse health effects on women, and severe adverse health effects on children. Own or partner's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status did not impact on contraceptive knowledge. Overall, we found limited accurate knowledge about contraceptive methods among men in Uganda. Moreover, fears about the side effects of modern contraceptive methods appeared to be common among men. Family planning services in Uganda could be significantly strengthened by renewed efforts to focus on men's knowledge, fears, and misconceptions.

  18. Contraceptive knowledge, perceptions, and concerns among men in Uganda

    Nityanjali Thummalachetty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women’s decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Methods Using in-depth interviews (N = 41, this qualitative study investigated major sources of knowledge about contraception and perceptions of contraceptive side effects among married Ugandan men. RESULTS: Men primarily reported knowledge of contraceptives based on partner’s experience of side effects, partner’s knowledge from health providers and mass media campaigns, and partner’s knowledge from her peers. Men were less likely to report contraceptive knowledge from health care providers, mass media campaigns, or peers. Men’s concerns about various contraceptive methods were broadly associated with failure of the method to work properly, adverse health effects on women, and severe adverse health effects on children. Own or partner’s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status did not impact on contraceptive knowledge. Conclusions Overall, we found limited accurate knowledge about contraceptive methods among men in Uganda. Moreover, fears about the side effects of modern contraceptive methods appeared to be common among men. Family planning services in Uganda could be significantly strengthened by renewed efforts to focus on men’s knowledge, fears, and misconceptions.

  19. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  20. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  1. Novel roles of Pkd2 in male reproductive system development

    Nie, Xuguang; Arend, Lois J

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases, caused by mutations in PKD1 and/ or PKD2. Infertility and reproductive tract abnormalities in male ADPKD patients are very common and have higher incidence than in the general population. In this work, we reveal novel roles of Pkd2 for male reproductive system development. Disruption of Pkd2 caused dilation of mesonephric tubules/efferent ducts, failure of epididymal coiling, and defecti...

  2. Black South African freshmen's experience of first coitus and contraception.

    Nicholas, L

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire investigating Black South African first-year college students' experience of first intercourse and contraception was administered during the February 1993 orientation at a Black university. 754 females and 959 males of mean age 20.4 years in an age range of 16-50 years participated. 96.5% of the respondents were single. The study findings relate to the 894 single students who reported having experienced sexual intercourse. Male and female respondents' mean ages at first intercourse were, respectively, 15.5 and 17.8 years. 35.7% of males and 32.8% of females reported not using contraception during first intercourse, 12.3% of males and 7.1% of females were unsure, and 6.2% reported using withdrawal. 36.8% reported not using a condom because first sexual intercourse was unplanned, while 38.1% simply did not think about contraception at the time. Peers were reported as the primary first source of learning about sexual intercourse as well as the preferred source. These findings lend support to the need to target safer sex messages to college freshmen in this setting. In so doing, safer sex behavior can be encouraged and possibly adopted before high-risk sex behavior patterns develop.

  3. Women's perceptions of contraceptive efficacy and safety.

    Kakaiya, Roshni; Lopez, Lia L; Nelson, Anita L

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices has been less than might be expected given their superior efficacy and convenience. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and beliefs held by women, which may influence their contraceptive choices and theirongoing utilization of contraceptive methods. English speaking, nonpregnant, reproductive-age women, who were not surgically sterilized, were individually interviewed to obtain limited demographic characteristics and to assess their knowledge about the efficacy of various contraceptive methods in typical use and about the relative safety of oral contraceptives. A convenience sample of 500 women aged 18-45 years, with education levels that ranged from middle school to postdoctoral level was interviewed. The efficacy in typical use of both combined oral contraceptives and male condoms was correctly estimated by 2.2%; over two-thirds of women significantly over estimated the efficacy of each of those methods in typical use. Oral contraceptives were thought to be at least as hazardous to a woman's health as pregnancy by 56% of women. The majority of reproductive aged women surveyed substantially overestimated the efficacy of the two most popular contraceptive methods, often saying that they were 99% effective. Women with higher education levels were most likely to overestimate efficacy of oral contraceptives. Women of all ages and education levels significantly overestimated the health hazards of oral contraceptives compared to pregnancy. Overestimation of effectiveness of these methods of contraception, may contribute to lower adoption of implants and intrauterine devices. When individualizing patient counselling, misperceptions must be identified and addressed with women of all educational backgrounds. Not applicable.

  4. Analysis of fatigue development during elite male handball matches

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Ascensão, António A M R; Magalhães, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the physiological demands and fatigue development during elite male handball matches. Our hypothesis was that players perform multiple high-intensity activities during periods of the game and develop temporary and end-match neuromuscular fatigue. Time-motion analyses...

  5. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  6. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  7. Contraceptive awareness among men in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2006-04-01

    A considerable gap exists between contraceptive awareness and use. Traditional approaches to measuring awareness are inadequate to properly understand the linkages between awareness and use. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of men's modern contraceptive awareness in Bangladesh and the associated determinants and further testing of a hypothesis that current contraceptive use confers a high degree of method awareness. This study used the couple data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1999-2000). A two-level, multinomial logistic regression was used with the degree of contraceptive awareness as the dependent variable. The degree of awareness was measured by the reported number of modern contraceptive methods known among men aged 15-59 years. Men's responses on method awareness were classified according to those reported spontaneously and probed. Nearly 100% of the study participants reported having heard of at least one method and about half reported awareness of at least eight different methods of contraception. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that older and educated men were more likely to have reported a high degree of awareness. The findings confirmed our hypothesis that current contraceptive use is likely to confer a high degree of modern method awareness among men (pknowledge of contraceptive methods to improve the uptake of especially male-based modern methods.

  8. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  9. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  10. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2013-04-30

    the expanded program were more likely to choose sterilization (OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.46 to 7.37) or use a modern contraceptive method (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.03), i.e., sterilization, pills, injectable, intrauterine device or barrier method. For the other study, the groups received educational interventions with differing format and intensity. Both groups reportedly had increases in contraceptive use, but they did not differ significantly by six months in consistent use of an effective contraceptive, i.e., sterilization, IUD, injectable, implant, and consistent use of oral contraceptives, diaphragm, or male condoms.Five trials provided one session and focused on testing educational material or media. In one study, knowledge gain favored a slide-and-sound presentation versus a physician's oral presentation (MD -19.00; 95% CI -27.52 to -10.48). In another trial, a table with contraceptive effectiveness categories led to more correct answers than a table based on pregnancy numbers [ORs were 2.42 (95% CI 1.43 to 4.12) and 2.19 (95% CI 1.21 to 3.97)] or a table with effectiveness categories and pregnancy numbers [ORs were 2.58 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.42) and 2.03 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.64)]. Still another trial provided structured counseling with a flipchart on contraceptive methods. The intervention and usual-care groups did not differ significantly in choice of contraceptive method (by effectiveness category) or in continuation of the chosen method at three months. Lastly, a study with couples used videos to communicate contraceptive information (control, motivational, contraceptive methods, and both motivational and methods videos). The analyses showed no significant difference between the groups in the types of contraceptives chosen. These trials varied greatly in the types of participants and interventions to communicate contraceptive effectiveness. Therefore, we cannot say overall what would help consumers choose an appropriate contraceptive method. For presenting pregnancy risk

  11. Usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception: the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative.

    Krassovics, Miklós; Virágh, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the survey was to gain understanding of women's usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception (i.e., the 'morning after pill') and to gain insight into the role and attitudes of pharmacists as providers of emergency contraception. As part of the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative, approximately 6500 women (15-49 years) and nearly 500 pharmacists from 14 countries in Western, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia completed questionnaires via web-based interrogation or computer-assisted/paper-assisted personal interviews. Common to almost all countries and cultures was that, while awareness of emergency contraception was high (≥84% of respondents, except in Kazakhstan), usage was generally low (4-18%). In Austria, the Czech Republic, Spain, and the UK, better underlying protection with hormonal contraceptives or male condoms would have meant less need for emergency contraception. In Bulgaria, Lithuania, Romania, and Russia, greater dependence on less reliable contraceptive methods such as calendar + withdrawal was associated with higher use of the emergency contraceptive pill (11-18%) but also with higher abortion rates (19-21%). Overt rejection of emergency contraception in the event of an accident was low, except in countries (e.g., Austria, Poland) where the misperception that it acts as an abortifacient was common. Except for Bulgaria, pharmacists elsewhere tended to have limited knowledge and moralistic attitudes towards emergency contraception. Improved educational efforts, probably country-specific, are required to increase the use of highly effective methods of regular contraception and overcome barriers to acceptance of emergency contraception as a suitable postcoital solution to avoid unwanted pregnancy or abortion.

  12. [Contraception and sexology].

    Black, J S

    1991-01-01

    This work argues that contraceptive education urgently requires a new approach that will take into account the client's sexuality at the time the choice of method is made. Emotional factors such as a conscious or unconscious desire for pregnancy or motherhood, family pressures to produce a grandchild, or shame and distrust of contraception may contribute to contraceptive failure. Methods applied at the time of coitus such as condoms or spermicides may not be appropriate for clients for who contraception is a source of anxiety or guilt. The more effective, noncoital-dependent methods including oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, and sterilization may generate anxiety over infertility. Their efficacy may lack appeal for clients who enjoy an element of risk. The practitioner's attitude and knowledge may be further influences on the counseling over method choice. Among reversible methods, OCs are ideal for most women as long as they individually prescribed. OCs may be particularly important to the sexual expression of specific groups such as those over 35 with no risk factors other than age. Low-dose progestin-only OCs may be prescribed for this group, although about 10% of users change methods because of menstrual problems. IUDs are usually successfully used by women who have been carefully selected to exclude contraindications. In some cases the partner may be annoyed by the string, which can be rolled up and pushed out of the way or shortened by the practitioner. IUDs are often the best alternative for women with contraindications to OCs or who tolerate their side effects poorly. Spermicides may cause dermatoses or allergies that cause the woman to avoid intercourse. Some women dislike using spermicides because they must be applied prior to each use. Their bad taste is a disadvantage for some couples. Involving the male partner in application of the spermicide may remove some objections. The Billings or cervical mucus method should be avoided by women with irregular

  13. Partner approval and intention to use contraception among Zanzibari women presenting for post-abortion care.

    Esber, Allahna; Foraker, Randi E; Hemed, Maryam; Norris, Alison

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effect of partner approval of contraception on intention to use contraception among women obtaining post-abortion care in Zanzibar. Our data source was a 2010 survey of 193 women obtaining post-abortion care at a large public hospital in Zanzibar. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess associations between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Overall, 23% of participants had used a contraceptive method in the past, and 66% reported intending to use contraception in the future. We found that partner approval of contraception and ever having used contraception in the past were each associated with intending to use contraception in the future. In the multivariable model, adjusting for past contraception use, partner approval of contraception was associated with 20 times the odds of intending to use contraception (odds ratio, 20.25; 95% confidence interval, 8.45-48.56). We found a strong association between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Efforts to support contraceptive use must include both male and female partners. Public health and educational efforts to increase contraceptive use must include men and be targeted to both male and female partners. Given that male partners are often not present when women obtain health care, creative efforts will be required to meet men in community settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements 8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3) 9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals' privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context of

  16. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements  8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3)  9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals' privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context

  17. WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT, HOUSEHOLD STATUS AND CONTRACEPTION USE IN GHANA.

    Blackstone, Sarah R

    2017-07-01

    Gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including contraceptive use, in low- and middle-income countries such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. To date there is limited, recent, evidence available regarding women's empowerment, household status and contraceptive use in Ghana. The objective of this study was to investigate whether women's empowerment and status in the household were associated with contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 1828 women aged 15-49. Women's empowerment was measured based on two composite indexes created by the DHS: attitudes towards intimate partner violence and decision-making. Women's status in the home was measured using indicators of work status, relationship to household head, control over monetary earnings and land ownership. Decision-making was found to be positively associated with contraceptive use and not having unmet need for contraception. Women who justified wife beating in one or more instances were less likely to use contraception, and more likely to have unmet need for contraception. Current or past employment and higher levels of male partner education were associated with contraceptive use. This study indicates that women's empowerment and household status are influential for contraceptive indicators. Future interventions aimed at improving contraceptive uptake and use should promote women's empowerment, i.e. decision-making, self-worth and education.

  18. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    Liechty ER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic considerations impacting preclinical contraceptive testing, including efficacy testing, mechanistic studies, device design, and modeling off-target effects. Emphasis is placed on the use of nonhuman primate models in contraceptive device development. Keywords: nonhuman primate, preclinical, in vivo, contraceptive devices

  19. Preconception counseling and contraception after gestational diabetes

    Mølsted-Pedersen, L; Skouby, S O; Damm, P

    1991-01-01

    -contraceptive compounds appear to be safe for women with previous GDM when administered for limited periods. At the follow-up examination, we found no increased risk of developing diabetes in women with previous GDM who used oral contraception. We consider the intrauterine contraceptives (IUD) a safe and effective......Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed in the period 1978-1984 were followed for on average 6 yr after the index pregnancy. Thirty percent had diabetes mellitus at the follow-up examination, and preliminary results indicate that at least another third will develop diabetes during...... a subsequent pregnancy. Therefore, family planning and contraceptive guidance should follow the lines for women with pregestational diabetes. When low-dose hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel were given to women with previous GDM, glucose tolerance and lipoprotein levels...

  20. Update on emergency contraception.

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  1. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  2. Examining the development and sexual behavior of adolescent males.

    Ott, Mary A

    2010-04-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care, and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing published data, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys' sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental "readiness" for sex and curiosity; (3) boys' need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys' communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including human papillomavirus vaccination.

  3. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  4. HIV/ AIDS and Contraception | Steyn | Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...

    Prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV infected women is a high priority. With the exception of male and female condoms contraceptive options provide no protection for STI and HIV transmission. Consistent and correct condom use needs to be encouraged in addition to the use of an effective contraceptive method.

  5. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Behavior of Single College Students

    Maxwell, Joseph W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigates the premarital contraceptive behavior of 222 male and female college students. Contraceptive practice was examined in relation to dating patterns, level of emotional involvement with sex partners, types of birth control used, number of different sex partners, and reasons for failure to use birth control. (Author)

  6. The impact of religion on the contraceptive choice among women in ...

    The impact of religion on the contraceptive choice among women in the south ... methods of contraception were Oral contraceptive pills 5.5% and implant, 1.2% respectively. Least accepted was the male condom by only 0.2% of the clients.

  7. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  8. Etiological Diagnosis of Undervirilized Male / XY Disorder of Sex Development

    Atta, I.; Ibrahim, M.; Parkash, A.; Lone, S. W.; Khan, Y. N.; Raza, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do clinical, hormonal and chromosomal analysis in undervirilized male / XY disorder of sex development and to make presumptive etiological diagnosis according to the new Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) classification system. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Unit at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2012. Methodology: Patients of suspected XY DSD / undervirilized male visiting endocrine clinic were enrolled in the study. Criteria suggested XY DSD include overt genital ambiguity, apparent female/male genitalia with inguinal/labial mass, apparent male genitalia with unilateral or bilateral non-palpable testes, micropenis and isolated hypospadias or with undescended testis. The older children who had delayed puberty were also evaluated with respect to DSD. As a part of evaluation of XY DSD, abdominopelvic ultrasound, karyotype, hormone measurement (testosterone, FSH, LH), FISH analysis with SRY probing, genitogram, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy and HCG stimulation test were performed. Frequencies and percentages applied on categorical data whereas mean, median, standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. Results: A total of 187 patients met the criteria of XY DSD. Age ranged from 1 month to 15 years, 55 (29.4%) presented in infancy, 104 (55.6%) between 1 and 10 years and 28 (15%) older than 10 years. Twenty five (13.4%) were raised as female and 162 as (86.6%) male. The main complaints were ambiguous genitalia, unilateral cryptorchidism, bilateral cryptorchidism, micropenis, delayed puberty, hypospadias, female like genitalia with gonads, inguinal mass. The karyotype was 46 XY in 183 (97.9%), 46 XX in 2 (1.1%), 47 XXY in 1 (0.5%), 45 X/46 XY in 1 (0.5%) patient. HCG stimulation test showed low testosterone response in 43 (23 %), high testosterone response in 62 (33.2%), partial testosterone response in 32 (17.1%) and normal testosterone response in 50 (26

  9. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 31-51 ISSN 2194-7953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22720S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32292S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2611; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16050S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollen development * Male gametophyte * Pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  10. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    Shigeru eHanamata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation.

  11. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls.

  12. [Contextualization of sexual initiation and individual barriers to the use of contraceptives by adolescents of Lima, Huamanga, and Iquitos].

    Carmona, Gloria; Beltran, Jessica; Calderón, María; Piazza, Marina; Chávez, Susana

    2017-01-01

    To contextualize sexual initiation and barriers to the use of contraceptives by adolescents as well as the acquisition of adequate knowledge regarding contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. This quantitative and qualitative study evaluated adolescents living in three cities with high pregnancy rates in Peru: Iquitos, Huamanga, and Lima. Subjects were invited to participate in the study via Facebook. Questionnaires were then used to select adolescents who met the inclusion criteria, and interviews were conducted to obtain detailed data regarding the study topic. A total of 33 women and 23 men aged 18 to 19 years participated in the study. The age of onset of sexual activity ranged from 14 to 16 years; the main reasons for sexual initiation were sexual desire among men and pressure from the partner among women; in most cases, the sexual partner was an occasional companion for men and a boyfriend for women. The barriers related to the use of contraceptives were the financial stability of the partner, responsibility of the female partner when using contraceptives, limited capacity to negotiate choices, fear of abandonment by the male partner for demanding the use of contraceptives, and the reduction of sexual sensitivity with the use of condoms. The barriers identified in this study limit the use of contraceptives and indicate the need to develop specific strategies to strengthen the interpersonal skills of adolescents and provide accurate information about the risks of unprotected sex.

  13. Men's behavior surrounding use of contraceptives in Guinea.

    Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Diallo, Boubacar Alpha; Compaoré, Rachidatou; Bah, Abdoul Karim; Ali, Moazzam; Kabra, Rita; Kouanda, Seni

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the sociocultural determinants that influence the attitude and practices of men toward contraceptive use in Guinea. A sequential, mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative study was carried out in two regions of Guinea with a low rate of contraceptive prevalence, and in the capital city of Conakry. A total of 1170 people (men and women) were interviewed. Findings showed a positive perception of family planning overall, but reluctance to use modern contraception. The reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods were primarily the hope of having many children and religious prohibition associated with customs. Making decisions on contraceptive use within a couple represents a major cause of misunderstanding between spouses. Communication within a couple on the use of contraception is quickly declined by men. The findings demonstrate the need to develop communication strategies within a couple to improve the use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contraception among bankers in an urban community in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka

    2013-01-01

    Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. The age range was 21-45 years, mean 28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only.

  15. Post-ovulatory contraception.

    Glasier, A; Baird, D T

    1990-06-01

    It is possible to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse by suppressing ovulation, inhibiting fertilization or interfering with tubal transport and/or implantation of the early embryo. IUCDs probably prevent implantation by stimulating the release of prostaglandins from the endometrium but are not acceptable to many women. Post-coital contraceptive steroids, e.g. high-dose oestrogens, are associated with a relatively high incidence of side-effects and must be taken within 72 hours of coitus. As these agents are effective by creating a uterine environment unfavourable for implantation, it may be possible to use antigestagens or antioestrogens in this way. It is already known that an antigestagen in combination with a prostaglandin is a highly effective method of inducing abortion in very early pregnancy. The corpus luteum is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and its destruction by a luteolytic agent should dislodge the implanting embryo. If an effective method of preventing implantation could be developed which was relatively free from side-effects, it should be possible to use it as a regular form of contraception to be taken only when the risk of pregnancy had occurred.

  16. The impact of male contraception on dominance hierarchy and herd association patterns of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a fenced game reserve

    L.S. Doughty; K. Slater; H. Zitzer; Tomos Avent; S. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Overpopulation of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in fenced reserves in South Africa is becoming increasingly problematic to wildlife managers. With growing opposition to culling and the high cost of translocation, alternative management strategies focusing on male elephants are being investigated. In this study, hormonal treatment via Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) suppression, and surgical treatment via vasectomy were trialled. Focusing on behavioural responses, we tested the ...

  17. Comparisons of Contraceptive Use between Rural and Urban Teens.

    Geske, Savannah; Quevillon, Randal; Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Hansen, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if barriers in rural areas might decrease an adolescent's likelihood of obtaining effective contraception. Previous studies have reported mixed results in comparisons of rural and urban contraception use. Electronic survey. Midwestern Public University. Undergraduate and graduate women. Questionnaire. Participants retrospectively recalled their contraceptive use and barriers to contraceptive use between the 9th and 12th grades. A Barriers to Contraception Use Scale was created using exploratory factor analysis and yielded 31 questions with 1 underlying factor: barriers. Participants were identified as rural or urban using the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition and the participant's self-identification. Overall, rural participants endorsed more barriers to accessing contraceptives than urban participants using the OMB definition (χ(2) (2; n = 388) = 2.04; P .05. The Barriers to Contraception Use Scale total score predicted whether an individual would have a prescription for contraceptives 70.5% of the time compared to the base rate of 54.1%. Although no rural-urban differences in actual contraception use were found, rural participants reported more barriers to accessing contraception, and those who endorsed more barriers were less likely to obtain contraceptives while in high school. Pregnancy prevention programs should thus take these barriers into account when developing future interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial Differences in the Perception of Contraception Option Attributes.

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    More than 600 never-married college students completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward 10 contraceptive options. Results were analyzed separately for Blacks and Whites, and then for males and females. Findings are discussed. (MT)

  19. The Contraceptive Cycle

    Picavet, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are relatively few unwanted pregnancies in the Netherlands, as evidenced by low abortion and teenage pregnancy rates. However, even in the Netherlands, one in eight pregnancies end in an induced abortion. Many unwanted pregnancies could have been prevented by better use of reliable contraceptive methods. In this thesis, contraceptive behaviour is studied with an emphasis on where the use of contraception goes wrong and the demographic profile of the women who have difficulty...

  20. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  1. A visão masculina sobre métodos contraceptivos em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil Male views of contraceptive methods in a rural community in Bahia State, Brazil

    Danilo Cerqueira do Espírito-Santo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os Programas de Planejamento Familiar vêm se preocupando predominantemente com a população feminina. Este estudo objetivou determinar o grau de conhecimento dos homens de uma comunidade rural do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, sobre os métodos contraceptivos. Dentre os 179 entrevistados, a preocupação com a prevenção de gravidez indesejada foi referida como responsabilidade do casal por 39,7% (n = 71 e do homem por 26,8% (n = 48. Os métodos mais conhecidos foram a "camisinha" (98,9% e a pílula (96,6%, sendo os mais usados a "camisinha" (22,9%, a laqueadura (21,2% e a pílula anticoncepcional (12,8%. A maioria (56,4% referiu "sempre" utilizar contraceptivo. A opção pelo método é feita pelo homem em 45,6% dos casais. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade da promoção do maior número de métodos contraceptivos, possibilitando ao casal a melhor opção que se adeque ao comportamento sexual do mesmo. Também, há necessidade de priorizar a participação do casal nos Programas de Planejamento Familiar, na medida em que ainda são os homens quem predominantemente acabam determinando o método contraceptivo utilizado.Family planning programs have traditionally concentrated on women. This study aimed to determine men's knowledge of contraceptive methods in a rural community in Bahia State, Brazil. Mean age of interviewees was 40.0 (±17.6 years. Avoiding unwanted pregnancy was reported as a responsibility of the couple by 39.7% of the male interviewees (n = 71 and as the man's responsibility by 26.8% (n = 48. The most widely known methods were condoms (98.9% and the pill (96.6%. Condoms (22.9%, female sterilization (21.2%, and the pill (12.8% were the most widely used methods. The majority of the interviewees (56.4% reported that they "always" use some method. The men chose the method in 45.6% of the couples. The results indicate that more options for contraceptive methods should be offered, thereby facilitating the best choice of methods by

  2. What makes a contraceptive acceptable?

    Berer, M

    1995-01-01

    The women's health movement is developing an increasing number of negative campaigns against various contraceptive methods based on three assumptions: 1) user-controlled methods are better for women than provider-controlled methods, 2) long-acting methods are undesirable because of their susceptibility to abuse, and 3) systemic methods carry unacceptable health risks to women. While these objections have sparked helpful debate, criticizing an overreliance on such methods is one thing and calling for bans on the provision of injectables and implants and on the development of vaccine contraceptives is another. Examination of the terms "provider-controlled," "user-controlled," and "long-acting" reveals that their definitions are not as clear-cut as opponents would have us believe. Some women's health advocates find the methods that are long-acting and provider-controlled to be the most problematic. They also criticize the near 100% contraceptive effectiveness of the long-acting methods despite the fact that the goal of contraception is to prevent pregnancy. It is wrong to condemn these methods because of their link to population control policies of the 1960s, and it is important to understand that long-acting, effective methods are often beneficial to women who require contraception for 20-22 years of their lives. Arguments against systemic methods (including RU-486 for early abortion and contraceptive vaccines) rebound around issues of safety. Feminists have gone so far as to create an intolerable situation by publishing books that criticize these methods based on erroneous conclusions and faulty scientific analysis. While women's health advocates have always rightly called for bans on abuse of various methods, they have not extended this ban to the methods themselves. In settings where other methods are not available, bans can lead to harm or maternal deaths. Another perspective can be used to consider methods in terms of their relationship with the user (repeated

  3. Knowledge and choices of postpartum contraception among pregnant teens.

    Ortiz-González, Karla M; Benabe, Erika; Rivera-Rosa, Edgardo; Negrón, Ivette; Romaguera, Josefina

    2014-09-01

    To describe the general knowledge and choices of postpartum contraception among pregnant teens who, at the time of the study, ranged in age from 13 to 19 years old and were receiving prenatal care at a hospital-based prenatal clinic. Questionnaires to obtain information regarding demographic characteristics and to explore contraception knowledge and choices were voluntarily completed by 44 pregnant teens, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old. The frequency and distribution of the variables under study were analyzed and are presented herein. Forty-four teens participated in the study. They had a mean age of 17.5 years. A significant proportion of the participants, 20 (45.5%), claimed not to know where to find information about contraception. All the participants acknowledged knowing about the male condom; as to other methods of contraception, 41 (93.2%) knew about oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), 31 (70.5%) knew about the patch, 30 (68.2%) knew about Depo-Provera, and 25 (56.8%) knew about intrauterine devices (IUD). The contraception methods about which the participants reported having the least knowledge were the sponge, the diaphragm, implants, the vaginal ring, and various natural methods. The majority (90.0%) of the participants agreed that they would prefer to use postpartum contraception. The contraceptive method of choice for postpartum contraception was the IUD (40%), which was followed in terms of preference by OCPs (17.5%), the patch (12.5%), and Depo-Provera (12.5%). The majority of the pregnant teens who participated in the study professed the desire to use some sort of contraceptive method to ensure that they would not become pregnant again in the near future. To that end, most of them expressed a preference for the IUD, one of the most effective contraceptive methods available today. Nevertheless, they need more access to and information about available contraceptive methods.

  4. Italian Adolescents and Emergency Contraception: A Focus Group Study.

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Cuccì, Gaia; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2017-02-01

    Using a qualitative method, the purpose of this study was to: (1) obtain information directly from the adolescents on their attitudes and knowledge regarding emergency contraception; and (2) investigate the presence of differences between male and female participants' attitudes and knowledge. This study consisted of 24 single-sex focus groups with 160 adolescents (male = 46.3% (74 of 160); female = 53.7% (86 of 160)) aged 15-19 years conducted among high schools in 3 regions of Italy. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis taking into account gender differences and 2 main themes emerged. The first was labeled "Adolescents' attitudes toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: You should be aware; It's a life line; and Everything but a child. The second theme was labeled "Adolescents' knowledge toward emergency contraception" and it was divided into 3 subthemes: False myths; Baseline information; and Just take it. Italian adolescents believed it is important to prevent the risk of unprotected sex by using contraceptive methods and their motivation to use emergency contraception is related to critical attitudes toward the consequences of irresponsible/ineffective contraception. Although adolescents have an awareness of emergency contraception, more comprehensive knowledge is needed. These findings can inform specific interventions aimed at educating adolescents in need of emergency contraception. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-10-01

    To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviours among HIV-positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two-family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services and were assessed every 3 months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. We modelled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services.

  6. Containing contraceptive costs

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  7. Progesterone Only Contraception

    Work by Gomes de Leon and Potter has dem- onstrated clearly that the timing of initiation of contraception .... they are not dangerous to their health. Amenorrhoea is beneficial to women's health, if caused by a contraceptive method, and not by its failure. Dr. V. Sangala. Obstetrician. Kamuzu Central Hospital. P.O. Box 149.

  8. Contraception and cardiovascular disease

    Roos-Hesselink, JolienW.; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veldtman, Gruschen R.; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an

  9. Vaginal contraception--an update.

    Edelman, D A; Thompson, S

    1982-04-01

    A number of new and innovative methods of vaginal contraceptive have been developed in recent years and are currently being evaluated. Some of these methods are described briefly and the available data on their safety and efficacy are presented. 3 types of contraceptive sponges have been developed--collagen sponge, intravaginal insert, and Secure sponge--and are now being evaluated. The collagen sponge, a cylindrical-shaped disk, exerts its contraceptive effect by acting as a physical barrier to the sperm and through its ability to absorb semen much in excess of its own weight. Preliminary data confirm the effectiveness of the sponge obtained from post-coital tests. The intravaginal insert (IVI) is made of a polyester material incorporating the spermicide nonoxynol-9. In a small clinical evaluation of the IVI, 49 women were followed up for 1 month. No pregnancies or unexpected adverse reactions were reported. The Secure sponge is made of polyurethane and incorporates 1 g of the spermicide nonoxynol-9. Its primary mode of action in preventing pregnancy is through the release of nonoxynol-9. In a multiclinic phase 2 evaluation of the Secure, which included 382 women, the 6-month gross life-table pregnancy rate was 3.8 +or- 1.3/100 women; the 6-month gross discontinuation rate for all reasons was 26.2 +or- 3.4/100 women. Sufficient data from the comparative trials of the Secure and Neo Sampoon foaming suppository studies conducted in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh have been reported to the International Fertility Research Program (IFRP). The 12-month life-table rates for reasons leading to discontinuation of the contraceptive methods were not significantly different except for the category of "other personal reasons." The advantages Secure provides over other vaginal contraceptives are identified. Foaming vaginal suppositories similar to Neo Sampoon but containing 100 mg nonoxynol-9 are being developed and evaluated in the U.S. Clinical data on these products are

  10. Contraceptive use and pregnancies in adolescents' romantic relationships: role of relationship activities and parental attitudes and communication.

    Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Gerhardinger, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In a unified framework, the authors estimate whether romantic relationship activities and parental attitudes predict contraception use and consistency, and whether contraception use and consistency predict pregnancy risk among male and females adolescents in the United States. Data on 3717 participants of the first 2 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who were sexually experienced in their recent romantic relationship were analyzed to examine how presex activities in the romantic relationship and parental attitudes and communication are associated with contraception choices and how contraception choices are associated with pregnancies. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only some relationship activities and parental communication about contraception were significant predictors of contraception, and their influence differed by gender. Going out with the partner increased contraception consistency among males (odds ratio, 2.04). Discussing contraception with the partner before having first sex increased the odds of ever using contraception for both genders (2.61 for females and 1.59 for males) and increased the odds of consistent contraception for females (1.505). Discussing contraception with parent increased the odds of consistent contraception among females (1.383). Merely, using contraception was not a significant predictor of the risk of pregnancy, whereas using contraception consistently significantly reduced the odds of getting partner pregnant for males (0.413) and the odds of pregnancy of females (0.343). Contraception and pregnancy education programs should take into account qualities of romantic relationship and emphasize consistent use of contraception and communication about contraception between partners and with parents.

  11. Talent Identification and Development in Male Football: A Systematic Review.

    Sarmento, Hugo; Anguera, M Teresa; Pereira, Antonino; Araújo, Duarte

    2018-04-01

    Expertise has been extensively studied in several sports over recent years. The specificities of how excellence is achieved in Association Football, a sport practiced worldwide, are being repeatedly investigated by many researchers through a variety of approaches and scientific disciplines. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in football. We identified the most frequently researched topics and characterised their methodologies. A systematic review of Web of Science™ Core Collection and Scopus databases was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The following keywords were used: "football" and "soccer". Each word was associated with the terms "talent", "expert*", "elite", "elite athlete", "identification", "career transition" or "career progression". The selection was for the original articles in English containing relevant data about talent development/identification on male footballers. The search returned 2944 records. After screening against set criteria, a total of 70 manuscripts were fully reviewed. The quality of the evidence reviewed was generally excellent. The most common topics of analysis were (1) task constraints: (a) specificity and volume of practice; (2) performers' constraints: (a) psychological factors; (b) technical and tactical skills; (c) anthropometric and physiological factors; (3) environmental constraints: (a) relative age effect; (b) socio-cultural influences; and (4) multidimensional analysis. Results indicate that the most successful players present technical, tactical, anthropometric, physiological and psychological advantages that change non-linearly with age, maturational status and playing positions. These findings should be carefully considered by those involved in the identification and development of football players. This review highlights the need for coaches

  12. Young women's contraceptive microbicide preferences: associations with contraceptive behavior and sexual relationship characteristics.

    Best, Candace; Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Zimet, Gregory D

    2014-03-01

    In time, microbicides may provide women with dual prevention against pregnancy and STDs. Although several microbicide dimensions have been evaluated, little is known about women's preferences for contraceptive microbicides and correlates of these preferences. Acceptability of a hypothetical contraceptive microbicide cream or jelly was examined among a -clinic-based sample of 266 women in Indianapolis from 2004 (when participants were aged 14-22) to 2008. Group conjoint analyses and individual conjoint analyses were used to compare preferences with respect to four microbicide -dimensions: contraceptive ability, efficacy in relation to condoms, timing of use and texture. Pearson's product moment correlations were used to examine the relationship between preferences for a contraceptive microbicide and selected characteristics of the women. Overall, the top-rated microbicide dimensions were efficacy in relation to that of condoms and contraceptive ability (importance scores, 40.0 and 35.4 out of 100.0, respectively). When all dimension levels were compared, contraceptive ability was the most strongly preferred (part-worth utility score, 8.9), and lower efficacy than that of -condoms was the least strongly preferred (-11.9). Preference for contraceptive microbicides was positively -associated with current contraceptive use, sexual agency, partner communication, commitment to avoiding pregnancy and -perceived partner agreement about avoiding pregnancy (coefficients, 0.07-0.18). It was negatively associated with current or past nonuse of contraceptives, seeking pregnancy and perceived partner agreement about seeking -pregnancy (-0.08 to -0.14). Microbicides with dual prevention properties may be attractive to young women. Microbicide development and subsequent clinical trials should incorporate contraceptive microbicides. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  13. Life history in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): physical development, dominance rank, and group association.

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2006-12-01

    We assess life history from birth to death in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree-ranging colony in Gabon, using data collected for 82 males that attained at least the age of puberty, including 33 that reached adulthood and 25 that died, yielding data for their entire lifespan. We describe patterns of mortality and injuries, dominance rank, group association, growth and stature, and secondary sexual character expression across the male lifespan. We examine relationships among these variables and investigate potential influences on male life history, including differences in the social environment (maternal rank and group demography) and early development, with the aim of identifying characteristics of successful males. Sons of higher-ranking females were more likely to survive to adulthood than sons of low-ranking females. Adolescent males varied consistently in the rate at which they developed, and this variation was related to a male's own dominance rank. Males with fewer peers and sons of higher-ranking and heavier mothers also matured faster. However, maternal variables were not significantly related to dominance rank during adolescence, the age at which males attained adult dominance rank, or whether a male became alpha male. Among adult males, behavior and morphological development were related to a male's own dominance rank, and sons of high-ranking females were larger than sons of low-ranking females. Alpha males were always the most social, and the most brightly colored males, but were not necessarily the largest males present. Finally, alpha male tenure was related to group demography, with larger numbers of rival adult males and maturing adolescent males reducing the time a male spent as alpha male. Tenure did not appear to be related to characteristics of the alpha male himself. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Current and future contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Patel, Rena C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-01-01

    Among women living with HIV, half of the pregnancies are unintended. Effective contraception can prevent unintended pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal mortality and perinatal transmission of HIV. While contraceptive options available for all women also apply to women living with HIV, specific considerations exist to the use of contraception by women living with HIV. Areas covered: First, general principles guiding the use of contraception among women living with HIV are discussed, such as choice, method mix, relative effectiveness, and drug-drug interactions. Second, a detailed discussion of each contraceptive method and issues surrounding the use of that method, such as drug-drug interactions, follows. Third, future contraceptive options in advanced development for use by women or men are briefly discussed. Expert opinion: Contraceptive methods available to all women should also be accessible to women living with HIV. When the relative effectiveness of a contraceptive method is reduced, for example due to drug-drug interactions with antiretrovirals, the method should still be made available to women living with HIV with the appropriate information sharing and counseling. Greater research on various aspects of contraceptive use by women living with HIV and more comprehensive testing of co-administration of hormonal contraceptives and common medications used by these women are warranted.

  15. Intrauterine devices and other forms of contraception: thinking outside the pack.

    Allen, Caitlin; Kolehmainen, Christine

    2015-05-01

    A variety of contraception options are available in addition to traditional combined oral contraceptive pills. Newer long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods such as intrauterine devices and subcutaneous implants are preferred because they do not depend on patient compliance. They are highly effective and appropriate for most women. Female and male sterilization are other effective but they are irreversible and require counseling to minimize regret. The contraceptive injection, patch, and ring do not require daily administration, but their typical efficacy rates are lower than LARC methods and similar to those for combined oral contraceptive pills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru Diferencias y similitudes en el conocimiento, las actitudes y los comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos en California, Estados Unidos, y en Lima, Perú

    Jesús L. Chirinos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.Identificar las diferencias y similitudes en cuanto a conocimiento, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre los estudiantes adolescentes latinos que viven en California y en Lima. Estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos de 12-19 años completaron las encuestas anónimas, autoaplicables tanto en California como en cuatro colegios secundarios en Lima. Ambas encuestas contenían preguntas similares con respecto a actividad sexual y comportamiento de anticoncepción. La media de edad fue de 16 y 15 años, respectivamente. Más varones adolescentes en California señalaron haber tenido relaciones coitales (69% vs 43%. Entre éstos, la media de edad de inicio sexual fue de 13 años en ambas muestras. Más estudiantes en California sabian del riesgo de embarazo en la primera relación sexual (82% vs 50%. Un

  18. Gender Differences in Perception of Contraception Alternatives by Never-Married College Students.

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    A study examined the perceptions of college students regarding 10 contraceptive methods, including the condom, douche, oral contraceptive, withdrawal, diaphragm, female sterilization, spermicidal foam, rhythm, male sterilization, and intrauterine device. A total of 285 females and 316 males responded to a questionnaire which had students rank each…

  19. The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams

    Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the bi...

  20. Post-coital contraception.

    Ashton, J R; Chambers, J; Hall, D J

    1984-03-01

    137,000 British women chose to have an abortion in 1981 and about 25% were teenagers. A recent estimate noted that 10% of unintended pregnancies could have been avoided if postcoital contraception had been obtainable. The availability of postcoital contraception is limited and few doctors have much knowledge of or interest in this contraceptive method. 2 questions that arise are why have doctors been so slow to adopt this effective method of birth control and what are the chances of its availability in the National Health Service (NHS) improving. Postcoital contraception is a comparatively new and until recently unpublicized fertility control method, and there was little knowledge of it among the general population or the medical profession. Doctors' ignorance and reluctance to provide the method may have been due in part to the fact that the pharmaceutical firms have been hesitant to recommend oral contraceptive (OC) pills for this use. There is no specially packaged product, and it is necessary for a patient to be given 4 pills from a 21-pill pack. This has meant that the method has not been advertized, as most new methods would be, in the medical magazines. Hopefully, this lack of knowledge has been rectified by the Family Planning Association. As part of its campaign to launch the method, it has sent details to all general practitioners. Attitudes to postcoital contraception are important, and clearly there are strong parallels with the abortion issues and legal and moral undercurrents as well. Many doctors might have been put off providing postcoital contraception by the experience of the 2 clinics (BPAS in Sheffield and the Caithorpe Nursing Home in Birmingham) which had been reported by Life, an antiabortion pressure group, to the Director of Public Prosecutions under the Offences Against the Persons Act 1863. But on May 10, 1983 the Attorney General announced that the provisionof postcoital contraception is not a criminal offense. This statement may not be

  1. Contraception usage and timing of pregnancy among pregnant teenagers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Vollmer, Linda R; van der Spuy, Zephne M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate knowledge and use of contraception among pregnant teenagers in the Cape Town metropolitan area. A cross-sectional study enrolled women aged 16 to 19 years who were pregnant and attending prenatal clinics, and prenatal and labor wards at regional hospitals and midwife-run obstetric clinics in the Cape Town area between March 1, 2011 and September 30, 2011. Data were collected using an administered questionnaire. The study enrolled 314 participants. Of the participants, 240 (76.4%) felt their pregnancies had occurred at the "wrong time" but only 38 (12.1%) were using contraception at the time of conception. The form of contraception that participants most commonly had knowledge of was injectable hormonal contraception (274 [87.3%]). Contraception use was low, with 126 (40.1%) participants having never used contraception. The forms of contraception used most commonly were the male condom (106 [33.8%]) and injectable contraception (98 [31.2%]). The majority of participants found it easy to get contraception (192 [61.1%]) and felt that information regarding contraception was readily available (233 [74.2%]). Contraception use is suboptimal but this may not simply be a reflection of ineffective family-planning services. Further research is needed to fully explain the lack of contraceptive use in this population. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Partner Support for Family Planning and Modern Contraceptive Use in Luanda, Angola.

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Fraser, Ashley; Carvalho, Adelaide; Neves, Isilda; Nieto-Andrade, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Husband's/partner's support for family planning may influence a women's modern contraceptive use. Socio-demographic factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are known to play a role in contraceptive use. We conducted logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship between perceived husband's/partner's approval and husband's/partner's encouragement of modern contraceptive use, adjusting for socio-demographic factors and recent couple communication about family planning. We also examined mediating roles potentially played by perceived contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy (using index created by principal component analysis). Perceived husband's/partner's approval was associated with triple the odds of women's modern contraceptive use and remained significantly associated with 1.6 times the odds, after controlling for contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy. Husband's/partner's encouragement, while initially significantly associated with contraceptive use, became non-significant after adjustments for socio-demographic factors and couple communication. Perceived husband's/partner's approval, separate from a woman's sense of self-efficacy and perceived accessibility of contraceptives, appears strongly and positively associated with current modern contraceptive use. Increased couple communication may help women identify their husband's/partner's approval. Difference between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. Interventions involving information education and communication campaigns geared to men and promoting male involvement in family planning could increase contraceptive prevalence.

  3. Factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women in Vanga health district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Kangale Izale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception is often necessary in order to plan for children and without it there is a risk of unplanned pregnancies. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, this often results in abortions by untrained persons with resultant morbidity and mortality. Aim: To investigate the factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women of childbearing age in the Vanga health zone. Methods: Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: Of the 384 women recruited, a majority (46.1% were in the 31–40 year age group;52% had reached primary school and 88% did not have formal employment. One hundredand forty of the participants reported current use of contraception, with 60% of them using modern methods of contraception; 36.1% of them had begun using contraception before the age of 20; and the most common methods were oral contraceptive pills and injection, each accounting for 22.9%. There was variation in the duration of contraceptive use and the main reason for using contraception was to space children. Of the participants, 20.7% had been using contraception for more than two years. Seventy-seven (31.5% of the women reported they did not use contraception because of a fear of side effects. Forty-four (18% reported that they are unable to afford contraception, 38 (15.6% had husbands who disapproved of contraceptive usage, 26 (10.6% had a fear of infertility, 18 (7.4% practised a religion that did not allow them to use contraception and 12 of the women (4.9% did not use contraception because it was unavailable to them. Conclusion: Barriers to contraception in our study were fears of side effects and infertility, cost, male partner’s objection, unavailability of contraception and religious beliefs.

  4. 7. Emergency contraception

    Sitwala

    individually on each day after satisfying the selection criteria. ... thought the pills can work up to a maximum of 24 hours. The main source of information was from friends (80%). ... 6 – 10 years .... emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish.

  5. Modern Methods of Contraception

    Rubber products are used extensively in the production of condoms, caps ... in oral contraceptives since 1960 have been in the direction of loweling the dose. ... no mid cycle increase in oestrogen, follicular stimulating hor- mone (FSH), and ...

  6. Predicting effective contraceptive behavior in college females.

    Hughes, C B; Torre, C

    1987-09-01

    This article reports the results of a preliminary research project that explored the relationship between assertiveness, cognitive development and contraceptive behavior among single young women in their freshman and senior years at college. A total of 60 college women at a university health center volunteered to participate in this pilot study. They filled out three instruments: the Galassi College Self-Expression Scale (SES), the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) tool and an author-developed sexuality questionnaire. Although there was a significant relationship between cognitive development and assertiveness, no significant relationships were found between cognitive development, assertiveness and use of effective contraception. Interesting descriptive characteristics were identified. Clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  8. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    2012-09-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male Germline. Date: October 17..., Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; 93.209, Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program...

  9. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  10. Effects of Badminton on Physical Developments of Males with Physical Disability

    Yüksel, Mehmet Fatih

    2018-01-01

    This study was realized in order to determine the features of the male badminton players with physical disability, and to examine the effects of badminton on physical developments of individuals with physical disability. Totally 59 males voluntarily participated in the study, 35 of whom were male badminton players with physical disability (n = 35,…

  11. Current methods and attitudes of women towards contraception in Europe and America.

    Johnson, Sarah; Pion, Christine; Jennings, Victoria

    2013-02-05

    The choice of available contraceptive methods has increased in recent years; however, recent data on women's awareness of methods and reasons for their method choice, or reasons for changing methods, is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the use and awareness of contraceptive methods in the USA, UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. Quantitative survey of heterosexual women aged 25-44 years (n=2544), with no known infertility. Questions related to knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, reasons for choice and for changing methods, and sources of advice. There was generally good awareness of most forms of contraception in all five countries. Awareness and current usage was greatest for the contraceptive pill (awareness >98%, usage varied from 35% [Spain] to 63% [Germany]); and male condom (awareness >95%, usage varied from 20% [Germany] to 47% [Spain]); awareness of other methods varied between countries. Doctors have the greatest influence on women's choice of contraceptive method (>50% for all countries), and are most likely to suggest the contraceptive pill or male condom.Women's contraceptive needs change; 4-36% of contraceptive pill users were likely to change their method within 12 months. For previous contraceptive pill users (n=377), most common reason for change was concern about side effects (from 26% [Italy] to 10% [UK]); however, awareness of many non-hormonal contraceptive methods was low. Women aged 25-44 are aware of a wide variety of contraceptive methods, but knowledge and usage of the contraceptive pill and condoms predominates. Changing contraception method is frequent, occurring for a variety of reasons, including change in life circumstances and, for pill users, concerns about side effects.

  12. Contraceptive behavior in Ghana: a two-sex model.

    Dodoo, F N

    1995-01-01

    This report uses data of the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), a nationally representative self-weighting sample of 4488 female respondents 15-49 years old. 943 co-resident husbands of the surveyed women were also interviewed, thus the data provided 1010 dyads, which facilitated a couple-level analysis of contraceptive behavior. The determinants of modern contraceptive adoption were examined among dependent variables, including both modern and traditional methods, and the predictors of future usage among the nonusers were also assessed. For each of dependent variables, two logistic regressions were estimated, one for females, and the second one for couple measures of intentions and male preferences. Males were older and more educated than their female counterparts, and women were more likely than men to want to cease and space childbearing. 68.8% of women were in monogamous marriages, and the average age of women was 31.8 years, compared to 41 years for men among 1008 people in the sample. 43.5% of women had lost more than 1 child, and 22.9% had urban residence. 11.7% of couples agreed that contraceptives were needed for stopping childbearing. However, 14.9% said that there was no need for contraception, while 27.7% wanted contraception for spacing of births. 46% of the sample disagreed about contraceptive need and use. 6% of the women used modern contraceptives, while 8.7% used traditional methods. In addition, 29.7% of the women intended to use contraception in the future, while 55.6% did not intend to do this. Examination of contraceptive use and selected background variables indicates urban-rural differences. Also, the advancing age of wives and all levels of female schooling means increasing contraceptive use, but secondary schooling was associated with lower use for men than primary schooling. Use of contraception was also positively associated with the desire to cease childbearing for both sexes whether users or non-users. The findings

  13. New and emerging contraceptives: a state-of-the-art review

    Bahamondes L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes, M Valeria Bahamondes Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas and National Institute of Hormones and Women's Health, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings. Methods: A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC. Also, several experts in the field were also consulted to document ongoing projects on contraception development. Additionally, the Clinicaltrial.gov website was searched for ongoing studies on existing contraceptive methods and new and emerging female contraceptives developed over the past 5 years. Information was also obtained from the pharmaceutical industry. Results: Early sexual debut and late menopause means that women may require contraception for up to 30 years. Although oral, injectable, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal, and intrauterine contraceptives are already available, new contraceptives have been developed in an attempt to reduce side effects and avoid early discontinuation, and to fulfill women's different requirements. Research efforts are focused on replacing ethinyl-estradiol with natural estradiol to reduce thrombotic events. In addition, new, less androgenic progestins are being introduced and selective progesterone receptor

  14. Use of modern contraceptive implants the: Lagos island maternity ...

    Backround: Implants are an effective and reversible long term method of fertillty regulation, particularily advantageous to women who wish an extended period of contraception protection. The development of contraceptive implants was made possible by the discovery of silicone and its bio-compatibility in the human body.

  15. Abortion and Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: How ...

    Erah

    sub-Saharan cities, particularly where contraceptive use is low and access to ... other regions, sub-Saharan women nevertheless exercise ... kinship networks to share the costs and benefits of .... developing countries in contraceptive use among married .... The report includes case studies of ..... Tours, France, July 2005.

  16. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Contraceptive Embarrassment and Contraceptive Behavior among Young Single Women.

    Herold, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper determined factors predictive of contraceptive embarrassment, and the relationship of contraceptive embarrassment to contraceptive use among young unmarried females. The most important predictors found were parental attitude to premarital intercourse and sexual guilt. The embarrassment scale had significant correlations with…

  18. An update on emergency contraception.

    Bosworth, Michele C; Olusola, Patti L; Low, Sarah B

    2014-04-01

    Emergency contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or after suspected failure of routine contraception (e.g., a condom breaking). Oral methods include combined contraceptive pills (i.e., Yuzpe method), single- or split-dose levonorgestrel, and ulipristal. The Yuzpe method and levonorgestrel are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for use 72 hours postcoitus, whereas the newest method, ulipristal, is approved for up to 120 hours postcoitus. The copper intrauterine device may be used as emergency contraception up to seven days after unprotected intercourse. It is nonhormonal and has the added benefit of long-term contraception. Advanced provision of emergency contraception may be useful for all patients, and for persons using ulipristal because it is available only by prescription. Physicians should counsel patients on the use and effectiveness of emergency contraception, the methods available, and the benefits of routine and consistent contraception use.

  19. The return of the pharmaceutical industry to the market of contraception.

    Johansson, E D

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, the litigious climate in the US had a catastrophic effect on sales of many major contraceptives. Although oral contraceptives escaped controversy, the intrauterine device (IUD) and Norplant(R) were two targets of damaging litigation. The IUD was withdrawn from the market in 1985. Since 1994 when the attacks began against Norplant, its US sales have dramatically declined, even though no fault has been found in the method or its development. In general, pharmaceutical companies were extremely hesitant to develop new contraceptives during this period. The bleak outlook, however, began to shift in the late 1990s, as fertility rates began to decrease worldwide and contraceptive users increased. By 2025, 2500 million women will comprise the customer base for contraception. Global pharmaceutical companies are now participating in expanding markets overseas and have launched and continue to develop a range of new long-term reversible, and highly effective, contraceptive products outside the traditional oral contraceptive field. Two new contraceptives on the way to the US market are: Mirena, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system manufactured by Schering-Leiras; and Implanon, a single implant system manufactured by Organon of the Netherlands. Other birth control methods soon to be launched include: emergency contraceptives, the contraceptive patch, monthly contraceptive injections, mifepristone for medical abortion, and modified oral contraceptives.

  20. Vasectomy as a reversible form of contraception for select patients.

    Samplaski, Mary K; Daniel, Ariande; Jarvi, Keith

    2014-04-01

    To provide an effective form of birth control, men may choose a reversible or permanent form of contraception. Vasectomy is presently offered as a permanent option for male contraception. We have had patients who were interested in vasectomy and reversal as a temporary birth control option. The purpose of this paper is to determine if vasectomy should be offered for selected couples as a temporary form of contraception and under which circumstances. A literature review was conducted to determine the available reversible contraceptive options, risks, failure rates and contraindications to each, and the risks and success rates of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal. Reversible contraceptives include hormonally based methods for women, non-hormonal anatomic barrier devices and spermatocidal agents. Hormone based therapies may be contraindicated in women with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Non-hormonal contraceptives are generally less effective and may be unacceptable for some couples due to higher failure rates, difficulty of use and lack of acceptance. Both vasectomy and vasectomy reversal are low risk procedures. Reversal may be performed with a high degree of success, particularly with a short obstructive interval (97% patency if performed form of sterilization for most couples, there are select couples, unable or unwilling to use other forms of birth control, who would benefit from an informed discussion about using a vasectomy as a reversible form of contraception.

  1. Contraceptive use by female physicians in the United States.

    Frank, E

    1999-11-01

    Little is known about female physicians' personal contraceptive use, and such usage could influence their prescribing patterns. We used data from the Women Physicians' Health Study, a large (n = 4501) national study, administered in 1993-1994, on characteristics of female physicians in the United States. These female physicians (ages 30-44 years) were more likely to use contraception than women in the general population (ages 15-44 years); this was true even when the physicians were compared with only other women of high socioeconomic status and when stratified by ethnicity, age, and number of children. Physicians were also more likely to use intrauterine devices, diaphragms, or condoms, and less likely to use female or male sterilization than were other women. Younger female physicians were especially unlikely to use permanent methods, particularly when compared with their age-matched counterparts in the general population. One fifth of contracepting physicians used more than one type of contraceptive; the most frequently used combination was spermicide with a barrier method. Female physicians contracept differently than do women in the general population, in ways consistent with delaying and reducing total fertility. Physicians' personal characteristics have been shown to influence their patient counseling practices, including their contraception-related attitudes and practices. Although female physicians' clinical advice might differ from their personal practices, as women physicians become more prevalent, their contraceptive choices could influence those of their patients.

  2. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships

    Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  3. Factors associated with the use of irreversible contraception and continuous use of reversible contraception in a cohort of HIV-positive women.

    Kancheva Landolt, Nadia; Ramautarsing, Reshmie Ashmanie; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Rodbamrung, Piyanee; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-07-01

    Effective contraception can be lifesaving by reducing maternal mortality linked to childbirth and unsafe abortion and by reducing vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV, in the case of an HIV-positive woman. This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. We assessed factors associated with the use of irreversible contraception and the continuous use of reversible contraception in HIV-positive Thai women. We used descriptive statistics to present baseline characteristics and logistic regression to assess the association between contraceptive use and factors in the study. Of 196 women included in the analysis, 87% self-reported always using male condoms and 56% continuously using another effective contraceptive method during the period of the study (12-18 months). The choice of effective contraceptive methods was suboptimal--42% were sterilized, 14% used hormonal contraception and no participant reported the use of an intrauterine device. Sexual activity and past contraceptive use were factors associated positively with current continuous contraceptive use. Live births and lower levels of education were additional factors associated positively with sterilization. Despite high contraceptive use, there are still uncovered contraceptive needs among HIV-positive women in Thailand. HIV-positive women need established specialized family planning services, offering an optimal variety of contraceptive choices and tailored to their individual needs. As sterilization is an irreversible choice, it cannot be a viable alternative for every woman. Due to the positive trend between current and past contraceptive use, we consider that it may be possible to improve family planning programs if they start as early as possible in a woman's life and are continued throughout her sexually active and reproductive years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifetime prevalence of sexual intercourse and contraception use at last sex among adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease.

    Fry, Kevin M; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Ash, Jerry; Zaidi, Ali N; Garg, Vidu; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increased risks associated with unplanned pregnancy for males and females with congenital heart disease (CHD), we investigated sexual intercourse and contraception use in these adolescents and young adults (AYA) and compared the same with national and state population data. We recruited 337 AYA with structural CHD aged 15-25 years (Mage = 19 years, standard deviation = 3.1; 53% male, 84% white) from an outpatient cardiology clinic to participate in a larger study assessing genetic knowledge and health behaviors. Cumulative lifetime prevalence of adolescent (aged 15-18 years) sexual intercourse was compared with the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System and the 2007 Ohio Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Cumulative lifetime prevalence of young adult (aged 19-25 years) sexual intercourse and contraception use at last sex were compared with the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. Reported rates of ever having sexual intercourse, 26% of adolescents and 74% of young adults with CHD, were significantly lower than general population rates (47% and 86% respectively; p contraception at last intercourse, whereas 25% used dual effective methods and 23% used no effective method. Lower rates of ever having sexual intercourse in this population suggest that the psychosexual development of AYA with CHD may lag behind their peers. As nearly one in four participants reported using no effective method of contraception, health care providers should increase discussions of contraception with males and females with CHD. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda.

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2014-12-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Female contraception over 40

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of women 40-49 years of age need an effective method of contraception because the decline in fertility with age is an insufficient protection against unwanted pregnancy. Although pregnancy is less likely after the age of 40 years, the clinical and social consequences...... is insufficient for contraceptive purposes. Thus a family planning method is needed. Sterilization is by far the most common method in several countries. Copper intrauterine devices and hormone intrauterine systems have similar effectiveness, with fewer than 1% failures in the first year of typical use. Special...

  7. Masculinity Identity Development and Its Relevance to Supporting Talented Black Males

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a brief introduction to Black male masculine identity development and relate it to the field of gifted education. It will begin with information related to identity development that is applicable to Black males. Next, the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST) will be explored and…

  8. Male Archetypes as Resources for Homosexual Identity Development in Gay Men.

    McFarland, William P.; McMahon, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    The male archetypes of king, lover, magician, and warrior provide important and timeless insights into mature masculine qualities. Homosexual identity development models describe tasks that confront gay men as they move through the identity development process. Proposes that by understanding the metaphor of male archetypes, gay men will discover…

  9. The Impact of High School on the Leadership Development of African American Male Scholar-Athletes

    Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…

  10. Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate.

    Rible, Radhika D; Taylor, DeShawn; Wilson, Melissa L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mishell, Daniel R

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per COC cycle. This study evaluates differences in follicular development during a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval in a COC regimen with 20 mcg EE and 1 mg norethindrone acetate. Forty-one healthy women were randomized in an open-label fashion to this formulation in either a 24/4 or a 21/7 day regimen for three cycles. Estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and inhibin B were measured daily from Cycle 2, Day 21 to Cycle 3, Day 3 and on Day 7 of Cycle 3. Follicular diameter and Hoogland score were calculated on Cycle 2, Days 21, 24 and 28 and Cycle 3, Days 3 and 7. Sixty-six percent of subjects in the 21/7 group and 70% of the subjects in the 24/4 group developed a follicle greater than 10 mm diameter. Ovarian steroid hormone levels, Hoogland scores and bleeding patterns were not statistically significant between the groups. In contrast to prior studies, this analysis suggests no difference in follicle development or bleeding patterns among women receiving a 21/7 or 24/4 regimen of a 20-mcg EE/1-mg norethindrone acetate COC.

  11. Spermicides: A Contraception Alternative to Consider

    Mélany Uribe-Clavijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript was to show a review about historical data, uses, advantages and disadvantages of spermicidal products. Conducting a search in several biomedical databases and using some terms such as Contraception, Spermatozoa, Spermicides, Nonoxynol-9, Microbicide and Natural Products there was realized a literature review selecting different scientific articles, documents and guidelines that allowed the realization of this work. Contraception has been a worldwide interest subject since a long time ago, implicating aspects such as natality control and sexual transmitted infections. Eventually, due to the increased knowledge in contraception, some spermicidal products have been developed including the synthetic ones. However, different organizations have paid attention to the necessity for seeking new compounds with spermicidal and microbicidal activity, associated to minimal side effects; among these new molecules, the present article highlight those potential spermicides derived from natural products.

  12. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.

  13. Contraceptive applications of progesterone receptor modulators.

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Ouzounian, Sophie; Kairis, Axelle Pintiaux; Bouchard, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    Currently developed progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) are steroid-derived compounds with mild or potent antiprogestin activity. PRMs may exert a contraceptive activity by different mechanisms such as blockade of ovulation and endometrial desynchronization. Their potential clinical applications are manifold and are very promising in major public health areas, including emergency contraception, long term oestrogen-free contraception (administered alone, or in association with a progestin-only pill to improve bleeding patterns), endometriosis and myoma treatment. The mechanisms of their anti-ovulatory effects and of the endometrial modifications elicited during long term PRM treatment are still not fully elucidated. In future clinical applications, PRMs will be administered orally, via intrauterine systems or vaginal rings.

  14. Emergency contraceptives bring a little peace of mind.

    Setty, V

    1999-04-01

    Although emergency contraceptive pills have been prescribed to US women since the discovery of the birth control pill, this regimen has been termed "America's best-kept secret." For fear of legal liability, many providers have been unwilling to prescribe oral contraceptive pills for a purpose other than that for which they are labeled on the packaging. There are indications, however, that access to emergency contraception in the US is improving. PREVEN, the first product to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for emergency contraception, was released in 1998. The kit includes a step-by-step information booklet, a pregnancy test, and four birth control pills. In Washington State, collaborative drug agreements between volunteer pharmacists and licensed prescribers enable pharmacists to prescribe emergency contraception pills directly--a move that is estimated to have prevented 207 unintended pregnancies and 103 abortions in less than one year. Planned Parenthood has developed two programs to increase the use of emergency contraception. The first allows clinicians to discuss emergency contraception over the phone with clients (even new ones) and to call in prescriptions to local pharmacies; the second provides women with emergency contraceptive kits to keep on hand in advance of a need for the regimen.

  15. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use

    Abbasi, S.U.R.S.; Zafar, M.I.; Batool, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of woman heath seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimensions of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre. and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visits have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professionals, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  16. Survey of patient awareness and beliefs regarding emergency contraception

    Amir, F.; Saeed, A.; Fakhar, S.; Saeed, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate patient's knowledge and beliefs regarding emergency contraception and its use. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: A six months cross-sectional descriptive study, from 1st July 2009 till 31st December 2009 carried out at Shifa international Hospital (SIH) and Shifa community health centre (SFCHC) Islamabad. Patients and Methods: All married women of reproductive age coming to SIH or SFCHC clinics after informed consent were interviewed regarding their knowledge of emergency contraception. Results: A total of 770 women were interviewed, but the data was completed for 759 women. 131 women (17.3%) had knowledge about emergency contraception but only 79 (10.4%) had actually used this method for contraception. Conclusion: There is a very low awareness level regarding emergency contraception among women of developing countries even in the urban population. (author)

  17. Efficacy of a combined contraceptive regimen consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills.

    Zhao, Rui; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Ji, Hong-Lei; Li, Yi-Ran

    2014-04-14

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the combined regimen (consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills (ECP)) and using condoms only for the purpose of preventing pregnancy. One-thousand-five-hundred-and-sixty-two (1,562) couples as volunteers enrolled at nine centers in Shanghai. Eight-hundred-and-twelve (812) were randomized to use male condoms and ECP (i.e., Levonorgestrel) as a back-up to condoms (the intervention group) and 750 to use male condoms only(the control group), according to their working unit. Participants were visited at admission and at the end of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The cumulative life table rates were calculated for pregnancy and other reasons for discontinuation. The gross cumulative life table rates showed that the cumulative discontinuation rates for all reasons during the year of follow-up in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 7.76 ± 0.94 and 6.61 ± 0.91, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 0.41, p = 0.5227). The cumulative gross pregnancy rate of the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.17 ± 0.52 and 1.25 ± 0.41, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 1.93, p = 0.1645). The Pearl Index in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.21% and 1.26%, respectively. Male condoms remain a highly effective contraceptive method for a period of one year while consistently and correctly used. In addition, the lowest pregnancy rate followed from perfect use condom.

  18. Adolescents' Values, Sexuality, and Contraception in a Rural New York County.

    McCormick, Naomi; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined personal values and sexual and contraceptive experiences of 75 male and 88 female high school students from a rural county of New York. Results suggested that religiosity was unrelated to students' sexual behavior and use of contraceptives. The different groups of high school students exhibited remarkably homogeneous sexual and…

  19. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  20. Contraception for the older woman.

    Glasier, A; Gebbie, A

    1996-04-01

    Contraception presents particular problems for women over the age of 40. Although fertility is declining and the risk of pregnancy may be small, the consequences of an unplanned pregnancy may be socially devastating and medically ill-advised. Menstrual dysfunction and psychosexual difficulties increase with age and may exacerbate the side-effects of some methods of contraception. The long-term risks of combined hormonal contraception, particularly cardiovascular disease, become more pertinent to women whose natural risk of disease increases with age. Patterns of sexual activity and contraceptive use change with age. The advantages and disadvantages of currently available methods of contraception are difficult to quantify, and the choice of method is very much a matter for individual concern. The increasing prevalence of HRT may complicate matters for some women who are unsure for how long to continue using contraception. Contraceptives of the future may be designed to improve the reproductive health of all women, particularly those approaching the menopause.

  1. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  2. Progesterone Only Contraception

    argues further that the physiological effect of oestrogen in oral contraceptives on .... release of LH and FSH, exactly the same mechaniSm as that of the combined ... each the size of a matchstick, which contain levonorgestrel. The hormone is ...

  3. Emergency contraception: clinical outcomes.

    Glasier, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is widely used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. This review considers the safety and efficacy of three commonly used methods -- levonorgestrel (LNG-EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) and the copper intrauterine device. All are extremely safe, and side effects are minimal. Concerns about increased risks of ectopic pregnancy after EC use have proved unfounded, and possible teratogenic effects seem unlikely. Although the true effectiveness of EC is impossible to estimate, recent research suggests that LNG-EC prevents around 50% of expected pregnancies in women using the method within 72 h of intercourse, whereas UPA appeared to prevent almost two thirds of pregnancies. Emergency intrauterine device insertion probably prevents over 95% of pregnancies. However, although improved accessibility of EC has clearly led to increased use, it does not appear to have had any public health benefit in reducing unintended pregnancy rates. Most of the data on sexual behavior following improved access to EC do not show any detrimental effect on subsequent use of other more effective methods of contraception or on the incidence of unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. However, unless these other methods of contraception are also made easily available from pharmacies, improved access to EC risks unlinking its use with use of subsequent ongoing contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy attitudes, contraceptive service utilization, and other factors associated with Los Angeles homeless youths' use of effective contraception and withdrawal.

    Winetrobe, H; Rhoades, H; Barman-Adhikari, A; Cederbaum, J; Rice, E; Milburn, N

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to understand the associations of contraceptive service utilization (ie, accessing condoms or birth control), pregnancy attitudes, and lifetime pregnancy history among male and female homeless youth in relation to use of effective contraception and withdrawal. Between October 2011 and February 2012, homeless youth (14-27 years old) from 2 drop-in centers in Los Angeles (N = 380) were recruited and completed a questionnaire. The data in this paper are restricted to those who reported vaginal sex at last sex (N = 283). Analyses examined history of foster care, sexual abuse, exchange sex, pregnancy, lifetime homelessness duration, current living situation, contraceptive service utilization, and pregnancy attitudes in predicting use of effective contraception and withdrawal at last sex. Over 62% of females and 43% of males report having ever been pregnant or impregnating someone. There are no gender-based differences in pregnancy attitudes; 21% agree they would like to become pregnant within the year. Additionally, there are no gender-based differences in reported contraceptive use at last vaginal sex. In the multivariable model, high school education, contraceptive service utilization (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR]: 4.0), and anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.3) are significant positive predictors of using effective contraception; anti-pregnancy attitudes (RRR: 1.2) and gender (RRR: 0.3) are significantly associated with using withdrawal. Health professionals should acknowledge that some homeless youth desire pregnancy; for those that do not, access to effective contraception is important. Programs must continue to promote pregnancy prevention, and include discussions of healthy pregnancy habits for pregnancy-desiring youth. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CUP: contraceptive users pamphlet.

    1986-02-01

    This pamphlet, edited by an ad hoc committee of several consultants, scientists, theologians, public health and family planning directors, and an international attorney, covers the following topics: contra-conception; choices of contraceptives; contraceptive package information; copper IUDs; pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); sexually transmitted diseases; and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It includes a questionnaire for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Professor Joseph Goldzieher describes the "Contra-Conception" database as "a synthesis of up-to-date literature and contemporary guidelines, designed to provide ready access for practicing physicians and medical students." It contains data on several types of hormonal contraception. "Contra-Conceptions" is designed to allow the physician to set his or her own pace when working with the computer, and no previous computer experience is required. 1 of the program's many innovative features is the patient-profiling/decisionmaking section which can be used in the doctor's office to help decide what type of hormonal contraceptive is appropriate for a particular patient. The program permits the doctor to evaluate the significance of patient variables such as parity, smoking, menstrual difficulties and helps the doctor to identify the risks and benefits of the various methods and, ultimately, to make a balanced decision in the context of the most recent data. Contraceptive drugs and devices should include detailed information on the following: description of formula or device; indication, usage, and contraindications, clinical pharmacology and toxicology; dose-related risk; pregnancies per 100 women year; and detailed warning. The sequence of major pathophysiological reactions associated with copper IUDs is identified as are special problems of pelvic infections in users of copper IUDs. Those women who use oral contraceptives (OCs) or a barrier method of contraception or whose partners use a condom have a lower

  6. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  7. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  8. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries.

    Cunningham, Marc; Bock, Ariella; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (Plogistics data are strongly correlated with public-sector prevalence rates for short-acting methods, demonstrating the quality of current logistics data and their ability to provide relatively accurate prevalence estimates. The

  9. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  10. Emergency Contraceptive Knowledge And Practice Among ...

    With a high incidence of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion especially among unmarriedwomen in developing countries, there is need to promote emergency contraception (EC). To assess the unmarriedwomen\\'s knowledge, attitude and practice ofEC. A random sample of a cross-section of 594 unmarried women ...

  11. Awareness and practice of emergency contraception among ...

    Unprotected sexual exposure leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion contributes significantly to reproductive ill health, especially in developing countries. Promotion of emergency contraception (EC) has been advocated as a way of reducing these problems. Our youth, the most vulnerable group, should ...

  12. Contraceptive challenges experienced by women who requested ...

    ... of contraceptives over weekends and during lunch breaks could enable more women to prevent unwanted pregnancies, reducing the number of requests for TOP services. Keywords: abortions; accessibility of contraceptives; contraceptive challenges; contraceptives' side-effects; emergency contraceptives; termination of ...

  13. Transcriptome profiling of male gametophyte development in Nicotiana tabacum

    Bokvaj, Pavel; Hafidh, Said; Honys, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, MAR (2015), s. 106-111 ISSN 2213-5960 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2611; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06943S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13049 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollen development transcriptome * Tobacco * Reproduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. More Than a Destination: Contraceptive Decision Making as a Journey.

    Downey, Margaret Mary; Arteaga, Stephanie; Villaseñor, Elodia; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    Contraceptive use is widely recognized as a means of reducing adverse health-related outcomes. However, dominant paradigms of contraceptive counseling may rely on a narrow definition of "evidence" (i.e., scientifically accurate but exclusive of individual women's experiences). Given increased enthusiasm for long-acting, reversible contraceptive methods, such paradigms may reinforce counseling that overprivileges effectiveness, particularly for groups considered at high risk of unintended pregnancy. This study investigates where and how women's experiences fit into the definition of evidence these counseling protocols use. Using a qualitative approach, this analysis draws on semistructured interviews with 38 young (ages 18-24) Black and Latina women. We use a qualitative content analysis approach, with coding categories derived directly from the textual data. Our analysis suggests that contraceptive decision making is an iterative, relational, reflective journey. Throughout contraceptive histories, participants described experiences evolving to create a foundation from which decision-making power was drawn. The same contraceptive-related decisions were revisited repeatedly, with knowledge accrued along the way. The cumulative experience of using, assigning meanings to, and developing values around contraception meant that young women experienced contraceptive decision making as a dynamic process. This journey creates a rich body of evidence that informs contraceptive decision making. To provide appropriate, acceptable, patient-centered family planning care, providers must engage with evidence grounded in women's expertise on their contraceptive use in addition to medically accurate data on method effectiveness, side effects, and contraindications. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  16. Perceptions of nonsurgical permanent contraception among potential users, providers, and influencers in Wardha district and New Delhi, India: Exploratory research.

    Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S

    2017-01-01

    New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.

  17. The strategic approach to contraceptive introduction.

    Simmons, R; Hall, P; Díaz, J; Díaz, M; Fajans, P; Satia, J

    1997-06-01

    The introduction of new contraceptive technologies has great potential for expanding contraceptive choice, but in practice, benefits have not always materialized as new methods have been added to public-sector programs. In response to lessons from the past, the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) has taken major steps to develop a new approach and to support governments interested in its implementation. After reviewing previous experience with contraceptive introduction, the article outlines the strategic approach and discusses lessons from eight countries. This new approach shifts attention from promotion of a particular technology to an emphasis on the method mix, the capacity to provide services with quality of care, reproductive choice, and users' perspectives and needs. It also suggests that technology choice should be undertaken through a participatory process that begins with an assessment of the need for contraceptive introduction and is followed by research and policy and program development. Initial results from Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Myanmar, South Africa, Vietnam, and Zambia confirm the value of the new approach.

  18. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  19. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The underutilization of emergency contraception.

    Devine, Kit S

    2012-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy continues to be a significant health problem for women throughout the world. The reasons for unplanned pregnancy include failure to use contraception, incorrect use of contraception, unplanned consensual intercourse, and rape. Emergency contraception was once heralded as a means of reducing the rates of unintended pregnancy, elective abortion, and unwanted childbirth. But more than three decades after the first oral form was introduced, the use of emergency contraception remains suboptimal-even in the United States, where it is available to most women of childbearing age without a prescription. Nurses can help narrow this clinical gap in women's health care by increasing awareness of emergency contraception, correcting common misconceptions about its mechanism of action and potential adverse effects, and facilitating patient access.

  1. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraception ...

    BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure or incorrect use. Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods including emergency contraceptives.

  3. Contraceptive choice and acceptability: the future for STI risk in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Shiely, Frances; Saifuddin, Mohammed Syafiek

    2014-03-01

    More than 150 million women become pregnant in developing countries annually and an estimated 287,000 die from pregnancy-related causes. Contraception is vital to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths, as well as sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to investigate preferred contraceptive methods and the factors that influence contraceptive choice among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study using interview-based questionnaires was conducted, during July and August 2009, in local family planning clinics in Kelantan. The questionnaire was administered to adult women (age 20-50). Prevalence of unplanned pregnancies was high (48%). Contraceptive preference was Depo contraceptive injection (32%), oral contraceptive pills (27%), intrauterine devices (15%) and contraceptive implants (12%); 9% used condoms. Only 2% used contraception to protect against sexually transmitted infections or HIV/AIDS. Younger women (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.807-0.993) were more likely to use contraception. In conclusion, non-interrupted contraceptive methods were preferred. More than 60% would stop using contraception if it interrupted intercourse. From both a public health and infectious disease perspective, this is extremely worrying.

  4. Contraceptive methods awareness and use among women of ...

    Contraceptive methods awareness and use among women of reproductive age in an urban ... aged 15-49 years in a Local Council Development Area (LCDA) of Lagos, Nigeria. ... Data analysis was done using Epi InfoTM statistical software.

  5. Indicators of young women's modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso and Mali from Demographic and Health Survey data.

    O'Regan, Amy; Thompson, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    size for both men and women continue to drive young women's choices around family planning and impede use of LAPMs. To increase modern contraceptive use and curb fertility rates, local governments and development organizations should focus on women's empowerment and include male partners.

  6. Use of modern contraception by the poor is falling behind.

    Emmanuela Gakidou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The widespread increase in the use of contraception, due to multiple factors including improved access to modern contraception, is one of the most dramatic social transformations of the past fifty years. This study explores whether the global progress in the use of modern contraceptives has also benefited the poorest.Demographic and Health Surveys from 55 developing countries were analyzed using wealth indices that allow the identification of the absolute poor within each country. This article explores the macro level determinants of the differences in the use of modern contraceptives between the poor and the national averages of several countries. Despite increases in national averages, use of modern contraception by the absolute poor remains low. South and Southeast Asia have relatively high rates of modern contraception in the absolute poor, on average 17% higher than in Latin America. Over time the gaps in use persist and are increasing. Latin America exhibits significantly larger gaps in use between the poor and the averages, while gaps in sub-Saharan Africa are on average smaller by 15.8% and in Southeast Asia by 11.6%.The secular trend of increasing rates of modern contraceptive use has not resulted in a decrease of the gap in use for those living in absolute poverty. Countries with large economic inequalities also exhibit large inequalities in modern contraceptive use. In addition to macro level factors that influence contraceptive use, such as economic development and provision of reproductive health services, there are strong regional variations, with sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the lowest national rates of use, South and Southeast Asia the highest use among the poor, and Latin America the largest inequalities in use.

  7. Synergistic Disruption of External Male Sex Organ Development by a Mixture of Four Antiandrogens

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken

    2009-01-01

    : Strikingly, the effect of combined exposure to the selected chemicals on malformations of external sex organs was synergistic, and the observed responses were greater than would be predicted from the toxicities of the individual chemicals. In relation to other hallmarks of disrupted male sexual development......, and a pharmaceutical, finasteride, on landmarks of male sexual development in the rat, including changes in anogenital distance, retained nipples, sex organ weights and malformations of genitalia. These chemicals were chosen because they disrupt androgen action according to differing mechanisms of action. Results...... in male offspring. Conclusions: Since unhindered androgen action is essential for human male development in foetal life, these findings are highly relevant to human risk assessment. Evaluations that ignore the possibility of combination effects may lead to considerable underestimations of risks associated...

  8. [Sexual behavior and contraceptive practices among university students].

    Repossi, A; Araneda, J M; Bustos, L; Puente, C; Rojas, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the knowledge, opinions and sexual behaviour of a sample of 464 students from the Universidad Austral de Chile. Results show that 78% of male and 41% of female students have had a sexual intercourse and that 78% of males and 72% of females with an active sexual life use contraceptive methods. The principal reasons to avoid the use of these methods are the irregularity of sexual intercourse and the reduction in pleasure. Most students think that these methods are harmful for their health but they should be used. The use of contraceptive methods increase with the frequency of sexual relations and university experience, but first year students use them more frequently than second year students. Most students know several contraceptive methods, but their knowledge about mechanisms of action is inadequate or distorted. Likewise, more than 50% think that it is possible to prevent pregnancy after a sexual intercourse. It is concluded that most sexually active students use contraceptive methods, but inappropriately. Stereotypes, myths and lack of information are influencing their sexual and contraceptive practices, showing incoherence between their knowledge and behavior. A possible explanation could be a scarce influence of high school and religion on their sexual formation.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: STUDIES OF THE C. ELEGANS MALE

    Emmons, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the development of the C. elegans male have been carried out with the aim of understanding the basis of sexual dimorphism. Postembryonic development of the two C. elegans sexes differs extensively. Development along either the hermaphrodite or male pathway is specified initially by the X to autosome ratio. The regulatory events initiated by this ratio include a male-determining paracrine intercellular signal. Expression of this signal leads to different consequences in three regions of the body: the non-gonadal soma, the somatic parts of the gonad, and the germ line. In the non-gonadal soma, activity of the key Zn-finger transcription factor TRA 1 determines hermaphrodite development; in its absence, the male pathway is followed. Only a few genes directly regulated by TRA 1 are currently known, including members of the evolutionarily conserved, male-determining DM domain Zn-finger transcription factors. In the somatic parts of the gonad and germ line, absence of TRA 1 activity is not sufficient for full expression of the male pathway. Several additional transcription factors involved have been identified. In the germ line, regulatory genes for sperm development that act at the level of RNA in the cytoplasm play a prominent role. PMID:25262817

  10. [Emergency oral contraception policy: the Peruvian experience].

    Pretell-Zárate, Eduardo A

    2013-07-01

    Emergency oral contraception is part of the sexual and reproductive rights of women. In 2001, this health policy was incorporated into the Rules of the National Family Planning Program of the Ministry of Health, primarily to prevent unwanted pregnancy and its serious consequences, induced abortion and the high associated maternal mortality rate, which are major public health problems. Scientific research has confirmed that the main mechanism of action of levonorgestrel, component of emergency oral contraception (EOC) is to inhibit or delay ovulation, preventing fertilization of the egg; additionally, it increases the thickening of the cervical mucus, making the sperm migration more difficult. No study has found endometrial abnormalities that may interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg or embryo development of an implanted egg. However, despite the support of medical science and legal backing, the EOC is available only to users with economic resources, but its use has not been fully implemented in public sector services, due to obstacles created by groups opposed to contraception under claim of an alleged abortive effect that has already been ruled out scientifically. This article describes the administrative experience and legal confrontations between groups of power that prevent the proper implementation of an emergency contraception policy in Peru.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of secondary school girls towards contraception in Limpopo Province

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.

  12. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  13. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [A new contraceptive method: breast feeding].

    Townsend, S

    1993-08-01

    Even though women have known for centuries that breast feeding has a contraceptive effect, family planning agents have only recently promoted it. Family planning specialists at a meeting in Bellagio, Italy, on breast feeding developed directives referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). Adherence to these directives assure effective protection against pregnancy until resumption of menstruation, expansion of infant feeding to foods other than breast milk, or until 6 months postpartum. Nipple stimulation during suckling is sufficient to suppress ovulation. Frequent suckling or more intense suckling maintains the contraceptive effect, so the directives insist that mothers exclusively or almost exclusively breast feed their infants. LAM provides 98% effective protection against pregnancy for 6 months if women observe it as directed. After 6 months, they should use another family planning method. Scientists are trying to see whether they can make the directives more simple. They will discuss this possibility at their next international meeting in 1993 or 1994. Research indicates that the most crucial rule is amenorrhea and use of this rule will make LAM more easy to learn and use, thereby increasing its use. It is difficult to motivate hospital and family planning clinic staff to promote LAM. Information and education are needed to support LAM. for example, a project in Honduras is using peer counseling to promote LAM. Family Health International is following 1000 women for 1 year postpartum in Pakistan and the Philippines. This study's 6-month LAM efficacy rate was around 95%. Little research has looked at the cost effectiveness of LAM. Optimally, LAM is a temporary contraceptive method which must be followed immediately by another contraceptive method. Indeed, LAM counseling should often pregnancy. LAM supporters do not intend for LAM to be a substitute for family planning, but want LAM to be another method in the contraceptive method mix.

  15. Contraceptives: choice for the millions?

    Dhall, A

    1994-06-01

    India adds each year the population of Sub-Saharan Africa to the earth. User based factors determining the type of contraceptive that is used most often in a country are sociocultural practices including religion, literacy, women's status and their role in decision making, men's status, misconceptions, and convenience of use. Service related factors include knowledge and skill of the provider, attitude of the provider, accessibility of family planning services, cost of the contraceptives, and quality of services. The government, nongovernmental organizations, and the pharmaceutical firms tend to be the contraceptive researchers and suppliers. The mass media are used to disseminate information on contraceptives. They often relay sensational reports about a contraceptive method that results in its reduced use. Temporary or spacing family planning methods include natural family planning methods, condoms, IUDs, oral contraceptives, implants, and injectables, spermicides and vaginal barriers. The natural family planning methods are sexual abstinence, especially in the postpartum period; rhythm or calendar method; and coitus interruptus. The most cost-effective method is also the most popular method--sexual sterilization. Even though female sterilization is more difficult to perform than vasectomy, it is more common than vasectomy. Contraception should become a people's movement rather than be forced upon the people. People should insist on good quality, affordable contraceptive services as their basic right.

  16. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    ... the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... them late and had sex without a backup method of birth control.If you want to become ... Progestin-only contraceptives should not delay your ability ...

  17. Male midwives: preferred managers of sexually transmitted infections in men in developing countries?

    Hsieh, Evelyn J; García, Patricia J; Roca, Sayda La Rosa

    2008-10-01

    To describe demographic and practice characteristics of male and female midwives in private practice (MIPPs) in 10 cities of Peru, and their role in the delivery of reproductive health care, specifically management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As part of an intervention trial in 10 cities in the provinces of Peru designed to improve STI management, detailed information was collected regarding the number of midwives in each city working in various types of practices. A door-to-door survey of all medical offices and institutions in each city was conducted. Each MIPP encountered was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographics, training, practice type(s), number of STI cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. Of the 905 midwives surveyed, 442 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions; 99.3% of these MIPPs reported managing STI cases. Andean cities had the highest density of MIPPs, followed by jungle and coastal cities, respectively. Jungle cities had the largest proportion of male MIPPs (35.5%). While both male and female MIPPs reported seeing male patients, male MIPPs saw a significantly greater number than their female counterparts. In areas of Peru where physicians are scarce, MIPPs provide needed reproductive health services, including STI management. Male MIPPs in particular appear to serve as health care providers for male patients with STIs. This trend, which may exist in other developing countries with similar healthcare workforce demographics, highlights the need for new areas of training and health services research.

  18. Development of muscularity and weight concerns in heterosexual and sexual minority males.

    Calzo, Jerel P; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a U.S. prospective cohort spanning ages 9-25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (β = .10, 95% C.I. = .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (β = .39, 95% C.I. = .21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased threefold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Emergency contraception: different bioethical perspectives

    Marco Bo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraceptives, in this case post-morning pills, are contraceptive methods used to avoid an unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse. Their use is feeding a strong ethical debate between subjects for and against their prescription and leading some health professionals to conscientious objection. Among people contrary to prescription some oppose to it because of a general refuse of all contraceptive methods, others considering post-morning pills as abortive. Among people supporting prescription, some consider emergency contraception necessary to assure fundamental women’s rights, in particular the right to sexual auto-determination, while others prescribe emergency contraception only to avoid a greater demand for abortion. It is up to the Italian National Health Service warranting a correct balance between the two opposite positions, that can protect women’s right of access to health services.

  20. Utilization and discontinuation of contraceptive methods: the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH experience

    Njoku CO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception has an important role to play in reducing the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: The objective is to determine the prevalence rate, methods and reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods at UCTH, Calabar. Method: This was a retrospective study of all clients that utilised different forms of contraceptives at UCTH, Calabar from 1st January, 2009 to 31st December, 2013. Results: A total of 5,381 clients used various methods of contraception while 13,492 live births were recorded giving the prevalence rate of 39.9% of total live birth. Common methods were intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD 1,745(32.8% and injectable contraceptives 1,268(23.8%. Most clients 1,876(35.2% were graduates while 81(1.5% had no formal education. A total of 535(10.1% clients discontinued different family planning method commonly due to desire for pregnancy and side effects. IUCD had the highest discontinuation rate. Conclusion: The study revealed low prevalence rate of contraceptive use which was more among teenagers and illiterate women. The main reasons for discontinuation of different methods were desire for pregnancy, side effects and menopause. Creating more contraceptive awareness, improvement in contraceptive counselling and female education will help to improve contraceptive utilisation rate and reduce discontinuation rate.

  1. Contraceptive prevalence and preference in a cohort of south–east Nigerian women

    Egede, John Okafor; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Dimejesi, Ikechukwu Benedict Okechukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni

    2015-01-01

    Background Rates of fertility, population growth, and maternal deaths in Nigeria are among the highest in the world, with an estimated 4% of all births being unwanted and 7% mistimed. These are caused mainly by nonuse, inappropriate choice, and difficulty in accessing contraceptive commodities. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing the choice and sources of contraceptive options among market women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 330 market women of reproductive age in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey was carried out to identify their knowledge, use, and sources of contraception and the factors that influence their contraceptive practices. Results Knowledge of contraception was high (275 [83.3%]), and 229 (69.4%) of the study population approved of contraceptive use. However, only 93 (28.3%) of the respondents were currently using any form of contraception. Fifty-four women (16.3%) were using modern methods. The commonly used forms of modern contraception were the barrier method (male condoms, 27 [8.2%]), the oral contraceptive pill (10 [3.0%]), injectables (8 [2.5%]), and the intrauterine contraceptive device (7 [2.0%]). The most common source of contraceptive products was patent medicine dealers (58 [51%]). The main barriers to use of contraception were desire for more children (86 [26.1%]), religious prohibition (62 [18.8%]), spousal disapproval (32 [9.7%]), and the perceived side effects of modern contraceptives (25 [7.6%]). There was a significant association for approval of contraception when the model was adjusted for religion (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.84; P=0.02); educational status (OR 2.84, 95% CI 0.96–8.40; P=0.04); parity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.09–2.85; P=0.03); and social class (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.26–5.11; P=0.01). Conclusion There is good knowledge about contraception among Nigerian

  2. Contraceptive prevalence and preference in a cohort of south-east Nigerian women.

    Egede, John Okafor; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Dimejesi, Ikechukwu Benedict Okechukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni

    2015-01-01

    Rates of fertility, population growth, and maternal deaths in Nigeria are among the highest in the world, with an estimated 4% of all births being unwanted and 7% mistimed. These are caused mainly by nonuse, inappropriate choice, and difficulty in accessing contraceptive commodities. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing the choice and sources of contraceptive options among market women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 330 market women of reproductive age in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey was carried out to identify their knowledge, use, and sources of contraception and the factors that influence their contraceptive practices. Knowledge of contraception was high (275 [83.3%]), and 229 (69.4%) of the study population approved of contraceptive use. However, only 93 (28.3%) of the respondents were currently using any form of contraception. Fifty-four women (16.3%) were using modern methods. The commonly used forms of modern contraception were the barrier method (male condoms, 27 [8.2%]), the oral contraceptive pill (10 [3.0%]), injectables (8 [2.5%]), and the intrauterine contraceptive device (7 [2.0%]). The most common source of contraceptive products was patent medicine dealers (58 [51%]). The main barriers to use of contraception were desire for more children (86 [26.1%]), religious prohibition (62 [18.8%]), spousal disapproval (32 [9.7%]), and the perceived side effects of modern contraceptives (25 [7.6%]). There was a significant association for approval of contraception when the model was adjusted for religion (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.84; P=0.02); educational status (OR 2.84, 95% CI 0.96-8.40; P=0.04); parity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.09-2.85; P=0.03); and social class (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.26-5.11; P=0.01). There is good knowledge about contraception among Nigerian women, but use of these products is low. The main

  3. GPR56 is essential for testis development and male fertility in mice.

    Chen, Guangchun; Yang, Liquan; Begum, Shahinoor; Xu, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Testis development is critical for male fertility and continuation of the mammalian species. Essential structural components of testes are seminiferous tubules, which are lined by Sertoli cells and provide nutrients and physical protection for the maturation of sperm. Seminiferous tubule formation is initiated in embryos as testis cords and relies on their remodeling for maturation during development. Recently, three-dimensional image analyses showed that testis cords in different parts of embryonic gonads undergo distinct remodeling processes. How this asymmetric remodeling is regulated has not been investigated. We report here that the absence of an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR56, leads to partial disruption of seminiferous tubules and reduced fertility in male mice. The defects appear to originate asymmetrically in embryonic gonads, but subsequent to the initial establishment of testis cords, suggesting that GPR56 might act to establish a spatial and/or temporal cue for asymmetric cord remodeling during male gonad development. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school ...

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... emergency contraceptives, while 52.5% reported that they had never heard of emergency contraceptives. ... are freely available to women of all ages in South Africa (SA).[4] ..... Contraceptive Technology. .... prescribing pattern of emergency contraceptives by health care workers in Kampala, Uganda. Acta.

  5. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  6. Women's willingness to use emergency contraception: Experience ...

    Access to emergency contraception (EC) has little restriction in South Africa. EC is a contraceptive method that can be used by women up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse. It can be used in the following situations: when no contraceptive has been used; for condom accidents; after intrauterine contraceptive device ...

  7. Contraception: Everyone's responsibility | Patel | South African ...

    The intrauterine contraceptive device, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and the injectable progestogen contraceptives form part of this group of contraceptives. The most recently launched LARC is Implanon NXT. A comprehensive guideline to assess suitability of the various contraceptive methods in various medical ...

  8. Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors among Adolescents Requesting Emergency Contraception.

    Cwiak, Carrie; Howard, Brandon; Hsieh, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Nancy; Sucato, Gina S

    2016-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high among adolescents. Emergency contraception (EC) provides the only option for pregnancy prevention after unprotected sex. To better define the population of adolescents who request and use EC pills, we performed a post hoc analysis of an over-the-counter simulation study of EC pills. Teen reproductive health clinics in 5 cities. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years who requested EC. Single-tablet levonorgestrel 1.5 mg. We calculated the correlations between age and baseline sexual and contraceptive behaviors. χ 2 Tests were used to compare behaviors of first-time and repeat EC users. Overall, the most commonly reported contraceptive methods ever used were condoms, oral contraceptives, none, and withdrawal; the most common method ever used in each age group was no method for 13- to 14-year-olds and condom for 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds. The percentage of participants who had never used contraception before requesting EC decreased with age (53% [20/28] of 13- to 14-year-olds vs 15% [10/65] of 17-year-olds). First-time EC users were more likely to report no previous contraceptive use compared with repeat EC users (42% [88/208] vs 10% [13/135]; P contraceptive method (ie, "unprotected sex"). Adolescents who requested EC most commonly reported ever-use of contraceptive methods that rely on user adherence or no method at all, with younger adolescents more likely than older adolescents to have used no previous method. The provision of EC presents an opportunity to provide education and access to highly effective, long-term contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spousal communication and contraceptive use in rural Nepal: an event history analysis.

    Link, Cynthia F

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.

  10. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  11. Adolescent contraceptive use and its effects on fertility

    David Antonio Sánchez-Páez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent reproductive health is part of internationally agreed development goals. Unmarried adolescents are not commonly included in global monitoring of contraceptive usedespite the more severe consequences of unintended childbearing for them. Objective: We document levels and trends of contraceptive prevalence and demand for married and sexually active unmarried adolescent women aged 15-19 in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate the effect of adolescent contraceptive use and marital status on fertility and the impact of meeting current demand. Methods: We propose a fertility model informed by the proximate determinants framework separating adolescents by marital status. Linear Mixed Model estimates are based on aggregate data from 120 DHS surveys for 34 developing countries. Results: Increasing contraceptive prevalence has already reduced adolescent fertility by 6.8Š in Latin America and 4.1Š in sub-Saharan Africa. Meeting the total demand for contraceptives of unmarried adolescents would lead to an additional decrease in fertility of 8.9Š and 17.4Š respectively. Conclusions: Contraceptive demand and prevalence are generally higher for sexually active unmarried adolescent women than for those married. Increasing prevalence has already had an impact in declining fertility, but there is a potentially larger effect if high levels of unmet need are eliminated, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Such reduction would have a significant impact on adolescent health. Contribution: We provide evidence of the importance of contraceptive use of unmarried sexually active adolescent women in explaining trends in adolescent fertility. We estimate the potential effect of meeting the contraceptive needs of married and unmarried adolescents on unintended childbearing.

  12. Pharmacists’ Provision of Contraception: Established and Emerging Roles

    Lindsey M Peters

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists’ roles in provision of family planning products is expanding in the United States (U.S.. This article details established as well as emerging roles for U.S. pharmacists in the provision of contraception. These include helping patients develop reproductive life plans; dispensing prescription contraceptive products and counseling patients; assisting and educating patients with non-prescription contraceptive products, including emergency contraception; participating in collaborative practice agreements; administering contraception products; and making referrals and developing partnerships. The provision of contraception in the U.S. is dynamic, and pharmacists should continue to be aware of changes that will impact them professionally. As approximately 45% of pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended, through these roles pharmacists can impact an important public health priority. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Idea Paper

  13. [Unconscious resistance to contraception].

    Gloor, P A

    1978-12-01

    The Swiss penal code of 1942 requires the presence of a psychiatrist in all decisions about termination of pregnancy and of sterilization. The so called sexual revolution of the last 20 years has brought about a dissociation of the traditional psychosexual behavior, where eroticism, affection, and desire of a child do not integrate as harmoniously as before. Narcissistic libido, inherent in all of us, can make an individual want a baby for reasons other than normal, but as a reflection of a parent, as a toy for an infantile mother, as a termination to free, sexual life, felt as sin, for a young couple, as a hope for the future, as the rival of one of the parents, as a remedy for something lost. These are just some of the reasons why contraception, completely accepted on a conscious level, can be rejected on an unconscious one, leading to unwanted pregnancies. Family planning, through a better and deeper psychological preparation of its personnel, should better identify patients more at risk of contraceptive failure, and the unconscious resistances of individuals and couples. This very important task can be started in schools with sex education, and in family planning centers with sexual therapy for the couple. This new approach would imply an increased interest for psychology on the part of doctors assisting young couples.

  14. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  15. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contraceptives and minors: The Emperor Has No Clothes.

    Radosh, A

    1991-01-01

    The rate of teenage pregnancy in the US is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. Studies have shown the teenagers in other countries are not more sexually active. The biggest difference between US and the rest of the industrialized world is the US failure to make contraceptives easily available to teenagers. There are only 2 ways to prevent teenage pregnancy: 1) get them to shop having sex, or 2) get them to use contraceptives. When forming policy it is important to know which method will be more successful. Policymakers, educators, and health professionals are all guilty of rationalizing why option 1 will work better than option 2, even though their is little or no research or anecdotal evidence to support their claim. The facts are clear: in other industrialized countries the more freely available contraceptives are to teenagers, the lower the pregnancy rate. In New York City, 840 condoms were distributed in just 4 months upon request to participants in a male responsibility discussion group. Nationwide 2000 teenage boys were sent a coupon for free condoms by mail and 6% returned their coupons (the normal rate of return would be 3%). A 1988 study revealed that condom usage between 1979-88 among 17-19 year old males in metropolitan areas doubled. A 1987 Harris poll found that 60% of all adults favored condom advertising on television. A 1989 follow-up study revealed that 89% of parents of adolescents favored condom advertising on television. The most common reason given for not increasing access to contraceptives is that teenagers will receive the wrong message. Another fear is that parents will complain, yet in the 2000 condom coupon example, less than 1/3 of 1% of the parents complained. Is the rest of the industrialized world giving their teenagers the wrong message by making contraceptives easily available? Clearly, US policy against contraceptive access for teenagers is giving the worst message and the high teenage pregnancy rate is

  17. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam prevents pregnancy when administered as an emergency contraceptive to nonhuman primates.

    McCann, Nicole C; Lynch, Terrie J; Kim, Soon Ok; Duffy, Diane M

    2013-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors reduce prostaglandin synthesis and disrupt essential reproductive processes. Ultrasound studies in women demonstrated that oral COX-2 inhibitors can delay or prevent follicle collapse associated with ovulation. The goal of this study was to determine if oral administration of a COX-2 inhibitor can inhibit reproductive function with sufficient efficacy to prevent pregnancy in primates. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (or vehicle) was administered orally to proven fertile female cynomolgus macaques using one emergency contraceptive model and three monthly contraceptive models. In the emergency contraceptive model, females were bred with a proven fertile male once 2±1 days before ovulation, returned to the females' home cage, and then received 5 days of meloxicam treatment. In the monthly contraceptive models, females were co-caged for breeding with a proven fertile male for a total of 5 days beginning 2±1 days before ovulation. Animals received meloxicam treatment (1) cycle days 5-22, or (2) every day, or (3) each day of the 5-day breeding period. Female were then assessed for pregnancy. The pregnancy rate with meloxicam administration using the emergency contraception model was 6.5%, significantly lower than the pregnancy rate of 33.3% when vehicle without meloxicam was administered. Pregnancy rates with the three monthly contraceptive models (75%-100%) were not consistent with preventing pregnancy. Oral COX-2 inhibitor administration can prevent pregnancy after a single instance of breeding in primates. While meloxicam may be ineffective for regular contraception, pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 may be an effective method of emergency contraception for women. COX-2 inhibitors can interfere with ovulation, but the contraceptive efficacy of drugs of this class has not been directly tested. This study, conducted in nonhuman primates, is the first to suggest that a COX-2 inhibitor may be effective as an emergency contraceptive.

  19. Emergency contraception: Focus on the facts.

    Najera, Deanna Bridge

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress on contraception, and in particular emergency contraception, has been made in the past decade. Emergency contraception was first introduced as a stand-alone prescription in 1998, and the interaction of politics and medicine meant a tumultuous course to the drug becoming available over the counter. This article reviews how emergency contraception works, the effectiveness of different methods, pros and cons, and the history of emergency contraception.

  20. Temporal and spatial characteristics of male cone development in Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Jin, Biao; Tang, Liang; Lu, Yan; Wang, Di; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiuxia

    2012-12-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a famous relic species of conifer that survived in China, has been successfully planted in large numbers across the world. However, limited information on male cone development in the species is available. In this study, we observed the morphological and anatomical changes that occur during male cone development in M. glyptostroboides using semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. The male cones were borne oppositely on one-year-old twigs that were mainly located around the outer and sunlit parts of crown. Male cones were initiated from early September and shed pollen in the following February. Each cone consisted of spirally arranged microsporophylls subtended by decussate sterile scales, and each microsporophyll commonly consisted of three microsporangia and a phylloclade. The microsporangial wall was composed of an epidermis, endothecium, and tapetum. In mid-February, the endothecium and tapetum layers disintegrated, and in the epidermal layer the cell walls were thickened with inner protrusions. Subsequently, dehiscence of the microsporangia occurred through rupturing of the microsporangial wall along the dehiscence line. These results suggest that the structure, morphology, architecture and arrangement of male cones of M. glyptostroboides are mainly associated with the production, protection and dispersal of pollen for optimization of wind pollination.

  1. First emergency contraceptive product hits U.S. market shelves.

    1998-11-01

    The Preven Emergency Contraceptive Kit, a product approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for emergency contraception, is now on the market for sale. Produced by Gynetics of Somerville, NJ, the kit consists of an easy-to-use pregnancy test, patient information guide, and 4 blue pills, each containing 0.05 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.25 mg levonorgestrel. After a woman determines that she is not pregnant by using the kit's test, she takes 2 pills as soon as possible within 72 hours after having unprotected sexual intercourse. The remaining 2 pills are taken 12 hours later. Although Preven is available now only by prescription, Gynetics will cooperate with the USFDA in assessing whether it should be sold over the counter. One course of Preven costs about $20 at a pharmacy, less than any oral contraceptive pills currently used as emergency contraceptives. The Preven Kit carries Health Care Financing Administration approval for Medicaid reimbursement, and most health maintenance organizations have agreed to cover its costs. Two more progestin-only emergency contraceptive products may enter the US market in 1999. Gynetics is in the advanced stages of developing a levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive, while Women's Capital Corp. of Seattle, WA, and Washington, DC, plans to submit its application for product approval to the USFDA for a similar progestin-only product by the end of October.

  2. Family Planning for women unable to tolerate oral contraceptives.

    Spellacy, W N

    1974-04-08

    Should women with a family history of diabetes or myocardial infarcation, or women with abnormal blood glucose or cholesterol levels receive oral contraceptives? There is clear evidence that oral contraceptives can alter both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in certain women. The lipid alteration is mainly an elevation of the circulating triglyceride levels, and only rarely is cholesterol content altered. It is also clear from extensive research during the past ten years that women who already have subclinical abnormalities, either in their triglyceride levels (family hyperlipoproteinemia) or glucose tolerance, are at great risk for the development of clinical disease while using oral contraceptives. Accordingly, all pharmaceutical firms are required by the Food and Drug Administration to instruct physicians about these problems through the package inserts and other means. Specifically, the physician should be alerted by the patient's history, and then he should use the laboratory to confirm any suspicion of abnormalities of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism. If there is any abnormal blood glucose or triglyceride value, the oral contraceptives should not be prescribed. There are other forms of contraception available for child spacing. Mechanical contraceptives will not aggravate a metabolic disorder. A useful substitute then would be an intrauterine device plus vaginal foam. When the woman has completed her family, she should be all means be offered surgical sterilization as a permanent family planning technique.

  3. A cross-sectional study of contraceptive use among married women living in rural China.

    He, Dian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Ning; Zhou, You; Mao, Qunxia; Cheng, Yimin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of contraceptive use in rural China and to determine factors that influence choice of contraceptive method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling to identify married women aged 20-49 years residing in Shaanxi Province, China. Data on demographics and contraceptive use were collected via detailed questionnaire. The prevalence of contraceptive use in the study population was 93.9% (19 599/20 878 eligible women). Among the women using contraceptives, 10 408 (53.1%) used sterilization (female and male) and 6947 (35.4%) chose an intrauterine device. In total, 2244 (11.4%) women used short-acting contraceptive (SAC) methods: condoms and pills accounted for 8.7% (n=1712) and 1.0% (n=216), respectively. Young age; high level of education; low parity; increased number of abortions; low frequency of sexual intercourse; long duration between marriage and delivery; and marriage after 1994 were all associated with SAC usage. Although contraceptive use was high in rural China, the participants' awareness of free selection of contraceptive method and the rate of SAC use were both low. Appropriate and diverse family-planning services should be provided to meet the needs of women living in rural areas. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergency contraception. General practitioner knowledge, attitudes and practices in New South Wales.

    Weisberg, E; Fraser, I S; Carrick, S E; Wilde, F M

    1995-02-06

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners in New South Wales regarding the provision of emergency contraception. Randomised group comparison of 100 rural and 100 urban general practitioners (GPs) by questionnaire. Eighty-four rural and 76 urban GPs responded. More rural GPs were knowledgeable about emergency contraception than urban GPs (95% v. 78%), and more women knew about it than men. More urban GPs frequently prescribed emergency contraception than rural GPs (26% v. 6%) and female GPs prescribed it more readily than male GPs (22% v. 12%). There was great variation in the regimens prescribed, especially among rural GPs. Twenty-five per cent of urban GPs and 31% of rural GPs did not offer women information about emergency contraception, while 16% of both groups included such information in any discussion about contraceptive options, and 18% gave information only if requested by the woman. More than 60% of the GPs would provide information about emergency contraception as a back-up to use of barrier methods. The sex, attitude and knowledge of the GPs influence the likelihood of women being made aware of or being given emergency contraception in NSW. There is a need to further educate both the public and practitioners about emergency contraception.

  5. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  6. GDP-D-mannose epimerase regulates male gametophyte development, plant growth and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Zhipeng; Fan, Meng; Chen, Yan; Tian, Haixia; Wu, Dewei; Gao, Hua; Ren, Chunmei; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2017-09-04

    Plant GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, a precursor of both L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and cell wall polysaccharides. However, the genetic functions of GME in Arabidopsis are unclear. In this study, we found that mutations in Arabidopsis GME affect pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, and transmission and development of the male gametophyte through analysis of the heterozygous GME/gme plants and the homozygous gme plants. Arabidopsis gme mutants also exhibit severe growth defects and early leaf senescence. Surprisingly, the defects in male gametophyte in the gme plants are not restored by L-ascorbate, boric acid or GDP-L-galactose, though boric acid rescues the growth defects of the mutants, indicating that GME may regulate male gametophyte development independent of L-ascorbate and GDP-L-galactose. These results reveal key roles for Arabidopsis GME in reproductive development, vegetative growth and leaf senescence, and suggest that GME regulates plant growth and controls male gametophyte development in different manners.

  7. Development of male sterility by silencing Bcp1 gene of Arabidopsis ...

    Transgenic plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from nontransgenic plants and by crossing with non-transgenic fertile pollens successful seed set was observed. The Bcp1 gene was also amplified from chilies, tomato and brassica. The present study resulted in developing male sterile A. thaliana (Eco. Columbia) ...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY OF FETAL MALE SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TO VINCLOZOLIN

    Characterization of the period of sensitivity of fetal male sexual development to vinclozolin.Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Ostby JS, Gray LE Jr.Endocrinology Branch, MD 72, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U....

  9. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  10. [Hypertension in women (contraception and menopause].

    Beaufils, M

    2000-11-01

    There are three circumstances where hypertension develops specifically in women: oral contraception, pregnancy, and menopause. Oral contraception usually shifts the blood pressure moderately upwards, but hypertension appears in less than 5% of women. Still it may (rarely) be very severe. Hypertension is poorly related to the dosage of the estrogenic compound, but rather to the nature and dosage of the progestive part. This hypertension does not significantly increase the cardiovascular risk of these women. The role of menopause itself in the trigging of hypertension remains uncertain. It seems however that confounding factors such as age, body weight, sodium balance and so on explain the increased incidence of hypertension after menopause. The latter is also associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk, which requires adequate treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is not contra-indicated, even in hypertensive patients.

  11. Molecular approaches to contraceptive development

    Unknown

    drugs; PACAP, pituitary adenyl cyclase activating peptide; PK, progesterone receptor; RA, retinoic acid. ... Institute for Research in Reproduction, JM Street, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India .... antagonistic properties devoid of side effects such as.

  12. Male midwives: preferred managers of sexually transmitted infections in men in developing countries?

    Evelyn J. Hsieh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic and practice characteristics of male and female midwives in private practice (MIPPs in 10 cities of Peru, and their role in the delivery of reproductive health care, specifically management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. METHODS: As part of an intervention trial in 10 cities in the provinces of Peru designed to improve STI management, detailed information was collected regarding the number of midwives in each city working in various types of practices. A door-to-door survey of all medical offices and institutions in each city was conducted. Each MIPP encountered was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographics, training, practice type(s, number of STI cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. RESULTS: Of the 905 midwives surveyed, 442 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions; 99.3% of these MIPPs reported managing STI cases. Andean cities had the highest density of MIPPs, followed by jungle and coastal cities, respectively. Jungle cities had the largest proportion of male MIPPs (35.5%. While both male and female MIPPs reported seeing male patients, male MIPPs saw a significantly greater number than their female counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: In areas of Peru where physicians are scarce, MIPPs provide needed reproductive health services, including STI management. Male MIPPs in particular appear to serve as health care providers for male patients with STIs. This trend, which may exist in other developing countries with similar healthcare workforce demographics, highlights the need for new areas of training and health services research.

  13. Effects of genistein in the maternal diet on reproductive development and spatial learning in male rats.

    Ball, Evan R; Caniglia, Mary Kay; Wilcox, Jenna L; Overton, Karla A; Burr, Marra J; Wolfe, Brady D; Sanders, Brian J; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wrenn, Craige C

    2010-03-01

    Endocrine disruptors, chemicals that disturb the actions of endogenous hormones, have been implicated in birth defects associated with hormone-dependent development. Phytoestrogens are a class of endocrine disruptors found in plants. In the current study we examined the effects of exposure at various perinatal time periods to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, on reproductive development and learning in male rats. Dams were fed genistein-containing (5 mg/kg feed) food during both gestation and lactation, during gestation only, during lactation only, or during neither period. Measures of reproductive development and body mass were taken in the male offspring during postnatal development, and learning and memory performance was assessed in adulthood. Genistein exposure via the maternal diet decreased body mass in the male offspring of dams fed genistein during both gestation and lactation, during lactation only, but not during gestation only. Genistein decreased anogenital distance when exposure was during both gestation and lactation, but there was no effect when exposure was limited to one of these time periods. Similarly, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was impaired in male rats exposed to genistein during both gestation and lactation, but not in rats exposed during only one of these time periods. There was no effect of genistein on cued or contextual fear conditioning. In summary, the data indicate that exposure to genistein through the maternal diet significantly impacts growth in male offspring if exposure is during lactation. The effects of genistein on reproductive development and spatial learning required exposure throughout the pre- and postnatal periods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Flight Muscle Development in the Males of Glossina Pallidipes Reared for the Sterile Insect Technique

    Ciampor, F Jr; Palosova, Z; Mancosova, L; Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, SK-845 06 (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    The project's main goal was to study the influence of laboratory conditions on the development of flight muscles and the ability to fly in males of Glossina pallidipes Austen. Flight muscles can serve as an important criterion in the quality control of mass reared tsetse flies. All experiments were performed in the research and training facility in Bratislava which provided the flies. The experiments were generally performed by comparing different age groups and groups with different flight activity. To acquire data, several approaches were employed, i.e. classical measurements (residual dry weight, thoracic surface) as well as other alternatives - flight mill, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry - to visualize and analyse muscle development. The results clearly identified differences in age groups. Slight changes in the development of flight muscles regarding different chances to fly were also detected, but these were not sufficiently significant to decrease the quality of males produced in mass rearing facilities. No distinct trends (rising or declining of amount of metabolites) in the groups studied were detected. The differences were in the amount of analysed metabolic components and the structure of the flight muscles. Our results suggest that, similar to other Glossina species, in G. pallidipes males the first days after emergence are crucial for successful muscle development. On the other hand, rearing in cages does not negatively influence the quality of males with respect to their ability to fly and actively search for females in the wild after release. We also compared the mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated males. We initiated the development of a functional walk-in field cage in which to rear a small colony of G. pallidipes under semi-natural conditions. Our work suggested that outside climatic conditions and suitable cage components, e.g. food source, limit the successful realization of using such a cage for rearing tsetse flies

  15. Disruption of a Plasmodium falciparum gene linked to male sexual development causes early arrest in gametocytogenesis.

    Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Hayton, Karen; Liu, Anna; Duan, Junhui; Nkrumah, Louis; Joy, Deirdre A; Fidock, David A; Fujioka, Hisashi; Vaidya, Akhil B; Wellems, Thomas E; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2005-11-15

    A male gametocyte defect in the Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 parasite was previously discovered through the observation that all progeny clones in a Dd2 x HB3 genetic cross were the result of fertilization events between Dd2 female and HB3 male gametes. A determinant linked to the defect in Dd2 was subsequently mapped to an 800-kb segment on chromosome 12. Here, we report further mapping of the determinant to an 82-kb region and the identification of a candidate gene, P. falciparum male development gene 1 (pfmdv-1), that is expressed at a lower level in Dd2 compared with the wild-type normal male gametocyte-producing ancestor W2. Pfmdv-1 protein is sexual-stage specific and is located on the gametocyte plasma membrane, parasitophorous vacuole membrane, and the membranes of cleft-like structures within the erythrocyte. Disruption of pfmdv-1 results in a dramatic reduction in mature gametocytes, especially functional male gametocytes, with the majority of sexually committed parasites developmentally arrested at stage I. The pfmdv-1-knockout parasites show disturbed membrane structures, particularly multimembrane vesicles/tubes that likely derive from deformed cleft-like structures. Mosquito infectivity of the knockout parasites was also greatly reduced but not completely lost. The results suggest that pfmdv-1 plays a key role in gametocyte membrane formation and integrity.

  16. Development of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility, its inheritance, and potential use in hybrid pigeonpea breeding.

    Saxena, Kul B; Ravikoti, V Kumar; Dalvi, Vijay A; Pandey, Lalji B; Gaddikeri, Guruprasad

    2010-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a unique food legume because of its partial (20-30%) outcrossing nature, which provides an opportunity to breed commercial hybrids. To achieve this, it is essential to have a stable male-sterility system. This paper reports the selection of a cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system derived from an interspecific cross between a wild relative of pigeonpea (Cajanus sericeus Benth. ex. Bak.) and a cultivar. This male-sterility source was used to breed agronomically superior CMS lines in early (ICPA 2068), medium (ICPA 2032), and late (ICPA 2030) maturity durations. Twenty-three fertility restorers and 30 male-sterility maintainers were selected to develop genetically diverse hybrid combinations. Histological studies revealed that vacuolation of growing tetrads and persistence of tetrad wall were primary causes of the manifestation of male sterility. Genetic studies showed that 2 dominant genes, of which one had inhibitory gene action, controlled fertility restoration in the hybrids. The experimental hybrids such as TK 030003 and TK 030009 in early, ICPH 2307 and TK 030625 in medium, and TK 030861 and TK 030851 in late maturity groups exhibited 30-88% standard heterosis in multilocation trials.

  17. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  18. Identification of microRNAs differentially expressed involved in male flower development.

    Wang, Zhengjia; Huang, Jianqin; Sun, Zhichao; Zheng, Bingsong

    2015-03-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is one of the most economically important woody trees in eastern China, but its long flowering phase delays yield. Our understanding of the regulatory roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in male flower development in hickory remains poor. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we have pyrosequenced two small RNA libraries from two male flower differentiation stages in hickory. Analysis of the sequencing data identified 114 conserved miRNAs that belonged to 23 miRNA families, five novel miRNAs including their corresponding miRNA*s, and 22 plausible miRNA candidates. Differential expression analysis revealed 12 miRNA sequences that were upregulated in the later (reproductive) stage of male flower development. Quantitative real-time PCR showed similar expression trends as that of the deep sequencing. Novel miRNAs and plausible miRNA candidates were predicted using bioinformatic analysis methods. The miRNAs newly identified in this study have increased the number of known miRNAs in hickory, and the identification of differentially expressed miRNAs will provide new avenues for studies into miRNAs involved in the process of male flower development in hickory and other related trees.

  19. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile.

    Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1992-01-01

    The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.

  20. Development of assistive technology for the visually impaired: use of the male condom

    Barbosa, Giselly Oseni Laurentino; Wanderley, Luana Duarte; Reboucas, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Oliveira, Paula Marciana Pinheiro de; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to develop and evaluate an assistive technology for the use of the male condom by visually impaired men. It was a technology development study with the participation of seven subjects. Three workshops were performed between April and May of 2010; they were all filmed and the statements of the participants were transcribed and analyzed by content. Three categories were established: Sexuality of the visually impaired; Utilization of the text, For avoiding STDs, condoms we wi...

  1. The safety of hormonal contraceptives for women living with HIV and their sexual partners.

    Phillips, Sharon J; Polis, Chelsea B; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are important for the health and well-being of some women living with HIV, so evaluation of evidence regarding their safety vis-à-vis HIV-related risks is important. We updated two prior systematic reviews on the impact of hormonal contraception (HC) on HIV disease progression and female-to-male HIV transmission. One new study finds no increased risk for HIV disease progression or death associated with oral contraceptive use [adjusted (adj) hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.44] or injectables (adj HR 0.72, CI 0.53-0.98). Three new studies did not find significantly increased risks for measures of female-to-male HIV transmission with HC use. Hormonal contraceptive methods do not appear to accelerate HIV disease progression. More research is needed to clarify whether HC impacts HIV transmissibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  3. Oral contraceptives and neuroactive steroids.

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

    2006-08-01

    A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.

  4. Sexual Attitudes and Contraceptive Practices.

    Byrne, Donn

    1978-01-01

    Discusses barriers to effective contraception, such as informational, emotional, and imaginative factors, and what might be done to avoid unwanted pregnancies by using these factors in positive programs and behaviors. (Author/RK)

  5. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  6. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development

    Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inf...

  7. Development of a male reproductive toxicity assay for evaluating the success of bioremediation

    Schrock, E.J.; Bantle, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Eglin Air Force Base was contaminated with JP-4 over 10 years ago. The project goal was to develop and evaluate male reproductive toxicity testing procedures and endpoints using the gametes of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with particular emphasis on assessing the toxicity of contaminated soil from Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. Reproductive toxicity tests were done to evaluate several different locations within the original spill area. Specific sites were selected based on their location to the spill site. The site was evaluated before and after remediation. Before remediation, the males were exposed to the JP-4 orally for 73 days, with the contaminant injected into the food source. After remediation, the males were directly exposed to the contaminated soil samples for 60 days. The endpoints measured in both studies were: change in body weight, organ to body weight ratios, sperm counts, number of malformed sperm, and sperm motility. In both the pre and post remediation studies, there were no significant effects on body weight or organ weight data at the p ≤ 0.05 level. However, there were effects seen in sperm count and morphology. The male reproductive toxicity assay under development has given useful information in initially determining the reproductive toxicity of JP-4. Significant effects were seen in both the pre and post remediation direct exposure tests, indicating that the direct exposure route may be the most promising for future testing

  8. Evaluation of smartphone oral contraceptive reminder applications.

    Gal, Noga; Zite, Nikki B; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most widely used contraceptive method among women of reproductive age in the United States (US). Routine download and use of health-related smartphone applications (apps) continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of English-language, smartphone-platform OC reminder apps currently available for download in the US. During June-July 2013, official Internet-based, mobile app platforms for the two major smartphone operating systems in the US-Android (Google Play Store) and iPhone (iTunes)-were searched. "Birth control," "the pill," and "contraception" were entered into the search-bar of each Smartphone store. Apps were assessed for the following: cost, health care professionals' involvement in app development, reminder mechanisms, and functionality. Of the 39 unique OC reminder apps meeting inclusion criteria, 7 (18%) did not operate as intended when downloaded. Most apps functioned without an Internet connection (97%) and included pop-up notifications (84%). Certain app features overcome common causes of missing an alarm, and hypothetically, may minimize likelihood of an OC user missing a daily pill. Health care providers should inform users of potential pitfalls and advise them that an OC reminder app should be not be used as a sole reminder method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  10. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins.

    Watts, Heather E; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Budget impact analysis of 8 hormonal contraceptive options.

    Crespi, Simone; Kerrigan, Matthew; Sood, Vipan

    2013-07-01

    To develop a model comparing costs of 8 hormonal contraceptives and determine whether acquisition costs for implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were offset by decreased pregnancy-related costs over a 3-year time horizon from a managed care perspective. A model was developed to assess the budget impact of branded or generic oral contraceptives (OCs), quarterly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone, etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, etonogestrel implant, levonorgestrel IUD, norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol transdermal contraceptive, and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel extended-cycle OC. Major variables included drug costs, typical use failure rates, discontinuation rates, and pregnancy costs. The base case assessed costs for 1000 women initiating each of the hormonal contraceptives. The etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD resulted in the fewest pregnancies, 63 and 85, respectively, and the least cost, $1.75 million and $2.0 million, respectively. In comparison, generic OC users accounted for a total of 243 pregnancies and $3.4 million in costs. At the end of year 1, costs for the etonogestrel implant ($800,471) and levonorgestrel IUD ($949,721) were already lower than those for generic OCs ($1,146,890). Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of pregnancies, not product acquisition cost, was the primary cost driver. Higher initial acquisition costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD were offset within 1 year by lower contraceptive failure rates and consequent pregnancy costs. Thus, after accounting for typical use failure rates of contraceptive products, the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD emerged as the least expensive hormonal contraceptives.

  12. [Hyperplastic changes and oral contraceptives in Anglo-Saxon countries].

    Markuszewski, C

    1978-09-18

    One of the major problems being researched and studied by the World Health Organization is the incidence of harmful side effects in users of steroid contraceptives. A literature search indicates that Anglo-Saxon countries report alarming hyperplastic changes, particularly in the liver, blood clots, hyperlipidemia leading to high blood pressure, porphyria, atypical leiomyomas and cervical hyperplasia. Currently attention is being focused on the relationship between steroid contraceptives and breast cancer. Fazala and Paffenbarger in their study of 1770 women found such benign changes as fibroadenoma, mastopathia fibrosa cystica and papilloma intraductale. In women who had used oral contraceptives for 2-4 yrs, malignancies were 1.9% to 2.5% more frequent than in non-users; in 6 yrs of use, 11 times greater than in non-users. Estrogens, particularly mestranol has been recognized as being harmful to the liver. Length of usage is a definite factor. Beginning with 1960, relatively frequent occurrences of hepotoma in young women on the pill were noted. Caught at an early stage, peliosis hepatis can be reversed if the patient discontinues the use of contraceptives. In some cases, even after a long interval of 6 months to 10 yrs, the disease continued to develop. Liver cell adenoma in the U. S. occurs 1/500,00 to 1/1,000,000. After 5 to 7 yrs of using oral contraceptives, the chance of developing liver cell adenoma is 5 times greater; after 10 yrs of use, 35 times greater. Hepatomas rupture in 43.4% of cases when the patient had been on a contraceptive, while in only 22.2% in cases of non-users. The literature which the author investigated did not establish a clear proof that the hyperplastic changes discussed were due exclusively to usage of oral contraceptives.

  13. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  14. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS BASED ON FEMALE PARENTS FORMS WITH FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY

    I. V. Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of variability of functional male sterility (ps–2 depending on year of study, genotype and age of the plant is shown. The efficiency of the method of forced ejection of pollen from intact anthers to increase the degree of sterility is shown. The five tomato hybrids developed based on selected lines were submitted for the state variety trial of Moldova.

  16. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  17. Prevention of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria; the effect of socio-demographic characteristic on the knowledge and use of emergency contraceptives among female university students

    Olumide A. Abiodun; John Sotunsa; Olusoji Jagun; Bukola Faturoti; Franklin Ani; Imaralu John; Agboola Taiwo; Ogechukwu Taiwo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of unintended pregnancy remains high in developing regions due to unmet need for contraception and inconsistent use of modern contraceptives. Practice of emergency contraception is particularly important because of the high rates of unintended pregnancy. The aim was to assess the practice of emergency contraception among female students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,233 female university students in Nigeria. Results: About 25.4% of th...

  18. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  19. Studies on the development of male cells of third generation of the stratosphere radiative millet

    Chu Qinggang; Cao Yufang; Xin Hua; Zhang Xiufen

    1998-01-01

    The developmental process of male cells of millet (Setaria italica), the third generation of the stratosphere radiative treatment SP 3 and CK 3 , was studied. The results show that the normal process begins with archesporial cell and undergoes stages of primary and secondary sporogenous cell, microspore mother cell, dyad, tetrad, central nucleus microspore, vacuolated microspore, mature microspore, two-cell pollen and three-cell mature pollen. Among them, the formation of tetrad belongs to successive type. The situation of abnormal development of male cells is as follows: microspore mother cell can't enter into meiosis because of intense vacuolation, shrink and disintegration of its cytoplasm; although vacuolated microspore mother cell can enter into meiosis, it can't form normal dyad and degenerate in the middle process; dyad and tetrad become vacuolated and can't develop normally; cytoplasm of microspore shrinks around the nucleus at the stage of central nucleus microspore, the shape of microspore is twisted into crescent or irregular shape, at last its cytoplasm and nucleus are disintegrated and crescent vacant microspore presents; nutritive substances can't be accumulated at the stage of vacuolated microspore, cytoplasm is disintegrated, and microspore turns into a big vacant pollen. The ratio of abnormal development of male cells of SP 3 is as high as 50%. This maybe relates to the treatment of space radiation, which results in chromosomal aberration, and also to the segregation and recombinatiom of chromosome of SP 1 and SP 2

  20. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.

  1. Hispanic and Black American Adolescents' Beliefs Relating to Sexuality and Contraception.

    Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…

  2. Oral contraception following abortion

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  3. [Customization of hormonal contraception].

    DE Leo, Vincenzo; Cianci, Antonio; DI Carlo, Costantino; Cappelli, Valentina; Fruzzetti, Franca

    2018-02-01

    In the last few years new oral contraceptives have been marketed showing a better safety profile for women. They are the result of important changes made to the old compounds. As far as the estrogenic component, with the aim of decreasing side effects, the dose of ethinyl estradiol has been reduced and synthetic estrogens have been replaced by natural estradiol, further improving the safety profile. Also the progestin component in the last years has been changed in terms of dose, endocrine and metabolic characteristics. Levonorgestrel is an androgenic progestin, but now there is the possibility of choosing progestins without androgenic effect (gestodene and desogestrel) or progestins with antiandrogenic effect (cyproterone acetate, dienogest, drospirenone, chlormadinone acetate), very useful in patients with hyperandrogenism. Some of these progestins, like Drospirenone, represented the real held contributing, because of its antimineralcorticoid action, to reduce an important side effect like fluid retention; moreover there is the possibility to choose products with high progestogen effect on endometrium (dienogest, nomegestrole acetate), resulting very effective in women with abnormal uterine bleedings. Also the regimens of administration have been changed, by shortening or eliminating the tablet-free period; in this way the women may avoid premenstrual symptoms. The oral is not the only route of administration, but today there are alternative routes like transdermal, transvaginal, intrauterine and subcutaneous, reducing gastro-intestinal interferences and possible mistakes in pill intake.

  4. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception

    Abstract. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has online tools available .... trials and marketing experience.

  5. Communication and Contraceptive Practices in Adolescent Couples.

    Polit-O'Hara, Denise; Kahn, Janet R.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a descriptive analysis of couple communication among stable, sexually active adolescent couples (N=83) and the effect of communication on actual contraceptive practices. Results showed couples with good communication were more likely to practice effective contraception. (BH)

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives ...

    admin

    contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch ... those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly ... The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC.

  7. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  8. Role of the Na+/K+-ATPase ion pump in male reproduction and embryo development.

    Câmara, D R; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-08-01

    Na + /K + -ATPase was one of the first ion pumps studied because of its importance in maintaining osmotic and ionic balances between intracellular and extracellular environments, through the exchange of three Na + ions out and two K + ions into a cell. This enzyme, which comprises two main subunits (α and β), with or without an auxiliary polypeptide (γ), can have specific biochemical properties depending on the expression of associated isoforms (α1β1 and/or α2β1) in the cell. In addition to the importance of Na + /K + -ATPase in ensuring the function of many tissues (e.g. brain, heart and kidney), in the reproductive tract this protein is essential for embryo development because of its roles in blastocoel formation and embryo hatching. In the context of male reproduction, the discovery of a very specific subunit (α4), apparently restricted to male germ cells, only expressed after puberty and able to influence sperm function (e.g. motility and capacitation), opened a remarkable field for further investigations regarding sperm biology. Therefore, the present review focuses on the importance of Na + /K + -ATPase on male reproduction and embryo development.

  9. Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans body size and male tail development by the novel gene lon-8

    Korswagen Hendrik C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In C. elegans and other nematode species, body size is determined by the composition of the extracellular cuticle as well as by the nuclear DNA content of the underlying hypodermis. Mutants that are defective in these processes can exhibit either a short or a long body size phenotype. Several mutations that give a long body size (Lon phenotype have been characterized and found to be regulated by the DBL-1/TGF-β pathway, that controls post-embryonic growth and male tail development. Results Here we characterize a novel gene affecting body size. lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that is highly conserved in Rhabditid nematodes. lon-8 regulates larval elongation as well as male tail development. In both processes, lon-8 appears to function independently of the Sma/Mab pathway. Rather, lon-8 genetically interacts with dpy-11 and dpy-18, which encode cuticle collagen modifying enzymes. Conclusion The novel gene lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that controls body size and male ray morphology in C. elegans. lon-8 genetically interacts with enzymes that affect the composition of the cuticle.

  10. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    Dou Liping; Tang Canming; Yue Jieyu; Wang Qingya

    2009-01-01

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M 1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  11. The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction.

    Ochner, Christopher N; Gray, James A; Brickner, Katrina

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, and establish the initial psychometric properties of, the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS). Ninety-five male students were recruited over three phases. An item-remainder analysis was performed in phase I, convergent and discriminant validity assessed in phase II, and test-retest reliability and factor structure assessed in phase III. The MBDS achieved an alpha level of 0.93 and was inversely related to body esteem (p=0.02) and self-esteem (p=0.03), and positively related to how much participants' opinion of themselves was based on their body shape and weight (pbody shape and weight concerns (pbody dissatisfaction that allows men to weight particular aspects of their body image according to personal importance.

  12. Development and validation of a smoking rationalization scale for male smokers in China.

    Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Hong; Li, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yong; Wang, Fan; Gao, Junling; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua; Ding, Ding; Chapman, Simon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a smoking rationalization scale for Chinese male smokers. A total of 35 focus groups and 19 one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect items of the scale. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the scale. Results found a 26-item scale within six dimensions (smoking functional beliefs, risk generalization beliefs, social acceptability beliefs, safe smoking beliefs, self-exempting beliefs, and quitting is harmful beliefs). The scale showed acceptable validity and reliability. Results highlight that smoking rationalization is common among Chinese male smokers, and some beliefs of smoking rationalization seem to be peculiar to China.

  13. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence......-specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed...

  14. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    -specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence...... of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age...

  15. Mechanistic and "natural" body metaphors and their effects on attitudes to hormonal contraception.

    Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A small, self-selected convenience sample of male and female contraceptive users in the United Kingdom (n = 34) were interviewed between 2006 and 2008 concerning their feelings about the body and their contraceptive attitudes and experiences. The interviewees were a sub-sample of respondents (n = 188) who completed a paper-based questionnaire on similar topics, who were recruited through a poster placed in a family planning clinic, web-based advertisements on workplace and university websites, and through direct approaches to social groups. The bodily metaphors used when discussing contraception were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analytical approach facilitated by Atlas.ti software. The dominant bodily metaphor was mechanistic (i.e.,"body as machine"). A subordinate but influential bodily metaphor was the "natural" body, which had connotations of connection to nature and a quasi-sacred bodily order. Interviewees drew upon this "natural" metaphorical image in the context of discussing their anxieties about hormonal contraception. Drawing upon a "natural," non-mechanistic body image in the context of contraceptive decision-making contributed to reluctance to use a hormonal form of contraception. This research suggests that clinicians could improve communication and advice about contraception by recognizing that some users may draw upon non-mechanistic body imagery.

  16. Contraception services for incarcerated women: a national survey of correctional health providers.

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C

    2009-12-01

    Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.

  17. Awareness and use of contraception by women seeking termination of pregnancy in south eastern Nigeria

    Echendu Dolly Adinma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the awareness and use of contraception by women seeking for termination of pregnancy in south eastern Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based on the study of one hundred consecutive abortion seekers attending a clinic in southeastern Nigeria was utilized. Results: Mean age of the respondents was (23.5暲 4.4 years. The majority were students (55.0% with 64.0% having secondary education and 33.0% possesing tertiary educational qualifications. Seventy five percent were nulliparous while 49% had one or more previous pregnancy termination. The majority of the respondents (73% were aware of contraceptive methods but only 10% had ever used including 6% using male condom. Only 38% of the respondents desired to use contraceptives after the termination of index pregnancy. Conclusions: It is concluded that the majority have the high level of contraceptive awareness but contraceptive usage is shockingly low. Therefore, there is a strong need to conduct further and wide spread research not only into the various factors that influence access to contraception but also factors that promote induced abortion and overall unsafe abortion morbidity and mortality as a basis towards the enrichment of discussion related to family planning and contraception, the magnitude of abortion problems, and abortion laws in Nigeria.

  18. Falling short of universal access to reproductive health: unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use among Mexican women with HIV.

    Kendall, Tamil

    2013-01-01

    A favourable context for women with HIV to prevent unintended pregnancy is a cornerstone of reproductive rights and will contribute to achieving universal access to reproductive health, a Millennium Development Goal target. This analysis explores the reproductive trajectories of Mexican women with HIV post-diagnosis and their access to reproductive counselling and use of contraceptives. In-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted with women of reproductive age living with HIV. Results indicate that sexual and reproductive health counselling in HIV care focuses on the male condom and does not routinely address reproductive desires or provide information about or access to other contraceptive methods. Unintended pregnancies result from inconsistent condom use and condom breakage. Women experienced discriminatory denial of and pressure to accept particular contraceptive methods because of their HIV status. Mexican women with HIV are not enjoying their constitutionally guaranteed right to freely choose the number and spacing of their children. Mexico's commitment to reproductive rights and the Popular Health Insurance offer policy and financial frameworks for providing family planning services in public HIV clinics. To ensure respectful implementation, rights-based training for HIV healthcare providers and careful monitoring and evaluation will be needed.

  19. Does proximity of women to facilities with better choice of contraceptives affect their contraceptive utilization in rural Ethiopia?

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Seme, Assefa; Amogne, Ayanaw; Skrøvseth, Stein; Desta, Selamawit; Radloff, Scott; Tsui, Amy; GeertJan, Dinant

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence of the linkage between contraceptive use, the range of methods available and level of contraceptive stocks at health facilities and distance to facility in developing countries. The present analysis aims at examining the influence of contraceptive method availability and distance to the nearby facilities on modern contraceptive utilization among married women in rural areas in Ethiopia using geo-referenced data. We used data from the first round of surveys of the Performance Monitoring & Accountability 2020 project in Ethiopia (PMA2020/Ethiopia-2014). The survey was conducted in a sample of 200 enumeration areas (EAs) where for each EA, 35 households and up to 3 public or private health service delivery points (SDPs) were selected. The main outcome variable was individual use of a contraceptive method for married women in rural Ethiopia. Correlates of interest include distance to nearby health facilities, range of contraceptives available in facilities, household wealth index, and the woman's educational status, age, and parity and whether she recently visited a health facility. This analysis primarily focuses on stock provision at public SDPs. Overall complete information was collected from 1763 married rural women ages 15-49 years and 198 SDPs in rural areas (97.1% public). Most rural women (93.9%) live within 5 kilometers of their nearest health post while a much lower proportion (52.2%) live within the same distance to the nearest health centers and hospital (0.8%), respectively. The main sources of modern contraceptive methods for married rural women were health posts (48.8%) and health centers (39.0%). The mean number of the types of contraceptive methods offered by hospitals, health centers and health posts was 6.2, 5.4 and 3.7 respectively. Modern contraceptive use (mCPR) among rural married women was 27.3% (95% CI: 25.3, 29.5). The percentage of rural married women who use modern contraceptives decreased as distance from the

  20. Does proximity of women to facilities with better choice of contraceptives affect their contraceptive utilization in rural Ethiopia?

    Solomon Shiferaw

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence of the linkage between contraceptive use, the range of methods available and level of contraceptive stocks at health facilities and distance to facility in developing countries. The present analysis aims at examining the influence of contraceptive method availability and distance to the nearby facilities on modern contraceptive utilization among married women in rural areas in Ethiopia using geo-referenced data.We used data from the first round of surveys of the Performance Monitoring & Accountability 2020 project in Ethiopia (PMA2020/Ethiopia-2014. The survey was conducted in a sample of 200 enumeration areas (EAs where for each EA, 35 households and up to 3 public or private health service delivery points (SDPs were selected. The main outcome variable was individual use of a contraceptive method for married women in rural Ethiopia. Correlates of interest include distance to nearby health facilities, range of contraceptives available in facilities, household wealth index, and the woman's educational status, age, and parity and whether she recently visited a health facility. This analysis primarily focuses on stock provision at public SDPs.Overall complete information was collected from 1763 married rural women ages 15-49 years and 198 SDPs in rural areas (97.1% public. Most rural women (93.9% live within 5 kilometers of their nearest health post while a much lower proportion (52.2% live within the same distance to the nearest health centers and hospital (0.8%, respectively. The main sources of modern contraceptive methods for married rural women were health posts (48.8% and health centers (39.0%. The mean number of the types of contraceptive methods offered by hospitals, health centers and health posts was 6.2, 5.4 and 3.7 respectively. Modern contraceptive use (mCPR among rural married women was 27.3% (95% CI: 25.3, 29.5. The percentage of rural married women who use modern contraceptives decreased as distance from

  1. Family planning 2011: better use of existing methods, new strategies and more informed choices for female contraception.

    Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Glasier, Anna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper explores recent developments in female contraception, using them to illustrate how adaptation of existing methods, improved service delivery and understanding contraceptive behaviour might increase contraceptive uptake and correct and consistent use, and how the development of new methods holds some promise for capitalizing on the potential non-contraceptive benefits. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Selection criteria included high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Workshop Group. RESULTS The topics discussed include: adapted regimens for combined oral contraceptive pills, non-invasive methods of female sterilization, the need to improve the awareness of pregnancy risk to increase the use of emergency contraception, improvements in the evidence base for the safety and service delivery of intrauterine methods, emphasis on the potential benefits of combined oral contraceptives for women with hirsutism and acne, the potential of female sterilization to prevent ovarian cancer, and the promise of anti-progesterones and new approaches to dual protection. CONCLUSIONS Although great strides have been made in recent years in increasing contraceptive use among women in many countries where contraceptive prevalence is low or there is a high unmet need for contraception, much more can, and needs to, be done.

  2. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of emergency contraception among university students in Cameroon

    Kouam Luc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which

  3. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraceptives ...

    About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and practice on emergency contraceptives ...

    Background: Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods, including emergency contraceptives. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among women is particularly important because of high rates of teenage and ...

  6. The influence of nurse home visits, including provision of 3 months of contraceptives and contraceptive counseling, on perceived barriers to contraceptive use and contraceptive use self-efficacy.

    Melnick, Alan L; Rdesinski, Rebecca E; Creach, E Dawn; Choi, Dongseok; Harvey, S Marie

    2008-01-01

    To identify the influence of a community health nurse (CHN) home visit on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. We enrolled 103 women into two groups in a randomized trial evaluating the influence of contraceptive dispensing and family planning counseling during home visits on perceived barriers to accessing contraceptives and contraceptive use self-efficacy. Both groups received counseling by a CHN about sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy prevention, and a resource card listing phone numbers of family planning clinics. After randomization, the CHN dispensed three months of hormonal contraception to the intensive intervention group and advised the minimal intervention group to schedule an appointment at a family planning clinic. Data collection at baseline and 12 months included demographic, reproductive and other health-related information as well as quantitative assessments of information on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. The mean age of participants was 24.7 years. Three-fourths had household incomes under $25,000. We found significant reductions in three perceived barriers to contraceptive access for both groups, as well as significant increases in two measures of contraceptive use self-efficacy at twelve months compared to baseline. Nurse home visits involving family planning counseling might be effective in reducing perceived barriers to contraceptive access and increasing contraceptive use self-efficacy.

  7. Contraception and Sexual and Reproductive Awareness Among Ghanaian Muslim Youth

    Jibrail Bin Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghana, a lower-middle income country that is still grappling with fertility and birth rates, initiated family planning for the youth decades ago. This mainly targeted deprived communities, and the Muslim youth were also exposed to contraception. However, contraception awareness among the Muslim youth has had difficulties and repercussions. Against the social and economic challenges facing the Ghanaian Muslim youth, this article evaluates their awareness about contraception focusing on the issues and their ramification with the aim of identifying prospects for development. The findings reveal that awareness is high but not in a positive sense as the general patronage among couples is low, while among the unmarried, the awareness has negatively affected their morality. Among the issues, there is a disconnection between service providers and the community while some Muslims think that contraception can reduce the Muslim population and is un-Islamic. It was argued that contraception is permitted for Muslims provided there is ethical justification and that in view of the social and economic challenges, including school dropouts and Muslim child migration due to the poverty of parents, the Muslim youth must plan their childbirth. Hence, it was recommended that government must tackle the problem of education in Muslim communities. The Ulama should also dialogue with the service providers to create trust between the health providers and the Muslims.

  8. Create positive contraceptive images for strongest impact in single lesson.

    1987-05-01

    Health educators attempting to deliver contraceptive information to adolescents in the classroom must seek ways to make a major impact in a very short period of time. A Planned Parenthood professional from New Jersey has developed a single-shot birth control lesson that, rather than presenting the pros and cons of various contraceptive methods, has teenagers identify themselves as at high, low, or no risk of pregnancy. Students estimate the number of classmates who are in each category and then assess whether they personally are at risk of an unintended pregnancy. In general, teens overestimate the number of classmates who are sexually active. This approach seems to make the ensuing discussion of contraceptive methods more meaningful. This discussion presents the condom and foam, the sponge, and visiting a family planning clinic. After this 40 minute presentation, fewer adolescents report being afraid of contraceptive side effects; they also have more knowledge about the efficacy and availability of different methods. A lesson in preparation is centered around a videotape entitled "Swept Away is Not Okay." It shows a teen couple going to a family planning clinic before they ever have intercourse. This strategy of encouraging adolescents to seek contraception before sexual involvement begins is considered more realistic than pressuring teens to abstain from sex. School officials and teachers have been receptive to this educational approach, viewing it as presenting important public health information.

  9. Modeling the development of drug addiction in male and female animals.

    Lynch, Wendy J

    2018-01-01

    An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. This review discusses the procedures that are used to model features of addiction in animals, as well as factors that influence their development. Individual differences are also discussed, with a particular focus on sex differences. While no one procedure consistently produces all characteristics, different models have been developed to focus on certain characteristics. A history of escalating/binge patterns of use appears to be critical for producing other features characteristic of addiction, including an enhanced motivation for the drug, enhanced drug seeking, and use despite negative consequences. These characteristics tend to emerge over abstinence, and appear to increase rather than decrease in magnitude over time. In females, these characteristics develop sooner during abstinence and/or following less drug exposure as compared to males, and for psychostimulant addiction, may require estradiol. Although preference for the drug over other reward options has been demonstrated in non-human primates, it has been more difficult to establish in rats. Future research is needed to define the parameters that optimally induce each of these features of addiction in the majority of animals. Such models are essential for advancing our understanding of human drug addiction and its treatment in men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Nsubuga, Henry; Sekandi, Juliet N; Sempeera, Hassard; Makumbi, Fredrick E

    2016-01-27

    In Uganda, the risk of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions remains high due to relatively low contraceptive use. There is paucity of data on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices towards modern contraceptives and, sexual and reproductive health especially among the young female university students. A survey was conducted at Makerere University main campus in Kampala, Uganda during April 2014. A team of well-trained and experienced research assistants interviewed female undergraduate students who provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes and use of contraceptives, as well as other sexual and reproductive health practices. Users of any contraceptive method in the past 12 months were coded as '1' and none users as '0'. The prevalence of contraceptive use was determined as the number of users divided by all female participants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were used as measures of association between contraceptive use and associated factors. The PRs were obtained via a modified Poisson regression model using a generalized linear model with Poisson as family and a log link without an offset but including robust standard errors. All analyses were conducted with Stata version 13. A total of 1,008 females responded to the survey; median (IQR) age was 21(20, 21) years, 38.6% in year 2 of study, and nearly three quarters (72.3%) were of Christian faith. Knowledge of any contraceptives was almost universal (99.6%) but only 22.1% knew about female condoms. Perceived acceptability of contraceptive use at the university (93%) or being beneficial to male partners too (97.8%) were high. Nearly 70% had ever engaged in sexual intercourse and 62.1% reported sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Overall, 46.6% reported current contraceptive use, with male condoms (34.5%) being the commonest methods. Factors associated with higher contraceptive use were being in year 2

  11. Interventions for emergency contraception.

    Shen, Jie; Che, Yan; Showell, Emily; Chen, Ke; Cheng, Linan

    2017-08-02

    Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2012. To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy. In February 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Popline and PubMed, The Chinese biomedical databases and UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme on Human Reproduction (HRP) emergency contraception database. We also searched ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov as well as contacting content experts and pharmaceutical companies, and searching reference lists of appropriate papers. Randomised controlled trials including women attending services for EC following a single act of unprotected intercourse were eligible. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was observed number of pregnancies. Side effects and changes of menses were secondary outcomes. We included 115 trials with 60,479 women in this review. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome ranged from moderate to high, and for other outcomes ranged from very low to high. The main limitations were risk of bias (associated with poor reporting of methods), imprecision and inconsistency. Comparative effectiveness of different emergency contraceptive pills (ECP)Levonorgestrel was associated with fewer pregnancies than Yuzpe (estradiol-levonorgestrel combination) (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.84, 6 RCTs, n = 4750, I 2 = 23%, high-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of pregnancy using Yuzpe is assumed to be 29 women per 1000, the chance of pregnancy using levonorgestrel would be between

  12. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  13. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

    Deborah L Jones

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  14. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  15. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  16. Breaking the barrier: the Health Belief Model and patient perceptions regarding contraception.

    Brown, Wendy; Ottney, Anne; Nguyen, Sammie

    2011-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the discrepancy between unintended pregnancies and use of contraception is attributed to imperfect use, misconceptions and an inability to adjust therapy to lifestyle. A survey administered at a Federal clinic incorporated the Health Belief Model to determine patient's emphasis in pregnancy prevention. Analysis focused on comparing participant demographics to reasons for contraceptive selection. Ease of use ranked the most important for contraception as patient's education levels increased (p=.001). As household income increased, emphasis on potential side effects became less (p=.02). Patients with private insurance ranked ease of use most frequently (p=.01). Males emphasized effectiveness and menstrual suppression more than females (p=.04 and .008). A positive correlation between perceived benefit regarding ease of use as educational level increased and perceived barriers due to side effects as income level decreased immerged. Special counseling by practitioners to improve patient's self-efficacy, ultimately enhancing contraceptive adherence, are warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Segmental neuropathic pain does not develop in male rats with complete spinal transections.

    Hubscher, Charles H; Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Johnson, Richard D

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study using male rats, a correlation was found between the development of "at-level" allodynia in T6-7 dermatomes following severe T8 spinal contusion injury and the sparing of some myelinated axons within the core of the lesion epicenter. To further test our hypothesis that this sparing is important for the expression of allodynia and the supraspinal plasticity that ensues, an injury that severs all axons (i.e., a complete spinal cord transection) was made in 15 male rats. Behavioral assessments were done at level throughout the 30-day recovery period followed by terminal electrophysiological recordings (urethane anesthesia) from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons receiving convergent nociceptive inputs from receptive fields above, at, and below the lesion level. None of the rats developed signs of at-level allodynia (versus 18 of 26 male rats following severe contusion). However, the terminal recording (206 MRF neurons) data resembled those obtained previously post-contusion. That is, there was evidence of neuronal hyper-excitability (relative to previous data from intact controls) to high- and low-threshold mechanical stimulation for "at-level" (dorsal trunk) and "above-level" (eyelids and face) cutaneous territories. These results, when combined with prior data on intact controls and severe/moderate contusions, indicate that (1) an anatomically incomplete injury (some lesion epicenter axonal sparing) following severe contusion is likely important for the development of allodynia and (2) the neuronal hyper-excitability at the level of the medulla is likely involved in nociceptive processes that are not directly related to the conscious expression of pain-like avoidance behaviors that are being used as evidence of allodynia.

  18. Contraception with combined oral contraceptive pills in Port ...

    Mass media was the commonest source of information, and one accidental pregnancy occurred (Pearl index 0.03 per 100 woman years). Conclusion: This study shows that combined oral contraceptives pills appear to be acceptable, safe and effective in Port Harcourt. This compares to world wide experience. Concerted ...

  19. Contraception with Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) in Port ...

    One accidental pregnancy occurred (pearl index of 0.007 per 100 woman years). IUCD is an effective method of contraception in Port Harcourt ; comparable to worldwide experience. The low uptake rate calls for concerted effort to create more awareness about it especially in the rural areas/ non literate population.

  20. Routine counseling about intrauterine contraception for women seeking emergency contraception.

    Schwarz, E Bimla; Papic, Melissa; Parisi, Sara M; Baldauf, Erin; Rapkin, Rachel; Updike, Glenn

    2014-07-01

    To compare contraceptive knowledge and use among women seeking emergency contraception (EC) before and after an inner-city clinic began providing structured counseling and offering same-day intrauterine device (IUD) or implant placement to all women seeking EC. For 8 months before and 21 months after this change in clinic policy, women aged 15-45 who wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys immediately, 3 and 12 months after their clinic visit. In addition, we abstracted electronic medical record (EMR) data on all women who sought EC (n=328) during this period. We used chi-squared tests to assess pre/post differences in survey and EMR data. Surveys were completed by 186 women. After the clinic began offering structured counseling, more women had accurate knowledge of the effectiveness of IUDs, immediately and 3 months after their clinic visit. In addition, more women initiated IUD or implant use (survey: 40% vs. 17% preintervention, p=0.04; EMR: 22% vs. 10% preintervention, p=0.01), and fewer had no contraceptive use (survey: 3% vs. 17% preintervention, pcontraceptives with the option of same-day contraceptive placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contraceptive Awareness and Practice Among Antenatal Attendees in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Aniekan Monday Abasiattai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of effective contraceptive methods has been shown to improve health, sexual life and partner relations and also significantly reduce maternal and infant mortality by protecting against unplanned pregnancy, high fertility and high parity. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of contraception by women in Uyo, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to three hundred and seventy women in the antenatal clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Results: Majority of the respondents were 21-30 years old (64.1%, 53.8% were multiparous and 66.5% had tertiary level education. Three hundred and twenty women (87.6% had heard about contraception (OR=49.6, P< 0.001, while only 49.5% of the respondents had practiced contraception previously (OR=0.96, P=0.76 of which the male condom (40.0% and the safe period/calendar method (31.1% were the most commonly practiced methods. Majority of the respondents (66.8% preferred to have 3 to 4 children and 78.4% of the respondents would want to used a method of contraception to either space their family or limit child bearing (OR=13.14, P< 0.001. Fear of side effects (20.0% and previous bad experience (8.8% were the most common reasons given by those respondents who would not want to practice contraception. Conclusion: This study reveals a high level of awareness of contraception but a significant unmet need among the respondents. There is need to intensify public enlightenment campaigns in our environment emphasizing the benefits and safety of modern contraceptive methods. Community leaders and heads of social groups and women organisations should be co-opted in the dissemination of accurate information on contraception. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 29-34

  2. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Trends and Predictors of Modern Contraceptive Use in Lusaka, Zambia, 2004–2011

    Nancy L. Hancock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although increasing access to family planning has been an important part of the global development agenda, millions of women continue to face unmet need for contraception. Materials and Methods. We analyzed data from a repeated cross-sectional community survey conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, over an eight-year period. We described prevalence of modern contraceptive use, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC, among female heads of household aged 16–50 years. We also identified predictors of LARC versus short-term contraceptive use among women using modern methods. Results and Discussion. Twelve survey rounds were completed between November 2004 and September 2011. Among 29,476 eligible respondents, 17,605 (60% reported using modern contraception. Oral contraceptive pills remained the most popular method over time, but use of LARC increased significantly, from less than 1% in 2004 to 9% by 2011 (p<0.001. Younger women (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.61 and women with lower levels of education (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.89 were less likely to report LARC use compared to women using short-term modern methods. Conclusions. Population-based assessments of contraceptive use over time can guide programs and policies. To achieve reproductive health equity and reduce unmet contraceptive need, future efforts to increase LARC use should focus on young women and those with less education.

  4. Application of insulin RIA in determining deviations of glycide metabolism in women on steroid contraception

    Dvorak, V.; Kimlova, I.; Malkova, J.; Bartos, V.; Novakova, O.; Visek, V.

    1981-01-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test was performed, RIA was done, immunoreactive insulin was determined after peroral glucose load using the double antibody method, and routine clinical and laboratory examinations were carried out in 27 women on long-term peroral contraception and in 10 controls. In the women using contraceptives, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion disorders were relatively frequent. The incidence depended on the genetic burden; their dependence on smoking and the duration of contraception was not shown. In view of the fact that glycide metabolism disorders represent a significant risk factor for the development of ischemic heart disease, considerable caution is recommended in prescribing contraception in women with glycide metabolism irregularities or with diabetes in the family history. It is also recommended that during long-term contraception, the condition of the insular mechanism should be monitored. (author)

  5. Influence of women health care adoption on contraceptive use: utilization of prenatal and postnatal care

    Rehman, S.U.; Abbasi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of women heat seeking behaviour during pregnancy and post delivery period on contraceptive use and family size are important dimension of female fertility. These determinants of female fertility have rarely been explored, particularly in developing countries confronting problems of rising population growth. A study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan to explore the influence of pre and postnatal care on contraceptive use. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from the urban and rural areas of the district through formal survey. It was found that contraceptive use is associated with pre-and postnatal care. Minimum of 5-7 prenatal and at least 2 postnatal visit have been identified as effective to promote contraceptive use. Involvement of health professional, motivation through mass media and improved access to health care services during the period of pregnancy and after childbirth are the measures suggested to enhance contraceptive use in the society to curtail family size. (author)

  6. Emergency contraception. Widely available and effective but disappointing as a public health intervention: a review.

    2015-04-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) prevents pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Use of EC has increased markedly in countries where a product is available over the counter, yet barriers to availability and use remain. Although effective in clinical trials, it has not yet been possible to show a public health benefit of EC in terms of reduction of unintended pregnancy rates. Selective progesterone receptor modulators developed as emergency contraceptives offer better effectiveness than levonorgestrel, but still EC is less effective than use of ongoing regular contraception. Methods which inhibit ovulation whenever they are taken or which act after ovulation to prevent implantation and strategies to increase the uptake of effective ongoing contraception after EC use would prevent more pregnancies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to implementing a patient-centered model of contraceptive provision in community health centers.

    Politi, Mary C; Estlund, Amy; Milne, Anne; Buckel, Christina M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Madden, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    The Contraceptive CHOICE Project developed a patient-centered model for contraceptive provision including: (1) structured, evidence-based counseling; (2) staff and health care provider education; and (3) removal of barriers such as cost and multiple appointments to initiate contraception. In preparation for conducting a research study of the CHOICE model in three community health settings, we sought to identify potential barriers and facilitators to implementation. Using a semi-structured interview guide guided by a framework of implementation research, we conducted 31 qualitative interviews with female patients, staff, and health care providers assessing attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to receiving contraception. We also asked about current contraceptive provision and explored organizational practices relevant to implementing the CHOICE model. We used a grounded theory approach to identify major themes. Many participants felt that current contraceptive provision could be improved by the CHOICE model. Potential facilitators included agreement about the necessity for improved contraceptive knowledge among patients and staff; importance of patient-centered contraceptive counseling; and benefits to same-day insertion of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Potential barriers included misconceptions about contraception held by staff and providers; resistance to new practices; costs associated with LARC; and scheduling challenges required for same-day insertion of LARC. In addition to staff and provider training, implementing a patient-centered model of contraceptive provision needs to be supplemented by strategies to manage patient and system-level barriers. Community health center staff, providers, and patients support patient-centered contraceptive counseling to improve contraception provision if organizations can address these barriers.

  9. Determinants of sexual activity, awareness, and use of contraception among Malaysian college students

    Prachi Renjhen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Young people’s vulnerability to risky or unwanted sex and other unhealthy behaviours is tied to host of individual, family, and community factors and is closely related to economic and educational opportunities. Aims This study aimed to identify factors determining the sexual activity, awareness and use of contraception among college students in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 17–24 years in four colleges of Malaysia. Data were collected via a self-administered multiple response questionnaire. Data analysis was performed on 552 completed questionnaires. Results The mean age of the participants was 19.7±1.6 years. The majority of the respondents were females, Malays, residing in rented accommodations. Contraceptive awareness, sexual activity and use of contraception increased significantly with age of the respondents and were more in males. Better contraceptive awareness was found in those staying away from parents and those studying in colleges with urban exposure. Almost 40 per cent respondents had indulged in sexual activity but only 37 per cent reported use of contraception. A significantly higher proportion of respondents who did not use contraception were females, those in the age group of 19–20 years old and those who were studying in colleges with rural exposure. Male students were more likely to engage in sexual activity and use contraception compared to females. Conclusion There is a need to impart sexual and reproductive health knowledge during the adolescent period so that young people can make informed choices and be motivated to use of contraceptives effectively.

  10. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (1-3). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (4-6). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers.

  11. Practice Bulletin No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers.

  12. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  13. Awareness and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among young people in the entertainment places, Vientiane City, Lao PDR

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Phongsavan, Keokedthong

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using t...

  14. Impact of Pharmacists’ Religious and Personal Beliefs in Dispensing Contraceptives

    Anna Krupa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, pharmacies were not permitted to dispense any emergency contraceptives to women to prevent pregnancy. No legal statutes existed under which pharmacists with religious, moral or ethical objections could refuse to fill a prescription for contraceptives, nor were there direct guidelines describing the pharmacist’s professional obligations. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the frequency of cases in which pharmacists have refused, due to their personal beliefs, to provide counsel regarding contraceptives or have refused to refer to a patient to a different pharmacist or healthcare provider. This study will compare and contrast the differences between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies (i.e. time spent, location, most common recommended contraception. Finally, this study will compare the results evident between male pharmacists and female pharmacists. Method: Quantitative method employed uses two interview questions directed to pharmacists: (1 “I am moving in with my fiancée/boyfriend next month and I have never used contraceptives. What are my options?” (2 “If I use a condom and it breaks, do I have any choices to prevent pregnancy after the fact?” The survey was conducted in two locations, the greater Philadelphia area and Hershey, PA. The survey was conducted through face-to-face interactions with pharmacists, either employed at independent pharmacy or at a chain pharmacy. Data collected from each pharmacist included number of approximate age/gender; minutes spent in each consultation with a patient; the kind of privacy provided during the consultation; and the referrals given, if any. Results: Fifty (50 pharmacists were interviewed. No pharmacist indicated that counseling would be denied, although one (1 pharmacist refused to counsel on Plan B and four (4 pharmacists referred the interviewer to a doctor immediately, indicating that all medications require a prescription. Two (2

  15. 46, XX male: a case study of clinical, hormonal and molecular cytogenetic evaluation of sex development disorder

    Ali, S.; Shahid, S.M.; Azhar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) create medical and social dilemma. Maleness with XX genotype is a rare genetic condition affecting one in 24,000 new-born males. The XX male syndrome is a varied condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentation. ranging from normal male genitalia to ambiguous sex. Chromosomal anomalies are important cause of lack of development in secondary sexual characteristics, delayed puberty, miscarriage, infertility and other associated problems. An individual having ambiguous sex may have lifelong impact on social, psychological and sexual functions. The present case study describes the hormonal, clinical and molecular cytogenetics data of sex development disorders in a patient who was phenotypically male but cytogenetic analysis revealed 46.XX. (author)

  16. Contraception: Everyone's responsibility

    A key preventive measure to reduce the lifetime probability of dying from ... male condoms 4.3%, while intrauterine device (IUD) use was the ... stimulating community awareness ... epidemiological evidence available on the safety of various forms of .... oestradiol concentrations remain at levels noted in the early to mid-.

  17. Unsafe abortion in Tanzania and the need for involving men in postabortion contraceptive counseling

    Rasch, Vibeke; Lyaruu, Mathias A

    2005-01-01

    Targeting male partners involved in unsafe abortions for contraceptive counseling could be an important strategy for decreasing the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, yet few postabortion-care programs have attempted to involve these men. To assess the need for and determine the content of postab......Targeting male partners involved in unsafe abortions for contraceptive counseling could be an important strategy for decreasing the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, yet few postabortion-care programs have attempted to involve these men. To assess the need for and determine the content...... counseling, which should be sensitive to the nature of the partners' relationship, the risk of HIV transmission, and the importance of promoting gender...

  18. Development and psychometric evaluation of the psychological cigarette dependence scale for male smokers in taiwan.

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-06-01

    The influence of psychological factors on cigarette dependence often surpasses the direct effects of the nicotine itself. Researcher opinions on the nature and extent of psychological contributors to cigarette dependence vary widely. This study develops and psychometrically tests the Psychological Cigarette Dependence Scale (PCDS) for male smokers in Taiwan. The PCDS was developed using domain identification, individual interviews for item generation, expert reviews, and testing for construct validity and instrument stability. After initial item analysis, the PCDS was tested for concurrent and construct validity and reliability on 256 adult male smokers recruited from community centers, trade and business organizations, private companies, and factories in southern Taiwan. Participants were limited to adult men because female smokers are a small (4.1%) proportion of the female population in Taiwan and thus are difficult to recruit in statistically significant numbers. Exploratory factor analysis showed that lifelong binding and health concerns are the two predominating factors addressed by the 37-item PCDS. The PCDS correlated positively with the Fagerstrom questionnaire (r = .54, p < .01). Cronbach's alpha was .94, and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient) was .77 (N = 28). Preliminary evidence suggests that this scale is a valid measure of psychological cigarette dependence. Assessment results may help nursing professionals focus on smoking cessation interventions that are tailored to the patterns and severity of patients' psychological cigarette dependence.

  19. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Correlates of oral contraception continuation.

    Ewer, P A; Gibbs, J O

    1971-05-01

    A sample of 139 predominantly black, young, low-income patients who had accepted oral contraception at a publicly supported family planning clinic has been analyzed for correlates of oral contraception continuation. Interviews were conducted 10-12 months after the clinic visit; at this time 38% of the patients continued taking oral contraceptives. It was found that patients with the highest continuation rates were 18-24 years old, in the 2-3 parity group, living with their husbands, had low-parity mothers, and were able to fill prescriptions in less time with more convenient methods of transportation. Discontinuers tended to have high-parity mothers, live with parents or head their own households, and to be in the 13-17 or 25-45 year old age groups. Fear of long-term use of oral contraceptives and perceived side effects appeared to be implicated in discontinuation. The rate of discontinuation may be associated with irregular coital experience and less consistent exposure to pregnancy.

  1. One-year contraceptive continuation and pregnancy in adolescent girls and women initiating hormonal contraceptives.

    Raine, Tina R; Foster-Rosales, Anne; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Boyer, Cherrie B; Brown, Beth A; Sokoloff, Abby; Harper, Cynthia C

    2011-02-01

    To assess contraceptive discontinuation, switching, factors associated with method discontinuation, and pregnancy among women initiating hormonal contraceptives. This was a 12-month longitudinal cohort study of adolescent girls and women (n=1,387) aged 15 to 24 years attending public family planning clinics who did not desire pregnancy for at least 1 year and selected to initiate the patch, ring, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, or pills. Participants completed follow-up assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months after baseline. Life table analysis was used to estimate survival rates for contraceptive continuation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate factors associated with method discontinuation. The continuation rate (per 100 person-years) at 12 months was low for all methods; however, it was lowest for patch and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate initiators, 10.9 and 12.1 per 100 person years, respectively (P≤.003); continuation among ring initiators was comparable to pill initiators, 29.4 and 32.7 per 100 person-years, respectively (P=.06). Discontinuation was independently associated with method initiated and younger age. The only factors associated with lower risk of discontinuation were greater intent to use the method and being in school or working. The pregnancy rate (per 100 person-years) was highest for patch and ring initiators (30.1 and 30.5) and comparable for pill and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate initiators (16.5 and 16.1; Pcontraceptive continuation, education about longer-acting methods, and developing new contraceptives that women may be more likely to continue. II.

  2. Lessons From the Dot Contraceptive Efficacy Study: Analysis of the Use of Agile Development to Improve Recruitment and Enrollment for mHealth Research.

    Shattuck, Dominick; Haile, Liya T; Simmons, Rebecca G

    2018-04-20

    Smartphone apps that provide women with information about their daily fertility status during their menstrual cycles can contribute to the contraceptive method mix. However, if these apps claim to help a user prevent pregnancy, they must undergo similar rigorous research required for other contraceptive methods. Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health is conducting a prospective longitudinal efficacy trial on Dot (Dynamic Optimal Timing), an algorithm-based fertility app designed to help women prevent pregnancy. The aim of this paper was to highlight decision points during the recruitment-enrollment process and the effect of modifications on enrollment numbers and demographics. Recruiting eligible research participants for a contraceptive efficacy study and enrolling an adequate number to statistically assess the effectiveness of Dot is critical. Recruiting and enrolling participants for the Dot study involved making decisions based on research and analytic data, constant process modification, and close monitoring and evaluation of the effect of these modifications. Originally, the only option for women to enroll in the study was to do so over the phone with a study representative. On noticing low enrollment numbers, we examined the 7 steps from the time a woman received the recruitment message until she completed enrollment and made modifications accordingly. In modification 1, we added call-back and voicemail procedures to increase the number of completed calls. Modification 2 involved using a chat and instant message (IM) features to facilitate study enrollment. In modification 3, the process was fully automated to allow participants to enroll in the study without the aid of study representatives. After these modifications were implemented, 719 women were enrolled in the study over a 6-month period. The majority of participants (494/719, 68.7%) were enrolled during modification 3, in which they had the option to enroll via phone, chat, or the

  3. U.S. Men's Perceptions and Experiences of Emergency Contraceptives.

    Wright, Rachel L; Fawson, Peter R; Frost, Caren J; Turok, David K

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that men should be included in reproductive health decision making to help enhance positive health outcomes for their partners. Men affect the use of contraception and what method is used. Men's decisions may be affected by different factors such as gender, education, and the nature of their sexual relationship. A qualitative study was conducted to explore males' experiences and perceptions about emergency contraception (EC), and the meanings males assign to EC. Semistructured in-depth focus groups were held with 15 men who engage in heterosexual activity recruited from a university setting in the United States. Participants expressed egalitarian views of the contraception decision-making processes, a sense of responsibility regarding reproductive decision making, and that society has a negative stigma toward those who use EC. However, there was a lack of knowledge regarding the copper intrauterine device, which was not viewed as a method of EC. Exploring the role and needs of men in reproductive health care discussions and research is an important and growing area. Recommendations are provided for health care practitioners, policy, and future research around men and EC.

  4. Selection and use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities: a workplace-based survey.

    Zhao, Hong-Xin; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhan, Shao-Kang; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ting-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    To describe the current status of the decision-making process with regard to the use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities. A total of 4313 sexually active internal migrant workers were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chengdu. Information on contraceptive use was collected by means of questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence was 86% among unmarried sexually active migrant workers and 91% among married workers. The main contraceptive methods used by married migrants were the intrauterine device (51%), condoms (25%) and female/male sterilisation (17%); the main methods resorted to by unmarried, sexually active migrants were condoms (74%) and oral contraceptives (11%). The contraceptive method applied by 20% of married respondents had been selected by other people, without they themselves having their share in an informed choice. Adopting the contraceptive decisions made by others was associated with being a married migrant, a construction or service worker, a rural-urban migrant, a migrant living in collective or rented rooms, or a migrant with more children. Many internal migrants in these large cities did not choose their contraceptive method on their own. Efforts enabling and encouraging migrants to make informed choices are needed.

  5. Contraceptive social marketing in the Philippines. A new initiative.

    Migallos, G; Araneta, A

    1994-01-01

    By offering contraceptives at subsidized prices through pharmacies, drugstores, grocery shops, and other conveniently-located retail outlets, and promoting them with modern marketing techniques, social marketing programs can do much to reduce the unmet need for family planning. Users obviously benefit, while the family planning program benefits from advertising and marketing skills and some cost recovery. The Philippine Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (PCSMP) was formally launched in the Philippines in 1993 in response to the large unmet need in the country, and initial results are promising. The project was started with funding from the US Agency for International Development to provide affordable, quality contraceptives through the private sector to Filipino couples who choose to practice family planning. A 1988 survey found that only 22.4% of women aged 15-44 years were using modern methods of contraception and 13.8% were using traditional methods; approximately three million women therefore had unmet need for family planning. The PCSMP established an AIDS prevention component and a birth spacing component, enlisting the participation of oral contraceptive manufacturers Wyeth, Organon, and Schering, along with one condom distributor, Philusa. These companies lowered their product prices by 20% for the program. Despite objections from the Catholic church, sales of both oral pills and condoms increased in the first year. In its second year, the program will advertise Sensation condoms and the Couple's Choice Pills via television, through intensive distribution drives, consumer and trade promotions, and the continuous training of health professionals. The contraceptive injectable DMPA will be added to the Couple's Choice product line in April 1994. This method, too, will be heavily promoted.

  6. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    Ajah LO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chibuike Ogwuegbu Chigbu,2 Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba,2 Theophilus Chimezie Oguanuo,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective: To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 71 (45.5%, 60 (38.5%, and 25 (16.0% of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001, rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001, and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0. Conclusion

  7. Hormonal contraception in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, S.O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  8. Hormonal Contraception in obestiy, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes

    Skouby, Sven O.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of obesity worldwide is currently at epidemic proportions. As part of obesity, the metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular and diabetes risk. In particular, women from developing countries have diabetes in the reproductive age...... diabetes, hormonal contraception should therefore be part of the highly needed preconception care and metabolic control...

  9. TOXICOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT: PROFILING 774 CHEMICALS FOR MOLECULAR TARGETS AND ADVERSE OUTCOMES (SOT)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  10. Students’ Perceptions of Contraceptives in University of Ghana

    Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Kayi, Esinam Afi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study sought to explore University of Ghana Business School diploma student's knowledge of contraceptives, types of contraceptives, attitudes towards contraceptive users, preference for contraceptives, benefits, and side-effects of contraceptives. Materials and methods Data was conducted with three sets of focus group discussions. Participants were systematically sampled from accounting and public administration departments. Results Findings showed that students had little know...

  11. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  12. Understanding low uptake of contraceptives in resource-limited settings: a mixed-methods study in rural Burundi.

    Ndayizigiye, M; Fawzi, M C Smith; Lively, C Thompson; Ware, N C

    2017-03-15

    Family planning can reduce deaths, improve health, and facilitate economic development in resource-limited settings. Yet, modern contraceptive methods are often underused. This mixed-methods study, conducted in rural Burundi, sought to explain low uptake of contraceptives by identifying utilization barriers. Results may inform development of family planning interventions in Burundi and elsewhere. We investigated uptake of contraceptives among women of reproductive age in two rural districts of Burundi, using an explanatory sequential, mixed-methods research design. We first assessed availability and utilization rates of modern contraceptives through a facility-based survey in 39 health clinics. Barriers to uptake of contraceptives were then explored through qualitative interviews (N = 10) and focus groups (N = 7). Contraceptives were generally available in the 39 clinics studied, yet uptake of family planning averaged only 2.96%. Greater uptake was positively associated with the number of health professionals engaged and trained in family planning service provision, and with the number of different types of contraceptives available. Four uptake barriers were identified: (1) lack of providers to administer contraception, (2) lack of fit between available and preferred contraceptive methods, (3) a climate of fear surrounding contraceptive use, and (4) provider refusal to offer family planning services. Where resources are scarce, availability of modern contraceptives alone will likely not ensure uptake. Interventions addressing multiple uptake barriers simultaneously have the greatest chance of success. In rural Burundi, examples are community distribution of contraceptive methods, public information campaigns, improved training for health professionals and community health workers, and strengthening of the health infrastructure.

  13. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  14. TGF-β superfamily signaling in testis formation and early male germline development.

    Young, Julia C; Wakitani, Shoichi; Loveland, Kate L

    2015-09-01

    The TGF-β ligand superfamily contains at least 40 members, many of which are produced and act within the mammalian testis to facilitate formation of sperm. Their progressive expression at key stages and in specific cell types determines the fertility of adult males, influencing testis development and controlling germline differentiation. BMPs are essential for the interactive instructions between multiple cell types in the early embryo that drive initial specification of gamete precursors. In the nascent foetal testis, several ligands including Nodal, TGF-βs, Activins and BMPs, serve as key masculinizing switches by regulating male germline pluripotency, somatic and germline proliferation, and testicular vascularization and architecture. In postnatal life, local production of these factors determine adult testis size by regulating Sertoli cell multiplication and differentiation, in addition to specifying germline differentiation and multiplication. Because TGF-β superfamily signaling is integral to testis formation, it affects processes that underlie testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer, and its potential to contribute to subfertility is beginning to be understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived competence and contraceptive use during adolescence.

    Hillman, Jennifer B; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about psychosocial correlates of different contraceptive methods in adolescence. Cross-sectional analyses of 209 postmenarcheal girls [mean age (years)+/-SD=15.68+/-1.74], primarily Caucasian (62.8%) or African American (32.8%). Competence (activities and social) and rule-breaking behavior were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR; adolescent) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; parent). Three contraceptive-use groups were created: no hormonal contraceptive (n=142), combined oral contraceptives or the transdermal patch (COCs/patch, n=41), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, n=20). There was a significant effect of contraceptive-use group on competence (p=.003). The DMPA group had lower competence (CBCL activities and social; YSR social) than the no-hormonal-contraceptive and COCs/patch groups. The COCs/patch group scored lower than the no-hormonal-contraceptive group on YSR activities competence, but was not different from the DMPA group. Lastly, there was an effect of contraceptive-use group on CBCL (but not YSR) rule-breaking behavior (p=.029) with the DMPA group having higher rule-breaking behavior than the other groups. Type of contraceptive method was associated with parent and adolescent's perceived competence. For rule-breaking behavior, parental perception may be more relevant to contraceptive use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency contraception - potential for women's health.

    Mittal, Suneeta

    2014-11-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is a safe and effective method which is used to prevent unwanted pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Many of the unwanted pregnancies end in unsafe abortions. The search for an ideal contraceptive, which does not interfere with spontaneity or pleasure of the sexual act, yet effectively controls the fertility, is still continuing. Numerous contraceptive techniques are available, yet contraceptive coverage continues to be poor in India. Thus, even when not planning for a pregnancy, exposure to unprotected sex takes place often, necessitating the use of emergency contraception. This need may also arise due to failure of contraceptive method being used (condom rupture, diaphragm slippage, forgotten oral pills) or following sexual assault. Emergency contraception is an intervention that can prevent a large number of unwanted pregnancies resulting from failure of regular contraception or unplanned sexual activity, which in turn helps in reducing the maternal mortality and morbidity due to unsafe abortions. However, a concern has been expressed regarding repeated and indiscriminate usage of e-pill, currently the rational use of emergency contraception is being promoted as it is expected to make a significant dent in reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. In fact, since the introduction of emergency contraception, the contribution of unsafe abortion towards maternal mortality has declined from 13 to 8 per cent.

  17. How does intimate partner violence affect condom and oral contraceptive Use in the United States?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Bergmann, Julie N; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is estimated to affect 25% of adult women in the United States alone. IPV directly impacts women's ability to use contraception, resulting in many of unintended pregnancies and STIs. This review examines the relationship between IPV and condom and oral contraceptive use within the United States at two levels: the female victim's perspective on barriers to condom and oral contraceptive use, in conjunction with experiencing IPV (Aim 1) and the male perpetrator's perspective regarding condom and oral contraceptive use (Aim 2). We systematically reviewed and synthesized all publications meeting the study criteria published since 1997. We aimed to categorize the results by emerging themes related to each study aim. We identified 42 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found 37 studies that addressed Aim 1. Within this we identified three themes: violence resulting in reduced condom or oral contraceptive use (n=15); condom or oral contraceptive use negotiation (n=15); which we further categorized as IPV due to condom or oral contraceptive request, perceived violence (or fear) of IPV resulting in decreased condom or oral contraceptive use, and sexual relationship power imbalances decreasing the ability to use condoms or oral contraceptives; and reproductive coercion (n=7). We found 5 studies that addressed Aim 2. Most studies were cross-sectional, limiting the ability to determine causality between IPV and condom or oral contraceptive use; however, most studies did find a positive relationship between IPV and decreased condom or oral contraceptive use. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research has demonstrated the linkages between female IPV victimization/male IPV perpetration and condom or oral contraceptive use. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to improve the understanding of dynamics in relationships with IPV and determine causality between IPV, intermediate variables (e

  18. Contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness among pregnant adolescents

    Lanjakornsiripan W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wakul Lanjakornsiripan, Siriruthai Amnatbuddee, Kanok Seejorn, Yuthapong Werawatakul, Pilaiwan Kleebkaow, Ratana Komwilaisak, Sanguanchoke Luanratanakorn Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a major health problem in many developing countries.Objective: To assess contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness in pregnant adolescents.Materials and methods: This study was prospectively conducted from September 2013 to June 2014. All consecutively pregnant women between 15 and 19 years old attending the Antenatal Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital and the Khon Kaen Branch of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand were invited for participation. Face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using standardized questionnaires were carried out. Logistic regression was used to determine an adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI of independent predictors.Results: Two hundred participants were enrolled. Mean age was 17.2 years. One hundred and eighteen (59.0% were currently in school. Seventy-five (37.5% participants had never used any contraceptive methods. Of the 125 participants who had ever used contraception, regular use of contraceptives was reported in only 21 participants (16.8%. Only two participants (1.0% had ever used an intrauterine device or implant. Participants’ age was a significant independent factor associated with non-use of contraceptives (aOR, 6.42; 95% CI, 2.94–14.04. Of the 200 participants, 132 (66.0% declared that the pregnancy was unintended. Significant independent factors predicting unintended pregnancy were educational status (aOR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.27–13.75 and participants’ age (aOR, 5.76; 95% CI, 2.42–13.70.Conclusion: Non-use and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates were major reasons leading to adolescent pregnancies. Participants’ age was an independent factor

  19. 46,XX male disorder of sexual development:a case report.

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    The main factor influencing sex determination of an embryo is the sex-determining region Y (SRY), a master regulatory gene located on the Y chromosome. The presence of SRY causes the bipotential gonad to differentiate into a testis. However, some individuals carry a Y chromosome but are phenotypically female (46,XY females) or have a female karyotype but are phenotypically male (46,XX males). 46, XX male is rare (1:20 000 in newborn males), and SRY positivity is responsible for this condition in approximately 90% of these subjects. External genitalia of 46,XX SRY-positive males appear as normal male external genitalia, and such cases are diagnosed when they present with small testes and/or infertility after puberty. Herein, we report an adolescent who presented with low testicular volume and who was diagnosed as a 46,XX male. SRY positivity was demonstrated in the patient by fluorescence in situ hybridization method.

  20. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    Virtanen, H E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Main, K M

    2005-01-01

    links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark...... the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical...... and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological...

  1. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  2. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    Antoine D Rolland

    Full Text Available The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion.

  3. Managing Unplanned Pregnancies in Five Countries: Perspectives on Contraception and Abortion Decisions

    2014-01-01

    Why is induced abortion common in environments when modern contraception is readily available? This study analyzes qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women and men from low income areas in five countries -- the U.S., Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Mexico -- to better understand how couples manage their pregnancy risk. Across all settings, women and men rarely weigh the advantages and disadvantages of contraception and abortion before beginning a sexual relationship or engaging in sexual intercourse. Contraception is viewed independently of abortion, and the two are linked only when the former is invoked as a preferred means to avoiding repeat abortion. Contraceptive methods are viewed as suspect because of perceived side effects, while abortion experience, often at significant personal risk, raised the specter of social stigma and motivation for better contraceptive practice. In all settings, male partners figure importantly in pregnancy decisions and management. Although there are inherent limitations from small sample sizes, the study narratives reveal psychosocial barriers to effective contraceptive use and identify nodal points in pregnancy decision-making that can inform and structure future investigation. PMID:21756080

  4. Role of menstruation in contraceptive choice among HIV-infected women in Soweto, South Africa.

    Laher, Fatima; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Phofa, Rebecca; Behane, Xoliswa; Mohapi, Lerato; Martinson, Neil; Gray, Glenda

    2010-06-01

    Contraceptive preferences of HIV-infected women must be considered in efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services. In South Africa, contraception is often discontinued due to bleeding pattern changes. It is unknown whether HIV-infected women are more sensitive to menstrual changes and how this affects contraceptive choice. This study describes perceptions toward menses and contraceptive-induced amenorrhea among HIV-infected women. A convenience sample of 42 HIV-infected women aged 15 to 45 years was purposively recruited for three focus groups and 15 in-depth qualitative interviews which were conducted at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, South Africa. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes grouped. One third of women reported HIV-related menstrual changes, unchanged by antiretroviral use. Menstruation was believed to purge the body of "dirty blood." Women perceived that menstruation had a negative effect on male partner sexual desire, with concern about higher HIV transmission during menstruation. Ninety-six percent of injectable contraceptive users experienced amenorrhea, regarded as troublesome and a reason for discontinuation. In Soweto, HIV diagnosis may accentuate linking menstruation with health, leading to avoidance or discontinuation of methods causing amenorrhea. Providers should intensify education on the safety of contraceptive-induced oligo/amenorrhea.

  5. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.'

  6. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC.

    Riley, Christina; Garfinkel, Danielle; Thanel, Katherine; Esch, Keith; Workalemahu, Endale; Anyanti, Jennifer; Mpanya, Godéfroid; Binanga, Arsène; Pope, Jen; Longfield, Kim; Bertrand, Jane; Shaw, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price. Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice. There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of decisions around

  7. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC.

    Christina Riley

    Full Text Available An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector's role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice.In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price.Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice.There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector's role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private sector and improvement of

  8. Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC

    Garfinkel, Danielle; Thanel, Katherine; Esch, Keith; Workalemahu, Endale; Anyanti, Jennifer; Mpanya, Godéfroid; Binanga, Arsène; Pope, Jen; Longfield, Kim; Bertrand, Jane; Shaw, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Background An estimated 214 million women have unmet need for family planning in developing regions. Improved utilization of the private sector is key to achieving universal access to a range of safe and effective modern contraceptive methods stipulated by FP2020 and SDG commitments. Until now, a lack of market data has limited understanding of the private sector’s role in increasing contraceptive coverage and choice. Methods In 2015, the FPwatch Project conducted representative outlet surveys in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC using a full census approach in selected administrative areas. Every public and private sector outlet with the potential to sell or distribute modern contraceptives was approached. In outlets with modern contraceptives, product audits and provider interviews assessed contraceptive market composition, availability, and price. Findings Excluding general retailers, 96% of potential outlets in Ethiopia, 55% in Nigeria, and 41% in DRC had modern contraceptive methods available. In Ethiopia, 41% of modern contraceptive stocking outlets were in the private sector compared with approximately 80% in Nigeria and DRC where drug shops were dominant. Ninety-five percent of private sector outlets in Ethiopia had modern contraceptive methods available; 37% had three or more methods. In Nigeria and DRC, only 54% and 42% of private sector outlets stocked modern contraceptives with 5% and 4% stocking three or more methods, respectively. High prices in Nigeria and DRC create barriers to consumer access and choice. Discussion There is a missed opportunity to provide modern contraception through the private sector, particularly drug shops. Subsidies and interventions, like social marketing and social franchising, could leverage the private sector’s role in increasing access to a range of contraceptives. Achieving global FP2020 commitments depends on the expansion of national contraceptive policies that promote greater partnership and cooperation with the private

  9. Hormonal contraceptives and cerebral venous thrombosis risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Farnaz eAmoozegar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP has previously been shown to increase the risk of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Whether this risk varies by type of OCP use, duration of use and other forms of hormonal contraceptives is largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current state of knowledge on these issues.Methods: We performed a search to identify all published studies on the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of CVST in women aged 15-50, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane systematic review, the Cochrane Center for Clinical Trials and CINAHL. Risk of CVST was estimated using random effects models. Stratification and meta-regression were used to assess heterogeneity. Results: Of 861 studies reviewed for eligibility, quality, and data extraction, 11 were included in the final systematic review. The pooled odds of developing CVST in women of reproductive age taking oral contraceptives was over 7 times higher compared to women not taking oral contraceptives (OR=7.59, 95% CI 3.82 – 15.09. There is some indication that third generation OCPs may confer a higher risk of CVST than second generation OCPs, but this remains controversial. Data is insufficient to make any conclusions about duration of use and other forms of hormonal contraceptives and risk of CVST. Conclusions: OCP use increases the risk of developing CVST in women of reproductive age. Better studies are needed to determine if duration and type of hormonal contraceptive use modifies this risk.

  10. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  11. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  12. Contraceptive prevalence and preference in a cohort of south–east Nigerian women

    Egede JO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available John Okafor Egede,1 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,2 Ikechukwu Benedict Okechukwu Dimejesi,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Rates of fertility, population growth, and maternal deaths in Nigeria are among the highest in the world, with an estimated 4% of all births being unwanted and 7% mistimed. These are caused mainly by nonuse, inappropriate choice, and difficulty in accessing contraceptive commodities. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing the choice and sources of contraceptive options among market women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.Methods: This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 330 market women of reproductive age in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey was carried out to identify their knowledge, use, and sources of contraception and the factors that influence their contraceptive practices.Results: Knowledge of contraception was high (275 [83.3%], and 229 (69.4% of the study population approved of contraceptive use. However, only 93 (28.3% of the respondents were currently using any form of contraception. Fifty-four women (16.3% were using modern methods. The commonly used forms of modern contraception were the barrier method (male condoms, 27 [8.2%], the oral contraceptive pill (10 [3.0%], injectables (8 [2.5%], and the intrauterine contraceptive device (7 [2.0%]. The most common source of contraceptive products was patent medicine dealers (58 [51%]. The main barriers to use of contraception were desire for more children (86 [26.1%], religious prohibition (62 [18.8%], spousal disapproval (32 [9.7%], and the perceived side effects of modern contraceptives (25 [7.6%]. There was a

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS and male fertile (MF two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  14. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  15. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  16. Contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Phillips, Sharon; Steyn, Petrus; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-08-01

    Women living with HIV are often of reproductive age, and many desire effective contraceptive options to delay or prevent pregnancy. We review the safety of various hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, we discuss drug interactions between contraceptive methods and antiretrovirals and the safety of methods with respect to onward transmission to HIV-negative partners for women in sero-discordant partnerships. In general, most methods are safe for most women living with HIV. An understanding of the reproductive goals of each individual patient, as well as her medical condition and medication, should be taken into account when counselling women on their contraceptive options. Further research is needed to understand drug interactions between contraceptives and antiretrovirals better and how to fulfil the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A comparative qualitative study of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use in southern and northern Ghana

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from Ghana consistently shows that unmet need for contraception is pervasive with many possible causes, yet how these may differ by cultural zone remains poorly understood. This qualitative study was designed to elicit information on the nature and form of misconceptions associated with contraceptive use among northern and southern Ghanaians. Twenty-two focus group discussions (FGDs with married community members were carried out. Community Health Officers, Community Health Volunteers, and Health Care Managers were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 10 to compare contraceptive misconceptions in northern and southern Ghana. Results indicate that misconceptions associated with the use of contraceptives were widespread but similar in both settings. Contraceptives were perceived to predispose women to both primary and secondary infertility, uterine fibroids, and cancers. As regular menstrual flow was believed to prevent uterine fibroids, contraceptive use-related amenorrhea was thought to render acceptors vulnerable to uterine fibroids as well as cervical and breast cancers. Contraceptive acceptors were stigmatized and ridiculed as promiscuous. Among northern respondents, condom use was generally perceived to inhibit erection and therefore capable of inducing male impotence, while in southern Ghana, condom use was believed to reduce sensation and sexual gratification. The study indicates that misconceptions associated with contraceptive use are widespread in both regions. Moreover, despite profound social and contextual differences that distinguish northern and southern Ghanaians, prevailing fears and misconceptions are shared by respondents from both settings. Findings attest to the need for improved communication to provide accurate information for dispelling these misconceptions.

  18. Unmet need for contraception among sex workers in Madagascar☆,☆☆

    Khan, Maria R.; Turner, Abigail Norris; Pettifor, Audrey; Van Damme, Kathleen; Rabenja, Ny Lovaniaina; Ravelomanana, Noro; Swezey, Teresa; Williams, D’Nyce; Jamieson, Denise; Behets, Frieda

    2018-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate past and future pregnancy preferences and contraceptive need among Malagasy sex workers. Study Design We analyzed data on pregnancy and contraceptive use collected during the baseline visit of a randomized, prospective formative trial which assessed diaphragm and microbicide acceptability among sex workers. To be eligible, women could not be pregnant or planning pregnancy for the next 2 months. Results Women (N=192) from four cities (Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Mahajanga and Toamasina) reported a median of 10 sex acts per week. Fifty-two percent reported a prior unwanted pregnancy, 45% at least one induced abortion and 86% that preventing future pregnancy was moderately to very important. During the last sex act, 24% used a hormonal method, 36% used a male condom, 2% used a traditional method and 38% used no method. Nearly 30% of participants reported that pregnancy prevention was moderately or very important but used no contraception at last sex; these women were categorized as having “unmet need” for contraception. In multivariable binomial regression analyses, factors associated with unmet need included low knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness [age- and site-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR): 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–3.0] and low self-efficacy to negotiate condom use (age- and site-adjusted PR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–3.0). Conclusions Among these women, prior unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion were common and preventing future pregnancy was important, yet gaps in contraceptive use were substantial. Contraceptive knowledge and self-efficacy should be improved to promote contraceptive use by sex workers. PMID:19185677

  19. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  20. Emergency contraceptive pills: knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Ehrle, Nina; Sarker, Malabika

    2011-06-01

    As abortion is illegal in Nicaragua, postcoital contraception is an important option for preventing pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills are available in Nicaraguan pharmacies over the counter, but pharmacy personnel's knowledge and attitudes about this method can affect access. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Managua, Nicaragua's capital. Interviewers administered a semistructured questionnaire to 93 pharmacy employees to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to examine responses of and differences between male and female employees. All participants knew about emergency contraceptive pills and reported experience selling them. The majority sold them at least once a week (92%), usually without a prescription (97%). Of participants who were aware that emergency contraceptive pills should be taken only after sexual intercourse, 45% knew that the pills can be taken up to three days afterward; none knew that the pills are effective up to five days afterward. More than one-third of all respondents (39%) thought the pills can induce abortion, and most overestimated contraindications and side effects. Large majorities believed the availability of emergency contraceptive pills discourages use of ongoing methods (75%), encourages sexual risk-taking (82%) and increases transmission of HIV and other STIs (76%). Sixty-three participants (68%) thought emergency contraceptive pills are necessary to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancy; 65% were willing to provide them to all women in need, although only 13% would provide them to minors. Managuan pharmacy personnel frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills, but need additional education to accurately counsel women about the method.

  1. Search for an Emergency Contraception Provider in the United States

    ... emergency contraception provider. Concerned about cost? Click here . ---------- Emergency contraceptive pills are stocked by all major pharmacy chains, ... daily birth control pills you can use as emergency contraceptive pills. You can search for a provider in ...

  2. Contraceptive availability during an emergency response in the United States.

    Ellington, Sascha R; Kourtis, Athena P; Curtis, Kathryn M; Tepper, Naomi; Gorman, Susan; Jamieson, Denise J; Zotti, Marianne; Barfield, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    This article provides the evidence for contraceptive need to prevent unintended pregnancy during an emergency response, discusses the most appropriate types of contraceptives for disaster situations, and details the current provisions in place to provide contraceptives during an emergency response.

  3. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  4. Contraceptive use by the rural women of Uttar Pradesh - A socio-demographic study

    Ambesh Chandra Rajpurohit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The single most important problem that developing countries like India are facing today is uncontrolled growth of population. It is important to study the dynamics of contraceptive use, to understand current contraceptive use, preference and problems of different methods as well as their intention to use contraceptive methods in the future. Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception about contraceptive methods as well as use of the different methods among ever married women in the rural area of north India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The married women residing for at least six months in the area was considered as a resident and included in the study.  The data was collected by using structured questionnaire. A total of 520 ever married women were included in this study. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of the data. Results: All the women were aware at least one of the method of contraceptives.  The contraceptive use was observed to be 26.2%. The contraceptive use was higher among the women of age 41-50 years (34.4% (p=0.0001.  The percentage of contraceptive use was higher among literate women than illiterates. There was significant (p<0.05 association between education of women and husband with use of contraceptive methods. The contraceptive use was higher among OBC (33.5% compared with upper class (28.7% and SC (16.3% and this was statistically significant (p=0.01.  A significant (p<0.01 association was observed between contraceptive use with living number of children. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of women, education of women & husband and number of living children were found to be significant factors associated with the use of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although the knowledge about contraceptive methods was universal, however its use over the years has not increased much.

  5. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  6. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2014-01-01

    the influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50 mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were...... in both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5 mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable......Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine...

  7. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  8. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  9. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    Andrew J Gregory

    Full Text Available Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus. Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  10. The use of oral contraception by adolescents for contraception, menstrual cycle problems or acne

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Kaptein, M.B.M.; Koppenaal, C.; Voorhorst, F.J.; Schoemaker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Oral contraceptives are prescribed as contraception but also as therapy for menstrual cycle disturbances and acne. We studied the prevalence of oral contraceptive (OC) use and the indications to start OC use among adolescents. Methods. A cohort consisting of ninth grade secondary school

  11. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  12. ACOG Committee Opinion Number 542: Access to emergency contraception.

    2012-11-01

    Emergency contraception includes contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected intercourse, sexual assault, or contraceptive failure. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998, numerous barriers to access to emergency contraception remain. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to examine the barriers to the use of oral emergency contraception methods and to highlight the importance of increasing access.

  13. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    Virtanen, H.E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Main, K.M.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Toppari, J.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with 45,X0/46XY karyotype often present with intersex phenotype and testicular dysgenesis. These patients may also have undescended testes (cryptorchidism), hypospadias and their spermatogenesis is severely disrupted. They have a high risk for testicular cancer. These patients have the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark. Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates for environmental influence. Fetal exposure to high doses of dibutyl phthalate was shown to cause a TDS-like phenotype in the rats. Studies are underway to assess whether there is any exposure-outcome relation with selected chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, phthalates) and cryptorchidism

  14. Effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among newly married couples in Satara district

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Satara district of western Maharashtra is in late expanding phase of demographic cycle. Postponement of first pregnancy with the use of reversible contraceptives is the need of the hour. Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a conditional cash transfer scheme second honeymoon package (SHP. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: (1 To find out the effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among participants of SHP. (2 To identify various barriers to the use of contraceptives. Materials and Methods: This was an evaluation study of a community based interventional program. Cases were the participants of SHP program while the controls were the couples residing in the same village as that of participants and married in the same year. Enquiries were made about their know