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Sample records for male cadavers aged

  1. Pathological study of degenerative changes of finger joints in cadavers of aged persons

    岩田,芳之

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, soft x-ray and light microscopic examinations were carried out on 17 interphalangeal (IP) joints and 85 distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with Heberden's nodes from 15 cadavers. Microradiograms of the IP and DIP joints were analyzed as to the degenerative changes in the antero-posterior and lateral views according to our own criteria. Degenerative changes were more severe in females than in males. Advanced degeneration was found in the index, middle and little fingers,...

  2. The aging male project

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  3. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgens and the ageing male

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...

  5. Androgens and the ageing male

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  6. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  7. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy in cervical spine: sonoanatomic study of a new technique in cadavers

    Lee, S.-H.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, S.-H.; Derby, R.; Yang, S.N.; Lee, J.E.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop an ultrasound-guided technique for radiofrequency (RF) cervical medial branch neurotomy and to validate the accuracy of this new method. Materials and methods: Five non-embalmed, fresh cadavers were used; three male and two female cadavers with a median age at death of 67.2 years (range 50-84 years). This study was conducted in two parts. First, two of the cadavers were used to define the sonographic target point for RF cervical medial branch neurotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (12 to 5 MHz). The needles were guided to five consecutive cervical medial branches in the cadavers under ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the position of the ultrasound-guided needle was verified using C-arm fluoroscopy. Ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy was performed to the C5 medial branches in all five cadavers. In the three cadavers not used in the first part of the study, ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy without C-arm fluoroscopic confirmation was performed to the C3-C7 medial branches. The accuracy of neurotomy was assessed by pathological examination of the cervical medial branches obtained through cadaver dissection. Results: In all five cadavers, the sonographic target point was identified in all C3-C7 segments with the 12 to 5 MHz linear transducer. In all 20 needle placements for the first and second cadavers, C-arm fluoroscopy validated proper needle tip positions. In all five cadavers, successful neurotomy was pathologically confirmed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch neurotomy was successfully performed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches in five cadavers. However, before eliminating fluoroscopic validation of final needle tip positioning, the technique should be validated in symptomatic patients

  8. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-01-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future

  9. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Department of radiation oncology, Inha University, 7-206, 3-ga, Shinheumg-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon, 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choonsik [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chung, Min Suk [Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  10. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of age on male fertility.

    Zitzmann, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Later parenting is considered by many to have advantages, parents-to-be may feel themselves more stable to rear children. In addition, many men start a second family later in life. Thus, paternal age becomes an emerging issue. Aging affects male fertility by a scope of factors, which are not fully understood to date. Generally, the amount of produced sperm cells as well as their motility decreases with age, as testicular histological architecture deteriorates. Decreased fecundity and an increased risk for disturbed pregnancies occur with advancing paternal age. Some rare autosomal dominant pathologies are clearly related to paternal age. Altered patterns of epigenetics/gene expression in aging sperm seem to affect a range of neurocognitive disorders and also metabolic dyshomeostasis across generations. Such effects refer to men older than 40 years and may have impact on socio-economic issues. Nevertheless, councelling of older men seeking paternity should be patient-oriented and weigh statistical probabilities against the right for individual life-planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  14. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  15. Emotional response of undergraduates to cadaver dissection.

    Wisenden, Patricia A; Budke, Katherine J; Klemetson, Chelsea J; Kurtti, Tana R; Patel, Chandi M; Schwantz, Trenda L; Wisenden, Brian D

    2018-03-01

    The most effective way to learn human anatomy is through cadaver dissection. Historically, cadaver dissection has been the provenance of professional schools. Increasingly, cadaver-based courses in human anatomy are shifting to the undergraduate level, which creates both problems and opportunities because of differences between undergraduate and graduate student populations. Anxiety associated with dissecting cadavers can create a barrier to learning, and ultimately, entry into the health and medical sciences for some demographic subpopulations of undergraduates. We surveyed 76 students in 2007 and 51 students in 2009 at four times in the semester to investigate the timing and sociodemographic predictors of anxiety over cadaver dissection. We followed this with a second survey of 44 students in 2014 to test the effect of humanization of cadaver donors (providing information about donor occupation and cause of death) to reduce student anxiety. Students experienced anxiety upon first exposure to cadaver dissection. Female students experienced greater anxiety than male students upon first exposure to cadavers but this effect was short-lived. Self-identified non-white, non-Christian students experienced sustained anxiety throughout the semester, likely because cadaver stress compounded social and financial stressors unique to international students. Humanization was effective in reducing anxiety in non-white, non-Christian students but had the unexpected effect of increasing anxiety in female students. We recommend that humanizing information be offered to students who seek it out, but not forced upon students for whom the information would only add to their stress. Clin. Anat. 31:224-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of age on encounters between male crab spiders

    Helen H. Hu; Douglass H. Morse

    2004-01-01

    In males that compete aggressively for females, size and age may determine which males obtain access to these females. In the present study, we use the crab spider, Misumena vatia, a species with males that do not grow after becoming sexually mature adults, to test the hypothesis that age affects the success of males competing for access to females. M. vatia is an excellent species to test this hypothesis because it is possible to disentangle age from size, characters that typically vary toge...

  17. The anatomy lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by Rembrandt (1632): a comparison of the painting with a dissected left forearm of a Dutch male cadaver.

    IJpma, Frank F A; van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2006-01-01

    Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) is considered a masterpiece and is a group portrait of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons in the form of an anatomy lesson. Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, Doctor of Medicine and Praelector Anatomiae to the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, showed an anatomic dissection of a forearm on the corpse of an executed criminal. The anatomic accuracy in Rembrandt's famous painting has been discussed in the literature for decades without any general consensus. In 2006, on the 400th anniversary of Rembrandt's birth, a forearm dissection of a cadaver and a comparison with the anatomy in the painting are presented to analyze the anatomic accuracy of Rembrandt's famous painting.

  18. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  19. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  20. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  1. Aging in the Male Face: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

    Keaney, Terrence C

    2016-07-01

    Gender is one of the most significant factors that influence facial anatomy and behavior, both key factors in the aging process. To review male facial anatomy, physiology, and behavior and how it contributes to sexual dimorphism in facial aging. A MEDLINE search was performed for publications on gender differences in facial anatomy, aging, cutaneous physiology, and behavior. There are differences in both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors in men. Men have a thicker epidermis and dermis with more active cutaneous appendages including hair growth. Male skin has a reduced antioxidant capacity and increased ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression. The male face is larger and has a unique square shape with less subcutaneous soft tissue, especially at the medial cheek. Men are also more prone to smoking and exhibiting poor sun-protective behavior. The differences in intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors contribute to poor facial aging in men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. This review provides insight into the factors contributing to accelerated male facial aging. Understanding gender differences in aging will help physicians tailor cosmetic treatments for men and minimize extrinsic aging factors.

  2. D-galactose-induced animal model of male reproductive aging

    Sulistyoningrum, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological process involving molecular, cellular and organic changes. Aging process is not merely caused by chronological age but it can be accelerated by environmental factors contributes to oxidative stress. Aging in male reproductive system is characterized by many conditions such as terticular atrophy, decreases testicular function of spermatogenesis, decreased testicular function of testosteron production which can lead to a serious clinical condition, infertility. Man...

  3. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  4. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own...

  5. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  6. Return of the cadaver

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques. In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised. Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study. Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures. PMID:28723767

  7. Formulated arthropod cadavers for pest suppression

    2001-01-01

    Pesticidal and/or antimicrobial biological agent-infected arthropod cadavers are formulated by applying a coating agent once on the surface of the cadaver which either (a) prevents the cadavers from sticking together and/or rupturing or (b) acts as an adhesive for a powder or granule applied to the cadaver to prevent sticking and rupturing. The formulated cadavers maintain or improve infectivity, reproducibility, and survivability. The formulated cadavers can be partially desiccated to improv...

  8. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  9. The diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male and the paths of male sexual desire

    Lucas Tramontano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM and the controversies and disputes over it, based on the re-medicalization of sexuality. The analysis is based on interviews with urologists and endocrinologists, and the different approaches of these two medical specialties elucidate divergent conceptions of body and sexuality present in the biomedical knowledge, and the struggle for hegemony in the scientific field. By comparing the meanings attributed to ADAM and to another male sexual dysfunction, the Erectile Dysfunction (ED, we intend to reflect about the difficulties inherent in the biological reduction of sexuality and the reiteration of gender norms in the medical discourse concerning the male body and sexuality.

  10. Cadaver embalming fluid for surgical training courses: modified Larssen solution.

    Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet

    2017-11-01

    10% Formalin (F10)-fixed cadavers have disadvantages such as disturbing smell, mucosal irritation, discoloration and rigidity. We aimed to determine a suitable, simple and cost-effective embalming method that preserves color, texture, pliability and flexibility of the tissues for a long time without a disturbing smell and mucosal irritation. The embalmed cadavers were expected to be durable against environmental effects, utilizable for multiple and repetitive surgical trainings and instrumentations. Eight male (six intact, two autopsied bodies) and four female (three intact and one imported trunk) human cadavers were preserved with modified Larssen solution (MLS). Preserved bodies were kept in the deep freezers at -18/-20 °C. Bodies were allowed to thaw at room temperature 3 days prior to use. They were used in postgraduate hands-on courses for several medical disciplines. Each course lasted at least 1 day and during this period the bodies were stayed at room temperature. Assessments of 30 trainers and 252 trainees were collected during the courses. Additionally, the organoleptic characteristics of the fresh frozen (FF), preserved with MLS and F10-fixed cadavers were compared. The colors of muscles, fasciae, fatty tissue, nerves and vessels were evaluated and life-like tissues of MLS cadavers were impressive. There were no obvious or disturbing smell and sign of putrefaction of the MLS cadavers. MLS is a sustainable and relatively affordable soft cadaver embalming method. Its application is same as in other conventional methods and does not need new equipment. This article indicates the success of the MLS method in human cadavers.

  11. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM- A STUDY IN CADAVER AND MRI

    Ambili Puthanveetil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Corpus Callosum (CC can best be seen in the mid-sagittal section of brain both in cadaver and MRI. The morphometric measurements of the same will be of use in neurosurgical procedures. Sexual dimorphism and the age-related changes in its measurements remained controversial. Till date, no studies have been done on corpus callosum in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS Measurements of CC has been taken and studied in detail in 24 formalin fixed brains from the Department of Anatomy and 48 MR images from the Department of Radiology. The changes according to age and sex were analysed. RESULTS The mean length of CC in the cadaver was 7.24 cm, which was 3.38 cm posterior to frontal pole and 5.73 cm anterior to occipital pole. In MR images, the mean length was 7.10 in males and 6.76 in females. The difference we got was not statistically significant. The length increased with age. Thickness of genu and body decreased as the age advances, but the splenial thickness was found to be increasing with age. There was significant correlation between the thicknesses of various parts of CC. CONCLUSION The values were almost similar to those in the previous studies. Morphometrically, a significant gender difference was not identified in the present study. There were changes according to age both in males and females.

  12. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  13. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  14. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  15. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  16. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  17. Hypogonadism in aged hospitalized male patients: prevalence and clinical outcome.

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Macías, M C; Guerrero, M T; Muñoz, A; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2014-02-01

    Male hypogonadism is common in the elderly and has been associated with increased risk of mortality. Our objective has been to assess the prevalence of primary and central hypogonadism in elderly male patients admitted to the hospital because of acute illness. We also evaluated the relationships between gonadal dysfunction and in-hospital mortality. 150 patients, aged ≥65 years, admitted during 2010 and 2011 in our geriatric unit, were studied. Serum concentrations total, bioavailable and free testosterone, as well as of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were quantified in every patient. Hypogonadism was defined by the presence of serum testosterone levels lower than 200 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was found in 80 patients (53.3 %). Serum gonadotropin concentrations were elevated in 43.7 % of these patients, whereas 41.3 % of hypogonadic patients showed normal and 15 % low gonadotropin concentrations. Respiratory tract infection and congestive heart failure were the main causes of hospitalization in hypogonadal men, whereas acute cerebrovascular disease was the main reason for admission in eugonadal patients. Of the 13 patients who died during hospitalization, 12 were hypogonadic. Patients who died showed significantly lower serum levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone than those found in patients who survived. Our results show that about half of patients admitted for acute illness have hypogonadism, mainly of non-hypergonadotropic type. Gonadal hypofunction is significantly related with in-hospital mortality. A low value of serum testosterone may be a predictor for mortality in elderly male patients.

  18. Alternative male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite: dependence on age and density

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights • We investigated alternative male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite. • We found no differences between genetic lines of fighting and sneaking behaviour. • The proportion of sneaker males changed with male density and with male age. • In competition with old males, young

  19. The effect of age at photostimulation of male broiler breeders on ...

    Male broiler breeders were photostimulated at different ages (56, 77, 98, 119, 147 ... the period of growth prior to achieving sexual maturity to observe their response to ... However, males reached sexual maturity at an earlier age than females, ...

  20. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  1. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  2. Androgen deficiency and dry eye syndrome in the aging male.

    Azcarate, Patrick M; Venincasa, Vincent D; Feuer, William; Stanczyk, Frank; Schally, Andrew V; Galor, Anat

    2014-07-03

    To evaluate the relationship between androgen levels and subjective and objective measures of dry eye syndrome (DES). A total of 263 male patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center eye clinic aged ≥50 were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Patients completed Dry Eye Questionnaire 5, underwent tear film evaluation, and had serum androgen levels measured. The correlations between androgen levels, DES composite scores, DES symptoms, and global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters were evaluated. Two hundred sixty-three patients with a mean age of 69 (50-95) were examined. There was no linear association between composite DES scores (generated using latent class analysis) and androgen levels. However, eyes with high DES scores (0.95-1.0) had higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.03) and lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (P = 0.02), androstenedione (A) (P = 0.02), and androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (P = 0.03) compared to eyes with intermediate (0.05-0.95) or low (0-0.05) scores. There were no strong correlations between tear film measures and androgen levels. Regarding global parameters, a weak inverse correlation was found between corneal staining and A (r = -0.17, P = 0.009). For lipid parameters, a weak correlation existed between tear breakup time (TBUT) and A (r = 0.15, P = 0.02). When considering aqueous and lipid deficiency independently, the association between TBUT and A existed only with aqueous tear deficiency (r = 0.66, P = 0.002). Regarding aqueous parameters, a weak correlation existed between Schirmer test and DHEAS (r = 0.13, P = 0.047) and A (r = 0.21, P = 0.001). There was a weak correlation between higher levels of androstenedione and healthier global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    Huho, B.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Killeen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods - Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified

  4. Preliminarily measurement and analysis of sawing forces in fresh cadaver mandible using reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback.

    Yua, Dedong; Zhengb, Xiaohu; Chenc, Ming; Shend, Steve G F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to preliminarily measure and analyze the cutting forces in fresh Chinese cadaver mandible using a clinically widely used reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback. Eight mandibles were taken from fresh Chinese cadavers, 4 females and 4 males, aged between 59 and 95 years. A set of sawing experiments, using a surgery Stryker micro-reciprocating saw and Kistler piezoelectric dynamometer, was carried out by a CNC machining center. Under different vibration frequencies of saw and feeding rates measured from orthognathic surgery, sawing forces were recorded by a signal acquisition system. Remarkably different sawing forces were measured from different cadavers. Feed and vibration frequency of the reciprocating saw could determine the cutting forces only on 1 body. To reduce the impact of bone thickness changes on the cutting force measurements, all the cutting force data should be converted to the force of unit cutting length. The vibration frequency of haptic feedback system is determined by main cutting forces. Fast Fourier transform method can be used to calculate the frequency of this system. To simulate surgery in higher fidelity, all the sawing forces from the experiment should be amended by experienced surgeons before use in virtual reality surgery simulator. Sawing force signals of different ages for force feedback were measured successfully, and more factors related to the bone mechanical properties, such as bone density, should be concerned in the future.

  5. Androgen deficiency in the aging male and chronic prostatitis: clinical and diagnostic comparative analysis

    Spirin Р.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study probability, period of development and characteristics of a clinical course of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male. Materials and methods: The Aging Male Symptoms (AMS rating scale has been applied for androgen deficiency evaluation and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS — for chronic prostatitis evaluation. 57 men with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male have been examined. Results: It has been concluded that the development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male occurs in a shorter time period and about 1.5 times more frequently compared to androgen deficiency in the aging male at the background of chronic prostatitis. The analysis of time periods between the onset of chronic prostatitis symptoms against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male and androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms against the background of chronic prostatitis showed that androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms have been revealed 1-2 years earlier than the onset of chronic prostatitis. The development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis has showed a backward tendency. Signs of chronic prostatitis have been more frequently occurred in a period of four-five years earlier the androgen deficiency in the aging male development. Conclusion: The risk of development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male during the next two years is actually four times higher in comparison with the development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis. According to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, patients with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male showed higher degree of severity than

  6. Anatomical aspects of the gastrocnemius muscles: A study in 47 fresh cadavers.

    Andjelkov, Katarina; Atanasijevic, Tatjana C; Popovic, Vesna M; Sforza, Marcos; Atkinson, Connor J; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This study offers objective dimensions of the gastrocnemius muscle and analyzes correlations between dimensional variables, with a view to providing guidance on the proportions of a healthy gastrocnemius muscle for both genders. This anatomical study was conducted at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Serbia, from May until November 2014. We included 47 fresh cadavers (up to 12-h postmortem interval) both male and female. The inclusion criteria were absence of any trauma or degenerative findings in lower limbs, normally weighed, and age between 18 and 60 years. The exclusion criteria were significant difference in dimensions between legs and overweighed cadavers. After statistical analysis of gathered data, we were able to define the exact shape and average measures of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle in male and female. Factors affecting muscle dimensions are also defined in this study. The method of dissection that we applied could be recommended for exploration of different anatomical structures of calf region. The reported dimensions and correlations are useful guide in planning cosmetic and reconstructive procedures with high accuracy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  9. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite-A life-history perspective.

    Sato, Yukie; Rühr, Peter T; Schmitz, Helmut; Egas, Martijn; Blanke, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction. Here, we test whether the sneaking tactic displayed by young males of the two-spotted spider mite can be explained by life-history theory. We tested whether young sneaker males survive longer than young fighter males after a bout of mild or strong competition with old fighter males. We also investigated whether old males have a more protective outer skin-a possible proxy for RHP-by measuring cuticle hardness and elasticity using nanoindentation. We found that young sneaker males survived longer than young fighter males after mild male competition. This difference was not found after strong male competition, which suggests that induction of sneaking tactic is affected by male density. Hardness and elasticity of the skin did not vary with male age. Given that earlier work could also not detect morphometric differences between fighter and sneaker males, we conclude that there is no apparent increase in RHP with age in the mite and age-dependent male mating tactics in the mite can be explained only by life-history theory. Because it is likely that fighting incurs a survival cost, age-dependent alternative mating tactics may be explained by life-history theory in many species when reproduction of old males is a significant factor in fitness.

  10. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    Killeen Gerry F

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days and old (> 4 days with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes.

  11. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine.

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-06-30

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain.

  12. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  13. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than slaughter...

  14. Working memory in middle-aged males: Age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects

    Klaassen, Elissa; Evers, Elisabeth; De Groot, Renate; Backes, Walter; Veltman, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on

  15. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  16. Male aging symptoms: the positive influence of moderate and total physical activity

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p460   The aim of the research was to analyze the association of physical activity (PA intensity and duration with male aging symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study of probabilistic sample involving 416 men from two cities in southern Brazil. Data collection used a questionnaire divided into six parts: sample characteristics; anthropometric measurements; economic level by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version; Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS and Male Aging Symptoms Scale (AMS. The sample was divided into two groups: with and without male aging symptoms, making use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The presence of male aging symptoms was identified in 61.6% of men, especially somatic and psychological symptoms. Most were considered sufficiently active (60.1%, highlighting men without male aging symptoms (p = 0.026, with a possible effect of moderate and total PA on low-intensity symptoms (p = 0.027; p = 0.015. This study identified relationships between PA duration and intensity and intensity of male aging symptoms. PA practice with specific intensity and duration is suggested in order to obtain health benefits related to male aging symptoms.

  17. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant tendency...... for back-feather iridescence to be of shorter reflectance wavelength spectra in mated than in unmated males, which, when combined with acoustic variables, improves prediction of age class and mating status....

  18. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  19. Study on the relationship between bone metabolism indexes and osteoporosis in aged males

    Luo Nanping; Yang Daoli; Zhao Yutang; Peng Liyi; Liu Guixiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and significance of the changes of bone metabolism indexes related to the occurrence of osteoporosis in aged males. Methods: Serum interleukin 1β(IL-1β), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), parathyroid hormone (PTH-M) and 25-OH-D were measured by radio-immunoassay in 58 aged males with osteoporosis and 37 cases with bone mass loss. Bone density was measured in these subjects and all the indexes were compared with those in young and middle-aged and aged healthy controls. Results: IL-1β and PTH-M levels in aged males with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01), while IGF-II and 25-OH-D were lower than in normal controls, especially in osteoporosis group (P < 0.01). With the age increasing and the deterioration of the disorder, bone density in the two groups of patients were significantly lower than those in young and middle-aged controls (P < 0.01). Aged males with osteoporosis had a significantly lower bone density than patients with bone mass loss. Conclusion: Cytokines and disturbance of bone metabolism indexes are the main factors that lead to osteoporosis characterized by more bone absorption and less bone formation in aged males

  20. The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae

    Alzira Kelly Passos Roriz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and populations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission, lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female. Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

  1. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  3. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  4. Excess mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A negative slope with age

    Lynge, E; Jeune, B

    1983-01-01

    Mortality for male unskilled and semi-skilled workers in Denmark, Norway, and England and Wales is 40-50%--about the average for all men with equivalent economic status in the younger age groups, but declines towards the average at pensionable age. The negative slope of the graph for relative...

  5. "Man-some": A Review of Male Facial Aging and Beauty.

    Keaney, Terrence Colin

    2017-06-01

    Gender plays a significant role in determining facial anatomy and behavior, both of which are key factors in the aging process. Understanding the pattern of male facial aging is critical when planning aesthetic treatments on men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. What also needs to be considered when planning a treatment is what makes men beautiful or "man-some". Male beauty strikes a balance between masculine and feminine facial features. A hypermasculine face can have negative associations. Men also exhibit different cosmetic concerns. Men tend to focus on three areas of the face - hairline, periocular area, and jawline. A comprehensive understanding of the male patient including anatomy, facial aging, cosmetic concerns, and beauty are needed for successful cosmetic outcomes. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6 Suppl):s91-93..

  6. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  7. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  8. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  9. Age differences in body image responses to idealized male figures in music television.

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Cragg, Dinusha Nc

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about how middle-aged and older men are affected by idealized depictions of male singers in music television. A total of 116 males completed pre- and post-test measures of body satisfaction, mood, and social comparison and viewed 5 minutes of clips containing scenery, muscular- or average-looking singers. Negative effects were restricted to young men who viewed the muscular clips. The younger men also reported more comparison while viewing the muscular and average-looking singers compared to the middle-aged and older men. These findings suggest that younger (but not middle-aged or older) men are particularly susceptible to idealized depictions of the male appearance.

  10. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985 a representative sample of 286 Danish women (response rate = 75.3%) and 336 Danish men (response rate = 77.8%), ages 16-20 years, was interviewed about their first sexual intercourse. A cumulative frequency function was constructed and the median age at sexual debut was estimated at 16.......8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  11. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  12. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone supplementation, glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis in the ageing male.

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Filipović, Branko R; Šošić Jurjević, Branka T; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2017-08-01

    Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome. Namely, bone mineral content/density, the parameters of trabecular bone structure as well as bone strength are enhanced, serum calcitonin levels tend to increase, while serum osteocalcin, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium decrease, all upon testosterone administration to the ageing male. In parallel, testosterone application decreases glucocorticoid secretion in the animal models of male ageing, while clinical data in this field are still inconsistent. Importantly, a physiological link exists between testosterone-induced changes in glucocorticoid levels and the tendency of bone status improvement in the ageing male. We believe that the assessment of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations together with glucocorticoid levels, reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback loop operativeness during testosterone supplementation, represents a well-balanced bone-related therapeutic update. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  15. A study on preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen of cadaver

    Im, C. K.; Choi, B. I.; Park, J. H.; Chang, K. H.; Yeon, K. M.; Han, M. C.; Kim, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of cross sectional image of CT, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, the need for knowledge of cross sectional anatomy is stranger than ever. To meet this need, preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen using cadaver is indispensable, not only because it tis the real cut surface anatomy but also because overt limitations of radiographic image in both contrast and special resolution. Authors prepared cross sectional anatomy specimen using a male cadaver, comprising photographs and slides of the 60 cross cut slices from the head to the pelvis. After photography, each slices was embedded using transparent resin allowing permanent preservation of specimen without altering its original architecture. Author's unique method of preparation is presented and 4 representative specimens are illustrated comparing cadaver's CT image, cross cut surface photography, and photography of resin embedded slice of the same cut surface.

  16. Postnatal early overnutrition causes long-term renal decline in aging male rats.

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the influence of postnatal early overnutrition on renal pathophysiological changes in aging rats. Three or 10 male pups per mother were assigned to either the small litter (SL) or normal litter (control) groups, respectively, during the first 21 d of life. The effects of early postnatal overnutrition were determined at 12 mo. SL rats weighed more than controls between 4 d and 6 mo of age (P renal cortex were higher in SL rats (P aging SL rats (P aging kidney and can lead to systolic hypertension with reduced intrarenal renin activity.

  17. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  18. Age dynamics of radiosensitivity of offsprings of irradiated and nonirradiated Drosophila males

    Gol'zberg, K.L.; Vorobtsova, I.E.

    1978-01-01

    The average life span of the first generation of descendants of irradiated (F 1 I) and nonirradiated (F 1 C) Drosophila males has been investigated after a single and fractionated exposures at early age. The data obtained are in agreement with the assumption that an aggregate amount of radiation-induced mutations obtained from the exposed parent is responsible for the premature ageing of F 1 I descendants

  19. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Alan G. Morri; Kundisai A. Dembetembe

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individua...

  20. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.

    2008-01-01

    on age- and tactic-specific paternity success in male African elephants are the first from a free-ranging population and demonstrate that paternity success increases dramatically with age, with the small number of older bulls in the competitive state of musth being the most successful sires. However......, nonmusth males sired 20% of genotyped calves, and 60% of mature bulls (>20 years old) were estimated to have sired offspring during the 5-year study period. The 3 most successful males sired less than 20% of the genotyped offspring. Hence, contrary to prediction from behavior and life-history traits......, reproduction was not heavily skewed compared with many other mammalian systems with a similar breeding system. Nevertheless, these results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations. In addition...

  1. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  2. Correlates of Condom Use among Male and Female aged 18-24 ...

    Correlates of Condom Use among Male and Female aged 18-24 Years in ... used in the analysis for this paper only includes sexually active youth (18-24 years). ... in past 12 months, having had two or more sexual partners in the past year and ...

  3. Cadavers Can Be Useful in Teaching Anatomy in College.

    Stencel, John; Moore, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents information on student interest, teaching problems, and learning outcomes regarding the use of cadavers as a teaching tool. Provides a list of Illinois Community Colleges using cadavers and a student questionnaire. (RT)

  4. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that signals reflecting the relative quality of individuals should be used in mate choice. Females could base their choice of copulation partners on male secondary sexual traits that honestly signal male age, as predicted by the age-based indicator mechanism....... Studies have shown that female blue tits prefer older males and that aspects of dawn song reflect male quality, but it remains unknown whether dawn song characteristics correlate with male age. We compared dawn song characteristics of second-year (SY) and older (ASY) male blue tits (cross......-sectional analysis), and tested for age-related changes within individuals (longitudinal analysis) and differential overwinter survival of SY males. We further investigated the relation between dawn song and paternity gain and loss. We found that ASY male blue tits began to sing earlier relative to sunrise than did...

  5. Effectiveness of the Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement Using the Virtual Surgical Training System: A Cadaver Study.

    Hou, Yang; Lin, Yanping; Shi, Jiangang; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen

    2018-03-14

    The virtual simulation surgery has initially exhibited its promising potentials in neurosurgery training. To evaluate effectiveness of the Virtual Surgical Training System (VSTS) on novice residents placing thoracic pedicle screws in a cadaver study. A total of 10 inexperienced residents participated in this study and were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The group using VSTS to learn thoracic pedicle screw fixation was the simulation training (ST) group and the group receiving an introductory teaching session was the control group. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females with a mean age of 58.5 yr (range: 33-72) were collected and randomly allocated to the 2 groups. After exposing anatomic structures of thoracic spine, the bilateral pedicle screw placement of T6-T12 was performed on each cadaver specimen. The postoperative computed tomography scan was performed on each spine specimen, and experienced observers independently reviewed the placement of the pedicle screws to assess the incidence of pedicle breach. The screw penetration rates of the ST group (7.14%) was significantly lower in comparison to the control group (30%, P < .05). Statistically significant difference in acceptable rates of screws also occurred between the ST (100%) and control (92.86%) group (P < .05). In addition, the average screw penetration distance in control group (2.37 mm ± 0.23 mm) was significantly greater than ST group (1.23 mm ± 0.56 mm, P < .05). The virtual reality surgical training of thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation effectively improves surgical performance of novice residents compared to those with traditional teaching method, and can help new beginners to master the surgical technique within shortest period of time.

  6. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  7. Stature Estimation for Bosnian Male Population

    Nermin Sarajlić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Trotter and Gleser formulae to determine the stature of recovered missing persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina have been used. The purpose of this study is to develop appropriate stature estimation formulae from the length of the femur, tibia and fibula for use in the Bosnia and Herzegovina to help in identifications of the victims. Research was undertaken on 50 male cadavers, of individuals who died between the ages of 23 to 54 years. The cadaver length was measured and the length of the long bones was obtained from X-ray photographs. The length of the cadavers of the individuals who died after age of 45 years was corrected according to Giles' table. This study established that using Trotter and Gleser's formulae underestimate stature of tall people in the current population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Smallest standard error of estimate is observed in the formula that uses the sum of the length of femur and fibula. There are no statistically significant differences between the length of the bones from the left and right sides of the body. Therefore, formulae developed from the average length of bone pairs are recommended for use.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review.

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dysfunction is the most frequently diagnosed sexual dysfunction in the older male population. This mini-review provides an overview of contemporary literature concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Medical Students' Attitudinal Changes towards Cadaver Dissection ...

    Background: Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students' attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students' attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. Methods: A ...

  10. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  11. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  12. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  14. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dream content of Canadian males from adolescence to old age: An exploration of ontogenetic patterns.

    Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene expression changes in male accessory glands during ageing are accompanied by reproductive decline in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Koppik, Mareike; Fricke, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Senescence is accompanied by loss of reproductive functions. Here, we studied reproductive ageing in Drosophila melanogaster males and asked whether the expected decline in male reproductive success is due to diminished functionality of the male accessory gland (AG). The male AG produces the majority of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) transferred to the female at mating. SFPs induce female postmating changes and are key to male reproductive success. We measured age-dependent gene expression changes for five representative SFP genes in males from four different age groups ranging from 1 to 6 weeks after eclosion. Simultaneously, we also measured male reproductive success in postmating traits mediated by transfer of these five SFPs. We found a decreased in male SFP gene expression with advancing age and an accompanying decline in male postmating success. Hence, male reproductive senescence is associated with a decline in functionality of the male AG. While overall individual SFP genes decreased in expression, our results point towards the idea that the composition of an ejaculate might change with male age as the rate of change was variable for those five genes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  19. Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for pudendal nerve block in cat cadavers.

    Adami, Chiara; Angeli, Giovanni; Haenssgen, Kati; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this prospective experimental cadaveric study was to develop an ultrasound-guided technique to perform an anaesthetic pudendal nerve block in male cats. Fifteen fresh cadavers were used for this trial. A detailed anatomical dissection was performed on one cat in order to scrutinise the pudendal nerve and its ramifications. In a second step, the cadavers of six cats were used to test three different ultrasonographic approaches to the pudendal nerve: the deep dorso-lateral, the superficial dorso-lateral and the median transperineal. Although none of the approaches allowed direct ultrasonographical identification of the pudendal nerve branches, the deep dorso-lateral was found to be the most advantageous one in terms of practicability and ability to identify useful and reliable landmarks. Based on these findings, the deep dorso-lateral approach was selected as technique of choice for tracer injections (0.1 ml 1% methylene blue injected bilaterally) in six cat cadavers distinct from those used for the ultrasonographical study. Anatomical dissection revealed a homogeneous spread of the tracer around the pudendal nerve sensory branches in all six cadavers. Finally, computed tomography was performed in two additional cadavers after injection of 0.3 ml/kg (0.15 ml/kg per each injection sites, left and right) contrast medium through the deep dorso-lateral approach in order to obtain a model of volume distribution applicable to local anaesthetics. Our findings in cat cadavers indicate that ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is feasible and could be proposed to provide peri-operative analgesia in clinical patients undergoing perineal urethrostomy.

  20. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd.

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A K; Shivahre, P R; Bhakat, M; Singh, K Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (page group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (page groups. Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause.

  1. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  3. Age-dependent variation in the terminal investment threshold in male crickets.

    Duffield, Kristin R; Hampton, Kylie J; Houslay, Thomas M; Hunt, John; Rapkin, James; Sakaluk, Scott K; Sadd, Ben M

    2018-03-01

    The terminal investment hypothesis proposes that decreased expectation of future reproduction (e.g., arising from a threat to survival) should precipitate increased investment in current reproduction. The level at which a cue of decreased survival is sufficient to trigger terminal investment (i.e., the terminal investment threshold) may vary according to other factors that influence expectation for future reproduction. We test whether the terminal investment threshold varies with age in male crickets, using heat-killed bacteria to simulate an immune-inducing infection. We measured calling effort (a behavior essential for mating) and hemolymph antimicrobial activity in young and old males across a gradient of increasing infection cue intensity. There was a significant interaction between the infection cue and age in their effect on calling effort, confirming the existence of a dynamic terminal investment threshold: young males reduced effort at all infection levels, whereas old males increased effort at the highest levels relative to naïve individuals. A lack of a corresponding decrease in antibacterial activity suggests that altered reproductive effort is not traded against investment in this component of immunity. Collectively, these results support the existence of a dynamic terminal investment threshold, perhaps accounting for some of the conflicting evidence in support of terminal investment. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points...

  5. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...

  6. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  7. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females

    Yamamura, Eiji; Andrés, Antonio R.

    2015-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show (1) the life satisfaction of females who have a child younger than 12 years old is lower than that of females with no children. (2) The greater the marginal effect of child’s age on the life satisfaction, the more developed a nation’s economic condition.

  8. The age of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoid rocks determined by Rb-Sr isochrone method

    Badgasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.Kh.; Veselsky, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of nuclear geochronological datings of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoids by Rb-Sr isochrone method. Using the method the age of Bratislava massif granitoids was established to be 347+-4 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7076+-0.0013 and the age of Modra massif granitoids to be 324+-18 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7075+-0.00032 (2σ). The relative agreement of age of both massifs as well as the agreement of the primary ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 not only testifies to their continuity in age but also in genesis. The same relations also confirm the genetic dependence of pegmatites and leucocratic granitoids on fundamental types of granitoids building up the Bratislava and Modra massifs. (author)

  9. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  10. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  11. [Cadavers and mummies as therapeutic means].

    Massart, D; Sohawon, S; Noordally, O

    2010-01-01

    Sickness befallen onto him, man found that plant and animal derivatives invigorated him. Thereafter, he found a therapeutic benefit in using man as a means of self cure and especially, dead man from violent death. The foam of the skull of cadaver was an excellent antiepileptic as well as blood coming out from a freshly decapitated man. By applying on diseased parts of his body, so as to get rid of inflammation or infection, cadaver's hands were used against tumors of all kinds. Dead human skin were processed into belts and used therein for helping delivery of parturition women. The mummy must be blackish, foul smelling and hard. Those who were whitish, odorless and powder-like, were unfit for use. Mummy powder applied to the nose would stop nose bleeding. Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) was an adversary of those practices.

  12. Road traffic offending, stress, age, and accident history among male and female drivers.

    Simon, F; Corbett, C

    1996-05-01

    This paper draws on data gathered during a larger study of driving behaviour to explore possible connections between stress, offending against the traffic laws, and accident rates, and gives particular attention to comparisons between male and female drivers. Data were gathered from 422 drivers by a postal questionnaire, and further measures of stress were obtained during semi-structured interviews with a specially selected subset of 66 of them. Analyses of variance investigated links between offending rates, accident history, and up to seven measures of stress, taking age and gender into account. In the results accident history, although positively related to offending, played little part in links involving stress variables. The principal findings were that (a) stress, both on and off the road, was positively associated with offending among both male and female drivers, and (b) although females overall offended less than males, females experienced more stress than males whatever their level of offending. One possible interpretation of these results is suggested by the feminist literature, which could account for both the higher levels of stress and lower levels of offending found among women drivers. However, there is unlikely to be a clear-cut gender divide in offending-stress relationships, and some small groups of female drivers in the study behaved like male ones. It is suggested that people's driving reflects their lifestyles, and that women drivers' patterns of offending and stress will resemble those of male drivers to the extent that their lives and concerns are similar to men's. It is concluded that this position warrants further research.

  13. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999–2007 (spanning ages 13–26 years) provided repeated measures data on: muscularity and leanness concerns; eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products); and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms). Results Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13–15, 16–18, 19–22, and 23–26 identified one large Asymptomatic class and four symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%–6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%–2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%–5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%–1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes. Conclusion Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings. PMID:27453083

  14. Autopsy experience with a radioactive cadaver

    Johnston, A.S.; Minarcik, J.; Rossi, R.; Pinsky, S.

    1979-01-01

    A patient who received a 200-mCi dose of 131 I for widespread carcinoma died 10 days after treatment with 50 mCi remaining in the cadaver. An autopsy was required. The radiation levels were sufficiently high that personnel radiation protection was needed. An autopsy procedure was designed that prevented ingestion of radioactivity by the pathologist and his assistants, prevented excessive exposure of any involved personnel, and prevented contamination of the autopsy room or other hospital space. (author)

  15. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  16. Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future?

    Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GROSS MORPHOLOGY AND ENCEPHALIZATION QUOTIENT OF BRAIN IN MALE AND FEMALE VANARAJA CHICKENS AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks (75 male + 75 female were taken as experimental birds. Dissection of cranium was performed carefully and study of gross morphology of brain was undertaken at different ages in male and female birds. The brain in situ appeared like a ‘spade’ symbol in playing card but it appeared rather wider and globular in both sexes. The cerebrum varied from pear to oval or even globular in shape in both sexes. On dorsal view, the cerebral hemispheres appeared moderately convex and smooth surfaced. On ventral surface, ill-developed olfactory lobes were observed anteriorly on either side of the median fissure in both male and female Vanaraja birds. The hippocampus was located transversely to the posterior one third parts of both cerebral hemispheres. Duncan’s EQ ranged from 5.801 ± 0.514 (T3-Male to 5.944 ± 0.451 (T1-Female on 21st day. There was significant decrease (p<0.05 in EQ from Day 21 to 42 across all the groups. On 84th day, the range of EQ was 1.346 ± 0.115 (T3-Male to 1.444 ± 0.114 (T1-Female. In case of Cuvier’s EQ, on 21st day the value ranged from 35.079 ± 0.288 (T2-Male to 36.531 ± 0.312 (T3-Female. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in Cuvier’s EQ value from Trial-I (21st day to Trial-II (42nd day. Again, a significant decrease in EQ value was evident from Trial-III (63rd Day to Trial-IV (84th Day. On 84th day, the EQ ranged from 15.607 ± 0.123 (T3-Male to 16.038c ± 0.125 (T2-Male. Duncan’s formula had very high correlation coefficient with brain length (0.915. There was also very high degree correlation between brain weight and body weight (0.963. Brain weight and neuronal size are also highly correlated (0.902. Neuronal size and brain volume are also having a high correlation (0.902. The EQ values had medium correlation with neuronal size (0.701 for Cuvier’s Formula and 0.713 for Duncan’s formula. Duncan’s and Cuvier’s value had a very high degree of correlation

  18. The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans.

    Awrahman, Z A; Champion de Crespigny, F; Wedell, N

    2014-01-01

    Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating rate independent of age, this study investigates whether a high mating rate confers an advantage to infected males through restoring their compatibility with uninfected females over and above the effect of age. The impact of Wolbachia infection, male mating rate and age on the number of sperm transferred to females during copulation and how it relates to CI expression was also assessed. As predicted, we found that reproductive compatibility was restored faster in males that mate at higher rate than that of low mating and virgin males, and that the effect of mating history was over and above the effect of male age. Nonvirgin infected males transferred fewer sperm than uninfected males during copulation, and mating at a high rate resulted in the transfer of fewer sperm per mating irrespective of infection status. These results indicate that the advantage to infected males of mating at a high rate is through restoration of reproductive compatibility with uninfected females, whereas uninfected males appear to trade off the number of sperm transferred per mating with female encounter rate and success in sperm competition. This study highlights the importance Wolbachia may play in sexual selection by affecting male reproductive strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  20. Short and fast vs long and slow: age changes courtship in male orb-web spiders ( Argiope keyserlingi)

    O'Hanlon, James C.; Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2018-02-01

    Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or `shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased. Males retained some ability to modulate courtship quality (shudder duration and number of rocks within each shudder) in response to female quality. A change in courtship performance over time, despite strong selection for repeatability, indicates that ageing in male A. keyserlingi may have direct impacts on reproductive performance.

  1. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip...

  2. [Age changes of immunological, morphological and biochemical indices of male reproductive system].

    Boĭko, O V; Akhmineeva, A Kh; Gudinskaia, N I; Boĭko, V I; Kozak, D M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the dependence of bactericidal activity of sperm--natural resistance factors controlling the survival of bacteria in the urogenital tract, on the age of men. These data are compared with the results of the standard (on the recommendations of the WHO) spermogram, reflecting reproductive health. Due to the fact that one of the main etiological agents of infectious disease groups in the male reproductive system in adulthood are Staphylococcus spp., we consider the level of bactericidal activity of sperm in resident and transient carriage of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  3. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  4. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.

  5. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Surampudi, Prasanth N.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men. PMID:22505891

  6. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  7. Age-related and 224Ra-induced abnormalities in the teeth of male mice

    Humphreys, E.R.; Stones, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A high incidence of incisor abnormalities was found in aged control and aged 224 Ra-treated male CBA mice. Visual examination of the abnormalities in both controls and treated mice revealed extreme shortening of the upper incisors and hypoplastic, grooved or undulating enamel. The administration of 865 or 1730 nCi of 224 Ra hastened the onset of incisor abnormalities although no specific feature was attributable solely to radium toxicity. Radiography and histology revealed corrugated incisors, obliteration of the pulp cavity, extension and disorganized growth of incisors basally, secondary incisors, open pulp and fractures within the alveoli. There was a statistically-significant reduction in the number of molars present in animals given 432, 865 or 1730 nCi 224 Ra. (author)

  8. The effect of age of sensory meat quality of males of laying hybrids

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory quality of carcass of layer males ISA Brown. The males were fattened to 90 and 132 days. In both ages samples of breast and thigh were used for the sensory evaluation.The birds were provided by a private producer. There were 20 birds in each experimental group. Both the groups were housed on deep litter and fed a commercial broiler diet. The first group was slaughtered at 90 days of age at a processing plant, the second group continued fattening till 132 days at the Department of Animal Breeding. At 132 days, the birds were slaughtered at the in-house abattoir.The sensory evaluation was carried out at the sensory laboratory at the Department of Food Tech­no­lo­gy at MZLU in Brno. The sensory evaluation was carried out by the trained staff of the Department. Samples were evaluated by the sensory profile method with description of edge points.The higher age had highly significant (p < 0.01 effect on tenderness of the breast muscle (meat from the older birds was assessed as tougher. The age had significant effect (p < 0.05 also on the colour of thigh muscle (the meat of the older birds was assessed as darker. Thus, the evaluators concluded the shorter fattening period as more favourable.However, as for carcass weight, weight of carcass parts and processing at an automatic slaughtering line, the longer fattening period (132 days seems to be more convenient. It is also necessary to take into account increased cost and marketing possibilities for such products.

  9. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult skull and age-related structural changes by sex in a Japanese forensic sample.

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Otsuka, Katsura; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Odo, Yuriko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the adult human skull and the structural changes that occur with age in both sexes. The heads of 94 Japanese cadavers (54 male cadavers, 40 female cadavers) autopsied in our department were used in this research. A total of 376 cranial samples, four from each skull, were collected. Sample fracture load was measured by a bending test. A statistically significant negative correlation between the sample fracture load and cadaver age was found. This indicates that the stiffness of cranial bones in Japanese individuals decreases with age, and the risk of skull fracture thus probably increases with age. Prior to the bending test, the sample mass, the sample thickness, the ratio of the sample thickness to cadaver stature (ST/CS), and the sample density were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlations between cadaver age and sample thickness, ST/CS, and the sample density were observed only among the female samples. Computerized tomographic (CT) images of 358 cranial samples were available. The computed tomography value (CT value) of cancellous bone which refers to a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity, cancellous bone thickness and cortical bone thickness were measured and calculated. Significant negative correlation between cadaver age and the CT value or cortical bone thickness was observed only among the female samples. These findings suggest that the skull is substantially affected by decreased bone metabolism resulting from osteoporosis. Therefore, osteoporosis prevention and treatment may increase cranial stiffness and reinforce the skull structure, leading to a decrease in the risk of skull fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  11. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level.

    Bjerke, Øyvind; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Aune, Tore K; Lorås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men ( N = 234) and women ( N = 235). The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  12. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level

    Øyvind Bjerke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234 and women (N = 235. The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  13. Natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization in aged male patients.

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Muñoz, A; Guerrero, M T; Macías, M C; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess short-term natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization for acute disease in aged male patients after discharge. A group of 43 hypogonadal males, aged 86.7±5.7 year, was studied. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T) and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH) were measured in every patient both at admission and one month after discharge. Mean serum T at entry was 115.4±48.0 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was hyper-, hypo-, and normogonadotropic in 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%), and 3 (7.0%) patients, respectively. One month after discharge serum T concentrations increased significantly (230.9±135.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism (n=16, 32.7%; 82.8±51.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism discovered during hospitalization spontaneously normalize their serum T concentrations one month after discharge. Serum gonadotropin concentrations also increased after discharge. Serum T levels at admission was an independent predictor for the normalization of serum T concentrations.

  14. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  15. Sociocultural Factors of Survival of Males and Females in Economically Active Age: a Regional Analysis

    Evgeniya Khasanovna Tukhtarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The period, when a person starts and completes his or her professional carrier and labour participation, in general, coincides with the age when the self-preservation behaviour develops. It is a time when a person aims for a healthy and safe lifestyle. During this period, an individual assumes the main standards, values of the self-preservation behaviour inherent in an ethnic, social and cultural macro-environment. To research the sociocultural factors of survival, we applied econometric modelling to demographic processes using the discrete and probabilistic indicators of the mortality tables of male and female in economically active age. The econometric model included the elements of spatiotemporal characteristics of territories. These characteristics are interrelated with the indicators of survival probability and the indicator of average life expectancy in the regions of Russia. We choose the major sociocultural factors by the correlation ratio of indicators and their sensitivity. The econometric analysis has revealed a high degree of sensitivity of a territorial variation of demographic and sociocultural factors in the regions of Russia, including a gender aspect. The most significant socio-economic factors, which determine the self-preservation behaviour of males, are the following: 1 the size of Gross Regional Product per capita; 2 quality of health infrastructure; 3 fixed investments; 4 population with monetary income under the subsistence minimum (share coefficient of income differentials. The female have the same hierarchy of socio-economic factors, except for the sensitivity of variables to the regional differentiation of signs. The household poverty factor has little significance for the women and it is the main difference between male and female. The built model has shown the predictive importance in the assessment of the above-mentioned factors in short and medium-term prospects.

  16. Convergence in male and female life expectancy: Direction, age pattern, and causes

    Benjamin Seligman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cornerstone of mortality- and life-expectancy forecasting in developed nations, the Lee-Carter model relies on assumptions of there being a dominant singular value that captures most of the variance within a matrix of age-specific mortality rates over time and that the time trend captured by this lead singular value is constant. We revisit the model's predictive ability and trends in mortality decline among developed nations since the end of the Cold War. Objective: To understand the predictive power of the Lee-Carter model with mortality trends since 1990. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database. Forecasts were made using R with random walk forecasts using the package forecast. Results: While Lee-Carter forecasts of life expectancy for combined sexes were accurate, sex-specific forecasts tended to somewhat overestimate for females and significantly underestimate for males. Further investigation of the trend for males shows that the first singular value continues to capture the majority of the variation in mortality since 1990, with progress along this dimension moving at a constant rate. Conclusions: Lee-Carter forecasts have significantly underestimated gains inmale life expectancy without major changes to the model's assumptions. We believe this represents more rapid progress in tackling male mortality in the G7 countries without major changes to the age pattern of these gains. Curiously, this has not affected combined-sex forecasts, potentially being offset by slight overestimation of female mortality progress. Contribution: We show that the Lee-Carter model has made inaccurate forecasts of mortality rates unrelated to violations of its underlying assumptions.

  17. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males

    Alisa Wilantho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Methods Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas. Skin samples were categorized (grouped into (i normal (teenage.hea and (ii acne-prone (teenage.acn young adults, and normal (iii middle-aged (middle.hea and (iv elderly (elderly.hea adults. Results The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas, distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea. For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation, but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado to gain insight into the diversity across

  18. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  19. Meta-analysis of paternal age and schizophrenia risk in male versus female offspring.

    Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (≥30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25-29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (≥50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46-1.89, P APA (≥30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers.

  20. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  1. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats.

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive aging in males is characterized by a diminution in sexual behavior beginning in middle age. We investigated the relationships among testosterone, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cell numbers in the hypothalamus, and their relationship to sexual performance in male rats. Young (3months) and middle-aged (12months) rats were given sexual behavior tests, then castrated and implanted with vehicle or testosterone capsules. Rats were tested again for sexual behavior. Numbers of AR and ERalpha immunoreactive cells were counted in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus, and serum hormones were measured. Middle-aged intact rats had significant impairments of all sexual behavior measures compared to young males. After castration and testosterone implantation, sexual behaviors in middle-aged males were largely comparable to those in the young males. In the hypothalamus, AR cell density was significantly (5-fold) higher, and ERalpha cell density significantly (6-fold) lower, in testosterone- than vehicle-treated males, with no age differences. Thus, restoration of serum testosterone to comparable levels in young and middle-aged rats resulted in similar preoptic AR and ERalpha cell density concomitant with a reinstatement of most behaviors. These data suggest that age-related differences in sexual behavior cannot be due to absolute levels of testosterone, and further, the middle-aged brain retains the capacity to respond to exogenous testosterone with changes in hypothalamic AR and ERalpha expression. Our finding that testosterone replacement in aging males has profound effects on hypothalamic receptors and behavior has potential medical implications for the treatment of age-related hypogonadism in men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    Jay Waldron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies.Methods: Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting.Conclusion: We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased

  3. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  4. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi Males older than 12 years of age

    Al-Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI =30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk

  5. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver.

    Ruggiero, Marissa; Cless, Daniel; Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age.

  6. Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae (Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch were irradiated with X-ray doses of 4, 8, 24 and 32 krad (which were applied to 0-1 day-old adult virgin males) and tested in mating competition with one-day-old non-irradiated males. A non-significant excess of parental females were mated to the unirradiated males. This consistent trend in favour of females, mated with unirradiated males was highly significant, when the results of all the experiments were bulked. This indicated that radiation impaired the mating competitiveness of males of T. urticae. Aging of irradiated males resulted in a significant decrease of male-mating competitiveness at least within 2 days after irradiation. When 24 krad X-rays irradiated males were tested in mating competition at different ages, with unirradiated males of equal age, it was demonstrated that the reduction in mating competitiveness of aging irradiated males is caused by accelerated aging due to the irradiation treatment

  7. Rooster semen cryopreservation: effect of pedigree line and male age on postthaw sperm function.

    Long, J A; Bongalhardo, D C; Pelaéz, J; Saxena, S; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Fulton, J E

    2010-05-01

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at 2 different ages: the onset and end of commercial production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was frozen individually with 11% glycerol at 6 and 12 mo of age. Glycerol was removed from thawed semen by Accudenz gradient centrifugation. The viability of thawed sperm from each male was determined using fluorescent live-dead staining and flow cytometry; sperm velocity parameters were measured using computerized motion analysis. The fertilizing ability of thawed sperm was evaluated in vitro by assessing hydrolysis of the inner perivitelline membrane. The postthaw function of sperm from the elite lines varied widely, despite the fact that fresh semen from all of these lines typically yielded high fertility rates. The percentage of thawed sperm with intact plasma membranes ranged from 27.8 + or - 2.1 to 49.6 + or - 1.9 and varied among lines and between age groups. Thawed sperm from 2 lines consistently demonstrated the highest and lowest motility parameters, whereas the velocity parameters of the remaining 6 lines varied widely. The mean number of hydrolysis points per square millimeter of inner perivitelline membrane ranged from 12.5 + or - 4.1 (line 2) to 103.3 + or - 30.2 (line 6). Age effects were observed for 4 out of 8 lines; however, improved postthaw sperm function at 12 mo of age was not consistent for all 3 assays. These results demonstrate variability among pedigreed lines in withstanding glycerol-based semen cryopreservation and provide a model for delineating genotypic and phenotypic factors affecting sperm cryosurvival.

  8. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction.

    McNamara, Kathryn B; van Lieshout, Emile; Jones, Therésa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Immune function is costly and must be traded off against other life-history traits, such as gamete production. Studies of immune trade-offs typically focus on adult individuals, yet the juvenile stage can be a highly protracted period when reproductive resources are acquired and immune challenges are ubiquitous. Trade-offs during development are likely to be important, yet no studies have considered changes in adult responses to immune challenges imposed at different stages of juvenile development. By manipulating the timing of a bacterial immune challenge to the larvae of the cotton bollworm moth, we examined potential trade-offs between investment into immunity at different stages of juvenile development (early or late) and subsequent adult reproductive investment into sperm or egg production. Our data reveal an age-dependent trade-off between juvenile immune function and adult male reproductive investment. Activation of the immune response during late development resulted in a reduced allocation of resources to eupyrene (fertilizing) sperm production. Immune activation from the injection procedure itself (irrespective of whether individuals were injected with an immune elicitor or a control solution) also caused reproductive trade-offs; males injected early in development produced fewer apyrene (nonfertilizing) sperm. Contrary to many other studies, our study demonstrates these immune trade-offs under ad libitum nutritional conditions. No trade-offs were observed between female immune activation and adult reproductive investment. We suggest the differences in trade-offs observed between male sperm types and the absence of reproductive trade-offs in females may be the result of ontogenetic differences in gamete production in this species. Our data reveal developmental windows when trade-offs between immune function and gametic investment are made, and highlight the importance of considering multiple developmental periods when making inferences regarding the

  10. The ethics of human cadaver organ transplantation: a biologist's viewpoint.

    Emson, H E

    1987-01-01

    The rights of the various individuals involved in decision-making in cadaver organ donation are considered, and there is discussion of the relation of human cadavers to the planetary biomass. I conclude that the rights of the potential recipient should outweigh those of the other parties concerned and that education and legislation should recognise and promote this. PMID:3669037

  11. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some bones in Piemontese male cattle

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on bone weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated bones were weighted, and on the main ones (scapula, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios were calculated (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. No differences were found in side bone weight (23.58 ± 2.61 kg, so as in single bone weight, measures and ratios.

  12. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  13. Portal placement in elbow arthroscopy by novice surgeons: cadaver study.

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Kachooei, Amir R; Kolovich, Gregory P; Buijze, Geert A; Oh, Luke S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N

    2017-07-01

    In this anatomical cadaver study, the distance between major nerves and ligaments at risk for injury and portal sites created by trainees was measured. Trainees, inexperienced in elbow arthroscopy, have received a didactic lecture and cadaver instruction prior to portal placement. The incidence of iatrogenic injury from novice portal placement was also determined. Anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial arthroscopic portals were created in ten cadavers by ten inexperienced trainees in elbow arthroscopy. After creating each portal, the trajectory of the portal was marked with a guide pin. Subsequently, the cadavers were dissected and the distances between the guide pin in the anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial portals and important ligaments and nerves were measured. The difference between the distance of the direct lateral portal and the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN) (22 mm, p cadaver instruction session alone. Level of evidence V.

  14. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    Cheng-Yung Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05 lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05 higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05 plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05 with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium

  15. [Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging.male (MSAM-7)

    Rosen, R.; Altwein, J.; Boyle, P.; Kirby, R.S.; Lukacs, B.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; O'Leary, M.; Puppo, P.; Chris, R.; Giuliano, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are often caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and sexual dysfunction are common in older men, with an overall prevalence of > 50% in men aged > 50 years. Men with LUTS have been reported to experience sexual dysfunction, including

  16. Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging male (MSAM-7).

    Rosen, R.; Altwein, J.; Boyle, P.; Kirby, R.S.; Lukacs, B.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; O'Leary, M.; Puppo, P.; Robertson, C.; Giuliano, F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are often caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and sexual dysfunction are common in older men, with an overall prevalence of >50% in men aged > or =50 years. Men with LUTS have been reported to experience sexual dysfunction, including

  17. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  18. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  19. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  20. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite — A life-history perspective

    Sato, Y.; Rühr, P.T.; Schmitz, H.; Egas, M.; Blanke, A.

    2016-01-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP),

  1. Coordinated Multiple Cadaver Use for Minimally Invasive Surgical Training

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Brooks, H. Mark; Dhuy, S. Michael; Charest-Shell, Cynthia; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The human cadaver remains the gold standard for anatomic training and is highly useful when incorporated into minimally invasive surgical training programs. However, this valuable resource is often not used to its full potential due to a lack of multidisciplinary cooperation. Herein, we propose the coordinated multiple use of individual cadavers to better utilize anatomical resources and potentiate the availability of cadaver training. Methods: Twenty-two postgraduate surgeons participated in a robot-assisted surgical training course that utilized shared cadavers. All participants completed a Likert 4-scale satisfaction questionnaire after their training session. Cadaveric tissue quality and the quality of the training session related to this material were assessed. Results: Nine participants rated the quality of the cadaveric tissue as excellent, 7 as good, 5 as unsatisfactory, and 1 as poor. Overall, 72% of participants who operated on a previously used cadaver were satisfied with their training experience and did not perceive the previous use deleterious to their training. Conclusion: The coordinated use of cadavers, which allows for multiple cadaver use for different teaching sessions, is an excellent training method that increases availability of human anatomical material for minimally invasive surgical training. PMID:18237501

  2. Alfalfa weevil male: effect of γ-radiation and weevil age on mating competitiveness and sperm transfer

    Wollam, J.D.; Hower, A.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Virgin male Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks of age. Alfalfa weevils from each age group were subjected to γ-radiation doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 krads. Mating competitiveness was reduced by the 5 to 6 krad doses in all age groups except those 4 weeks old. Weevils irradiated at 1 week of age showed a reduction in competitiveness at doses above 2 krad. Radiation dose and age at irradiation had little noticeable effect on sperm transfer

  3. Physical and physiological characteristics in male team handball players by playing position - Does age matter?

    Nikolaidis, P T; Ingebrigtsen, J; Póvoas, S C; Moss, S; Torres-Luque, G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult male team handball (TH) players. Adolescent (N.=57, aged 14.9±1.4 yr) and adult (N.=39, 26.6±5.7 yr) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, squat jump (SJ), countermovement vertical jump without (CMJ) and with arm-swing, and a 30-s Bosco test. Eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) was calculated as the ratio CMJ to SJ. In adult players, there were significant differences between wings and the other positions with regard to anthropometric and body composition parameters (body mass, -17.9% to -13.2%; height, -5.3% to -4.3%; and fat-free mass, -13.7% to -9.9%) and anaerobic power assessed by WAnT (peak power, -20.5% to -15.2%; and mean power, -20% to -14.8%); however, these characteristics did not differ significantly in adolescents, in which the only statistically significant difference was found between goalkeepers and the other positions in EUR (+8.1%). Therefore, the differences in physical and physiological characteristics between playing positions are age-dependent. As adult players in this study were taken from players competing in the top Greek league, findings could serve as a base for talent identification and development for future studies. Moreover, knowledge about positional differences might enhance the ability to make tailored position-specific training programs among adult and adolescent players in the future.

  4. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  5. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  6. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some muscles in Piemontese male cattle

    D. Biagini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on muscle weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated muscles or meat cuts were weighted, and on the most regular ones (regular roll, shoulder clod – “copertina”, blade filet, strip loin, tenderloin, and eye round linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference were calculated. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. Differences were found in meat weight, heavier in IM than in LC and EC (P<0.05, and fat weight, heavier in LC and EC than IM (P<0.01. Only the blade filet weight/length and length/circumference ratios were higher in EC than LC and IM (P<0.05 and in IM than EC (P<0.05 respectively, showing the poor effect of sexual neutralisation on weight and size of the considered muscles.

  7. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  8. Atypical presentation of a middle age male with severe hypertriglyceridaemia: a case report

    Albahrani Ali I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG is uncommon but most prevalent in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and excess ethanol intake. Case presentation We describe a case of a middle age male (53 y presenting to the emergency room with acute atypical central chest pain and severe HTG in the absence of evidence of overt ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Admission ECG and EET (exercise tolerance test were negative for reversible ischaemic changes. His admission glucose was 12.2 mmol/l, triglycerides (TG were 103 mmol/l, total cholesterol 37 mmol/l. Cardiac Troponin T could not be measured on three occasions but CK MB mass was normal at 3 μg/l. The patient was started on Bezafibrate 400 mg OD, Simvastatin 20 mg nocte, Omacor (Omega-3 fish oil 1 gm bd and Metformin 500 mg tds. Four weeks after admission, lipid and liver profiles showed remarkable improvement, TG 2.9 mmol/l, Tchol 6.3 mmol/l and HDLc 1.5 mmol/l, ALAT and GGT were normal. Conclusion A case report of severe hypertriglyceridaemia with atypical presentation demonstrate the role of combined lipid modifying agents in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol as well as improving liver enzymes.

  9. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  11. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  12. Polymorphic variants of neurotransmitter receptor genes may affect sexual function in aging males: data from the HALS study.

    Jóźków, Paweł; Słowińska-Lisowska, Małgorzata; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Mędraś, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is influenced by a number of brain neurotransmitters. Central dopamine, serotonin and melanocortin systems have special importance for male sexual function. We searched for associations between male aging symptoms and polymorphic sites of serotonin (5-HTR1B), melanocortin (MC4R) and dopamine (DRD2, DRD4) receptors. In a population-based sample, genotyping of 5-HTR1B (polymorphism: G861C), MC4R (polymorphisms: C-2745T, Val103Ile), DRD2 (polymorphism: C313T) and DRD4 (polymorphism: 48-bp VNTR) was performed in 387 healthy men. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale was used to evaluate specific ailments of aging men. We analyzed answers to questions from the AMS scale. Five points of the questionnaire addressed sexual symptoms of the aging male: feeling of passing one's peak, decrease in beard growth, decrease in ability/frequency to perform sexually, decrease in the number of morning erections, and decrease in sexual desire/libido (lacking pleasure in sex, lacking desire for sexual intercourse). Relations between reported symptoms and variants of the polymorphic sites of the studied genes were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (education, arterial hypertension, physical activity, weight, waist circumference) an association between the sexual dimension of AMS and genetic variants of 5-HTR1B G861C (p = 0.04) was observed. Variability of neurotransmitter receptor genes may be associated with sexual symptoms of aging in men. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan

    Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)

  14. Electric cadavers, 'metiphor,' and other medical software marvels.

    Weiss, M

    1991-04-01

    "Grateful Med," "Fluids," "Metiphor," virtual reality, and electric cadavers are just some of the programs and buzzwords in the futuristic world of medical software affecting many areas of health care.

  15. Perception to Cadaver Dissection and Views on Anatomy as a ...

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their ... Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery at the new school of Medicine, Kenya ... training and counseling to make the experience better for students.

  16. Age at Immigration and Substance Use and Problems Among Males and Females at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Li, Libo; Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Although substance use and problems among Mexican Americans are associated with both immigration to the United States and living at the U.S.-Mexico border, little is known about relationships between age at immigration and substance use by gender within the border context. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of age at immigration with heavy alcohol use, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and drug use among Mexicans Americans living both on and off the U.S.-Mexico border. Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 2,336 Mexican Americans (1,185 female), ages 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville, and in the nonborder location of San Antonio. Females immigrating before age 12 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] = 0.309), and those immigrating before age 21 were less likely to report any drug use during the last year compared with their U.S.-born counterparts (OR = 0.473; OR = 0.386, respectively). Males immigrating after age 20 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (OR = 0.478), and those immigrating between ages 12 and 20 were less likely to report AUD (OR = 0.479) and drug use (OR = 0.255) compared with their U.S.-born counterparts. Early age at immigration (before age 12) was significantly associated with drug use for males living on the border compared with those living off the border. Findings suggest that among females, immigrating before age 12 (vs. being born in the United States) is protective against heavy alcohol and drug use, but among males, immigrating before age 12 results in similarly heavy patterns of use as their U.S.-born counterparts, partially supporting previous findings that early immigration is particularly risky in relation to substance use and AUD.

  17. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...

  18. Age, sex, and telomere dynamics in a long-lived seabird with male-biased parental care.

    Rebecca C Young

    Full Text Available The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia, a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1 cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years from one colony and 2 longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF, a lower window of TRF (TOE, and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to

  19. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  20. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  1. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167.

  2. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  3. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP per capita per life-year gained. RESULTS: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure and is cost

  4. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  5. Condom Use at Last Sexual Intercourse and Its Correlates among Males and Females Aged 15–49 Years in Nepal

    Bimala Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among people aged 15–49 years in Nepal. Secondary data analysis was performed using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The study was restricted to the respondents who reported ever having had sexual intercourse; 9843 females and 3017 males were included. Condom use was assessed by asking if respondents used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Complex Sample Analysis Procedure to adjust for sample weight and multistage sampling design. Overall, 7.6% of total, and 16.3% of males and 6.2% of females reported using condoms in their last sexual intercourse. Living in Far-Western region, age and wealth quintile were positively associated with condom use in both males and females. Being unmarried was the most important predictor of condom use among males. Higher education was associated with increased likelihood of condom use in females. However, mobility, having multiple sexual partners, and HIV knowledge were not significant correlates of condom use in both sexes. A big difference was observed in the variance accounted for males and females; indicating use of condoms is poorly predicted by the variables included in the study among females. Condom use was more associated with sociodemographic factors than with sexual behavior and HIV knowledge.

  6. Androgen and glucocorticoid production in the male killer whale (Orcinus orca): influence of age, maturity, and environmental factors.

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Fetter, G A; Robeck, T R

    2017-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca) aged 0.8-38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A-TEMP) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable. Hormone profiles, derived from enzyme immunoassay procedures validated herein, established that simultaneous up-regulation of androstenedione and testosterone production occurs at puberty, when males are aged 8-12 years. Androgen (testosterone and androstenedione) production in pubertal and adult males was influenced by season, with highest (p effect of STATUS and season on DHEA production was also documented, with higher (p reproductive and adrenocortical function in healthy male killer whales and provide baseline profiles of hormone production for use in the species' health assessment and conservation. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  8. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: Comparative study among East Asian countries.

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how the age of children influences life satisfaction for males and females in East Asian countries. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. There is also a gender d...

  9. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toword Periodontal Health Among Males and Females Students Aged (16-18 Years in Erbil City

    Shahida Rassul Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: periodontal disease conceder as a malty inflammatory disease may be a source of systemic inflammation because oral health is important for appearance and sense of well-being overall health. So cleaning the mouth by brushing and flossing to prevent gum disease is important. The current study was conducted to clarify the knowledge, attitude, and behavior in relation to periodontal health status among male and female students in Erbil city.   Materials and Methods: a questionnaire of periodontal health of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was allocated on 480 (240 males and 240 females school students ran- domly, aged 16–18 year, in Erbil city. Data were collected by means of 23 close-ended questionnaires.   Results: 85% of male and 90% of female knew that brushing prevents gingivitis. 55.4% of the male student, 62.1 of female student thought that using dental floss prevent periodontal disease. While (26.7% of male and 22.1% of female would visit a dentist in case of gum pain. (81.3% of male and 97.5 of female thought that regular visits to the dentist necessary (p≤0.0004. Males reported 25% of twice a day tooth brushing while female reported 42.9% of twice a day tooth brushing (p≤0.025.   Toothbrush and toothpaste were still the most commonly used oral hygiene aids among male (74.6% and female (91.7% students (p≤0.0015 used tooth brush and tooth paste commonly as oral hygiene aids.   Conclusions: present study shows that our students have positive knowledge, attitude and negative behavior to word periodontal health.  

  11. Radiographic Detectability of Retained Neuropatties in a Cadaver Model.

    Luo, Wangjian Thomas; Almack, Robert; Mawson, John B; Cochrane, David Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Counts are the commonest method used to ensure that all sponges and neuropatties are removed from a surgical site before closure. When the count is not reconciled, plain radiographs of the operative site are taken to determine whether the missing patty has been left in the wound. The purpose of this study was to describe the detectability of commonly used neuropatties in the clinical setting using digital technologies. Neuropatties were implanted into the anterior and posterior cranial fossae and the thoracolumbar extradural space of a mature male cadaver. Four neuropatty sizes were used: 3 × 1 in, 2 × ½ in, ½ × ½ in, and ¼ × ¼ in. Neuropatties, with size and location chosen at random, were placed in the surgical sites and anteroposterior/posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs were taken using standard portable digital radiographic equipment. Six clinicians reviewed the digital images for the presence or absence of neuropatties. The readers were not aware of the number and size of the patties that were included in each image. The detectability of neuropatties is dependent on the size of the neuropatty's radiopaque marker and the operative site. Neuropatties measuring 2 × ½ in and 3 × 1 in were detected reliably regardless of the operative site. ¼ × ¼ in neuropatties were poorly detected by neurosurgeons and radiologists in all three operative sites. Readers of various experience and background were similar in their ability to detect neuropatties under these conditions. Under simulated operating room conditions and using currently available neuropatties and plain radiograph imaging technology, small ¼-in and ½-in neuropatties are poorly visible/detectable on digital images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship Between the Relative Age Effect and Lengths of Professional Careers in Male Japanese Baseball Players: a Retrospective Analysis.

    Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.

  13. Anatomic study of celiac ganglia using CT in cadavers

    Zhao Qionghui; Zhang Xiaoming; Zeng Nanlin; Cai Changping; Xie Xingguo; Li Chengjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the celiac ganglia in cadavers by using current CT techniques, and to facilitate its identification in vivo by CT. Methods: Fifty cadavers were dissected, moving peritoneal organs such as liver and stomach to expose the celiac ganglia. The location, morphology, and dimensions of celiac ganglia, and their relationship to abutting structures, were noted. The celiac ganglia in 6 of the 50 cadavers without peripancreatic diseases and with clear anatomy were isolated and marked with yellow dye and Iohexol injection. In these 6 cadavers, the moved organs were relocated, the abdomen was closed, and CT was performed. CT derived measurements of celiac ganglia were compared with those from cadavers study. Results: The celiac ganglia of 47 of 50 cadavers (94%) were located between T12-L1, and those of 3 cadavers (6%) were located between T11-12. The superior-inferior diameter of the right ganglia was (25.01 ±6.09) mm, long (left-right) diameter was (13.18 ± 3.62) mm, and short (thickness) diameter was (1.40 ± 0.55) mm. In the left ganglia, these three diameters were (22.74 ± 5.70) mm, (15.07 ± 4.35) mm, and (2.00 ± 0.71 ) mm, respectively. On the CT images of 6 cadavers, the right and left ganglia were all identified and were hyperdense relative to viscus, such as liver and spleen. The long and short diameters on CT images were (15.20 ± 1.64) mm and (1.53 ± 0.52) mm for the right ganglia and (16.25 ± 1.73 ) mm and (2.20 ± 0.73) mm for the left ganglia. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ganglia measured on CT images and by dissection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current CT techniques can demonstrate accurately the celiac ganglia in cadavers. This can be a reference for identifying the celiac plexus in vivo. (authors)

  14. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  15. STUTERING WITH MALE CHILDREN IN REGARD TO FEMALE ONES AT THE AGE OF SIX

    Vesna STEPANOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents opinions and data in regard to shuttering as a syndrome of speech, psychological, philosophical and sociological manifestations. The sublimated results, quantitatively presented refer to conclusion that stuttering is more frequent with male than with female children.

  16. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Prasanth N. Surampudi; Christina Wang; Ronald Swerdloff

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young...

  17. Forecasting the timing of peak mandibular growth in males by using skeletal age.

    Hunter, W Stuart; Baumrind, Sheldon; Popovich, Frank; Jorgensen, Gertrud

    2007-03-01

    It is generally believed that the orthodontic treatment of a patient with a Class II malocclusion and a small mandible is enhanced by good growth at puberty, so that the timing of peak mandibular growth at puberty becomes of interest. To test the belief that skeletal age, whether early, average, or late, can be used to predict the timing of maximum growth of the mandible, whether early, average, or late, the predictive relationship between skeletal age and peak mandibular growth velocity (PMdV) at puberty was evaluated in 94 boys by using their longitudinal records from 4 to 18 years of age. Skeletal age was determined for each subject at ages 9 through 14 by using the method of Greulich and Pyle. At age 9, the Greulich and Pyle measurements predicted that 30 of the 94 subjects would have delayed PMdV equal to or exceeding 1 SD (of the mean age for PMdV), and 10 would have advanced PMdV equal to or exceeding 1 SD. When the actual age of PMdV was determined retrospectively from plots of annual mandibular growth increments, it was found that only 4 of the 30 in the delayed group had actually experienced delays in PMdV, and only 2 of the 10 in the advanced group had experienced accelerated PMdV. Skeletal age is not a reliable predictor of the timing of PMdV.

  18. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  19. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (pTaiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. PMID:25049655

  20. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  2. The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.

    Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skeletal muscles of aged male mice fail to adapt following contractile activity.

    Vasilaki, A; Iwanejko, L M; McArdle, F; Broome, C S; Jackson, M J; McArdle, A

    2003-04-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts rapidly following exercise by the increased production of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The aim of this study was to examine the ability of muscle from adult and aged mice to produce HSPs following non-damaging exercise. Adult and aged B6XSJL mice were anaesthetized and their hind limbs were subjected to isometric contractions. At different time points, muscles were analysed for HSP production by Western and Northern blotting and by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. HSP protein and mRNA levels in muscles from adult mice increased significantly following exercise. This was not evident in muscles of aged mice. In contrast, binding of the transcription factor heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) was not grossly altered in muscles of aged mice compared with adult mice. The data suggest that the inability of muscles of aged mice to produce HSPs appears to be due to alterations during gene transcription.

  4. Resilient protein co-expression network in male orbitofrontal cortex layer 2/3 during human aging.

    Pabba, Mohan; Scifo, Enzo; Kapadia, Fenika; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ma, Tianzhou; Mechawar, Naguib; Tseng, George C; Sibille, Etienne

    2017-10-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e.g., GFAP, CALB1). Using a previously described categorization of biological aging based on somatic tissues, that is, peripheral "hallmarks of aging," and considering overlap in protein function, we show the highest representation of altered cell-cell communication (54%), deregulated nutrient sensing (39%), and loss of proteostasis (35%) in the set of OFC layer 2/3 DE proteins. DE proteins also showed a significant association with several neurologic disorders; for example, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Notably, despite age-related changes in individual protein levels, protein co-expression modules were remarkably conserved across age groups, suggesting robust functional homeostasis. Collectively, these results provide biological insight into aging and associated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain normal brain function with advancing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  6. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  7. Effects of prolonged agmatine treatment in aged male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Rushaidhi, M; Zhang, H; Liu, P

    2013-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism contributes to cognitive decline during ageing. Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including the modulation of behavioural function. A recent study demonstrated the beneficial effects of short-term agmatine treatment in aged rats. The present study investigated how intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (40mg/kg, once daily) over 4-6weeks affected behavioural function and neurochemistry in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats treated with saline displayed significantly reduced exploratory activity in the open field, impaired spatial learning and memory in the water maze and object recognition memory relative to young rats. Prolonged agmatine treatment improved animals' performance in the reversal test of the water maze and object recognition memory test, and significantly suppressed age-related elevation in nitric oxide synthase activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, this prolonged supplementation was unable to improve exploratory activity and spatial reference learning and memory in aged rats. These findings further demonstrate that exogenous agmatine selectively improves behavioural function in aged rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship of cytokines and bone metabolic markers to osteoporosis in aged males

    Luo Nanping; Hu Chengjin; Li Jinhua; Chen Yingjian; Wang Ruishan; Yin Qiuxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relationship of cytokines and bone metabolic markers to osteoporosis in aged men. Methods: Serum interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, bone glaprotein (BGP), testosterone (T), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and bone density of aged men with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were assessed and compared with those of middle-aged and aged healthy men. Results: The levels of serum IL-4 and IL-6 increased with severity of osteoporosis and the differences were significant compared with normal controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). The levels of IL-10, BGP, AKP and T decreased at different degrees and also had significant differences compared with normal controls (P<0.05). Bone density of aged men with osteoporosis and bone mass loss was lower than that of middle-aged healthy men (P<0.01), and bone density of aged men with osteoporosis was apparently lower than that of men with bone mass loss (P<0.05). Conclusions: From bone mass loss to osteoporosis, the deteriorating process presents as bone absorption increasing and osteogenesis decreasing. IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 and other bone metabolic markers may play a role in diagnosis of osteoporosis

  9. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  10. Forced oral opening for cadavers with rigor mortis: two approaches for the myotomy on the temporal muscles.

    Nakayama, Y; Aoki, Y; Niitsu, H; Saigusa, K

    2001-04-15

    Forensic dentistry plays an essential role in personal identification procedures. An adequate interincisal space of cadavers with rigor mortis is required to obtain detailed dental findings. We have developed intraoral and two directional approaches, for myotomy of the temporal muscles. The intraoral approach, in which the temporalis was dissected with scissors inserted via an intraoral incision, was adopted for elderly cadavers, females and emaciated or exhausted bodies, and had a merit of no incision on the face. The two directional approach, in which myotomy was performed with thread-wire saw from behind and with scissors via the intraoral incision, was designed for male muscular youths. Both approaches were effective to obtain a desired degree of an interincisal opening without facial damage.

  11. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  12. Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nickel, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. METHOD: Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors...... of premature death included father's alcoholism, childhood developmental data, and diagnostic information obtained from the Psychiatric Register and alcoholism clinics. RESULTS: By age 40, 21 of the 329 subjects had died (6.4%), a rate that is more than two times greater than expected. Sons of alcoholic...... fathers were not more likely to die by age 40. Premature death was associated with physical immaturity at 1-year of age and psychiatric/alcoholism treatment. No significant interactions were found between risk and archival measures. CONCLUSION: Genetic vulnerability did not independently predict death...

  13. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dy...

  14. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  15. Effect of long-term caloric restriction on brain monoamines in aging male and female Fischer 344 rats.

    Kolta, M G; Holson, R; Duffy, P; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    The present study examines the changes in central monoamines and their metabolites in aged male and female rats after long-term caloric restriction. Fischer 344 rats of both sexes (n = 5-10/group) were maintained on one of two dietary regimens: ad libitum NIH 31 diet or 60% by weight of the ad lib. intake (restricted), supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Animals received these diets from the age of 14 weeks until killed at 22.25 months of age. Caudate nucleus (CN), hypothalamus (HYPO), olfactory bulb (OB) and nucleus accumbens (NA) were assayed for content of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC, and homovanillic acid, HVA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) using HPLC/EC. Relative to the ad lib. group, restricted rats of both sex showed significant decreases in NE content in CN, HYPO and OB. DA and 5-HT content were decreased significantly in the CN and HYPO. No significant changes were found in the levels of DA metabolites in all brain regions studied. While the 5-HIAA level was significantly reduced in the HYPO and NA of the female restricted rats, it was increased several-fold in the OB of the male restricted animals. These preliminary results suggest that long-term caloric restriction alters brain monoamine concentrations, an effect which may in turn modify the normal rate of aging.

  16. Subthreshold Depressive Symptoms have a Negative Impact on Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Males.

    Brevik, Erlend J; Eikeland, Rune A; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF), whereas crystallized intelligence (gC) tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 years). gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI), memory function (CVLT-II), processing speed and executive function (CDT; CWIT). gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI). Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck's Depression Index (BDI) and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5). Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r = -0.436, p  age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3, 124) = 16.653, p < 0.001, R? = 0.292, ΔR? = 0.054. The results showed that symptoms of depression were negatively correlated with cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  17. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of males and females between ages 20 and 39,9 years

    Cândido Simões Pires Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze anthropometric and body composition variables of males and females aged 20-40 years. The sample was made up of 4 groups: G1, n=70; G3, n=70, males and females aged 20-29,9yo respectively; G2, males=20 and G4, females = 19 aged 30-39,9yo. Subjects were evaluated for height (H, cm, weight (W, kg, skinfolds (SKF, mm, percent fat (%fat and Lean Body Mass (LBM, kg. Body density was estimated according to equations by Petroski (1995 and %fat according to Siri (1961. Descriptive statistics, independent t test and single-sample t test were used for data analysis. Signifi cant differences were found for males on SS and TR SKF, density, %fat and FM between age groups, and for females at calf SKF, and %fat. Signifi cant differences were observed between indicators/mean values from other published reports when compared to this study’s results. In conclusion, males were shown to have much larger variability in all analyzed variables that their female counterparts. RESUMO O objetivo deste foi investigar indicadores antropométricos e da composição corporal de homens e mulheres entre 20 e 39,9 anos de idade. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos, sendo G1 (n=70 e G3 (n=70, homens e mulheres de 20 a 29,9 anos, respectivamente; e, G2 (homens, n=20 e G4 (mulheres, n=19, entre 30 e 39,9 anos de idade, sendo analisados nas variáveis estatura (EST, cm, massa corporal (MC, kg e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm. Para estimativa da densidade corporal (D, foi utilizada a equação proposta por Petroski (1995. O cálculo da gordura relativa (%G, foi estimado através da equação de Siri (1961. Usou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” para grupos independentes e teste “t” para uma amostra. Foram observadas diferenças signifi cativas entre DC subescapular, tricipital, %G e massa de gordura entre G1 e G2; e entre G3 e G4 em DC de panturrilha medial e %G. Observou-se diferenças signifi cativas entre indicadores/valores m

  18. Subthreshold depressive symptoms have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in middle-aged and older males.

    Erlend Joramo Brevik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF, whereas crystallized intelligence (gC tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy, middle-aged and older adults. Method. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 yrs. gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI, memory function (California Verbal Learning Test, processing speed and executive function (Cued Discrimination Task; Color-Word Interference Test. gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck’s Depression Index (BDI and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5. Results. Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r=-.436, p<.001, but not gC (r=-.103, p=ns.. The BDI score in the whole sample was correlated with gF (r=-.313, p<.001. A more detailed analysis showed that the BDI score correlated with measures of both gF and gC in males. The correlations were non-significant for females on all measures, with the exception of a measure of processing speed/executive function. A regression analysis including age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3,124=16.653, p < .001, R² = .292, ∆R² = .054. Discussion. The results showed that symptoms of depression have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  19. Early Menarche is Associated With Preference for Masculine Male Faces and Younger Preferred Age to Have a First Child

    Carlota Batres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One developmental factor that is associated with variation in reproductive strategy is pubertal timing. For instance, women who experience earlier menarche have their first pregnancy earlier and prefer more masculinized male voices. Early menarche may also lead to preferences for masculine faces, but no study has shown such a link. We therefore investigated the relationships between pubertal timing, reproductive plans, sexual attitudes and behaviors, and masculinity preferences in nulliparous women aged 18–30 from the United Kingdom (N = 10,793. We found that women who experienced earlier menarche reported a younger preferred age to have a first child and showed stronger masculinity preferences. This provides evidence that women experiencing early menarche not only have children earlier but notably plan to have children earlier. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that age of menarche influences partner selection, which is instrumental for the implementation of reproductive strategies.

  20. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study.

    McCabe, Paul S; Pye, Stephen R; Beth, John Mc; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2016-01-16

    The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and the new occurrence of CWP. Two thousand three hundred thirteen men, mean age 58.8 years (SD = 10.6), had complete pain and vitamin data available and contributed to this analysis. 151 (6.5%) developed new CWP at follow up and 577 (24.9%) were pain free at both time points, the comparator group. After adjustment for age and centre, physical performance and number of comorbidities, compared to those in upper quintile of 25-(OH) D ( ≥36.3 ng/mL), those in the lowest quintile (BMI (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 0.93-3.02) or depression (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 0.98-3.21), however rendered the association non-significant. Low vitamin D is linked with the new occurrence of CWP, although this may be explained by underlying adverse health factors, particularly obesity and depression.

  1. Effect of castration age on slaughtering performance of Piemontese male cattle

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calves castration represents an old and traditional practice to obtain animal work force, but for technical, economic and social reasons in the last half of the 20th century it was left. The recent renewal of Piemontese steers rearing in the breed’s native diffusion area, for quality meat production (Biagini et al., 2001, has been spurred also for the interest in local typical dishes. Traditionally, in Piedmont calves were castrated before puberty (about 6 month of age, but now also later (12-14 month of age to benefit by the bull higher growing rate.

  2. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  3. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  4. Male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus in middle-aged rats.

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2007-12-12

    The correlation between male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI, consisting of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC, consisting of non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control group. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. There were no differences between MIE rats and young controls in DA or NE tissue levels in these two brain areas. Furthermore, no differences were found between the MI and NC groups in DA or NE tissue levels in either the MPOA or ARN. DA tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN in the MI and NC groups were significantly lower than those in the MIE group. NE tissue levels in the MPOA of the NC group were significantly lower than those in the MIE group, but no differences in NE tissue levels in the ARN were seen between the four groups. These results suggest that, in male rats, complete male sexual performance is related to tissue levels of DA, but not of NE, in the MPOA and/or ARN. Furthermore, ejaculatory behavior might be associated with critical DA tissue levels in the MPOA and/or ARN in middle-aged rats.

  5. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  6. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative age effect and the re-selection of Danish male handball players for national teams

    Wrang, Christian Meedom; Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Lilholt, Rasmus Mølgaard

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between date of birth and expertise in various sports is well established, and known as the relative age effect (RAE). However, new results in e.g. Canadian Hockey (Gibbs et al., 2012) and British cricket and rugby (McCarthy & Collins, 2014; McCarthy, Collins, & Court, 2015) have...

  8. Age of Onset and Sexual Orientation in Transsexual Males and Females

    Nieder, T.O.; Herff, M.; Cerwenka, S.; Preuss, W.F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; De Cuypere, G.; Haraldsen, I.R.H.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. With regard to transsexual developments, onset age (OA) appears to be the starting point of different psychosexual pathways. Aim. To explore differences between transsexual adults with an early vs. late OA. Methods. Data were collected within the European Network for the Investigation

  9. Effect of castration at 10 months of age on growth physiology and behavior of male feral beef cattle.

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Albertí, Pere; Ripoll, Guillermo; Blasco, Isabel; Sanz, Albina

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the growth performance, plasma testosterone and cortisol levels around castration at 10 months of age, and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentration and flight speed, in intact bulls and steers from 10 to 21 months of age in a feral Spanish breed. Fourteen bulls (366.5 ± 48.5 kg live weight) were assigned at random to one of two treatments: surgically castrated (steers) or intact (bulls), and submitted to an identical fattening period. Steers reared until heavy live weights (21 months of age) grew slowly and had lower plasma IGF-I concentrations than intact bulls. These differences were mainly highlighted the month after surgery (11 months of age) and the last part of the fattening period (from 19 to 21 months of age). After surgical castration (11 and 12 months of age), steers showed a tendency to display greater flight speed values than intact bulls but baseline plasma cortisol concentration did not differ between groups at this time. At the end, steers and bulls reached nearly similar temperament, as flight speed did not differ between them. The results confirm the role of IGF-I as a key anabolic hormone in male beef cattle and thus it may reflect growth differences due to altered sex steroids production. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The effects of male age on sperm analysis by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME

    Silva Liliane FI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME. Methods Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area. At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years. Results There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II groups (P >0.05. The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II groups (P P >0.05. The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III than in the younger (I and II groups (P P P Conclusion The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of fertilisation with damaged spermatozoa. Given that sperm nuclear vacuoles can be evaluated more precisely at high magnification, these results support the routine use of MSOME for ICSI as a criterion for semen analysis.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    P.E. Natekar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not

  13. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections

  14. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Catherine Hankins

    Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid

  15. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  16. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Mantle, Peter G.; Nolan, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100-250 µg/kg body weight). Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100-250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made. PMID:22069628

  17. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Peter G. Mantle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100–250 µg/kg body weight. Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100–250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made.

  18. Construction of tomographic head model using sectioned photographic images of cadaver

    Lee, Choon Sik; Lee, Jai Ki; Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk

    2004-01-01

    Tomographic models are currently the most complete, developed and realistic models of the human anatomy. They have been used to estimate organ doses for diagnostic radiation examination and radiotherapy treatment planning, and radiation protection. The quality of original anatomic images is a key factor to build a quality tomographic model. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, from which most of current tomographic models are constructed, have their inherent shortcomings. In this study, a tomographic model of Korean adult male head was constructed by using serially sectioned photographs of cadaver. The cadaver was embedded, frozen, serially sectioned and photographed by high resolution digital camera at 0.2 mm interval. The contours of organs and tissues in photographs were segmented by several trained anatomists. The 120 segmented images of head at 2mm interval were converted into binary files and ported into Monte Carlo code to perform an example calculation of organ dose. Whole body tomographic model will be constructed by using the procedure developed in this study

  19. Three Software Tools for Viewing Sectional Planes, Volume Models, and Surface Models of a Cadaver Hand.

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Shin, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2018-02-19

    The hand anatomy, including the complicated hand muscles, can be grasped by using computer-assisted learning tools with high quality two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models. The purpose of this study was to present up-to-date software tools that promote learning of stereoscopic morphology of the hand. On the basis of horizontal sectioned images and outlined images of a male cadaver, vertical planes, volume models, and surface models were elaborated. Software to browse pairs of the sectioned and outlined images in orthogonal planes and software to peel and rotate the volume models, as well as a portable document format (PDF) file to select and rotate the surface models, were produced. All of the software tools were downloadable free of charge and usable off-line. The three types of tools for viewing multiple aspects of the hand could be adequately employed according to individual needs. These new tools involving the realistic images of a cadaver and the diverse functions are expected to improve comprehensive knowledge of the hand shape. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  1. Comparing calculated free testosterone with total testosterone for screening and diagnosing late-onset hypogonadism in aged males: A cross-sectional study.

    Liu, Zhangshun; Liu, Jie; Shi, Xiaohong; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Yan; Tao, Minfang; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare calculated free testosterone (cFT) and total testosterone (T) in predicting late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in middle-aged and elderly males. We surveyed a random sample of 608 males between the ages of 45 and 87 years from Shanghai, China. The Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) questionnaire and the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), albumin, and other blood biochemical indexes were measured in 332 males. The corresponding cFT was obtained using the Vermeulen formula and the correlations between T and cFT were analyzed by SPSS statistical software. Among the 332 males who underwent biochemical evaluation, 289 males (87.0%) was positively screened by the ADAM questionnaire and 232 males (69.9%) by the AMS questionnaire. As suggested by linear regression, cFT exhibited a negative correlation with age in both ADAM+ and AMS+ group, whereas T did not appear to have significant correlation with age. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in cFT (Pmales. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated...... in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  3. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires standardizing counseling content, as there are significant age differences in HIV prevention content received by adolescents.

  6. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  7. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  8. A new substitute for formalin: Application to embalming cadavers.

    Haizuka, Yoshinori; Nagase, Miki; Takashino, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, George

    2018-01-01

    The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump. Experienced teaching staff members in our department dissected the cadavers and examined their macroanatomical properties. The NVP-embalmed corpses showed no sign of decomposition or fungal growth. The bodies remained soft and flexible. Notably, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, phalangeal, hip, knee, cervical spine, and temporomandibular joints were highly mobile, almost equivalent to those of living individuals. The range of motion of most joints was greater in the NVP-fixed than formalin-fixed cadavers. Under the dermis, the subcutaneous fat was markedly reduced and the connective tissues were transparent, so the ligaments, cutaneous nerves, and veins were easily discernible. The abdominal wall and the visceral organs remained pliable and elastic, resembling those of fresh cadavers. The lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract were moveable in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and were readily isolated. NVP can be used successfully as a fixative and preservative solution for human cadavers; furthermore, NVP-embalmed bodies could be valuable for learning clinical skills and for training, and for developing innovative medical devices. Clin. Anat. 31:90-98, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences in female and male development of the human cerebral cortex from birth to age 16

    Hanlon, Harriet Wehner

    1994-01-01

    This study compares the development of the human cerebral cortex of 224 girls and 284 boys in a series of cross-sectional analyses as measured by EEG coherence on normal children's brains (longisectional design). Correlations of these EEG readings taken from all brain regions between a mean age of 6 months and 16 years yield measures of synaptic communication. Time series of these measures reflect the changing growth patterns across the 16 years. Time series of mean EE...

  10. The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players.

    Helsen, Werner F; Starkes, Janet L; Van Winckel, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The consistent asymmetry in the birth-date distribution of senior professional soccer players has led us to investigate whether similar asymmetries emerge throughout youth categories in soccer. Birth dates were considered for professional players, national youth teams, youth players transferred to top teams, and regular youth league players. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants at various levels of play in soccer. Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6-8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. Eventually, these players are more likely to be transferred to top teams, to play for national teams, and to become involved professionally. In comparison, players born late in the selection year tended to dropout as early as 12 years of age. Recommendations suggest a review of the 24-month age band and current methods for talent detection and selection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10:791-798, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players.

    Allisse, Maxime; Sercia, Pierre; Comtois, Alain-Steve; Leone, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years) were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  12. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players

    Allisse Maxime

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05. However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  13. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The effects of sleep duration on the incidence of cardiovascular events among middle-aged male workers in Japan.

    Hamazaki, Yuko; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-09-01

    Although previous epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and various cardiovascular events, the results have been inconsistent. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular events among male workers, accounting for occupational factors that might confound the true relationship. A total of 2282 male employees aged 35-54 years based in a factory in Japan were followed for 14 years. The risk of cardiovascular events was compared among 4 groups stratified based on sleep duration at baseline (hours). Cardiovascular events included stroke, coronary events and sudden cardiac death. The hazard ratios for events were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, with the 7-7.9-hour group serving as a reference. The model was adjusted for potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors and working characteristics. During 14 years of follow-up, 64 cardiovascular events were recorded including 30 strokes, 27 coronary events and 7 sudden cardiac deaths. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular and coronary events in the hour group were 3.49 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.30-9.40] and 4.95 (95% CI 1.31-18.73), respectively. There was no significant increment in the risk of stroke for any sleep duration groups. Short sleep duration (hours) was a significant risk factor for coronary events in a Japanese male working population.

  16. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  17. The nuclear catastrophe of Chernobyl as experienced by 168 male and female probands of various age groups

    Janke, W.; Hueppe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A collective of 168 persons aged 18 to 59 were studied to assess the impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on how they experience, and react to, incidents. Four groups were made up of 42 persons each (male/female; 18-39-year-olds/40-59-year-olds). As variables, the instantaneous psychic condition as a reaction to the accident, and strategies to cope with stress were studied by psychometric methods. Furthermore a questionnaire on attitudes and behaviour, specially drawn up for the study, was used, whose reliability was confirmed by analyses of the individual items. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, it is found, was felt to be a grave incident and led to a number of reactions in the attitudes and views of people. The very different response of the age and sex groups is considered to be the result of the highest significance. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  19. Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia.

    Abdel Rahim, S E

    1997-07-01

    Aspects of sexual development and attainment of sexual and breeding maturity were studied in two groups of Najdi camels (Mojaheem and Wadah), maintained in stalls under good nutritional conditions. Body weight, testes diameter and degree of penile freedom were recorded weekly. Sexual maturity was assessed by the examination of semen collected by an artificial vagina. Puberty was defined as the stage when the animal was able to produce viable sperms. Mating, followed by strong jerks and ejaculation of mature sperms, was taken to indicate onset of breeding maturity. Mojaheem camels reached sexual maturity at a significantly younger age and heavier weight (164 weeks and 360 kg) than Wadah camels (182 weeks and 336.5 kg) (P penis from preputial adhesions occurred at an average age of 138.6 weeks in both breeds. At the point of sexual maturity, the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was 65.1 +/- 5.2 while percentage of abnormal sperms was 17.6 +/- 2.2; total motility was 40 +/- 16% and progressive motility (48 +/- 2.2% (semen pH range 7.8-8.2). The percentage of live sperm was 65 +/- 1.5 (normal sperms 82 +/- 4). It is suggested that the encouragement of rapid growth during the pubertal period in camels managed under good nutritional and environmental conditions could assist early sexual development and breeding maturity.

  20. Cannula Versus Sharp Needle for Placement of Soft Tissue Fillers: An Observational Cadaver Study.

    van Loghem, Jani A J; Humzah, Dalvi; Kerscher, Martina

    2017-12-13

    Soft-tissue fillers have become important products for facial rejuvenation. Deep fat compartments and facial bones lose volume during the natural aging process. For the most natural-looking results, deep volumetric injections at strategic sites are therefore preferred. Supraperiosteal placement is performed with a sharp needle or a non-traumatic cannula. The primary objective was to determine whether there is a difference in precision between supraperiosteal placement with a sharp needle compared with a non-traumatic cannula in cadaver specimens. A secondary objective was to analyze the safety profiles of both injection techniques. Cadaver heads were injected with dye material and soft-tissue fillers at multiple aesthetic facial sites on the supraperiosteum and subsequently dissected for observation of dye and filler placement. The non-traumatic cannula technique resulted in product being confined to the deep anatomic layers. In contrast, with the sharp needle technique, material was placed in multiple anatomic layers, from the periosteum to more superficial skin layers. For both techniques results were consistent for all facial sites. Although direct extrapolation from cadavers to the in vivo situation cannot be made, cannulae showed more precision in placement of product. With the sharp needle, the material was injected on the periosteum, and then migrated in a retrograde direction along the trajectory of the needle path, ending up in multiple anatomic layers. The sharp needle technique also showed a higher complication risk with intra-arterial injection occurring, even though the needle tip was positioned on the periosteum and the product was injected with the needle in constant contact with the periosteum. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Yield Strength Testing in Human Cadaver Nasal Septal Cartilage and L-Strut Constructs.

    Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.

  2. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age

    AlTurki, Yousef Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the

  3. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (ptherapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  4. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  5. Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–2001

    Göran Gerdin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE has been extensively debated and researched in both popular media and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in 1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players (n = 1835 registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The results show that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked players are compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system, the greater the RAE becomes. Top 10 players display an average of 64.1% being born in the first half of the year. Some gender differences were also found, with a greater proportion of both higher and lower ranked females being born in the first half of the year. In our discussion of the findings we raise several issues that need to be addressed to provide more equal opportunities for all junior players regardless of birth date. Resolving ongoing problems associated with RAE in competitive sports such as tennis is important both in term of prolonged participation in the sport and increased performance. Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE when designing the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniors get older, addressing RAE in a “gender sensitive” way, and conducting further in-depth studies in which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors. Although these findings show the RAE effect in Swedish tennis players, thus pointing at the need for further consideration in terms of ranking and selection procedures to ensure equal opportunities for player development, the study also concludes by reasserting an emphasis on a holistic approach to player development in which coaches focus on the developmentally appropriate needs and potential of each individual player regardless of their biological age.

  6. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECT OF IN VITRO SEMEN STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND AGE OF MALES ON SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY PARAMETERS OF TURKEYS SEMEN

    Joanna Paluch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro storage temperature and age of males on turkey spermatozoa motility. For this purpose samples were collected from British United Turkeys (BUT Big 6 line and semen quality was assessed by using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA system. After 60 minutes of storage spermatozoa motility, progressive motility and amplitude of lateral head displacement decreased significantly both in 4° and 41°C regardless of birds age. However the lowest values of all parameters were noted after storage in thermostat. Spermatozoa motility after 0 and 60 minutes in 4°C was higher in samples collected from turkeys of 35 – 42 weeks of age (60.94% and 53.33% respectively. Whereas the value of that parameter in semen stored in 41°C was lower in that age group. The same tendency was found in progressive motility. The results showed that higher temperature of in vitro storage (even that similar to animal body temperature, in this case 41ºC has more negative effect on spermatozoa motility parameters than lower temperature.

  8. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  9. Age Differences in Perceptions of and Motivations for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Adolescents in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

    Patel, Eshan U; Kaufman, Michelle R; Dam, Kim H; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10-29 years in priority settings by 2021. We aimed to identify age-specific facilitators of VMMC uptake among adolescents. Younger (aged 10-14 years; n = 967) and older (aged 15-19 years; n = 559) male adolescents completed structured interviews about perceptions of and motivations for VMMC before receiving VMMC counseling at 14 service provision sites across South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated using multivariable modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors. The majority of adolescents reported a strong desire for VMMC. Compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to cite protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (aPR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66-.91) and hygienic reasons (aPR, 0.55; 95% CI, .39-.77) as their motivation to undergo VMMC but were more likely to report being motivated by advice from others (aPR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.54-2.29). Although most adolescents believed that undergoing VMMC was a normative behavior, younger adolescents were less likely to perceive higher descriptive norms (aPR, 0.79; .71-.89), injunctive norms (aPR, 0.86; 95% CI, .73-1.00), or anticipated stigma for being uncircumcised (aPR, 0.79; 95% CI, .68-.90). Younger adolescents were also less likely than older adolescents to correctly cite that VMMC offers men and boys partial HIV protection (aPR, 0.73; 95% CI, .65-.82). Irrespective of age, adolescents' main concern about undergoing VMMC was pain (aPR, 0.95; 95% CI, .87-1.04). Among younger adolescents, fear of pain was negatively associated with desire for VMMC (aPR, 0.89; 95% CI, .83-.96). Age-specific strategies are important to

  10. The Analysis of Certain Differences in Motor Skills of Sedentary Male Children in the 9-14 Age Group Based on the Biological Maturity

    Bayraktar, Isik; Yaman, Nigar; Zorba, Erdal; Yaman, Metin; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study consists of the analysis of certain differences in motor skills of male children who are sedentary and in the age group of 9-14, in relation to the biological maturity. 522 sedentary male children from various parts of Turkey participated in this study. Body height and body weight measurements were taken from the participants…

  11. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world.

  12. Impact of weight change after quitting cigarettes on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged male smokers: national health screening cohort study

    Kyuwoong Kim; Seulggie Choi; Mi Hee Cho; Ji Hye Jun; Jooyoung Chang; Sung Min Kim; Kiheon Lee; Sang Min Park

    2018-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the association between weight change after smoking cessation and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged male smokers. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HealS) database. Male Participants (n=102,403) without critical conditions aged between 40 and 79 at baseline who underwent biennial health examination ...

  13. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  14. Normal mediastinal lymph node size and shape; CT and cadaver study

    Im, Chung Kie; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    With the view point of size, shape and arrangement pattern, authors present normal mediastinal lymph node from the analysis of 61 cases of CT scan and multidirectional section of 2 cadavers. The result were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter of the lymph nodes, demonstrated in cadaver section, was 3 to 6mm in upper paratracheal area and 5 to 14mm in juxta-carinal and AP-window area. Arrangement of the lymph nodes showed tendency of longitudinal direction in lower paratracheal, and juxtacarinal area, while that of AP window showed tendency of AP direction as long axis. 2. Mean and the largest size of the lymph nodes demonstrated in CT scan were 3.7mm, 8mm in upper paratracheal area, and 6mm, 12mm in lower paratracheal area, and 7.1mm, 14mm in juxtacarinal area, and 6.3mm and 11mm in aorticopulmonary window area. 3. Size of the lymph nodes in CT scan showed linear increasing tendency according to increasing age (y=0.32, p<0.005). 4. Shape of the lymph nodes in CT scan were mostly round in upper paratracheal area while that of aorticopulmonary window showed higher incidence of oval and elongated shape. 5. Recommended size criterior of abnormal lymph node is 10mm in upper paratracheal area and 15mm in the other area

  15. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

    Fahimeh Talebzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae, and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.

  17. Ecological validity and reliability of an age-adapted endurance field test in young male soccer players

    Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the association with relevant match activities (ecological validity) of an age-adapted field test for intermittent high-intensity endurance known as Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children test (YYIR1C) in young male soccer players......-intensity metabolic power (r=0.46) distances. Match total distance was largely associated with YYIR1C (r=0.30). The results of this study showed that YYIR1C may be considered a valid and reliable field test for assessing intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male soccer players. Due to the relevance...... performance showed an excellent relative (ICC=0.94) and a good absolute reliability (TEM as %CV=5.1%). Very large and significant associations were found between YYIR1C performance and match high-intensity activity (r=0.53). Large correlations were found between YYIR1C and match sprinting (r=0.42) and high...

  18. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  19. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  20. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  1. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  2. Daily Socs1 rhythms alter with aging differentially in peripheral clocks in male Wistar rats: therapeutic effects of melatonin.

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats. Interestingly the peripheral clocks studied displayed a rhythmic rSocs1 gene expression in 3 months. In 12 months group, 12 h phase advance in liver and 12 h phase delay in kidney and heart was observed with abolition of rhythms in intestine. Aging (24 months group) resulted in a phase advance by 6 h in liver and heart with abolition of rhythms in intestine in 24 months group. Kidney was also significantly affected upon aging with significant decrease in the rSocs1 levels and abolition of rhythms. The decrease in melatonin levels with aging is associated with decreased immunity and increased oxidative stress. The exogenous administration of melatonin has been linked to play a role in re-synchronization of circadian rhythms, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immune properties. We therefore had studied the effect of exogenous melatonin upon age induced changes in daily rSocs1 gene expression patterns. Melatonin treatment partially restored the rhythms and daily pulse (ratio of maximum:minimum levels) in liver and intestine in 12 months group. Melatonin administration resulted in a significant increase in mean 24 h rSocs1 expression in intestine and heart of 24 months group compared to that of 3 months. The melatonin administration

  3. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  4. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  5. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  6. BENEFITS AND RISKS OF HORMONE REPLACEMENT ON THE DISTURBANCE ANDROGENIC MALE AGEING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aging man is accompanied by a progressive decline in testosterone production. This slow decrease causes a series of signs and symptoms can often interfere with the quality of man life. The purpose of this article is to review the current issues about the possible risks and benefits of androgen replacement therapy, discussing the clinical studies published on the subject. This is a review of scientific articles, and the identification and analysis of the articles were made through a search in the PUBMED database and SCIELO the period July to October 2013 This set of changes from affecting the musculoskeletal system to damage the scope psychobehavioral called Androgen Dysfunction Male Aging, which affects over 20% of men over 60 years worldwide. It was found in this work that replacement with androgens exerts beneficial effects on the ystem and psycho-behavioral, reflecting improved quality of life. In the other hand, the potential risks refer to the cardiovascular effects of metabolism and worsening of prostate cancer. Although knowledge about the potential risks and benefits of hormone replacement in men has evolved, there is still much that needs to be determined.

  7. The andropause and memory loss: is there a link between androgen decline and dementia in the aging male?

    Robert S. Tan; Shou-Jin Pu

    2001-01-01

    Studies demonstrate a decline in androgens with age and this results in the andropause. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on hormonal changes that occur in the aging males and determine if there are associations between decreased testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and decreased cognitive function. Trials of androgen replacement and its impact on cognitive function will also be analyzed. Method of analysis will be by a thorough search of articles on MEDLINE, the Intemet and major abstract databases. Results of the author's own research in 302 men of the association of memory loss as a symptom in the andropause will be presented. In addition, the authors open trial of testosterone replacement in hypogonadic men with Alzheimer's disease will also be presented. The results of the author's trial will be compared with other investigators. High endogenous testosterone level predicted better performance on visual spatial tests in several studies, but not in all studies. Likewise, testosterone replacement in hypogonadic patients improved cognitive functions in some but not all studies. Testosterone has also been shown to improve cognitive function in eugonadal men. Several studies have shown that declines in DHEA may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and the results of double blind studies with DHEA replacement and its effect on cognition will also be presented. In summary, there is still no consensus that androgen replacement is beneficial in cognitive decline but this option may prove promising in some patients.

  8. Weight change after 20 years of age and the incidence of dyslipidemia: a cohort study of Japanese male workers.

    Sogabe, N; Sawada, S S; Lee, I-M; Kawakami, R; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Nakata, Y; Mitomi, M; Noguchi, J; Tsukamoto, K; Miyachi, M; Blair, S N

    2016-06-01

    While heavier weight is known to increase the incidence of dyslipidemia, limited data are available on the relationship between weight gain and its development. A total of 2647 males were categorized into the following four groups according to the difference between their self-reported weight at 20 years of age and their measured weight in 1994-95: a loss of ≥5% (decrease), loss of dyslipidemia were determined using logistic regression models. A total of 1342 participants developed dyslipidemia during the follow-up period. The 'increase' and 'sizable increase' groups had odds ratios for the incidence of dyslipidemia of 1.97 (95% CI, 1.59-2.45) and 2.68 (2.15-3.34), respectively, demonstrating that there was a significant dose-response association between weight gain since 20 years of age and the incidence of dyslipidemia (P dyslipidemia could be prevented by avoiding weight gain in adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  11. Age- and gender-related distribution of bone mineral density and mechanical properties of the proximal humerus

    Lill, H.; Hepp, P.; Korner, J.; Josten, C.; Gowin, W.; Oestmann, J.W.; Haas, N.P.; Duda, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate age- and gender-related mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus at different levels and regions. Materials and methods: Mechanical indentation testing, DXA, QCT, pQCT and the radiogrammetry (Cortical Index, CI) were carried out in 70 freshly harvested humeri from 46 human cadavers (23 females, 23-males; median age 70.5 years). Results: In the female group, a high correlation between age and BMD was found (ρ=0.62 to -0.70, p [de

  12. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  13. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle?

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2008-01-01

    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  14. Decomposing variation in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through extra-pair and within-pair reproduction.

    Lebigre, Christophe; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2013-07-01

    Age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success shape the total variance in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), age-specific opportunities for selection, and population demographic variance and effective size. Age-specific (co)variances in reproductive success achieved through different reproductive routes must therefore be quantified to predict population, phenotypic and evolutionary dynamics in age-structured populations. While numerous studies have quantified age-specific variation in mean reproductive success, age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success, and the contributions of different reproductive routes to these (co)variances, have not been comprehensively quantified in natural populations. We applied 'additive' and 'independent' methods of variance decomposition to complete data describing apparent (social) and realised (genetic) age-specific reproductive success across 11 cohorts of socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We thereby quantified age-specific (co)variances in male within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success (WPRS and EPRS) and the contributions of these (co)variances to the total variances in age-specific reproductive success and LRS. 'Additive' decomposition showed that within-age and among-age (co)variances in WPRS across males aged 2-4 years contributed most to the total variance in LRS. Age-specific (co)variances in EPRS contributed relatively little. However, extra-pair reproduction altered age-specific variances in reproductive success relative to the social mating system, and hence altered the relative contributions of age-specific reproductive success to the total variance in LRS. 'Independent' decomposition showed that the (co)variances in age-specific WPRS, EPRS and total reproductive success, and the resulting opportunities for selection, varied substantially across males that survived to each age. Furthermore, extra-pair reproduction increased

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  16. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  17. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  18. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    Yamamura, Eiji; Rodriguez Andres, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  19. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  20. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  1. The ageing males' symptoms scale for Chinese men: reliability,validation and applicability of the Chinese version.

    Kong, X-b; Guan, H-t; Li, H-g; Zhou, Y; Xiong, C-l

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the ageing males' symptoms (AMS) scale was translated into Chinese following methodological recommendations for linguistic and cultural adaptation. This study aimed to confirm the reliability, validation and applicability of the simplified Chinese version of the scale (CN-AMS) in older Chinese men, a free health screening for men older than 40 years was conducted. All participants completed a health questionnaire, which consisted of personal health information, AMS scale, the generic quality of life (QoL) instrument SF36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The fasting blood samples of participants were collected on the day of completing the health questionnaire. Serum total testosterone (TT), albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured and the level of free testosterone was calculated (calculated free testosterone, CFT). A total of 244 men (mean age: 52 ± 7.3 years, range: 40-79 years) were involved in the investigation and provided informed consent before their participation. The reliability of CN-AMS was analysed as internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha was 0.91) as well as a 4-week-interval test-retest stability (Pearson's correlation was 0.83) and found to be good. The validation of CN-AMS was analysed as the internal structure analysis (Pearson's correlation between total score and each item score r = 0.48-0.75), total-domain-correlation (among the three domains r = 0.47-0.68, p < 0.01; domains with the total score r = 0.81-0.88, p < 0.01), and cross-validation with other scales (with SF36 r = -0.59, p < 0.01; with BDI r = 0.50, p < 0.01). Androgen deficiency (AD) was defined as the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) in combination with TT < 11 nmol/L and CFT < 220 pmol/L, and the sensitivity and specificity for CN-AMS was 68.8 and 6.8% respectively. The CN-AMS had sufficient sensitivity in

  2. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  4. Analysis of two-dimensional elemental maps in adult and middle-aged female and male Wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Oliveira, L.F. de; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Martinez, A.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are few methods available to measure the spatial (two (three)-dimensional) elemental distribution in animal brain. X-Ray Microfluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation is a multielemental mapping technique, which was used in this work to determine the two-dimensional maps of phosphorous (P), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in coronal sections of adult (60 days old) and middle aged (20 months old) female (n = 4) and male (n = 4) Wistar rats. The measurements were carried out at the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). A two-dimensional scanning was performed in order to study the tendency of elemental concentration variation and the elemental distribution. The acquisition time for each pixel was 10 s/step and the step size was 300 μm/step in both directions. It was observed that P levels decreased with advancing age in female rats, but, on the other hand, these levels increased with advancing age in male rats. K, Fe and Cu levels increased in female and male middle-aged rats in the same ways as P and Cl levels (only in male animals). In addition to this, Fe levels were higher in females rats than males ones. However, in relation to P and K distributions, they were homogeneous in the entire brain section, independently of the gender and age. Cl distribution was more pronounced in cortical areas, hippocampus and thalamus for all the animals studied, except for the middle-aged female rats. Fe distribution was more conspicuous in the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortical area. Moreover, Zn distributions are in good concern with the results reported by the literature, being more intense in the hippocampus. Our results showed that an increase of Fe, Cu and Zn with aging can be related to the development of some neurodegenerative disorders, since the literature reports an increase of these elements in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Wilson Disease. Therefore, we can see that

  5. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  6. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their opinions on anatomy as a subject is scanty ... Key words: Dissection, Perceptions, Cadaver, Anatomy. INTRODUCTION. Dissection has been the .... attention they give to the learning of anatomy, and this may possibly explain the relatively.

  7. A Proposal for a Policy on the Ethical Care and Use of Cadavers and Their Tissues

    Champney, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent events have occurred that indicate the need for policies on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues in the United States. At present, there are policies that address the procurement, handling and disposition of cadavers, but there are no national or society sponsored policies that clearly state the ethically appropriate use…

  8. Current Status of Cadaver Sources in Turkey and a Wake-Up Call for Turkish Anatomists

    Gürses, Ilke Ali; Coskun, Osman; Öztürk, Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Persisting difficulties in body procurement in Turkey led to the acquisition of donated, unclaimed, autopsied, and imported bodies regulated under current legislature. Yet, no study had investigated the extent of the on-going cadaver problem. This study was aimed to outline cadaver sources in anatomy departments and their effectiveness by means of…

  9. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  10. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  11. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  12. Development of a desiccated cadaver delivery system to apply entomopathogenic nematodes for control of soil pests

    Pentomopathogenic nematodes may be more capable of controlling soil pests when they are harbored by desiccated cadavers. A small-scale system was developed from a modified crop seed planter to effectively deliver desiccated nematode-infected cadavers into the soil. The system mainly consists of a me...

  13. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  14. Use of cadaver models in point-of-care emergency ultrasound education for diagnostic applications.

    Zaia, Brita E; Briese, Beau; Williams, Sarah R; Gharahbaghian, Laleh

    2012-10-01

    As the use of bedside emergency ultrasound (US) increases, so does the need for effective US education. To determine 1) what pathology can be reliably simulated and identified by US in human cadavers, and 2) feasibility of using cadavers to improve the comfort of emergency medicine (EM) residents with specific US applications. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey study assessed utility of cadaver simulation to train EM residents in diagnostic US. First, the following pathologies were simulated in a cadaver: orbital foreign body (FB), retrobulbar (RB) hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion. Second, we assessed residents' change in comfort level with US after using this cadaver model. Residents were surveyed regarding their comfort level with various US applications. After brief didactic sessions on the study's US applications, participants attempted to identify the simulated pathology using US. A post-lab survey assessed for change in comfort level after the training. Orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion were readily modeled in a cadaver in ways typical of a live patient. Twenty-two residents completed the pre- and post-lab surveys. After training with cadavers, residents' comfort improved significantly for orbital FB and RB hematoma (mean increase 1.6, pcadavers helpful. Cadavers can simulate orbital FB, RB hematoma, bone fracture, joint effusion, and pleural effusion, and in our center improved the comfort of residents in identifying all but pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  16. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  17. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  18. Effect of Rice Bran Oil on the Lipid Profile of Mild-Moderate Hypercholesterolemic Male Aged 19-55 year

    Noor Diah Erlinawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adult individuals in Indonesia showed changes in diet and lack of physical activity, therefore increasing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and obesity. One of nutritional therapy for hypercholesterolemia is rice bran oil, which contains active substances that works synergistically in controlling lipid profile. The substances are gamma-orzanol, phytosterols, and vitamin E isomers (tocotrienol and tocopherol. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted for 4 weeks in City Hall of Jakarta on 20 males, age 19–55 years old, with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia, to assess lipid profile improvement of the supplementation of rice bran oil 45 ml/days compared to 15 ml/days without changing eating patterns. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference in total cholesterol level between both groups (p = 0.049. In the group that received 45 ml/days of rice bran oil, total cholesterol level decreased 14%, and in the group of 15 ml/days total cholesterol level decreased 7.8%. The reduction of LDL and triglycerides and the increase of HDL were not significantly different between both groups (p >0,05. There was no significant changes of body weight in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of  45 ml/days rice bran oil led to better improvements in lipid profiles compare to 15 ml/days. It has been demonstrated that gamma oryzanol and plant sterols in rice bran oil have the capability to remove cholesterol from bile salt micelles, thus decreasing cholesterol absorption in intestine.

  19. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20-29 in Zimbabwe.

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined.Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10-19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20-29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups.When circumcision coverage among men ages 20-29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5 is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario.Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20-29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group.

  1. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model.

    Ruan, Jesse; El-Jawahri, Raed; Chai, Li; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2003-10-01

    Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing predicted responses with available experimental cadaver data in frontal and side pendulum impacts, as well as belt loading. Model responses were compared with similar individual cadaver tests instead of using cadaver corridors because the large differences between the upper and lower bounds of the corridors may confound the model validation. The validated model was then used to study thorax dynamic responses and injuries in various simulated impact conditions. Parameters that could induce injuries such as force, deflection, and stress were computed from model simulations and were compared with previously proposed thoracic injury criteria to assess injury potential for the thorax. It has been shown that the model exhibited speed sensitive impact characteristics, and the compressibility of the internal organs significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated FE human body model could be useful for injury assessment in various cadaveric impacts reported in the literature. Internal organ injuries, which are

  2. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  3. Effects of aging and gender on micro-rheology of blood in 3 to 18 months old male and female Wistar (Crl:WI) rats.

    Somogyi, Viktoria; Peto, Katalin; Deak, Adam; Tanczos, Bence; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months. Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein at 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age. Hematological parameters, red blood cell deformability (elongation under shear), osmotic gradient deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Body weight and the estrus cycle (in females) were also examined. Erythrocyte aggregation showed age- and gender-related variations. Red blood cell deformability was greater in females and gradually decreased over the 15-month period in both genders. Erythrocyte aggregation was greater in male rats at most ages, but did not show consistent changes with age. The micro-rheological parameters showed age-related alterations with gender differences. The effect of the estrous cycle cannot be excluded in female rats. The results provide reference data for studies of aging in rats and of the mechanism related to age and gender differences in hemorheology.

  4. A novel cadaver-based educational program in general surgery training.

    Lewis, Catherine E; Peacock, Warwick J; Tillou, Areti; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    To describe the development of a cadaver-based educational program and report our residents' assessment of the new program. An anatomy-based educational program was developed using fresh frozen cadavers to teach surgical anatomy and operative skills to general surgery (GS) trainees. Residents were asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous survey evaluating perceptions of the program (6 questions formulated on a 5-point Likert scale) and comparing cadaver sessions to other types of learning (4 rank order questions). Large university teaching hospital. Medical students, residents, and faculty members were participants in the cadaver programs. Only GS residents were asked to complete the survey. Since its implementation, 150 residents of all levels participated in 13 sessions. A total of 40 surveys were returned for a response rate of 89%. Overall, respondents held a positive view of the cadaver sessions and believed them to be useful for learning anatomy (94% agree or strongly agree), learning the steps of an operation (76% agree or strongly agree), and increasing confidence in doing an operation (53% agree or strongly agree). Trainees wanted to have more sessions (87% agree or strongly agree), and believed they would spend free time in the cadaver laboratory (58% agree or strongly agree). Compared with other learning modalities, cadaver sessions were ranked first for learning surgical anatomy, followed by textbooks, simulators, web sites, animate laboratories, and lectures. Respondents also ranked cadaver sessions first for increasing confidence in performing a procedure and for learning the steps of an operation. Cost of cadavers represented the major expense of the program. Fresh cadaver dissections represent a solution to the challenges of efficient, safe, and effective general surgery education. Residents have a positive attitude toward these teaching sessions and found them to be more effective than other learning modalities. Copyright © 2012 Association of

  5. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  6. A Comparison of Load-Velocity and Load-Power Relationships Between Well-Trained Young and Middle-Aged Males During Three Popular Resistance Exercises.

    Fernandes, John F T; Lamb, Kevin L; Twist, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Fernandes, JFT, Lamb, KL, and Twist, C. A comparison of load-velocity and load-power relationships between well-trained young and middle-aged males during 3 popular resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1440-1447, 2018-This study examined the load-velocity and load-power relationships among 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) resistance-trained males. Participants performed 3 repetitions of bench press, squat, and bent-over-row across a range of loads corresponding to 20-80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Analysis revealed effects (p velocity for all 3 exercises, and interaction effects on power for squat and bent-over-row (p bench press and bent-over-row, the young group produced higher barbell velocities, with the magnitude of the differences decreasing as load increased (ES; effect size 0.0-1.7 and 1.0-2.0, respectively). Squat velocity was higher in the young group than the middle-aged group (ES 1.0-1.7) across all loads, as was power for each exercise (ES 1.0-2.3). For all 3 exercises, both velocity and 1RM were correlated with optimal power in the middle-aged group (r = 0.613-0.825, p velocities at low external loads and power outputs as high as the young males across a range of external resistances. Moreover, the strong correlations between 1RM and velocity with optimal power suggest that middle-aged males would benefit from training methods which maximize these adaptations.

  7. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  8. Deoxycholic Acid and the Marginal Mandibular Nerve: A Cadaver Study.

    Blandford, Alexander D; Ansari, Waseem; Young, Jason M; Maley, Bruce; Plesec, Thomas P; Hwang, Catherine J; Perry, Julian D

    2018-06-04

    One of the rare but serious complications observed with deoxycholic acid administration is damage to the marginal mandibular nerve. In this study, we evaluated if deoxycholic acid directly induces histologic damage to fresh cadaveric marginal mandibular nerve. A segment of marginal mandibular nerve was harvested from 12 hemifaces of 6 fresh cadavers. The nerve specimen was exposed to either 0.9% sterile saline for 24 h, deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) for 20 min, or deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) for 24 h. The nerve specimens were then fixed in glutaraldehyde for a minimum of 24 h. Toluidine blue stained sections were evaluated for stain intensity using light microscopy and color deconvolution image analysis. Supraplatysmal fat was harvested as a positive control and exposed to the same treatments as the marginal mandibular nerve specimens, then evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Toluidine blue staining was less in the marginal mandibular nerve exposed to deoxycholic acid when compared to saline. The specimen exposed to deoxycholic acid for 24 h showed less toluidine blue staining than that of the nerve exposed to deoxycholic acid for 20 min. Transmission electron microscopy of submental fat exposed to deoxycholic acid revealed disruption of adipocyte cell membrane integrity and loss of cellular organelles when compared to specimens only exposed to saline. Deoxycholic acid (10 mg/ml) damages the marginal mandibular nerve myelin sheath in fresh human cadaver specimens. Direct deoxycholic acid neurotoxicity may cause marginal mandibular nerve injury clinically. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Evaluation of diode endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in bovine cadaver eyes.

    Harrington, Jay T; McMullen, Richard J; Cullen, John M; Gilger, Brian C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the anterior chamber approach and energy levels for endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECPC) and assess ECPC-induced tissue damage in phakic eyes of bovine cadavers. 12 bovine cadaver eyes. Angle of reach was measured in 6 eyes following placement of a curved endoscopic probe through multiple corneal incisions. In another 6 eyes, each ocular quadrant underwent ECPC at 1 of 3 energy levels (0.75, 0.90, and 1.05 J) or remained untreated. Visible effects on tissues (whitening and contraction of ciliary processes) were scored (scale of 0 [no effects] to 6 [severe effects]), and severity and extent of histologic damage to the pigmented and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and fibromuscular stroma were each scored (scale of 0 [no effect] to 3 [severe effect]) and summed for each quadrant. Overall mean scores for 6 quadrants/treatment were calculated. Mean ± SD combined angle of reach was 148 ± 24° (range, 123 ± 23° [ventromedial] to 174 ± 11° [dorsolateral]). At the 0.75-, 0.90-, and 1.05-J levels, mean visible tissue effect scores were 3.12 ± 0.47, 3.86 ± 0.35, and 4.68 ± 0.58, respectively; mean histologic damage scores were 4.79 ± 1.38 (mild damage), 6.82 ± 1.47 (moderate damage), and 9.37 ± 1.42 (severe damage), respectively. Occasional popping noises (venting of vaporized interstitial water) were heard at the 1.05-J level. Multiple incisions were necessary to facilitate 360° ECPC treatment in bovine eyes. For ECPC in vivo, the 0.75- and 0.90-J energy levels had the potential to effectively treat the ciliary epithelium.

  10. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  11. Interosseous Ligament and Transverse Forearm Stability: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    The interosseous ligament (IOL) is known to be an important longitudinal stabilizer of the forearm. We hypothesize that it may also contribute to transverse stability, with pronosupination tensioning of the radius relative to the ulna. Therefore, when injured, we predict the interosseous space should widen in the transverse plane, enough to be appreciable on plain radiographs. A measurable difference in interosseous space, comparing an injured with an uninjured forearm, can potentially be of diagnostic and clinical value. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms (from 5 individuals) were radiographed in 6 different positions of forearm supination, first in an uninjured state and then with the IOL sectioned, both partially (central band only) and completely. The transverse interosseous distance was measured on radiographs using edge detection software and compared using analysis of variance and contrast analysis. The maximum range of pronosupination was also compared before and after injury, using a paired t test. Average maximum supination increased from 84° to 106°, and pronation from 69° to 84°, after the IOL was sectioned completely. Sectioning of the IOL led to a statistically significant increase in the interosseous distance, a minimum of 2 mm, in all but one forearm position. The IOL of the forearm plays an important role in providing transverse stability to the radius and ulna. When the IOL is sectioned, the forearm exhibits increased pronosupination range of motion. Radiographs of bilateral forearms taken in identical rotational position can reliably differentiate between an intact and torn IOL in cadavers. The IOL's stabilizing role during forearm rotation suggests a novel strategy for diagnosing forearm IOL injury using comparative radiographic measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.com, e-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.com, e-mail: ibravo@ufba.br

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  13. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  14. Using ATP-driven bioluminescence assay to monitor microbial safety in a contemporary human cadaver laboratory.

    Benninger, Brion; Maier, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a cost-effective method for assessing the levels of bacterial, yeast, and mold activity during a human dissection laboratory course. Nowadays, compliance with safety regulations is policed by institutions at higher standards than ever before. Fear of acquiring an unknown infection is one of the top concerns of professional healthcare students, and it provokes anti-laboratory anxiety. Human cadavers are not routinely tested for bacteria and viruses prior to embalming. Human anatomy dissecting rooms that house embalmed cadavers are normally cleaned after the dissected cadavers have been removed. There is no evidence that investigators have ever assessed bacterial and fungal activities using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven bioluminescence assays. A literature search was conducted on texts, journals, and websites regarding bacterial, yeast, and mold activities in an active cadaver laboratory. Midway into a clinical anatomy course, ATP bioluminescence assays were used to swab various sites within the dissection room, including entrance and exiting door handles, water taps, cadaver tables, counter tops, imaging material, X-ray box switches, and the cadaver surfaces. The results demonstrated very low activities on cadaver tables, washing up areas, and exiting door handles. There was low activity on counter tops and X-ray boxes. There was medium activity on the entrance door handles. These findings suggest an inexpensive and accurate method for monitoring safety compliance and microbial activity. Students can feel confident and safe in the environment in which they work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  16. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  18. 3α-androstanediol, but not testosterone, attenuates age-related decrements in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive behavior of male rats

    Cheryl A Frye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.

  19. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  20. Assessment of selenium and zinc status in Korean middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease using neutron activation analysis method

    Lee, Ok Hee; Kim, Bo Ha; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    The presented study aimed to evaluate the selenium and zinc status of Korean middle -aged male patients with CHD. The serum concentration of zinc and selenium was measured by Neutron activation analysis method. The mean serum selenium and zinc concentrations of patients were 94.9 μg/l and 826.4 μg/l, respectively compared to the 97.8μg/l, 891.6 μg/l of control group, showing no any difference in selenium status, but showed significant difference for zinc status of middle -aged men. The deficiency of zinc in control group was 9.8%, but that was 31.3% in patient group. Conclusively, this study indicated that zinc status, which is associated with inflammatory reaction, is low in Korean male patients with CHD

  1. X-linked retinoschisis: RS1 mutation severity and age affect the ERG phenotype in a cohort of 68 affected male subjects.

    Bowles, Kristen; Cukras, Catherine; Turriff, Amy; Sergeev, Yuri; Vitale, Susan; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A

    2011-11-29

    To assess the effect of age and RS1 mutation on the phenotype of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) subjects using the clinical electroretinogram (ERG) in a cross-sectional analysis. Sixty-eight XLRS males 4.5 to 55 years of age underwent genotyping, and the retinoschisis (RS1) mutations were classified as less severe (27 subjects) or more severe (41 subjects) based on the putative impact on the protein. ERG parameters of retinal function were analyzed by putative mutation severity with age as a continuous variable. The a-wave amplitude remained greater than the lower limit of normal (mean, -2 SD) for 72% of XLRS males and correlated with neither age nor mutation class. However, b-wave and b/a-ratio amplitudes were significantly lower in the more severe than in the less severe mutation groups and in older than in younger subjects. Subjects up to 10 years of age with more severe RS1 mutations had significantly greater b-wave amplitudes and faster a-wave trough implicit times than older subjects in this group. RS1 mutation putative severity and age both had significant effects on retinal function in XLRS only in the severe mutation group, as judged by ERG analysis of the b-wave amplitude and the b/a-ratio, whereas the a-wave amplitude remained normal in most. A new observation was that increasing age (limited to those aged 55 and younger) caused a significant delay in XLRS b-wave onset (i.e., a-wave implicit time), even for those who retained considerable b-wave amplitudes. The delayed b-wave onset suggested that dysfunction of the photoreceptor synapse or of bipolar cells increases with age of XLRS subjects.

  2. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

    Abu Zeid, E H; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Hameed, N E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO 2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg -1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO 2 (5 g kg -1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO 2 gavage. TiO 2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T 3 and T 4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO 2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO 2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO 2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO 2 toxicity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979–2014

    Niklas Lehto

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

  5. SIDE TO SIDE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DOMINANT AND NON-DOMINANT ARM'S BONE DENSITY AND ISOMETRIC HANDGRIP STRENGTH IN MALES AND FEMALES AGED 40-65 YEARS OLD.

    Krasniqi, Ermira; Koni, Mynyr; Kabashi, Antigona; Bahtiri, Abedin; Gjeli, Selda; Boshnjaku, Arben

    2016-10-01

    This observational, cross-sectional study, investigates and compares the differences of BMD, T-score, Z-score and isometric strength between dominant (D) versus non-dominant (ND) arms of 162 subjects aged 40-65 in a developing, low income country (Kosova). Bone Mineral Density (BMD), T-score and Z-score at distal forearm regions of both arms (measured by DXA scan), together with the Handgrip Isometric Strength (HIS) (by handgrip) were evaluated in a total subjects (53 Males and 109 Females). Additionally, General Healthcare Status Questionnaire together with self-administrated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were filled. Significant differences (p0.05) were observed in Males BMD comparing to significantly higher results (p0.05) in males. When comparing the total subject's BMD, T-score, Z-score and Handgrip based on the PA levels (1 to 3 according to IPAQ scoring) no significant differences (p>0.05) were found between PA1, as well as PA3 whereas significantly differences (p<0.05) were found in D arms of PA2 level. The study analyses side-to-side differences in bone density and muscular force between D and ND arms amongst a population which is frequently exposed to diagnostic screenings for age related osteomuscular conditions (aged 40-60), and demonstrates that these differences should be in consideration amongst clinicians, but not in the way it is done right now.

  6. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

    Barreto Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  7. Relative device stability of anterior versus axillary needle decompression for tension pneumothorax during casualty movement: Preliminary analysis of a human cadaver model.

    Leatherman, Matthew L; Held, Jenny M; Fluke, Laura M; McEvoy, Christian S; Inaba, Kenji; Grabo, Daniel; Martin, Matthew J; Earley, Angela S; Ricca, Robert L; Polk, Travis M

    2017-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) remains a significant cause of potentially preventable death in military and civilian settings. The current prehospital standard of care for tPTX is immediate decompression with a 14-gauge 8-cm angiocatheter; however, failure rates may be as high as 17% to 60%. Alternative devices, such as 10-gauge angiocatheter, modified Veress needle, and laparoscopic trocar, have shown to be potentially more effective in animal models; however, little is known about the relative insertional safety or mechanical stability during casualty movement. Seven soft-embalmed cadavers were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest wall thickness was measured at the second intercostal space at the midclavicular line (2MCL) and the fifth intercostal space along the anterior axillary line (5AAL). CO2 insufflation created a PTX, and needle decompression was then performed with a randomized device. Insertional depth was measured between hub and skin before and after simulated casualty transport. Thoracoscopy was used to evaluate for intrapleural placement and/or injury during insertion and after movement. Cadaver demographics, device displacement, device dislodgment, and injuries were recorded. Three decompressions were performed at each site (2MCL/5AAL), totaling 12 events per cadaver. Eighty-four decompressions were performed. Average cadaver age was 59 years, and body mass index was 24 kg/m. The CWT varied between cadavers because of subcutaneous emphysema, but the average was 39 mm at the 2MCL and 31 mm at the 5AAL. Following movement, the 2MCL site was more likely to become dislodged than the 5AAL (67% vs. 17%, p = 0.001). Median displacement also differed between 2MCL and 5AAL (23 vs. 2 mm, p = 0.001). No significant differences were noted in dislodgement or displacement between devices. Five minor lung injuries were noted at the 5AAL position. Preliminary results from this human cadaver study suggest the 5AAL position is a more stable and reliable location

  8. Prediction of skull fracture risk for children 0-9 months old through validated parametric finite element model and cadaver test reconstruction.

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-09-01

    Skull fracture is one of the most common pediatric traumas. However, injury assessment tools for predicting pediatric skull fracture risk is not well established mainly due to the lack of cadaver tests. Weber conducted 50 pediatric cadaver drop tests for forensic research on child abuse in the mid-1980s (Experimental studies of skull fractures in infants, Z Rechtsmed. 92: 87-94, 1984; Biomechanical fragility of the infant skull, Z Rechtsmed. 94: 93-101, 1985). To our knowledge, these studies contained the largest sample size among pediatric cadaver tests in the literature. However, the lack of injury measurements limited their direct application in investigating pediatric skull fracture risks. In this study, 50 pediatric cadaver tests from Weber's studies were reconstructed using a parametric pediatric head finite element (FE) model which were morphed into subjects with ages, head sizes/shapes, and skull thickness values that reported in the tests. The skull fracture risk curves for infants from 0 to 9 months old were developed based on the model-predicted head injury measures through logistic regression analysis. It was found that the model-predicted stress responses in the skull (maximal von Mises stress, maximal shear stress, and maximal first principal stress) were better predictors than global kinematic-based injury measures (peak head acceleration and head injury criterion (HIC)) in predicting pediatric skull fracture. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using age- and size/shape-appropriate head FE models to predict pediatric head injuries. Such models can account for the morphological variations among the subjects, which cannot be considered by a single FE human model.

  9. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  10. AGE-INDEPENDENT, GREY-MATTER-LOCALIZED, BRAIN ENHANCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE FISCHER 344 RATS,1,2

    While studies showed that aging is accompanied by increased exposure of the brain to oxidative stress, others have not detected any age-correlated differences in levels of markers of oxidative stress. Use of conventional markers of oxidative damage in vivo, which may be formed ex...

  11. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  12. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    Weiner, Melissa R; Monin, Joan K; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support-perceived support, structural support, and community integration-and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Cross-sectional Web survey of younger and older male veterans recruited from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age: 37.0 years, SD: 6.9, range: 21-46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age: 81.7 years, SD: 3.2, range: 78-96). Participants completed measures of sociodemographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may help promote mental health in older veterans, whereas promotion of functional social support may help promote mental health in younger veterans. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  14. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  15. Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical Significance

    Usha Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.

  16. Safety zone for posterosuperior shoulder access: study on cadavers

    Miguel Pereira Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The posterosuperior shoulder access used in surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation was constructed through dissection of 20 shoulders from 10 recently chilled adult cadavers, and the distances from this route to the nearby neurovascular structures were analyzed. METHODS: A Kirschner wire was introduced into the top of the base of the coracoid process through the posterosuperior shoulder access, in the area of the origin of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments, thus reproducing the path for inserting two anchors for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The smallest distance from the insertion point of the Kirschner wire to the suprascapular nerve and artery/vein was measured. RESULTS: The mean distance from the suprascapular nerve to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments at the top of the base of the coracoid process was 18.10 mm (range: 13.77-22.80 in the right shoulder and 18.19 mm (range: 12.59-23.75 in the left shoulder. The mean distance from the suprascapular artery/vein to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments was 13.10 mm (range: 9.28-15.44 in the right shoulder and 14.11 mm (range: 8.83-18.89 in the left shoulder. Comparison between the contralateral sides did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior shoulder access route for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments in treating acromioclavicular dislocation should be performed respecting the minimum limit of 8.83 mm medially.

  17. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  18. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  19. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of Tehran, Iran

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Methods: Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The s...

  20. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Pantelić Jasmina; Filipović B.; Šošić-Jurjević Branka; Ajdžanović V.; Trifunović Svetlana; Medigović Ivana; Milošević Verica

    2013-01-01

    Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac) essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT), thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac es...

  1. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  2. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors and Types of Urinary Incontinence among Middle-Aged and Older Male and Female Primary Care Patients in Kaunas Region of Lithuania: Cross Sectional Study.

    Aniuliene, Rosita; Aniulis, Povilas; Steibliene, Vesta

    2016-03-05

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the incidences, types of urinary incontinence (UI) and its risk factors among middle-aged and older (> 40 years) men and women visiting a general practitioner (GP). This is a descriptive and cross-sectional comparative study using a questionnaire-based survey included 172 male and female patients who consecutively visited a primary care center in Kaunas region of Lithuania. All 86 women (100%) and 65 men (75.58%) had symptoms of UI (P urinary incontinence (SUI) and 60% of men urge urinary incontinence (UUI) (P risk factors for women with SUI were: age below 60 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-4.43; P pregnancies. The UUI was associated with age over 60 years (OR in men = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.15-7.51; P = .022, in women OR = 8.76, 95% CI: 2.37-32.33; P 40 years visiting GP and affected more women of the same age range. SUI was more prevalent among women, while more men had UUI. Age below 60, being married, pregnancy and delivery history, concomitant illnesses were significant risk factors for women' SUI and older age and menopause for UUI. The only risk factor for men' UUI was age over 60 years.

  4. Sex differences in the branching position of the nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle: an anatomical study of cadavers.

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Ohmichi, Mika; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMM nerve) is the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve or originates directly from the posterior tibial nerve. Damage to the ADMM nerve is a cause of heel pain and eventually results in ADMM atrophy. It is known that ADMM atrophy occurs more often in females than in males, and the reason remains unclear. This study aimed to explore sex differences in the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. Forty-two cadavers (20 males, 22 females) were dissected at Aichi Medical University between 2011 and 2015. Cases of foot deformity or atrophy were excluded and 67 ft (30 male, 37 female) were examined to assess the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. The branching positions of the ADMM nerve were superior to the malleolar-calcaneal axis (MCA) in 37 ft (55 %), on the MCA in 10 ft (15 %), and inferior to the MCA in 20 ft (30 %). There was no case among male feet in which the ADMM nerve branched inferior to the MCA, whereas this pattern was observed in 19 of 37 female feet (51 %). The branching position of the ADMM nerve was significantly closer to the MCA in female feet than in male feet. There were no significant sex differences in the branching pattern and angle of the ADMM nerve. The ADMM nerve sometimes branches off inferior to the MCA in females, but not in males. This difference may be the reason for the more frequent occurrence of ADMM atrophy in females than in males.

  5. Influence of age, strain and season on circadian periodicity of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in the serum of male laboratory rats.

    Wong, C C; Döhler, K D; Geerlings, H; von zur Mühlen, A

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, strain and season on the circadian pattern of serum levels of LH, FSH, prolactin androgens and corticosterone was studied in five groups of male laboratory rats. Significant 24-hour periodicity was observed for serum levels of corticosterone in all five groups, for androgen levels in four, for prolactin levels in three, for LH levels in two and for FSH levels in one group of rats. There were significant influences of age, strain and season on the temporal patterns and/or on 24-hour mean serum hormone levels. The results indicate that some of the disagreements on existence or nonexistence of circadian rhythms and on rhythm patterns in serum hormone levels may be explained by the fact that animals of different ages or strains had been used or that experiments were performed at different times of the year.

  6. A new human male diploid cell strain, TIG-7: its age-related changes and comparison with a matched female TIG-1 cell strain.

    Yamamoto, K; Kaji, K; Kondo, H; Matsuo, M; Shibata, Y; Tasaki, Y; Utakoji, T; Ooka, H

    1991-01-01

    A new human diploid cell strain, TIG-7, which has the male karyotype, was established and characterized. Isozyme and histocompatibility typing of the cell strain was performed. The average in vitro life span of the cells is 73 population doublings. Changes in cell volume, doubling time, saturation density, the efficiency of cell attachment, plating efficiency, and relative DNA content were examined during in vitro cellular aging. Hydrocortisone slightly prolongs the life span of the cell strain when the hormone is administered to the cultures during middle passages. The age-related changes in the parameters of TIG-7 are not appreciably different from those of the previously established TIG-1 cell strain. These results show that this cell strain is useful for research on cellular aging; further profit is anticipated from research using a combination of these two sexually different cell strains.

  7. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  8. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

    Byrd, H.C. Michelle; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Methods Youth age 8–15 (n=3,050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Obesity defined as ≥95th percentile of US BMI-for-age reference. ADHD determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Results Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 – 0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43 – 2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52 – 2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79–2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Conclusions Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. PMID:23325553

  10. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  11. Possible selves and identity in relation to career development: evidence from Chilean male middle-aged managers' career narratives

    Nazar, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Social and economic conditions, as well as the dynamism of the Chilean labour market, place new demands on middle-aged workers who have to explore both internal and external opportunities to develop successful careers. We assumed that possible self and identity in future states are core organizing

  12. Career identity and its impact upon self-perceived employability among Chilean male middle-aged managers

    Nazar, G.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth and social development in Chile require a skilled workforce able to adapt to a highly dynamic labour market all of which place new demands for middle-aged workers who have to explore labour markets opportunities to develop and maintain their employability. This research addresses

  13. Individual- and area-level effects on mortality risk in Germany, both East and West, among male Germans aged 65+

    Kibele, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates whether mortality inequalities based on individual- and area-level deprivation exist at older ages in Germany, and whether there are differences between eastern and western Germany. Methods Data on population and death counts according to the individual-level

  14. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  15. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-related Injury Risk.

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Urban, Jillian E; Jones, Derek A; Stitzel, Joel D; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test. The second objective was to investigate age-related injury risks by performing a frontal US NCAP simulation test with the GHBMC M50 65 YO and the GHBMC M50 v4.2 models. Simulation results were compared to the GHBMC M50 v4.2 to evaluate the effect of age on occupant response and risk for head injury, neck injury, thoracic injury, and lower extremity injury. Overall, the GHBMC M50 65 YO model predicted higher probabilities of AIS 3+ injury for the head and thorax.

  16. Synaptic adaptations to chronic ethanol intake in male rhesus monkey dorsal striatum depend on age of drinking onset.

    Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Grant, Kathleen A; Lovinger, David M

    2018-03-15

    One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking. Striatal neuroadaptations were examined using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and GABA A receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) from medium-sized spiny projection neurons located in the caudate or putamen nuclei. In controls, greater GABAergic transmission (mIPSC frequency and amplitude) was observed in the putamen compared to the caudate. With advancing age, in the absence of ethanol, an increase in mIPSC frequency concomitant with changes in mIPSC amplitude was observed in both regions. Chronic ethanol drinking decreased mIPSC frequency in the putamen regardless of age of onset. In the caudate, an ethanol drinking-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was only observed in monkeys that began drinking as young adults. Glutamatergic transmission did not differ between the dorsal striatal subregions in controls. With chronic ethanol drinking there was a decrease in the postsynaptic characteristics of rise time and area of mEPSCs in the putamen but an increase in mEPSC frequency in the caudate. Together, the observed changes in striatal physiology indicate a combined disinhibition due to youth and ethanol leading to abnormally strong activation of the putamen that could contribute to the increased risk

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

    Byrd, H C M; Curtin, C; Anderson, S E

    2013-12-01

    Youth with ADHD may be at increased risk for obesity. Medications used to treat ADHD can affect weight. Few studies have investigated possible gender differences in associations between ADHD and obesity. Nationally representative of US youth aged 8-15 years. Height and weight were measured, and ADHD assessed by structured diagnostic interview and parent report. Associations between ADHD and obesity are reported for males and females to enable gender comparisons. To investigate how associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Youth age 8-15 (n = 3050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as ≥95th percentile of US body mass index-for-age reference. ADHD was determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23-0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52-2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79-2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not

  18. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  19. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients <40 years of age, 677 male patients newly diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED.

  20. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  1. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy.

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p Cadaver-based training provides superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training and may be a valuable addition to EM residency training for certain low-frequency procedures.

  2. Old age and male sex are associated with increased risk of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis: analysis of data from local health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.

    Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Hee Man; Ko, Geun Jun; Woo, Myoung Lyeol; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yu Jin; Han, Ki Jun; Song, Si Young; Cho, Hyeon Geun

    2011-06-01

    Silent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is often detected during routine screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, the risk factors and clinical implications of silent GERD remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the risk factors for asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by analyzing the local area health examination data. The Korean National Health Insurance Corporation provides a bi-annual health examination performed by qualified local hospitals for the early detection of cancer in medical insurance holders over 40 years of age. Participants who completed self-reported questionnaires on health, followed by EGD at the Myongji Hospital (Goyang, Korea), were enrolled in this study. The data of a total of 5301 participants who underwent EGD between January 2005 and December 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis was 6%. In the multivariate analysis, erosive esophagitis was strongly associated with an age greater than 60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-1.0), male sex (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0), hiatus hernia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.1-4.0), duodenal ulcer (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5), hypertension (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0), and smoking (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8). Of the 320 participants with erosive esophagitis, 145 (45.3%) were asymptomatic participants, and those who were more frequently greater than 60 years (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and male (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in adults older than 40 years is strongly associated with old age (≥ 60 years) and male sex compared with symptomatic erosive esophagitis. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in male sprague-dawley rats: impact of age and stress.

    Anderson, Rachel I; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2010-12-01

    Age-specific characteristics may contribute to the elevation in ethanol intake commonly reported among adolescents compared to adults. This study was designed to examine age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure with sucrose serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Given that ontogenetic differences in responsiveness to stressors have been previously reported, the role of stressor exposure on the development of CTA was also assessed. Experiment 1 examined the influence of 5 days of prior restraint stress exposure on the expression of CTA in a 2-bottle test following 1 pairing of a sucrose solution with ethanol. In Experiment 2, the effects of 7 days of social isolation on the development of CTA were observed using a 1-bottle test following multiple sucrose-ethanol pairings. This study revealed age-related differences in the development of ethanol-induced CTA. In Experiment 1, adolescents required a higher dose of ethanol than adults to demonstrate an aversion. In Experiment 2, adolescents required not only a higher ethanol dose but also more pairings of ethanol with the sucrose CS. No effects of prior stressor exposure were observed in either experiment. Together, these experiments demonstrate an adolescent-specific insensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that elicit CTA, a pattern not influenced by repeated restraint stress or housing in social isolation. This age-related insensitivity to the dysphoric effects of ethanol is consistent with other work from our laboratory, adding further to the evidence that adolescent rats are less susceptible to negative consequences of ethanol that may serve as cues to curb consumption. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of tehran, iran.

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The sampling continued until one hundred study subjects were recruited in each area. Although in the area with wealthier socioeconomic status the age at which smoking started was one year more, the number of days of smoking, number of consumed cigarettes, not willingness to quit smoking, ease of access to cigarettes, mother and siblings smoking were more frequent. In contrast, seeing anti-smoking advertisements, father smoking, teachers smoking and education about the adverse effects of smoking were lower than the area with poorer socioeconomic status. The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents' avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  5. Empirical evaluation of grouping of lower urinary tract symptoms: principal component analysis of Tampere Ageing Male Urological Study data.

    Pöyhönen, Antti; Häkkinen, Jukka T; Koskimäki, Juha; Hakama, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The ICS has divided LUTS into three groups: storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms. The classification is based on anatomical, physiological and urodynamic considerations of a theoretical nature. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the inter-correlations of various LUTS, which is a novel approach to research and can strengthen existing knowledge of the phenomenology of LUTS. After we had completed our analyses, another study was published that used a similar approach and results were very similar to those of the present study. We evaluated the constellation of LUTS using PCA of the data from a population-based study that included >4000 men. In our analysis, three components emerged from the 12 LUTS: voiding, storage and incontinence components. Our results indicated that incontinence may be separate from the other storage symptoms and post-micturition symptoms should perhaps be regarded as voiding symptoms. To determine how lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) relate to each other and assess if the classification proposed by the International Continence Society (ICS) is consistent with empirical findings. The information on urinary symptoms for this population-based study was collected using a self-administered postal questionnaire in 2004. The questionnaire was sent to 7470 men, aged 30-80 years, from Pirkanmaa County (Finland), of whom 4384 (58.7%) returned the questionnaire. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score-1 questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the inter-correlations among various urinary symptoms. The PCA produced a grouping of 12 LUTS into three categories consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms. Post-micturition symptoms were related to voiding symptoms, but incontinence symptoms were separate from storage symptoms. In the analyses by age group, similar categorization was found at

  6. The evaluation of role of NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on age dependent differences of neuropathic pain in SNL model in male rats

    Hussain zeinali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced neuropathic pain following nerve injury has behavioral signs such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. There are reports about the age dependent differences in severity and incidence and even therapeutic response of this pain. In this study, we have tried to evaluate behavioral differences of this pain in an induced neuropathic model in different ages, according to important role of N-methyl, D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on induction and maintenance of pain. Material and methods: Male rats were grouped in young (5-6 week and mature (10-11 week. Under general anesthesia, the spinal nerve ligation (SNL surgery was operated on right leg. The effect of different doses of dextromethorphan (NMDA blocker and minocycline (microglia inhibitor on 5th day after surgery was evaluated and compared in two age-groups. Results: In this study, both Minocycline and dextromethorphan diminished neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner in these two ages. Minocycline in contrast to dextromethorphan was more effective in young rats. The co-administration of ineffective doses of minocycline and dextromethorphan could be effective. Conclusion: Microglia and NMDA receptor function in neuropathic pain is different in different ages and the role of microglia is more evident. On the other hand the inhibition of both microglia and NMDA receptor can be considered for lowering neuropathic pain.

  7. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  8. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  9. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While...

  10. REHABILITATION OF A SURGICALLY REPAIRED RUPTURE OF THE DISTAL BICEPS TENDON IN AN ACTIVE MIDDLE AGED MALE: A CASE REPORT

    Sayers, Stephen P.; LaFontaine, Tom; Scheussler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii is relatively rare and there is little information to guide therapists in rehabilitation after this injury. The purposes of this case report are to review the rehabilitation concepts used for treating such an injury, and discuss how to modify exercises during rehabilitation based on patient progression while adhering to physician recommended guidelines and standard treatment protocols. Case Presentation: The patient was an active 38‐year old male experienced in weight‐training. He presented with a surgically repaired right distal biceps tendon following an accident on a trampoline adapted with a bungee suspension harness. The intervention focused on restoring range of motion and strengthening of the supporting muscles of the upper extremity without placing undue stress on the biceps brachii. Outcomes: The patient was able to progress from a moderate restriction in ROM to full AROM two weeks ahead of the physician's post‐operative orders and initiate a re‐strengthening protocol by the eighth week of rehabilitation. At the eighth post‐operative week the patient reported no deficits in functional abilities throughout his normal daily activities with his affected upper extremity. Discussion: The results of this case report strengthen current knowledge regarding physical therapy treatment for a distal biceps tendon repair while at the same time providing new insights for future protocol considerations in active individuals. Most current protocols do not advocate aggressive stretching, AROM, or strengthening of a surgically repaired biceps tendon early in the rehabilitation process due to the fear of a re‐rupture. In the opinion of the authors, if full AROM can be achieved before the 6th week of rehabilitation, initiating a slow transition into light strengthening of the biceps brachii may be possible. Level of evidence: 4‐Single Case report PMID:23316429

  11. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  12. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  13. Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Endoscopy Training on Thiel-embalmed Cadavers.

    Bele, Uros; Kelc, Robi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate Thiel-embalmed cadavers as a new training model for urological endoscopy procedures. Twelve urologists performed upper and lower urinary tract endoscopies on 5 different Thiel-embalmed cadavers to evaluate this potentially new training model in urological endoscopic procedural training. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the participants assessed the quality of the tissue and the overall experience of the endoscopy in comparison to a live patient procedure. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have shown to mimic live patient endoscopy of the upper and lower urinary tract in terms of almost identical overall anatomical conditions and manipulation characteristics of the tissue. The mucosa of the urethra and ureters showed similar colors and consistency in comparison to a live patient, whereas bladder mucosa was lacking the visibility of the vessels, thus was unsuitable for identifying any mucosal abnormalities. The flexibility of the muscles allowed for proper patient positioning, whereas the loss of muscle tonus made ureteroscopy more difficult although sufficiently comparable to the procedure done in a live patient. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have already been proven to be a suitable training model for several medical procedures. They are known for preserving tissue color, consistency, and flexibility without the irritant odors or risk of infection, which make them resemble live patients with real-life surgical challenges. The results of our study strongly suggest that despite some minor drawbacks, Thiel-embalmed cadavers are a suitable simulation model for initial training of urethrocystoscopy and ureteroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Are urge incontinence and aging risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Earle, Carolyn; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that erectile dysfunction (ED) patients also suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We investigated a group of men with LUTS and assessed their sexual function with the aim of being able to predict ED risk factors and introduce ED treatments earlier for this patient group. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score were obtained from 236 men with LUTS at their first out-patients visit. Clinical parameters such as body mass index, prostate volume, residual urine volume and prostate specific antigen were also evaluated. The relationship between the SHIM score and other clinical data was analyzed. According to the SHIM score, ED in men with LUTS was severe 15%, moderate 19%, moderate to mild 28%, mild 17%, normal 7% and data was incomplete in 14%. Based on the results of a multivariate analysis, aging (p urinary incontinence was a risk factor for severe and moderate ED (p = 0.005). Aging and OAB (notably urinary urge incontinence) are risk factors for severe and moderate ED in men with LUTS.

  15. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  16. Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys, and G13, G14 (girls, and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players.

  17. Use of corrosion casting techniques to evaluate coronary collateral vessels and anastomoses in hearts of canine cadavers.

    Noestelthaller, Arne; Probst, Alexander; Koenig, Horst E

    2005-10-01

    To study and investigate branching patterns of the canine coronary arteries and collateral circulation by use of corrosion casting techniques. 31 hearts obtained from cadavers of clinically normal dogs of various ages and breeds and of either sex. 3-dimensional reproduction of coronary arteries was achieved by postmortem injection and perfusion with casting materials into the aortic sinus via the ascending aorta. Perfused hearts were macerated and carefully irrigated; the air-dried specimens were examined macroscopically and with a magnifying headset. Collateral arteries and inter- and intra-arterial anastomoses were successfully detected in 8 corrosion cast specimens. In total, 9 coronary collateral arteries and 3 interarterial anastomoses were found. Our finding of coronary collateral arteries in canine hearts is in agreement with recent findings in coronary flow study. On the basis of our results, vasodilation treatment to improve collateral vessel remodeling in dogs with myocardial dysfunction may be warranted.

  18. Flexible Vesiculovasoscopy Using a Microoptical System in a Human Cadaver Model: An Experimental Approach for Atraumatic Endoscopy of the Seminal Tract.

    Schlager, Daniel; Maas, Moritz; Hein, Simon; Adams, Fabian; Schoenthaler, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    The most common pathologies of the seminal tract are persistent hematospermia, seminal vesicle stones, and seminal duct obstruction. Endoscopic diagnostic work-up of the seminal tract is impeded by complex anatomy and lack of technical equipment. To date, there is no standardized endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and feasibility of a flexible microoptical device for atraumatic endoscopy of the seminal tract in a male human cadaver. The transurethral endoscopic examination was performed on a male cadaver. No premortal interventions or diseases of the genitourinary tract had been reported. The seminal orifice was identified via cystoscopy and accessed by the Seldinger technique using a hydrophilic guidewire and ureteral catheter. Retrograde endoscopic inspection of the distal seminal tract was performed using a miniaturized flexible endoscope. An antegrade endoscopic inspection of the seminal tract was carried out via high scrotal access to the vas deferens. Structures of the seminal tract, such as the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and distal portion of the ductus deferentes, were visualized using the miniaturized endoscope. Image quality allowed identification of anatomical structures and characterization of tissue properties. The technical limitations we observed involved the system's maneuverability. Initial results of this novel endoscopic approach to the seminal tract using a flexible microoptical system are encouraging. However, considerable anatomical limitations of the targeted organs necessitate further refinements of the technical equipment. This approach might improve diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases. Future surgical techniques may include intraseminal laser therapy or endoocclusion to monitor fertility in men.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  1. Influences of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability might not be limited only nocturnally in middle-aged hypertensive males.

    Shao, Liang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhang, Delian; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Li, Nanfang

    2018-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the potential association between sleep measures and blood pressure variability. Ninety-three middle-aged hypertensive males, who underwent polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, were enrolled. Blood pressure variability was assessed by blood pressure standard deviation. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15) was diagnosed in 52 (55.91%) patients. Mean body mass index and age were 27.77 ± 3.11 kg/m 2 and 44.05 ± 8.07 years, respectively. Hypertensive males with obstructive sleep apnea showed significantly higher 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability, compared to those without obstructive sleep apnea. While total cohort was further divided into two groups using the median of oxygen desaturation index, another indicator for severity of OSA, significant differences were also observed in 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability between two groups with higher and lower oxygen desaturation index. While subjects were also divided into two groups via the mean of sleep stage 1, hypertensive males with sleep stage 1 ≥ 8.1% showed significantly higher diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability than those with sleep stage 1 blood pressure variability; oxygen desaturation index of 3% with 24-h diastolic, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure; and sleep stage 1 was with 24-h and with diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability in all study subjects. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability may not be limited nocturnally.

  2. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study

    Wild M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. Methods In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intra-operative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge, quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Results Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65. Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Conclusions Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays

  3. Histological, magnetic resonance imaging, and discographic findings on cervical disc degeneration in cadaver spines. A comparative study

    Maruyama, Yuichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    A total of 210 cervical intervertebral discs were taken at autopsy from 36 cadavers, and underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discography to compare their diagnostic efficacies for investigating degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The age of the subjects had ranged from 43 to 92 years with an average of 68.1 years. Following the autopsy, MRI and discography were performed on the excised cervical spinal column, and the specimen was then prepared for histological examination. The findings were compared with those of the lumbar spine that had previously been reported by Yasuma et al. on 1238 lumbar discs from 197 cadavers ranging in age from 11 to 92 years. The results were as follows: Low intensity in the T2-weighted MRI was well correlated with histological degeneration in the cervical disc. The rate of appearance of the posterior protrusion of the cervical disc on the MRI was in accordance with the degree of histological disc degeneration, but it did not always correspond with histological posterior protrusion. There was a remarkably high incidence for false-positive posterior protrusion on the MRI, which should be kept in mind on reading the MRI. In the comparison of the MRI with the discography, a certain positive correlation was found as for disc degeneration, but not in complete accordance. There was a considerable difference in the patterns of degeneration and in posterior protrusion of the discs between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. The posterior protrusion in the cervical disc was more likely related to horizontal fissure and hyalinization of the posterior annulus, while posterior protrusion in the lumbar disc was often related to reversed orientation of the bundles and myxomatous degeneration of the posterior annulus. This difference was attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties of the cervical and lumbar spines. (author).

  4. Histological, magnetic resonance imaging, and discographic findings on cervical disc degeneration in cadaver spines. A comparative study

    Maruyama, Yuichiro

    1995-01-01

    A total of 210 cervical intervertebral discs were taken at autopsy from 36 cadavers, and underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discography to compare their diagnostic efficacies for investigating degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The age of the subjects had ranged from 43 to 92 years with an average of 68.1 years. Following the autopsy, MRI and discography were performed on the excised cervical spinal column, and the specimen was then prepared for histological examination. The findings were compared with those of the lumbar spine that had previously been reported by Yasuma et al. on 1238 lumbar discs from 197 cadavers ranging in age from 11 to 92 years. The results were as follows: Low intensity in the T2-weighted MRI was well correlated with histological degeneration in the cervical disc. The rate of appearance of the posterior protrusion of the cervical disc on the MRI was in accordance with the degree of histological disc degeneration, but it did not always correspond with histological posterior protrusion. There was a remarkably high incidence for false-positive posterior protrusion on the MRI, which should be kept in mind on reading the MRI. In the comparison of the MRI with the discography, a certain positive correlation was found as for disc degeneration, but not in complete accordance. There was a considerable difference in the patterns of degeneration and in posterior protrusion of the discs between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. The posterior protrusion in the cervical disc was more likely related to horizontal fissure and hyalinization of the posterior annulus, while posterior protrusion in the lumbar disc was often related to reversed orientation of the bundles and myxomatous degeneration of the posterior annulus. This difference was attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties of the cervical and lumbar spines. (author)

  5. [Efficacy and safety of hormonal therapy with androgens (androgel) in men with erectile dysfunction, partial androgen deficiency of aging male and cardiovascular diseases].

    Kalinchenko, S Iu; Vorslov, L O; Aglamazian, N L; Morgunov, L Iu

    2007-01-01

    Partial androgen deficiency of aging male (PADAM) manifests with sexual dysfunction and is associated with many diseases, primarily, cardiovascular. After the age of 30-40 a testosterone level falls 1-2% a year. The number of men with testosterone deficiency grows from 8% in 40-60-year-olds to 85% at the age over 80 years. Low testosterone correlates with such risk factors of cardiovascular diseases as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, low fibrinolysis, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Correction of androgenic deficiency can be conducted with the drug androgel which represents a new system of transdermal testosterone delivery. In contrast to vasoactive drugs, androgel affects pathogenetic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction and thus attenuates factors of cardiovascular risk. Androgel is used externally and is more effective than intramuscular and oral analogues. Also, the drug improves lipid spectrum. By activating lipolysis, testosterone reduces the amount of visceral fat thus lowering insulin resistance. A vasodilating effect of androgel positively influences cardiovascular system and penile vessels. The drug acts fast, is effective and safe. Therefore, it can be recommended for correction of erectile dysfunction in patients with old age androgen deficiency and concurrent cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Decline of seminal parameters in middle-aged males is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction

    Kristo Ausmees

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed to compare the associations between semen quality, associated reproductive indicators and the main prostate-related parameters in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study on 422 middle-aged men who underwent the screening for prostate health. Their reproductive function, semen quality and prostate-related pathologies were investigated. Results Significant associations between semen quality and prostate-related parameters could be seen. Total sperm count and sperm density decreased along with the increase of the I-PSS score and total prostate volume. Also, the related lower urinary tract characteristics showed a negative correlation with main semen parameters for all investigated subjects. No significant differences in age, testicular size, and hormonal parameters were found between the subjects with or without lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered seminal parameters in middle-aged men are associated with LUTS, prostate enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction. Although the assessments of prostate and lower urinary tract symptoms may not replace the semen parameters evaluating the male reproductive status, there is a need for further and more detailed investigations about the pathways behind these associations as well as possible related conditions.

  7. High Aneuploidy Rates Observed in Embryos Derived from Donated Oocytes are Related to Male Aging and High Percentages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    Javier García-Ferreyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsule Male aging effects on aneuploidy rates in embryos. Objective Paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality; however, it is unknown if it influences chromosomal abnormalities in embryos. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the aneuploidy rates in embryos are affected by advanced paternal age. Methods A total of 286 embryos, obtained from 32 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with donated oocytes in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis, were allocated according to paternal age in three groups: Group A: ≤39 years (n = 44 embryos; Group B: 40-49 years (n = 154 embryos; and Group C: ≥50 years (n = 88 embryos. Fertilization rates, embryo quality at day 3, blastocyst development, and aneuploidy embryo rates were then compared. Results There was no difference in the seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility in the studied groups. Fertilization rate, percentages of zygotes underwent cleavage, and good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between the three evaluated groups. The group of men ≥50 years had significantly more sperm with damaged DNA, low blastocyst development rate, and higher aneuploidy rates in embryos compared to the other two evaluated groups ( P 50 years old.

  8. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India.

    Suri, Ashish; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathi, Manjul; Dhingra, Renu; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  9. Introduction of a fresh cadaver laboratory during the surgery clerkship improves emergency technical skills.

    Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William

    2015-08-01

    Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily chronomics of proteomic profile in aging and rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model in male Wistar rat and its modulation by melatonin.

    Jagota, Anita; Mattam, Ushodaya

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with changes in several basic parameters of circadian timing system (CTS) in mammals leading to circadian dysfunction. We had reported earlier that upon aging and in rotenone induced Parkinson's disease (RIPD) rat model there were significant alterations in the core clock genes expression levels and daily pulses. To identify biomarkers of aging and PD chronomics of proteomic day-night profiles in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pineal and substantia nigra (SN) in 3 month (m), 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model were studied at two time points i.e. Zeitgeber Time (ZT)-6 (mid-day) and ZT-18 (mid-night). Proteome analysis was done by using two dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and the spots showing robust day-night variations were identified by using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. In 3 m rats the number of proteins showing day-night variations were relatively more than 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model in SCN and SN. But in pineal there was increase in number of protein spots showing day-night variations in 24 m. Mass spectroscopy of the protein spots showing robust day night variation in aging and RIPD rats were identified. As melatonin, a multitasking molecule, an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm, an antioxidant and an antiaging drug, declines with aging, the effects of melatonin administration on differential alterations in chronomics of 2-D protein profiles in aging and RIPD male Wistar rats were studied. We report here that the melatonin could be playing an important role in modulating the chronomics of 2-D protein profiles. Additionally, various proteins were identified for the first time in this study showing significant day night variation in SCN, pineal and SN may prove useful towards targeting novel treatments for circadian dysfunction, good health and longevity.

  11. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  12. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  13. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  14. Spread of Injectate Around Hip Articular Sensory Branches of the Femoral Nerve in Cadavers

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Greher, Manfred; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    of the femoral nerve. Methods: Fifteen cadaver sides were injected with 5 mL dye in the iliopsoas plane guided by ultrasound. Dissection was performed to verify the spread of injectate around the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve. Results: In 10 dissections (67% [95% confidence interval: 38.......2-32%]) adhesions partially obstructed the spread of dye. Conclusion: An injection of 5 mL in the iliopsoas plane spreads around all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve in 10 of 15 cadaver sides. If these findings translate to living humans, injection of local anaesthetic into the iliopsoas plane could...

  15. Perception of Surgical Faculty on the Utility of Modified Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

    Ashwini C Appaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical skills training on low and high fidelity simulators have been in practice for over a decade, but due to the high cost of virtual reality simulators it is beyond the reach of institutions and trainees. Among the simulators, high fidelity simulators such as a suitably prepared human anatomical specimen would give a real feel as if doing the procedure in the living. Hence, having soft, supple cadaver with organoleptic properties is an ideal situation for training by simulation and research. To facilitate the surgical skill training and research, chemical embalming was adopted with modifications of the Thiel method, for cadaver preservation. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the perception of the surgical faculty’s experience on the utility of modified Thiel embalmed cadavers for surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a feedback was taken from practicing surgeons of broad and sub specialties such as general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, ophthalmology, ENT, OBG, Transplant surgery (n=54. A 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was used with criteria of measurements like skin color, consistency, odour, differentiation of the layers, approach to the area, joint mobility and suitability for the procedure. Results: The scores ranged from 3.9 to 4.46/5. The participants expressed satisfaction on the cadaver quality on their utility for performance of surgical procedures. They expressed that, such embalmed cadavers would be excellent for learning purpose, surgical skills training in orthopedic procedures like arthroscopy. They felt the joint mobility was good, the consistency was soft and differentiation of layers was good. Some felt the tissues were fragile and would easily give away losing their strength. Conclusion: Thiel embalmed cadavers retain their organoleptic properties and hence facilitate surgical skills training. The thiel embalmed

  16. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  18. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  19. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  20. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  1. Dietary HMB and β-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with β-alanine (β-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or β-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and β-Ala (HMB+β-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+β-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+β-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+β-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+β-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+β-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive).

  2. A case report of a completely displaced stress fracture of the femoral shaft in a middle-aged male athlete - A precursor of things to come?

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture. The fracture occurred during running at the national championship in ½ Ironman. The patient reported that his symptoms had gradually developed over the last month before the fracture with pain localized anterior to the thigh. The patient interpreted the symptoms as local muscle damage. A clinical examination was conducted by a physiotherapist and the symptoms were interpreted as a simple muscle injury in the quadriceps. When presented with a patient with non-traumatic, diffuse anterior thigh pain in an individual of this age, who is participating in high-level endurance running; clinicians should consider the possibility that the cause of the symptoms may be a femoral shaft stress fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of distal radius strength in cadaver material.

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Distal radius fracture, which often occurs in the setting of osteoporosis, can lead to permanent deformity and disability. Great effort has been directed toward developing noninvasive methods for evaluating the distal radius strength, with the goal of assessing fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate distal radius strength using a finite element model and to gauge the accuracy of finite element model measurement using cadaver material. Ten wrists were obtained from cadavers with a mean age of 89.5 years at death. CT images of each wrist in an extended position were obtained. CT-based finite element models were prepared with Mechanical Finder software. Fracture on the models was simulated by applying a mechanical load to the palm in a direction parallel to the forearm axis, after which the fracture load and the site at which the fracture began were identified. For comparison, the wrists were fractured using a universal testing machine and the fracture load and the site of fracture were identified. The fracture load was 970.9 N in the finite element model group and 990.0 N in the actual measurement group. The site of the initial fracture was extra-articular to the distal radius in both groups. The finite element model was predictive for distal radius fracture when compared to the actual measurement. In this study, a finite element model for evaluation of distal radius strength was validated and can be used to predict fracture risk. We conclude that a finite element model is useful for the evaluation of distal radius strength. Knowing distal radius strength might avoid distal radius fracture because appropriate antiosteoporotic treatment can be initiated.

  4. The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males.

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-11-06

    This retrospective study evaluated the influence of the joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during a 6-year follow-up period in middle-aged and older males. The study population included 303 males without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their lifestyle behaviors regarding exercise and physical activity were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into four categories according to the performance or non-performance of habitual exercise and the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. After 6 years, 32 subjects (10.6%) developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate exercise and hyperglycemic subjects (log-rank test: p exercise (HR = 2.82, 95% confidence of interval (CI) = 1.07-7.36, p = 0.034) and that in hyperglycemic subjects who did not perform habitual exercise (HR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.87-16.63, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in comparison to the subjects with a NGT who performed habitual exercise. These results suggest that the habitual exercise and good glycemic control and their combination were associated with the incidence of CKD.

  5. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

  6. Age

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  7. Anatomical variations of the iliolumbar vein with application to the anterior retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Camp, Christopher L; Zietlow, Scott P; Huddleston, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Objectives of this study include identification of lumbosacral venous variations, designation of a critical area of dissection for surgical exposure, and comparison between both male/female and right/left-sided anatomy. Attempts were made to provide anatomic nomenclature that accurately describes these structures. Thirty-eight iliolumbar venous systems in 20 cadavers (11 females/9 males) were dissected. Each system was identified as one of three patterns of variation: common venous trunk (combining ascending lumbar and iliolumbar venous systems) with distal veins, common venous trunk without distal veins, and venous systems without a common venous trunk. Dimensions including distances to the inferior vena cava (IVC) confluence, the obturator nerve, and the lumbosacral trunk, and venous stem length were obtained to aid surgical dissection. Differences between males and females and those between right and left sides were compared. Anterior lumbosacral venous variations could be organized into three groups. A Type 1 venous system (common venous trunk with distal veins) was most common (53% of systems). The anatomical name "lateral lumbosacral veins" adequately describes the anatomical location of these veins and does not assume a direction of venous flow or the lack of individual distal veins. A critical area bordered by the obturator nerve anteriorly, the psoas muscle laterally, the spinal column medially, and sacrum posteriorly within 8.2 cm of the IVC confluence should be defined to adequately dissect the lateral lumbosacral veins. Differences in male and female lateral lumbosacral venous anatomy do not alter surgeon's approach to the anterior lumbar spine. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  9. Correlations Between the Autolytic Changes and Postmortem Interval in Refrigerated Cadavers

    Cocariu Ela Andra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In forensic pathology the autolytic process has been observed and documented in order to determine the postmortem interval as accurately as possible. The observation and experiments have been carried out on cadavers exposed to environmental conditions – heat, humidity, air currents, soil, water.

  10. How to decrease the emotional impact of cadaver dissection in medical students

    F Javadnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching anatomy is based on cadaver dissection. Working  with cadavers, whether through active dissection or by examination of prosected specimens, constitutes a potential stressor in medical  education.Purpose.To reduce the anxiety of the medical students by mentally preparing them before going to the dissection room.Methods: The questionnaires were distributed among 68 medical students. The pre-dissection questionnaire comprised questions related to demographic data and the first encounter with a cadaver. The students were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was prepared psychologically prior to dissection, but the control group entered the dissection room without any preparation. After the first dissection class, all students were surveyed by the second questionnaire  which surveyed physical and cognitive symptoms of anxiety, resulting from exposure to the dissection room at the first visit and six weeks later.Results: There was a significant difference (p<.05 in the rate of anxiety between experimental and control group in the initial visit. The difference in the rate of anxiety between the first exposure and six weeks later was significant in control group (p<.008, while it was not significant in the experimental group.Conclusion: The initial preparation could relatively reduce the rate of stress, so that the experimental group experienced less errs tonal effects during dissection compared to control group.Keyword: Emotional impact, cadaver dissection, medical students

  11. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  12. The Omental Pedicle Flap in Dogs Revised and Refined: A Cadaver Study.

    Doom, Marjan; Cornillie, Pieter; Simoens, Paul; Huyghe, Stephanie; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-08-01

    To expand current knowledge on the canine omental vasculature and refine the existing lengthening technique of the canine omentum. Ex vivo study. Canine cadavers (n=20). In 10 canine cadavers the omental arteries were mapped using intravascular latex injection and these results were used to create an omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery in 10 additional cadavers. The operating range of the flap was recorded with particular attention to the main regions of interest for omental transposition in dogs (axillary and inguinal regions). The superficial and deep omental leaves were each predominantly supplied by a left and a right marginal omental artery that anastomosed near the caudal omental border into a superficial and a deep omental arch, respectively. Anastomoses between arteries of the superficial and the deep omental leaves were weak and inconsistent, except for 1 anastomosis that was found in 8 of 10 dogs. By transposing the intact omentum, the right axilla could be reached in 3 dogs, both axillae in 1 dog, and both groins in all cadavers. In all cases, the omental pedicle reached to and beyond the axillary and inguinal regions. By unfolding the pedicle leaves, the width of the pedicle tip could be doubled. When lengthening the omentum is necessary to reach extra-abdominal structures, the omental pedicle flap based on the splenic artery appears to preserve the omental vascular supply. These observations warrant further clinical trials to evaluate this new omtental flap technique in vivo. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  14. Primary fit of the Lord cementless total hip : a geometric study in cadavers

    Schimmel, J.W.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two Lord prostheses, bilaterally implanted in cadavers, were sectioned. The contact areas between bone and prosthesis were studied and measured using a specially developed reproducible method. Primary fixation of the femoral components appeared to be based principally on wedging of the prosthetic

  15. [Proposed difficult airway teaching methodology. Presentation of an interactive fresh frozen cadaver model].

    Catalá Bauset, J C; de Andres Ibañez, J A; Valverde Navarro, A; Martinez Soriano, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodology based on the use of fresh-frozen cadavers for training in the management of the airway, and to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among learning physicians. About 6 fresh-frozen cadavers and 14 workstations were prepared where participants were trained in the different skills needed for airway management. The details of preparation of the cadavers are described. The level of satisfaction of the participant was determined using a Likert rating scale of 5 points, at each of the 14 stations, as well as the overall assessment and clinical usefulness of the course. The mean overall evaluation of the course and its usefulness was 4.75 and 4.9, out of 5, respectively. All parts of the course were rated above 4 out of 5. The high level of satisfaction of the course remained homogeneous in the 2 editions analysed. The overall satisfaction of the course was not finally and uniquely determined by any of its particular parts. The fresh cadaver model for training physicians in techniques of airway management is a proposal satisfactory to the participant, and with a realism that approaches the live patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  17. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  18. The Use of Specially Designed Tasks to Enhance Student Interest in the Cadaver Dissection Laboratory

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il

    2012-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…

  19. Optimizing the Use of Cadavers by Integrating Pathology during Anatomy Dissection

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët

    2016-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent…

  20. Simulated training in colonoscopic stenting of colonic strictures: validation of a cadaver model.

    Iordache, F; Bucobo, J C; Devlin, D; You, K; Bergamaschi, R

    2015-07-01

    There are currently no available simulation models for training in colonoscopic stent deployment. The aim of this study was to validate a cadaver model for simulation training in colonoscopy with stent deployment for colonic strictures. This was a prospective study enrolling surgeons at a single institution. Participants performed colonoscopic stenting on a cadaver model. Their performance was assessed by two independent observers. Measurements were performed for quantitative analysis (time to identify stenosis, time for deployment, accuracy) and a weighted score was devised for assessment. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used for nonparametric and parametric data, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used for reliability. Twenty participants performed a colonoscopy with deployment of a self-expandable metallic stent in two cadavers (groups A and B) with 20 strictures overall. The median time was 206 s. The model was able to differentiate between experts and novices (P = 0. 013). The results showed a good consensus estimate of reliability, with kappa = 0.571 (P cadaver model described in this study has content, construct and concurrent validity for simulation training in colonoscopic deployment of self-expandable stents for colonic strictures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of this model in terms of skill transfer to clinical practice. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Construct Validity of Fresh Frozen Human Cadaver as a Training Model in Minimal Access Surgery

    Macafee, David; Pranesh, Nagarajan; Horgan, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The construct validity of fresh human cadaver as a training tool has not been established previously. The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a method of training in minimal access surgery and determine if novices can be rapidly trained using this model to a safe level of performance. Methods: Junior surgical trainees, novices (cadavers. Expert laparoscopists (>100 laparoscopic procedures) performed 3 repetitions of identical tasks. Performances were scored using a validated, objective Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. Scores for 3 consecutive repetitions were compared between experts and novices to determine construct validity. Furthermore, to determine if the novices reached a safe level, a trimmed mean of the experts score was used to define a benchmark. Mann-Whitney U test was used for construct validity analysis and 1-sample t test to compare performances of the novice group with the benchmark safe score. Results: Ten novices and 2 experts were recruited. Four out of 5 tasks (nondominant to dominant hand transfer; simulated appendicectomy; intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying) showed construct validity. Novices’ scores became comparable to benchmark scores between the eighth and tenth repetition. Conclusion: Minimal access surgical training using fresh frozen human cadavers appears to have construct validity. The laparoscopic skills of novices can be accelerated through to a safe level within 8 to 10 repetitions. PMID:23318058

  2. Splenorenal shunt via magnetic compression technique: a feasibility study in canine and cadaver.

    Xue, Fei; Li, Jianpeng; Lu, Jianwen; Zhu, Haoyang; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Hongke; Yang, Huan; Guo, Hongchang; Lv, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The concept of magnetic compression technique (MCT) has been accepted by surgeons to solve a variety of surgical problems. In this study, we attempted to explore the feasibility of a splenorenal shunt using MCT in canine and cadaver. The diameters of the splenic vein (SV), the left renal vein (LRV), and the vertical interval between them, were measured in computer tomography (CT) images obtained from 30 patients with portal hypertension and in 20 adult cadavers. The magnetic devices used for the splenorenal shunt were then manufactured based on the anatomic parameters measured above. The observation of the anatomical structure showed there were no special structural tissues or any important organs between SV and LRV. Then the magnetic compression splenorenal shunt procedure was performed in three dogs and five cadavers. Seven days later, the necrotic tissue between the two magnets was shed and the magnets were removed with the anchor wire. The feasibility of splenorenal shunt via MCT was successfully shown in both canine and cadaver, thus providing a theoretical support for future clinical application.

  3. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    Saseem Poudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. Materials and Methods: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. Results: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. Conclusion: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures.

  5. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model.

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures.

  6. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  7. Use of human cadavers in teaching of human anatomy in brazilian medical faculties

    Isabela de Sousa Leal Lopes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Anatomy is the study of human body structure and it has been related to the use of cadavers through the history. The aim of this research was to investigate the use of human cadavers in practical classes of human anatomy in Brazilian medical schools, and it was also made the identification of alternative methodologies and new technologies applied to the teaching of Anatomy. The research was conducted at the Faculdade Integral Diferencial from January to December of 2015. The population studied was composed by professors responsible for the Human Anatomy sector of the Brazilian medical faculties. It was addressed all the 242 medical colleges of the Brazil. It was obtained 81 answers. 96% of respondents reported make use of human corpses in its practical lessons of anatomy. It can be observed that 42% of the surveyed medical schools make use of only formaldehyde. 81% of faculties reported to face some difficulties to acquire human cadavers. 84% of medical schools make use of artificial models. 46% of faculties make use of diagnostic images. It can be concluded that human bodies, artificial models and new technologies are widely used in practical classes of anatomy in Brazil, since there is a difficulty to obtain cadavers.

  8. The Histopathologic Reliability of Tissue Taken from Cadavers within the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P., III; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution.…

  9. Validation of an optical system to measure acetabular shell deformation in cadavers.

    Dold, Philipp; Bone, Martin C; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Joyce, Tom J; Deehan, David; Holland, James

    2014-08-01

    Deformation of the acetabular shell at the time of surgery can result in poor performance and early failure of the hip replacement. The study aim was to validate an ATOS III Triple Scan optical measurement system against a co-ordinate measuring machine using in vitro testing and to check repeatability under cadaver laboratory conditions. Two sizes of custom-made acetabular shells were deformed using a uniaxial/two-point loading frame and measured at different loads. Roundness measurements were performed using both the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system and a co-ordinate measuring machine and then compared. The repeatability was also tested by measuring shells pre- and post-insertion in a cadaver laboratory multiple times. The in vitro comparison with the co-ordinate measuring machine demonstrated a maximum difference of 5 µm at the rim and 9 µm at the measurement closest to the pole of the shell. Maximum repeatability was below 1 µm for the co-ordinate measuring machine and 3 µm for the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system. Repeatability was comparable between the pre-insertion (below 2 µm) and post-insertion (below 3 µm) measurements in the cadaver laboratory. This study supports the view that the ATOS III Triple Scan optical system fulfils the necessary requirements to accurately measure shell deformation in cadavers. © IMechE 2014.

  10. Aging

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  11. Aging

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  12. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  13. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Small-sample preclinical study. HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127).

  14. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  15. An evaluation of soil chemistry in human cadaver decomposition islands: Potential for estimating postmortem interval (PMI).

    Fancher, J P; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Farris, T; Mix, K; Schwab, A P; Wescott, D J; Hamilton, M D

    2017-10-01

    Soil samples from the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, were analyzed for multiple soil characteristics from cadaver decomposition islands to a depth of 5centimeters (cm) from 63 human decomposition sites, as well as depths up to 15cm in a subset of 11 of the cadaver decomposition islands plus control soils. Postmortem interval (PMI) of the cadaver decomposition islands ranged from 6 to 1752 days. Some soil chemistry, including nitrate-N (NO 3 -N), ammonium-N (NH 4 -N), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), peaked at early PMI values and their concentrations at 0-5cm returned to near control values over time likely due to translocation down the soil profile. Other soil chemistry, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), orthophosphate-P (PO 4 -P), sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ), remained higher than the control soil up to a PMI of 1752days postmortem. The body mass index (BMI) of the cadaver appeared to have some effect on the cadaver decomposition island chemistry. To estimate PMI using soil chemistry, backward, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used with PMI as the dependent variable and soil chemistry, body mass index (BMI) and physical soil characteristics such as saturated hydraulic conductivity as independent variables. Measures of soil parameters derived from predator and microbial mediated decomposition of human remains shows promise in estimating PMI to within 365days for a period up to nearly five years. This persistent change in soil chemistry extends the ability to estimate PMI beyond the traditionally utilized methods of entomology and taphonomy in support of medical-legal investigations, humanitarian recovery efforts, and criminal and civil cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of 6 weeks oral administration of Phyllanthus acidus leaf water extract on the vascular functions of middle-aged male rats.

    Chongsa, Watchara; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2015-12-24

    Leaves of Phyllanthus acidus (PA) have been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. We have previously shown that chronic treatment of a PA water extract to middle-aged male rats caused a lowering of the body and serum lipids, two of the parameters that are implicated in cardiovascular disease. To investigate if chronic treatment of middle-aged male rats with a PA water extract affected the perivascular (aortic) adipose tissue (PVAT) and/or their vascular functions Fresh leaves of PA were extracted with water and orally gavaged to the middle-aged male rats for 6 weeks. Vascular functions were studied in vitro using isolated thoracic aorta with and without PVAT, and mesenteric rings in Krebs Heinseleit solution with results recorded with a Polygraph or a Myograph system. The amount of blood vessel eNOS and CSE (cystathionine-γ-lyase) expression was measured by Western blotting. PA treatment caused a lower maximal contractile response to phenylephrine (Phe) of the endothelium-intact aortic ring than that of the control group. This effect was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NA) or by denudation of the endothelium. dl-propargylglycine (PAG, H2S inhibitor) and TEA (Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), but not glybenclamide (ATP-activated K(+) channel blocker), caused a similar increase in the baseline of the endothelium-intact aortic ring in the presence of l-NA in both the PA-treated and control aortic rings. This effect sequentially resulted in a greater contractile response of the aortic rings of both groups to Phe. Glybenclamide also caused a similar increase in the maximal contraction of the endothelium-intact blood vessels with l-NA to both groups. PAG, TEA or glybenclamide did not modify the phenylephrine C-R curves for either group of the PVAT-endothelium-intact aortic rings preincubated with l-NA. The CSE levels of the thoracic aorta and at the PVAT were not different between the PA-treated and the control group

  17. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  18. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  19. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  20. Protein Supplementation to Augment the Effects of High Intensity Resistance Training in Untrained Middle-Aged Males: The Randomized Controlled PUSH Trial

    Andreas Wittke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity (resistance exercise training (HIT defined as a “single set resistance exercise to muscular failure” is an efficient exercise method that allows people with low time budgets to realize an adequate training stimulus. Although there is an ongoing discussion, recent meta-analysis suggests the significant superiority of multiple set (MST methods for body composition and strength parameters. The aim of this study is to determine whether additional protein supplementation may increase the effect of a HIT-protocol on body composition and strength to an equal MST-level. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly allocated to three groups: (a HIT, (b HIT and protein supplementation (HIT&P, and (c waiting-control (CG and (after cross-over high volume/high-intensity-training (HVHIT. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two equal sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5–1.7 g/kg/d/body mass. Primary study endpoint was lean body mass (LBM. LBM significantly improved in all exercise groups (p≤0.043; however only HIT&P and HVHIT differ significantly from control (p≤0.002. HIT diverges significantly from HIT&P (p=0.017 and nonsignificantly from HVHIT (p=0.059, while no differences were observed for HIT&P versus HVHIT (p=0.691. In conclusion, moderate to high protein supplementation significantly increases the effects of a HIT-protocol on LBM in middle-aged untrained males.

  1. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  2. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  3. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human cadaver corneal endothelial precursor cells on to a cadaver bovine's eye using a nanocomposite gel sheet.

    Parikumar, Periyasamy; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Ohbayashi, Akira; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2014-05-01

    In vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP) cells has been reported via production of cell aggregated spheres. However, to translate this procedure in human patients warrants maintaining the position of the eyeballs facing down for 36 h, which is not feasible. In this study, we report a method using a nanocomposite (NC) gel sheet to accomplish the integration of HCEP cells to the endothelium of cadaver bovine's eyes. HCEP cells were isolated from the corneal endothelium of a cadaver human eye and then expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) as reported earlier. For the study, three cadaver bovine eyes were used. The NC gel sheets were inserted into the bovine eyes', aligned and suture-fixed in position under the host endothelium. HCEP cells previously expanded in the TGP were harvested and injected using a 26-gauge syringe between the endothelium and the NC gel sheet. The eyes were left undisturbed for three hours following which the NC gel sheets were gently removed. The corneas were harvested and subjected to histopathological studies. Histopathological studies showed that all the three corneas used for NC gel sheet implantation showed the presence of engrafted HCEP cells, seen as multi-layered cells over the native endothelium of the bovine cornea. Examination of the NC gel sheets used for implantation showed that only very few corneal endothelial cells remained on the sheets amounting to what could be considered negligible. The use of the NC gel sheet makes HCEP cell transplantation feasible for human patients. Further in vitro basic studies followed by translational studies are necessary to bring this method for clinical application in appropriate indications.

  4. Comparison of Measured and Estimated CT Organ Doses for Modulated and Fixed Tube Current:: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Padole, Atul; Deedar Ali Khawaja, Ranish; Otrakji, Alexi; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the directly measured and the estimated computed tomography (CT) organ doses obtained from commercial radiation dose-tracking (RDT) software for CT performed with modulated tube current or automatic exposure control (AEC) technique and fixed tube current (mAs). With the institutional review board (IRB) approval, the ionization chambers were surgically implanted in a human cadaver (88 years old, male, 68 kg) in six locations such as liver, stomach, colon, left kidney, small intestine, and urinary bladder. The cadaver was scanned with routine abdomen pelvis protocol on a 128-slice, dual-source multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner using both AEC and fixed mAs. The effective and quality reference mAs of 100, 200, and 300 were used for AEC and fixed mAs, respectively. Scanning was repeated three times for each setting, and measured and estimated organ doses (from RDT software) were recorded (N = 3*3*2 = 18). Mean CTDIvol for AEC and fixed mAs were 4, 8, 13 mGy and 7, 14, 21 mGy, respectively. The most estimated organ doses were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the measured organ doses for both AEC and fixed mAs. At AEC, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 14.7 mGy compared to mean measured organ doses of 12.3 mGy. Similarly, at fixed mAs, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 24 mGy compared to measured organ doses of 22.3 mGy. The differences among the measured and estimated organ doses were higher for AEC technique compared to the fixed mAs for most organs (P < 0.01). The most CT organ doses estimated from RDT software are greater compared to directly measured organ doses, particularly when AEC technique is used for CT scanning. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.

    van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A reliability generalization meta-analysis of coefficient alpha and test-retest coefficient for the aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale.

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-12-01

    The aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale is an instrument used to determine the health-related quality of life in adult and elderly men. The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability for the AMS scale and its three subscales. Of the 123 studies reviewed, 12 provided alpha coefficients which were then used in the meta-analyses of internal consistency. Seven of the 12 included studies provided test-retest coefficients, and these were used in the meta-analyses of test-retest reliability. The AMS scale had excellent internal consistency [α = 0.89 (95% CI 0.88-0.90)]; the mean alpha estimates across the AMS subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.82. The AMS scale also had good test-retest reliability [r = 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88]; the test-retest reliability coefficients of the AMS subscales ranged from 0.76 to 0.83. There was significant heterogeneity among the included studies. The AMS scale and the three subscales had fairly good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Future psychometric studies of the AMS scale should report important characteristics of the participants, details of item scores, and test-retest reliability.

  7. Effect of six weeks of endurance exercise and following detraining on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory performance in middle aged males with metabolic syndrome.

    Babaei, P; Azali Alamdari, K; Soltani Tehrani, B; Damirchi, A

    2013-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical inactivity contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training has been reported to improve MetS, however less attention has been directed toward the role of training and detraining on cognitive function in MetS. Twenty one healthy middle-aged males and 21 with MetS were distributed into four groups: MetS exercise (ME), MetS control (MC), Healthy exercise (HE) and healthy control (HC). Both ME and HE, followed a 6-week aerobic training program (3 sessions/week). Digit Span memory test and blood sampling were conducted pre training, post training and also following a six weeks detraining. Data were analyzed using spearman, pearson and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Baseline serum BDNF level was positively correlated with waist circumference (r=0.383, P=0.012) and showed significant elevation in MetS compared with healthy subjects (1101.66±61.34 vs. 903.72±46.57 pg/mL, P=0.014). After aerobic exercise BDNF level significantly increased in HE, but decreased in ME group (P=0.001). Both short and mid term memory significantly increased (PExercise induced cognitive improvement might be mediated via BDNF-linked mechanisms in healthy people. However, the health status of individuals should be considered.

  8. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  9. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  10. A potential relationship between skin hydration and stamp-type microneedle intradermal hyaluronic acid injection in middle-aged male face.

    Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in skin rejuvenation using hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers beyond the improvement of deep wrinkles and volume deficiencies, which have been primary research foci in the past. We conducted a pilot study using a sample of six middle-aged male subjects. Using an automatic intradermal injector with 0.020 mL of material contained in each injection point with a total of 100 points, 2 mL of non-cross-HA filler was injected into the entire face at every treatment session. We administered injections of HA for a total of three sessions per subject at 2-week intervals and evaluated the results using a corneometer, TEWL, cutometer, measures of patient satisfaction, and the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS). Corneometer values increased steadily at each measurement, while the average value of TEWL increased in comparison with baseline after each application of the procedure. However, values returned to readings similar to those at 4 weeks after complete termination of the procedures. Cutometer values differed between the baseline and after procedures. All patients were assessed as "very much improved" or "much improved" according to GAIS, and all were pleased with the outcomes of treatment in terms of the enhancement of moisture, elasticity, and brightness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of liquid losses in trainings during competition period on some biochemical values of u18 male judokas ( age 15-17

    Nuri Muhammet Çelik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of liquid losses occurring in training sessions during the competition period on some biochemical values of the male Judokas competing in the U18 category. Methods:  The values of the 17 male athletes, who were included in the national team at least once, were checked in our study which compares the values of athletes before the competition and immediately after the competition. Urine Density, Urine pH, BUN, Creatine and Potassium values from the biochemistry values were measured besides the age, height and weight of the athletes participating in the study. Results: As a result of the measurements made; it was found that the kg pre-test averages of the participant athletes were 67,82 ±17,87, post-test averages were 64,88±16,89, Urine Density pre-test averages were 1.017,94 ±7,08, post-test averages were 1.025±8,48, Urine pH pre-test averages were 6,15±0,70, post-test averages were 5,82±0,50, BUN pre-test averages were 15,65±3,14, post-test averages were 24,35±3,60, Creatine pre-test averages were 0,48±0,20, post-test averages were 0,93±0,41,  K Potassium pre-test averages were 4,16±0,35,  post-test averages were 4,95 ±0,64. As a result of the statistical analysis, although there was no significant difference in urine pH pre-test and post-test values, statistically significant difference was found between pre-test and post-test values in other selected parameters (p <0,05. Conclusions: As a result; it is thought that in our country in which the adjustment of the weight class is made unconsciously and unplanned, this will lead to the health problems of the athletes in many ways, especially in the later ages. Particularly in the professional sense, the health problems, which athletes who enter weight competitions and who enter at least 10 international competitions in the Olympic sense for the Judo branch a year can experience in the later ages as a result

  12. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  13. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  14. Necropsy of a cadaver containing 50 mmCi of Na-131I

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Komerek, M.; Quain, B.; Bakshi, S.P.; Qureshi, F.; Shimaoka, K.; Rao, U.; Adamski, J.S.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A patient who received an oral dose of 131 I for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma unexpectedly died with a large total-body retention of the radioiodine. An autopsy was required and the family requested the body to be transported out of state to their home town. Since the radiation intensity near the surface of the cadaver was above 200 mR/hr, advanced planning and special precautions were necessary in order for the autopsy to proceed safely. This required the immediate cooperation of the pathologists, nuclear medicine physicians, health physicists, an endocrine oncologist, and other hospital staff. As a result of team efforts, personnel radiation exposures were kept as low as reasonably achievable, contamination of the autopsy room was minimal, and the radiation level of the cadaver was adequately reduced for safe transport and burial

  15. Accuracy of computer-guided implantation in a human cadaver model.

    Yatzkair, Gustavo; Cheng, Alice; Brodie, Stan; Raviv, Eli; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    To examine the accuracy of computer-guided implantation using a human cadaver model with reduced experimental variability. Twenty-eight (28) dental implants representing 12 clinical cases were placed in four cadaver heads using a static guided implantation template. All planning and surgeries were performed by one clinician. All radiographs and measurements were performed by two examiners. The distance of the implants from buccal and lingual bone and mesial implant or tooth was analyzed at the apical and coronal levels, and measurements were compared to the planned values. No significant differences were seen between planned and implanted measurements. Average deviation of an implant from its planning radiograph was 0.8 mm, which is within the range of variability expected from CT analysis. Guided implantation can be used safely with a margin of error of 1 mm. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes.

    Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative

  17. Comparison between Hybrid III dummy and cadaver knee response in frontal impact

    MASSON, Catherine; CAVALLERO, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Lower limb injuries frequently occur during car accidents. The purpose of this work was to compare the response of the hybrid iii lower limb with the response of cadaver lower limb subjected to similar impacts. These experiments were performed with the objective to evaluate the biofidelity, repeatability and response characteristics of the knee-femur-pelvis HIII dummy. The tests have examined the dynamic response of the knee-femur-pelvis complex to sub injury simple pendulum impacts. The expe...

  18. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Dual Mobility Liner Rim Damage Using Retrieved Components and Cadaver Models.

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Freiberg, Andrew A; Greene, Meridith E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rowell, Shannon; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Varadarajan, Kartik M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the retentive rim of retrieved dual mobility liners for visible evidence of deformation from femoral neck contact and to use cadaver models to determine if anterior soft tissue impingement could contribute to such deformation. Fifteen surgically retrieved polyethylene liners were assessed for evidence of rim deformation. The average time in vivo was 31.4 months, and all patients were revised for reasons other than intraprosthetic dislocation. Liner interaction with the iliopsoas was studied visually and with fluoroscopy in cadaver specimens using a dual mobility system different than the retrieval study. For fluoroscopic visualization, a metal wire was sutured to the iliopsoas and wires were also embedded into grooves on the outer surface of the liner and the inner head. All retrievals showed evidence of femoral neck contact. The cadaver experiments showed that liner motion was impeded by impingement with the iliopsoas tendon in low flexion angles. When observing the hip during maximum hyperextension, 0°, 15°, and 30° of flexion, there was noticeable tenting of the iliopsoas caused by impingement with the liner. Liner rim deformation resulting from contact with the femoral neck likely begins during early in vivo function. The presence of deformation is indicative of a mechanism inhibiting mobility of the liner. The cadaver studies showed that liner motion could be impeded because of its impingement with the iliopsoas. Such soft tissue impingement may be one mechanism by which liner motion is routinely inhibited, which can result in load transfer from the neck to the rim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crash-Resistant Crewseat Limit-Load Optimization through Dynamic Testing with Cadavers

    1986-01-01

    shell on each surface of the verte- bral centrum is referred to as the bony end plate. Facing this bony end plate is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage ...most realistically, two vertebrae with the included intervertebral disc and hyaline cartilage . This section is referred to as the intervertebral joint...strengths of vertebrae from various studies ......... ... .......................... 5 2 Sumary of the test matrix for the cadaver test program . 33 3 Test

  1. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  2. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  3. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  4. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: dilatation performance in cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the artery dilatation performance of the short-duration heating balloon catheter in cadaver stenotic arteries. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to around 60 °C in 15-25 s by a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. We performed ex vivo short-duration heating dilatation in the cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries (initial percent diameter stenosis was 36-98%), with the maximum balloon temperature of 65+/-5 °C, laser irradiation duration of 25 s, and balloon dilatation pressure of 3.5 atm. The artery lumen configurations before and after the dilatations were assessed with a commercial IVUS system. After the short-duration heating dilatations, the percent diameter stenosis was reduced below 30% without any artery tears or dissections. We estimated that the artery media temperature was raised to around 60 °C in which plaque thickness was below 0.8 mm by a thermal conduction calculation. The estimated maximum temperature in artery adventitia and surrounding tissue was up to 45 °C. We found that the short-duration heating balloon could sufficiently dilate the cadaver stenotic arteries, without thermal injury in artery adventitia and surroundings.

  5. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  6. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  7. Endovascular Placement of an Extraluminal Femoropopliteal Bypass Graft in Human Cadavers

    Maynar, Manuel; Llorens, Rafael; Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio; Qian Zhong; Lopera, Jorge; Castaneda, Wilfrido R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. A method to create an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft using endovascular techniques was evaluated in situ on cadaver extremities in an attempt to develop a minimally invasive alternative technique for the management of infrainguinal occlusive arterial disease. Methods. The endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft was undertaken in 5 cadaver legs. Following percutaneous access to the popliteal artery (PA) or common femoral artery (CFA), a Rosch-Uchida needle was used to perforate the vascular wall, followed by the creation of an extraluminal tract using a looped wire and catheter. Once the desired level was reached the needle was again used to perforate the vascular wall of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or PA depending on the access used. Self-expanding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent-grafts were then deployed to establish the extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass connecting the two arterial puncture sites. Following dilatation of the stent-graft, angiography was performed to assess the endoprostheses and to look for contrast leaks. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 5 legs. Procedure time varied from 15 to 30 min. The angiographic studies performed immediately after completion of the bypass procedure showed patency of the grafts with no evidence of kinking or leakage in any of the cases. Conclusion. This study has proved that the endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft in human cadaver legs using endovascular techniques under fluoroscopic control is technically feasible

  8. Development of a human cadaver model for training in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Sutton, Erica R H; Billeter, Adrian; Druen, Devin; Roberts, Henry; Rice, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    The organ procurement network recommends a surgeon record 15 cases as surgeon or assistant for laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDN) prior to independent practice. The literature suggests that the learning curve for improved perioperative and patient outcomes is closer to 35 cases. In this article, we describe our development of a model utilizing fresh tissue and objective, quantifiable endpoints to document surgical progress, and efficiency in each of the major steps involved in LDN. Phase I of model development focused on the modifications necessary to maintain visualization for laparoscopic surgery in a human cadaver. Phase II tested proposed learner-based metrics of procedural competency for multiport LDN by timing procedural steps of LDN in a novice learner. Phases I and II required 12 and nine cadavers, with a total of 35 kidneys utilized. The following metrics improved with trial number for multiport LDN: time taken for dissection of the gonadal vein, ureter, renal hilum, adrenal and lumbrical veins, simulated warm ischemic time (WIT), and operative time. Human cadavers can be used for training in LDN as evidenced by improvements in timed learner-based metrics. This simulation-based model fills a gap in available training options for surgeons. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology.

    De Smedt, Delphine; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Dallongeville, Jean; Gevaert, Sofie; De Backer, Guy; Bruthans, Jan; Kotseva, Kornelia; Reiner, Željko; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Clays, Els

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in the management and risk factor control of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), taking into account their age and educational level. Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) survey. Males and females between 18 and 80years of age, hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event were included in the study. Data were available for 7998 patients of which 75.6% were males. Overall, females had a worse risk factor profile compared to males and were more likely to have 3 or more risk factors (29.5% vs. 34.9%; p<0.001) across all age groups. A significant gender by education interaction (p<0.05) and gender by age interaction effect (p<0.05) was found. Furthermore, males were more likely to have a LDL-cholesterol on target (OR=1.50[1.28-1.76]), a HbA1c on target (OR=1.33[1.07-1.64]), to be non-obese (OR=1.45[1.30-1.62]) and perform adequate physical activity (OR=1.71[1.46-2.00]). In contrast males were less likely to be non-smokers (OR=0.71[0.60-0.83]). Furthermore, males were less likely to have made a dietary change (OR=0.78[0.64-0.95]) or a smoking cessation attempt (OR=0.70[0.50-0.96]) and more likely to have received smoking cessation advice if they were smokers (OR=1.52[1.10-2.09]). Whereas gender differences in CHD treatment are limited, substantial differences were found regarding target achievement. The largest gender difference was seen in less educated and elderly patients. The gender gap declined with decreasing age and higher education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic

  11. Influence of spinal sagittal alignment, body balance, muscle strength, and physical ability on falling of middle-aged and elderly males.

    Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Wakao, Norimitsu; Seki, Taisuke; Hirano, Kenichi; Muramoto, Akio; Sakai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors for falling in elderly people remain uncertain, and the effects of spinal factors and physical ability on body balance and falling have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate how factors such as spinal sagittal alignment, spinal range of motion, body balance, muscle strength, and gait speed influence falling in the prospective cohort study. The subjects were 100 males who underwent a basic health checkup. Balance, SpinalMouse(®) data, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, lumbar lateral standing radiographs, body mass index, and fall history over the previous year were examined. Platform measurements of balance included the distance of movement of the center of pressure (COP) per second (LNG/TIME), the envelopment area traced by movement of the COP (E AREA), and the LNG/E AREA ratio. The thoracic/lumbar angle ratio (T/L ratio) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were used as an index of sagittal balance. LNG/TIME and E AREA showed significant positive correlations with age, T/L ratio, SVA, and 10-m gait time; and significant negative correlations with lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength and back muscle strength. Multiple regression analysis showed significant differences for LNG/TIME and E AREA with T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle and sacral inclination angle (R (2) = 0.399). Twelve subjects (12 %) had experienced a fall over the past year. Age, T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, height of the intervertebral disc, osteophyte formation in radiographs and LNG/E AREA differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The group with SVA > 40 mm (n = 18) had a significant higher number of subjects with a single fall (6 single fallers/18: p = 0.0075) and with multiple falls (4 multiple fallers/18: p = 0.0095). Good spinal sagittal alignment, muscle strength and 10-m gait speed improve body balance

  12. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87,