WorldWideScience

Sample records for male albino rats

  1. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  2. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  3. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  5. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  6. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  7. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  8. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  9. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Singh; Vinod Nair; Yogendra K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried o...

  10. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  11. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  12. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan; Raghunath Totaram Mahajan; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO) fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significa...

  13. Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Ahmed Omar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

  14. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  15. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  16. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  17. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  19. Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

  20. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...

  1. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  3. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  4. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  5. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  6. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  7. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  8. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  9. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CISPLATIN ON KIDNEY OF MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the most dreaded disease and currently taking a heaviest toll of human lives. The number of cancer patients diagnosed is growing at an alarming proportion. So, its treatment forms an important part of modern health care. Cisplatin is one of the important anticancer drugs used to treat a number of cancers like that of head and neck , prostate, breast, cervix , uterus etc. Though comparatively a safe drug it has got many side effects amongst which nephrotoxicity is of common occurance. Hence, a study was conducted, in the Department of Anatomy Government Medical College Jammu, on 40 male albino Wistar rats, obtained from the Animal house of Department of Pharmacology Government Medical College Jammu, to determine the toxic effects of Cisplatin on kidney of rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups where 3 groups were given the test drug Cisplatin I. P. ( I ntraperitoneally in doses of 0.2mg/kg body weight for 7 days , 1 mg/kg body weight for 7 days and 45 mg / kg body weight as a single dose respectively, whereas in the 4 th group or control group normal saline of same volume was injected I. P. These rats were subsequently anaesthetised, dissected and their kidneys were taken out. The kidneys were then subjected to standard histological slide preparation by paraffin embedding method and longitudinal and transverse sections so prepared were stained by H &E stain and observed under a light microscope. In group I ( C ontrol group no macroscopic as well as microscopic changes were seen in the kidneys. In group II, III, IV, well - marked microscopic changes were seen in the kidneys.

  10. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  11. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  12. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  13. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  14. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  15. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  16. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  17. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  18. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vengaiah V; Govardhan Naik A; Changamma C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, estimation of total, soluble and structural proteins, free amino acids and DNA, RNA were undertaken. Results: The accumulation in proteins indicates the anti-androgenic effect of extract. The reduction in free amino acids will affect the sertoli cell function, results in the damage of spermatogenesis. The significant elevation in testicular DNA content (hyperplasia) was observed. In the present study, P. betel leaf stalk extract decreases the concentration of RNA, in testes, seminal vesicle and prostate gland except in epididymis where it was elevated. It indicates the alterations in rate of protein synthesis and growth rate of tissues due to the administration of P. betel leaf stalk extraction. However, the RNA: DNA ratio was reduced except in prostate. Conclusions: P. betel leaf stalk extract exert its anti androgenic effect by alterations in rate of protein synthesis and cellular hypertrophy occur in prostate.

  19. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  20. ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanga Krishna Kumari S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

  1. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  3. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  4. Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique

  5. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  6. Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Onyeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05 of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis

  7. The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur

  8. The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the

  9. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  10. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu; Jane A. Emerue

    2014-01-01

    The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF) - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05) increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered ...

  11. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  12. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  13. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-tr...

  14. The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of carbonated beverage (colourless or black coloured drinks) on arterial blood gases, kidney function, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose and insulin. The rats were divided into three groups; ten rats per each group. Group (I) used as control, group (II) rats supplemented with colourless carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) and group (III) rats supplemented with black coloured carbonated beverage (10 ml /100 ml water) for three months. The arterial blood gases were evaluated by measuring ph PO2, , PCO2, , H+ a nd HCO3-. Rats receiving the coloured drinks showed high significant increase in ph while PO2 showed very high significant decrease in both groups. PCO2 showed high significant decrease in groups (II) and (III) while H+ showed high significant decrease in group (III) only. HCO3- showed high significant increase in group III. All these changes were related to carbonic acid dissolved in water and the increased ph lead to alkalinity of the blood and it is inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen ions (H+). Non-significant changes were observed in sodium ions while potassium ions showed significant increase in group (II) and high significant increase in group (III). The level of urea showed high and very high significant increase in groups (II) and (III), respectively. Creatinine level showed non-significant increase in group (III). The histopathology changes were observed in kidney tissues in rats of groups (II) and (III). From these results, it appears that black coloured beverage can increase the risk of kidney problems more than colourless beverages. Ca+ and inorganic phosphorous levels showed non- significant change except Ca ions showed a significant decrease in rats of group (III). The acidity of carbonated beverage leads to weak bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The decrease of bone mineral density was more pronounced in some parts of femur of rats receiving black colour carbonated

  16. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin. The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT, N-acetyltransferase (NAT, glucuronosyl transferase (UDP, and epoxide hydrolase (EH following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake, 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose, and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose, and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention.

  17. Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

  18. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000μgkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12

  19. Beneficial use of continuous administration of crataegus oxycantha in irradiated male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has become frequent with its vast applications in diagnosis, treatment and industry rather than possible environmental pollution with radiation. The animals of this study were allocated into three groups, control group, irradiated group (5 Gy one shot) and hawthorn treated post-irradiation group. Exposure to radiation was implicated with hematological suppression in all hematological parameters tested red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit percentage (HCT) and white blood cells count (WBCs). Radiation exposure caused alteration of lipid metabolism leading to increased total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, liver enzymes were also elevated, while serum albumin was diminished referring to liver dysfunction. The male reproductive hormone (testosterone) was severely inhibited along with glutathione. Administration of extraction of Crategous oxinatha (hawthorn) with a dose of 500 g/kg b.w. orally for consecutive 15 days post-irradiation showed significant ameliorating effects on both hematological and biochemical parameters leading to the suggestion of using hawthorn as food additive in relatively high amount

  20. Influence of Monosodium Glutamate on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with

  1. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  2. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

  3. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dos...

  4. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lakshmi Devi; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at...

  5. Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls, group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and licorice. DMN intoxicated rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group E treated with DMN, group F treated with DMN and green tea, group G treated with DMN and licorice, group H treated with DMN, green tea and licorice. The rats were permitted for free access to solubilized extracts of green tea and or licorice for 4 weeks. All rats in groups E, F, G, H were treated by intraperitoneal DMN (4 mg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled water/kg body weight seven times every 2 days in the first two weeks. Plasma total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase activity of liver was determined by spectrophotometeric method. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone was determined by chemiluminometric technique. Histopathological examination was conducted. Results Histopathologically thyroid gland of DMN intoxicated rats showed degeneration (DGand desquamation (DS of the lining epithelium and atrophy of many acini with hyperemia (H in the stromal capillaries and In comparison with control, the administration of DMN alone induced decrease in plasma levels of T3 and T4 while it induced increase in plasma levels of TSH and hepatic activity of Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase. Coadminstration of DMN and green tea attenuated the lowering effect of DMN on plasma levels of T3 and T4 and induced increase in these levels but values are still below normal ones while Co administration of DMN with licorice or mixture did not affect these

  6. The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay P.; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...

  7. Effect ofEmilia sonchifolia (Linn.)DC on alcohol- induced oxidative stress in pancreas of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominic Sophia; Murugesan Gomathy; Thomas Shebin; Paramasivam Ragavendran; Chinthamony Arulraj

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy ofn-hexane extract ofEmilia sonchifolia (E. sonchifobia) against ethanol induced pancreatic dysfunction in the young Wistar albino rats.Methods:The rats were divided into four groups. Control rats in groupⅠreceived distilled water orally, groupⅡreceived oral administration of20% (w/v) ethanol dissolved in drinking water, groupⅢreceived oral administration of20% (w/v) ethanol in distilled water+n-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia (250mg/kg body weight), and groupⅣ received oral administration ofn-hexane extract of E. sonchifolia (250 mg/kg body weight) alone. Liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non-enzymatic antioxidants glutathione and vitaminC were measured and compared.Results: Administration of20% ethanol for 16 weeks significantly increased the liver marker enzymesAST,ALT(P<0.05), reduced the pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and vitaminC(P<0.05). Histopathological examination showed that the ethanol provoked the oxidative stress which was demonstrated as pancreatic necrosis and oedema. Simultaneous administration ofn-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia (250 mg/kg body weight) protected the pancreas against the damage induced by ethanol which was confirmed by the histopathological studies and the normalization of biochemical parameters.Conclusions:Thusn-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia shows a promise in therapeutic use in alcohol induced oxidative stress.

  8. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayaprakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal

  9. Impact of abhrak bhasma and silicon dioxide on histological architecture of liver and kidney in single dose of carbon tetrachloride intoxicated male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashuram Teli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma is a widely used Ayurvedic drug in various diseases including hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of graded doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt of abhrak bhasma and its silica control, SiO2 was studied against CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in male albino rats during single dose experimental schedule for 24 hrs. Administration of CCl4 (3.0ml/ kg body wt induced fatty necrosis in hepatic cells without affecting kidney histology. Treatment of abhrak bhasma showed dose dependent protection against CCl4 induced liver damage by free radical scavenging activity. Silica in SiO2 form also positively influences liver fatty degeneration induced by single dose of CCl4 but is associated with some hepatocytes hypertrophy.

  10. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  11. The immunological and histopathological changes of Tramadol, Tramadol/Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen in male Albino rats "Comparative study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mostafa Rabei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic. It is commonly prescribed for moderate to severe pain, becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries. Paracetamol as anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. Meanwhile, tramadol/acetaminophen (tramacet is effective in acute or chronic moderate-to-moderately severe pain. In comparative study, the current investigation threw the light on the effect of over doses of tramadol and/or APAP on the immune function and hepatocytes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Material and methods: Treated rats received oral doses of each drug for 15 consecutive days and after last treatment, they kept three days later for withdrawal studies. The rats were divided into four treatment groups, in the first group, rats received saline and used as control. The second, third and fourth groups treated with tramadol (45 mg/kg, tramadol/APAP (45/450 mg/kg, APAP (450 mg/kg respectively, once a-day at the first week and ending with 90, 90/900, 900 mg/kg at the second week. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the first, second weeks and three days of last treatment. Results: Daily doses of tramadol and /or APAP exposure in rats decreased the cellularity of spleen. Moreover, phagocytic and killing of S. aureus by PMN and macrophage cells caused a highly significant decrease in treated groups. IFN- was reduced in a statistically different treated group of rats. Serum IL-10 was unaffected by any of the treatment regimens but increased only in tramadol/APAP treated rats. Spleen histology exhibited mild pathological alteration with different injures between treated groups. Splenic white pulp accompanied by ill deformed which reflected the reduction of white pulp zones, thickened vasculature in the splenic net work, fibrous trabeculae become prominent feature, where splenic red pulp occupied large areas of the splenic network with predominant edema and megakaryocytes. On

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  13. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977

  14. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  15. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  16. Carbamate Toxicity and Protective effect of vit. A and vit. E on some biochemicalaspects of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir, A.M. Zaahkouk* ; Eman, G.E. Helal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of carbamate (1/10 L.D50 on rats for 30 successive days were studied. The male rats were divided into five groups (control, control + oil, carbamate, carbamate + vit. A and carbamate + vit. E. Each group (except control and control + oil was daily administrated carbamate (0.012 mg/kg B.wt.. Two groups of carbamate ­ intoxicated animals provided with vit. A (700 mg/kg.B.wt or vit. E (10 mg/kg.B.wt. Poisoning symptoms were recorded, e.g. unbalanse, diarrhea, have poor health and posterior limbs rigidity. Haematological parameters showed a significant decrease in red blood corpuscles (R.B.Cs, white blood corpuscles (W.B.Cs count, Haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value in groups treated with carbamate, and an improvement in these values was observed in groups treated with the anti-oxidants (vit. A and vit. E. Total lipids cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, glucose, LDH, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in serum. Total proteins, total lipids, of tissues (liver, heart, muscle and kidney were investigated. The present study declare that, carbamate induced a significant elevetion in serum LDH, glucose. total lipids,cholesterol, AST, ALT, adrenaline and noradrenaline. On the other hand, causes a significant reduction in total proteins and albumin. The total lipids and total proteins of the tissue were recorded highly significant decrease in the group treated with carbamate only. From another point of view, antioxidant ameliorated the effect of carbamate on tissues. So, it is clear that administration of vit. E or vit. A. reduced the effect of carbamate on biochemical alteration to various extent. The antioxidant property of vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be responsible for the observed protection against carbamate intoxication.

  17. An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of

  18. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  19. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar, R; Vinayak Meti; A. Ruckmani; Shobita Devi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statins are hypocholestrolemic agents used in atherosclerotic vascular disorders. They act by inhibiting hepatic hypoxanthine methyl glutaryl CoA reductase enzyme. They are reported to cause hyperglycemia as an important adverse event. This study was conducted to investigate atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar, albino, male rats and the influence of vitamin D on the blood sugar changes. Methods: Forty, 12 weeks old male, Wistar albino rats, were selected and rand...

  20. Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it

  1. The Interaction Between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Captopril and Heat Stress in The Male Albino rats. 2-Tissue Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat E.I. Abd-Rabo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily exposure to heat stress causes sustained elevation of blood pressure in rats. It is known that the renin-angiotensin system is activated during episodes of behavioral stress, and the purpose of this work was to assess the action of captopril in the development of stress induced hypertension in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control, while the other groups were subjected to heat stress of 40C and high hamidity of 80% for 10 successive days. The second group was served as heat stress, while the third and the fourth groups were received low and high doses of captopril (0.7 & 1.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. After 10 days of treatment, half of animals from each group were decapitated and brain, liver, muscle, heart and kidney were separated and analysed. The other half of animals were left for another 10 days without any additional treatment for recovery.The results revealed a significant decrease in total protein of liver, heart, kidney, total lipids of heart, muscle and brain and total cholesterol of liver. On the other hand, insignificant change was noticed in muscle and brain total protein. Similarly, AST and ALT activities were also within the normal values for all the organs examined.Results exhibited that renin-angiotensin system may be important in the development of stress-induced hypertension in rats.

  2. Evaluation of silymarin and / or ginger effect on induced hepatotoxicity by carbon tetrachloride in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A.* and EL-Gendy A. M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease appears to be increase. Part of this increase may be due to our frequent contact with chemicals and other environmental pollutants. The amount of medicne consumed has increased greatly which could be danger to the liver. The hepatoprotective flavonoid, silymarin (7.56 mg/Kg b. wt. and ginger (Zingiber officinale (1% of diet for 4 weeks were used to ameliorate the liver injury in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 , single acute dose 4 ml/ Kg b. wt. of 50% v/v CCL4 in olive oil, subcutaneous. The obtained results showed that CCL4 decreased serum and liver total protein and albumin. Also reduced glutathione content. The antioxidant enzymes; glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity decreased in the liver of CCL4 toxicity group. On the other hand, CCL4 toxicity increased serum and liver bilirubin, total lipid and total cholestertol levels. In addition, liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver lipid peroxidation content showed significant increase in the CCL4 treated group. Previous parameters turned back to normal values in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats after treating with silymarin and/ or ginger for one month. Meanwhile, the most interesting effect was induced by a combination of silymarin and ginger. Hence, the present findings will provide a potential scope for future use of ginger for the treatment of liver disorders.

  3. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  4. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  5. Radioprotective Role of Some Bacteria Belonging to Actinomycetales against Gamma Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Abdel-Shafi1, Tamer M. M. Saad2 *, Abdel-Haliem M. E. F.1, Abdel-Rahman M. A. Ghonemey2, and Gamal Enan1

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. The inadvertent exposure of human from various source of radiation causes ionization of molecules, setting off potentially damaging reactions via free radicals production. Development of radioprotectants and mitigators is the therapeutic approach to ameliorate the negative health impact of radiation exposure. The majority of substances with biological activity used in medicine are produced by actinomycetes and fungi. Aim: the aim of the present study is to evaluate the radioprotective role of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Rahman as antioxidant against gamma irradiation that induced some biochemical alterations in rats. Material and Methods: animals were pretreated with antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 using suitable stomach tube for two weeks prior to radiation exposure. The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA, glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (ALT, glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT activities, also total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C were estimated. Results: the results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in the levels of MDA content, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities and concentration of TC, TG and LDL-C, meanwhile, showed significant depletion in GSH content and SOD, CAT and GPx activities and HDL-C concentration. Conclusion: it could be concluded that, the administration of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 pre-whole body gamma irradiation resulted in sufficient amelioration against radiation effects on the biochemical aspects examined in the present

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  7. Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ikenna Aguh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

  8. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  9. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  10. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  11. Aphrodisiac and phytochemical studies ofCocculus hirsutus extracts in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharanabasappaA Patil; SujayaM; SaraswatiB Patil

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate thein vivo aphrodisiac activity of various extracts obtained from aerial partsCocculus hirsutus(C. hirsutus).Methods:We evaluated whether oral administration ofC. hirsutushas spermatogenic activity in male rats.Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extract of aerial parts(stem and leaf) ofC. hirsutus were administered at the dose level of25 mg/100 g body weight to adult male albino rats for30 days.Results:The above said extracts have stimulated the spermatogenic activity and accessory reproductive organs performance in albino rats.Out of the three extracts administered, alcohol extract showed highly stimulant spermatogenic effects in mature male albino rats.Alcohol extract showed potent androgenic activity when treated in immatureAlbino rats.Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals.The increased spermatogenesis in extract treated groups was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatids and caudal spermatozoa.After subjecting to preliminary phytochemical screening, the alcohol extract showed positive tests for steroids, saponins, oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins.Conclusion:C. hirsutus exhibited remarkable increase in spermatogenic activity.These findings support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  12. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  13. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein O B Oloyede; Matthew C Adaja; Taofeek O Ajiboye; Musa O Salawu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. METHODS:Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A–F) of ifve rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distil ed water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. RESULTS:Carica papaya seed extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Speciifc activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased signiifcantly over the group B (P<0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. CONCLUSION:In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Modulatory effects of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced oxidative damage in prostate of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugganaboyana Guru Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant properties of Crataeva nurvala bark contains a variety of the bioactive phytochemical constituents in medicinal plants which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, anthracene derivatives, and essential oils. Components from Crataeva nurvala bark have been accounted to play an important role in scavenging free radicals generated by mutagens and carcinogens. Androgens are the key factors in either the initiation or progression of prostate cancer by inducing oxidative stress. In the present set of investigations, the antioxidative potential of Crataeva nurvala bark extract against androgen-mediated oxidative stress in male Wistar rats has been studied. Materials and Methods: Oxidative damage in prostate was induced in rats by the injection of testosterone (100 mg/kg body weight [bw] for 3 days followed by injection of chemical carcinogen N-Methyl N-Nitroso Urea (50 mg/kg bw for 1 week. The oxidative damage in prostate-induced rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala bark (150 mg/kg bw and testosterone injection (2 mg/ kg bw was also continued through the experimental period of 4 months. The prostate tissue was dissected out for biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and enzymic-antioxidants viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase; the non-enzymic antioxidants viz. reduced glutathione, and Vitamin C. Results: The results revealed that testosterone administration induced the oxidative stress in rat prostate; however, in drug (150 mg/kg bw supplemented groups, a significant protective effect of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone-induced oxidative injury was recorded. Conclusion: Hence, the study reveals that constituents present in Crataeva nurvala bark impart protection against androgen-induced oxidative injury in prostate.

  15. Antiarthritic activity of Vernonia amygdalina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of water extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina(V.A.)on arthritis induced model of rats.Methods:Arthritis was induced in male albino Wister rats by injection of cro-ton oil (0.1 mL)into the left foot pad of the animals.Treatment with V.A.at 200 and 400 mg/kg and stand-ard Indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg)was started on the same day and continued up to the 12th day.The paw vol-ume was measured on the 1st,5th,12th and 21st day,respectively for both the paws and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated.Results:The extract of V.A.produced reduction in the inflammation of the paw due to croton oil.The antiarthritic action started on the 5th day and continued till the 12th day and the activity was compara-ble to that of the standard on both days.V.A.significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis and had signifi-cant ant-inflammatory effect (P <0.05).Conclusion:This report therefore clearly showed that V.A.signifi-cantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats as it significantly reduced the paw volume on the 12th day and may explain the effectiveness of this plant when used in the tropics for the treatment of arthritis.

  16. QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

  17. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  18. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  19. Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum...

  20. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the

  1. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  2. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  3. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

  4. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  5. Contraceptive efficacy of Plumbago zeylanica root extract (50% etoh) in male albino rats with special emphasis on testicular cell population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Surendra Kumar; Vyas, Keshav Bihari

    2008-01-01

    The administration of Plumbago zeylanica root (50% EtOH) extract to |intact rats at the dose of 150 mg/kg [body weight for 60 days caused arrest of spermatogenesis. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cell nuclei were reduced. The production of spermatocytes (primary and secondary) and spermatids were significantly reduced (P£ 0.001; 83.57%, 89.69% and 69.47% respectively). The total number of immature and mature Leydig cells was significantly decreased (P£ 0.001; 68.62% and 71.14...

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, ...

  7. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  8. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  9. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  11. COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...

  12. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  13. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  14. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  15. Hematobiochemical changes of lead Poisoning and amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Y.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263

  16. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  17. Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

  18. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  19. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  20. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  1. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  2. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.; Mahmoud, Hamada M.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment a...

  3. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  4. Effect of co-administration of voglibose and vildagliptin on diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashanker PD Keshri

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Vildagliptin and voglibose are effective in lowering blood glucose level in albino diabetic rats but their combination has potentiating effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1533-1538

  5. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shatavisa Mukherjee; Sukanta Sen; Arunava Biswas; Tapan Kumar Barman; Santanu Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into f...

  6. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion ...

  7. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ( OLEA EUROPEA L.) AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Necib, Youcef; Bahi, Ahlem; Zerizer, Sakina; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  8. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  9. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α2- and β1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, α1 and α2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  10. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  11. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anbalagan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

  12. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  13. Effect of Commiphora myrrha extract on some physiological parameters and histological changes in diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt. After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period. Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01 in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.

  14. ANTIFERTILITY STUDIES ON ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS L ON SWISS MALE ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understanding of male reproductive physiology there is needed to develop new contraceptive modalities for male. Abrus precatorius is one of the folk medicinal plants widely used as an antifertility agent in varius places of south Asian countries including Chittagong region of Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifertility activity of abrus precarious seed extract intraperitonially administered in adult swiss male albino mice. The intraperitonial administration of 40, 80 and 80 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius shown a highly antifertility activity which done for two months. The lower concentrations (40 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius gave temporarily antifertility activity. But the higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight gave relatively more permanent antifertility activity on swiss albino mice compare with the control.

  15. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  16. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlo...

  17. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  18. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  19. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on anti-Thy1,1 induced kidney injury in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Sakr; Laila Rashed; Waheba Zarouk; Rania El-Shamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis. Methods: Female albino rats were divided into three groups, control group, anti-Thy1,1 group and treatment with i.v. MSCs group. MSCs were derived from bone marrow of male albino rats, Y-chromosome gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the kidney. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated for all groups. Kidney of all studied groups was examined histologically and histochemically (total carbohydrates and total proteins). DNA fragmentation and expression of α-SMA were detected. Results:Kidney of animals injected with anti-Thy1,1 showed inflammatory leucocytic infiltration, hypertrophied glomeruli, tubular necrosis and congestion in the renal blood vessels. The kidney tissue also showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins together with increase in apoptosis and in expression ofα-SMA. Moreover, the levels of urea and creatinine were elevated. Treating animals with MSCs revealed that kidney tissue displayed an improvement in the histological and histochemical changes. Apoptosis and α-SMA expression were decreased, and the levels of urea and creatinine decreased. Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrated the potential of MSCs to ameliorate the structure and function of the kidney in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis possibly through the release of paracrine growth factor(s).

  20. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  1. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  2. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  3. A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

  4. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  5. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  6. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  7. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja E; Joshi S; Jain D

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histologica...

  8. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja, E.; Joshi, S.B.; D. C. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60–80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods: Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological ...

  9. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF SODIUM SELENITE AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip), mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p) and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobar...

  10. Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus On Diabetic Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It

  11. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  12. Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasofunjo Kayode

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant

  13. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  14. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  15. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  16. Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

  17. Effect of Feeding Chapaties Preserved with Sorbic Acid on Growth and Reproduction of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Satyanarayana Rao

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid, used in concentration of o.3% in chapaties and found satisfactory as a preservative, has been investigated for its safety of use by long term feeding studies with albino rats. The data obtained with regard to growth rate, food consumption, organ to body weight ratio and performance in reproduction show that the preserved foodstuffs containing sorbic acid in the concentration of o.3% are safe for consumption.

  18. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha; Sunanda Raina; Sajad Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly d...

  19. Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asha, B.; Nagabhushan, A.; G. H. Shashikala

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were di...

  20. Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of

  1. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  2. Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of

  3. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  4. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  5. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood

  6. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  7. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  8. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  9. Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

  10. Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05.  The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Gauri D; Sengupta Mahuya; Chakraborty Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrach...

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPITVE ACTION OF PENTAZOCINE IN COMPARISION WITH MORPHINE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.

  13. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  14. Sub-chronic toxicity and heavy metal toxicity study on Kappaphycus alvarezii in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbiramiRG; KowsalyaS

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Kappaphycus alvarezii methanolic extracts in albino rats. Methods: Sub-chronic toxicity was tested with a single dose of intraperitonal administration of the extract as per the OECD guidelines in the experimental group rats and the control group rats was fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behaviour changes, clinical signs and symptoms, food intake, body weight and any abnormalities of the visceral organs were observed. Results: The results revealed that the algal extract resulted in neither mortality nor any abnormalities. The Most of the serum biochemical parameters and hematological values were similar in control and experimental groups, histopathological examination of the vital organs like liver, kidney, spleen, brain and heart revealed no obvious abnormality in the control group and Kappaphycus alvarezii treated group. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Kappaphycus alvarezii rich in nutrient and nutraceutial potentials and also safety food for human consumption.

  15. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  16. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  17. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Shelat, Vishal G.; Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet.Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups...

  18. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Dina Qahwaji; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Mohammad Abu Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four group...

  19. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  20. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  1. Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation of Teucrium Polium in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Al-Kubaisy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h and subacute (3 weeks treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb and Packed Cell Volume (PVC insignificantly decreased. However, other blood indices, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were not changed. There was significant (p<0.001 increase in white blood cells. Serum glucose level change was insignificant, while the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The Activity of Serum Transaminases (ALT and AST showed non significant changes, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were found non significant changes. In conclusion the statistical analysis of our results indicates that treatment with T. polium did not cause any attension that might suggest the presence of pathological damage at the dose investigation.

  2. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, Saber A.; Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological ch...

  3. Effect of imidacloprid on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Arfat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (IC is a systemic insecticide related to the tobacco toxin nicotine. IC is a toxic substance frequently used into combat insects, rodents and plants pests and other creatures that can pose problems for agriculture. We, therefore, planned this study to assess risk factors, biochemical and histological alterations associated with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Forty-eight adult male albino mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. All the animals were given standard synthetic pellet diet. One group served as control, and the other three were served as experimental groups. Decrease in the body weight of the high dose group was observed at 15 mg/kg/day, and no mortality occurred during the treatment period. High dose of imidacloprid caused a significant elevation of serum clinical chemistry parameters, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate kinase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (TBIL. Histology of liver and kidney indicates hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a high dose of imidacloprid. Based on the morphological, biochemical and histopathological analysis, it is evident that imidacloprid induced toxicological effects at 15 mg/kg/day to mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that IC had significant effects on body weight, liver functions and kidney (p < 0.05 at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. IC treatment 5 and 10 mg/kg/day may be considered as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for mice. It was concluded that IC can cause hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a dose much lower than the LD50 (131 mg/kg body weight in mice.

  4. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  5. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaiji Amrita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

  6. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  7. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  8. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  9. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2009-09-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  10. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz S. Abu El-Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6 in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1 treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide

  11. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3

  12. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  13. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  14. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  15. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    JianFeng Cao; PengYing Zhang; ChengWei Xu; TaoTao Huang; YunGui Bai; KaoShan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into ...

  17. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan I El-Sayyad; Saber A Sakr; Gamal M Badawy; Hanaa S Afify

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  18. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  19. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  20. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Manish J Barvaliya; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Seema N Baxi; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 gr...

  1. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  2. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  3. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of sitagliptin with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mathai; Nagendra Nayak; Mamtha Rao; Nitasha Bhat, G. M.; K. Vinodraj; N Chandralekha; D Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 inhibitor. This study was done to assess the insulin-sensitizing effect of sitagliptin on Wistar albino rats by means of surrogate measures. Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received sitagliptin 100 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 d...

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone on dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodraj, K.; Nagendra Nayak, I. M.; Rao, J. Vikram; Mathai, Paul; N Chandralekha; Nitasha, B.; D. Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone for prevention of dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received liraglutide 1.8 mg/kg subcutaneously 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days...

  6. The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1α Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1α position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 compound

  7. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  8. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  9. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  10. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  11. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  12. THE USE OF CASSAVA ROOT MEAL AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN DIETS FOR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nii NARKU NORTEY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine if partial replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM in diets for albino rats will have an effect on performance, organ characteristics and blood parameters. Twenty five Sprague Dawley albino rats (F344 strain, initial body weight (216 ± 8g were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1 to T5 in a completely randomized (CRD arrangement. T1 was the control and contained zero CRM. T2 and T3 contained 30% CRM, while T4 and T5 contained 45% CRM. These levels of inclusion represented 50 and 75% replacement of corn in the diets respectively. T2 and T4 had 0.15% methionine (Met while T3 and T5 had 0.3% Met. The rats were each fed a single diet for 28d. Average daily feed intake (ADFI of rats on T1 was lower (P 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE. Similarly there were no differences (P>0.05 in carcass, viscera and other internal organ weights. Results of this trial indicate that albino rats can tolerate diets with added CRM (45% of the diet with no adverse effects on growth and internal organ characteristics. Future work will need to look at the possibility of using CRM at similar or higher levels in diets for growing pigs.

  13. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    OpenAIRE

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis...

  14. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

  15. Effect of methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulciifcum pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nkwocha Chinelo; Njoku Obioma Uzoma

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage) with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group), 100 mg/kg (Group 2), 200 mg/kg (Group 3) and 500 mg/kg (Group 4) body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05) in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  17. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  18. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators.

  19. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  20. Effects of estrogen on hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Hassanein, Khaled M A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible beneficial effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol E2) on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and liver dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A total of 40 albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (I), a diabetic group (II), a group given 17β estradiol (E2) for 15 days (III), and a diabetic group given E2 for 30 days (IV). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. E2 was ...

  1. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  2. Study of Aging and Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seeds in Albino Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Khan; SH Ansari; ZABhat; Feroz ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to investigate in liver of rats from 8-12 weeks old to 20 weeks old, the age dependent changes, carbon tetrachloride mediated changes, and the hepatoprotective effect shown by the seeds of Vitis vinifera L. Method: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of 100 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of grape seeds on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats and results were compared with those of the aged group results. Results: 100 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera seeds produced highly significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin levels and significant decrease in the TSP levels compared to the toxic group levels. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin in aged control rats were found to be significantly higher than the levels in young control animals. MDA levels were slightly higher while GSH levels were lower in aged control rats as compared to young control rats. MDA levels in the toxic group showed highly significant increase compared to the young control levels. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera significantly lowered the MDA levels. Histopathology results reveal that 100mg/kg/day dose of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cured the hepatic damage to a great extent which was induced by CCl4. Conclusions: Aging leads to the changes in the hepatic structure which are comparable to the changes induced by low doses of a hepatotoxin and the ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes exposed to free radical attack, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological observations.

  3. MORPHOLOGY OF THE SPLEEN IN ADULT ALBINO RATS AFTER WHOLE-BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL OF TOLUENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Voloshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that is highly sensitive to different chemicals. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent and can be considered as a potential immunotoxin. Aims and Objects: We aimed to investigate the organometry and histology of spleen from rats exposed to toluene. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of toluene was evaluated in male albino rats (6/group via whole-body exposure. The animals were exposed to target concentrations of 0 (air control and 133 parts per million (ppm of toluene in air for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 month. The animals were weighted and decapitated at different time points (one, seven, sixteen, thirty one and sixty one day post-exposure. The weight, length, width and thickness of the spleen were measured. It was studied absolute and relative weight of the spleen. Histological examination of the spleen was made by light microscope. Results: Statistically significant difference between the mean of body weight from the control and experimental animals was observed seven days after last exposure to toluene. Thus, the body weight of animals exposed to toluene was 254.17 g, that was 7.18% (p = 0.048 below control data. The histological findings showed increased area of the white pulp of spleen from rats exposed to toluene had increases compared to that from the control. The numbers of siderophages were higher in the spleen from rats exposed to toluene. The relative area of germinal centre in the structure of the splenic lymph follicles of rats exposed to toluene increased. We found that in the first and second experimental groups of animals the indication was at the level 10.86% and 10.26% respectively. These are 24.11% (p = 0.002 and 26.04% (p <0.001 above control data, respectively. Inhalation exposures to toluene vapor at 133 ppm produces hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue of the rat spleen. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that whole-body exposures to low

  4. Antidiarrheal activity and Phytochemical profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion's ear) in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukui James Gakunga; Godfrey Kateregga; Larry Fred Sembajwe; John Kateregga

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in wistar albino rats. Methods: This study was done in February 2013. The ethanolic leaf extract of L. nepetifolia was evaluated for its antidiarrheal activity. A total of sixty rats were used in the study. At first, thirty rats in five groups of six animals were orally dosed with the extract at dose rates of 225mg/kg, 450mg/kg, 900mg/kg body weight respectively...

  5. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001 in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  6. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Olumide S. Akinsomisoye; Toyin M. Salman

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats.respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels,histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Results: Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P < 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. Conclusion: The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  7. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration

  8. Protection of radiation-induced DNA damage in albino rats by Zingiber Montanum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 μg). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)

  9. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus(MN at the dose 2 g/kg and chromosome aberrations at the doses 2 and 1 g/kg ,the majority of aberrations observed were chromatid breaks, centromeric breaks, acentric fragments. The extract was found to inhibit mitotic index (MI in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover the plant extract showed a significant induction of sperm abnormalities in all concentrations used comparing with the untreated animals. The most frequent types of sperm abnormalities of the treated groups were; amorphous, pseudo-droplet defect, bent mid piece defect and corkscrew mid piece defect. However, the lowest dose 0.25 g/kg body weight was the most effective one which markedly increased the corkscrew midpiece defect. The results indicated that the mixture of the compounds found in the aqueous extract caused cytotoxicity and induced different cytogenetic effects in both somatic and germ cells of male albino mice.

  11. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  13. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  14. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  15. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Erythropoietin and Melatonin on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Ahmadiasl; Shokofeh Banaei; Alireza Alihemmati; Behzad Baradaran; Ehsan Azimian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of renal dysfunction. It contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of erythropoietin (EPO) and melatonin (MEL), which are known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 ...

  17. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  18. The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

  19. Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  20. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  1. Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Hamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  2. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  3. Effect of Solanine on Arthritis Symptoms in Postmenopausal Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-α, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-α ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues

  4. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  5. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  6. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khumanthem Deepak Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

  8. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  9. Effect of Chlorophytum Borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes on Sexual Dysfunction in Hyperglycemic Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mayank; Thakur; Shilpi; Bhargava; Werner; Praznik; Renate; Loeppert; Vinod; K; Dixit

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum(CB) on sexual dysfunction, loss of body weight,and lack of libido in hyperglycemic rats induced with streptozotocin or alloxan.Methods: Wistar strain male albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each:the control group(2% polyvinylpyrollidone solution),the streptozotocin control group(50 mg/kg),the alloxan control group(100 mg/kg), the streptozotocin + CB treated group(200 mg/kg),and the alloxan + CB treated group(200 mg/kg...

  10. EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibhakumari P.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

  11. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  12. High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

  13. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B – No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C – the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with

  14. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  15. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    OpenAIRE

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye; Akinola, Franklin Folasele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60) male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz...

  16. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    I G Bako; M. S. Abubakar; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A

    2014-01-01

    Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...

  17. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  18. Effect Of Colchicine On The Histology Of Spleen And Testis Of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of colchicine administration on the histology of spleen and testis of albino rat. Colchicine was given in a daily dose of 3mg/kg body weight for five days. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days following treatment. Histopathological studies of the spleen and testis were undertaken. Histological examination of spleen showed that colchicine caused histopathological changes in spleen manifested by massive haemorrhage, highly expanded red pulps accompanied by reduced white pulps with multi small degenerated areas, disturbed architecture, degenerated areas wer occupied by the hemorrhagic areas, prominent haemosiderin deposition, increased number of megakaryocytes in red pulp and subcapsular edema. These histopathological changes depend on the duration of colchicine intake. Histological examination of the testis one, four and seven days post treatment with colchicine showed dilatation and congestion of interstitial blood vessels, moderate degeneration of spermatogoneal cells, debris of spermatozoa could be detected in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The testis also suffered from interstitial edema with signs of fatty degeneration and degeneration of spermatogoneal cells lining some seminferous tubules. Complete destruction with hypocellularity in the spermatogenic layers in some seminiferous tubules and others contained only the debris of germ cells and disturbed nuclei of spermatogoneal cells with appearance of giant cells with highly reduced number of Leydig cells which contained pyknotic nuclei were also noticed in some examined sections. These results indicate that colchicine is considered as a toxic drug to the spleen and testis at double therapeutic doses as indicated by the histological changes.

  19. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  20. Study of oestrus cycle periodicity and oogenesis of adult albino rats:Response to hyperprolactinaemia induced by haloperidol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savita Kuldip Kumar; Pal Abhishek; Sahu Pratap Kumar; Tiwari Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible effect of hyperprolactinaemia induced by HPL on oogenesis in female albino rats. Methods: The oestrus cycle of each rat was observed daily for 16 days at a regular interval of 24 hours including Sunday. Animals from each group were scarified 24 hr after last treatment (on 17th day) following the ethical procedure for histopathological examination ovaries were separated. Results: In our study we found that prolactin treatment at the dioestrous phase increased the number of apoptotic cells and significant changes in volume of corpus luteum and the number of steriodogenic cell per corpus luteum decreased and therefore resultant synthesis of oestrogen decreased. So, haloperidol possesses antioestrogenic activity which may be attributed to high serum prolactin levels induced by haloperidol in experimental animals. Conclusion: In this study intraperitoneall administration of haloperidol at doses of 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg/day for 16 days significantly produced hyperprolactinaemia in female albino rats as compared to control. Hyperprolactinaemia produced by haloperidol causes significant increase in periodicity of dioestrous phase and decreased the other phase significantly in a dose dependent manner.

  1. Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Parama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

  2. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  3. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  4. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  5. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment

  6. Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the

  7. Impact of feeding ethanolic extract of root bark of Cananga odorata (Lam) on reproductive functions in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, P; Indira, M

    2006-12-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract of the root bark of C. odorata administered orally at the dose of 1g/kg body weight/day for 60 days resulted in decreased epididymal sperm motility and sperm count in male albino rats. Morphological abnormalities were also observed in the sperms. The testicular glycogen, the activities of 3beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, sorbitol dehydrogenase in seminal vesicle, fructose in seminal plasma and serum testosterone were significantly decreased in treated group. While testicular cholesterol level, the concentration of the fecal bile acids, urinary excretion of 17 ketosteroids, the activities of 17beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, epididymal lactate dehydrogenase and that of testicular HMG CoA reductase were increased in treated group when compared to control. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. odorata possesses the spermatotoxic effects in male albino rats. PMID:17176670

  8. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  9. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  10. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  11. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  12. Protective effect of Genistein against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahad Ali; Rahul; Falaq Naz; Smita Jyoti; Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of Genistein against the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). NDEA is present in almost all kinds of food stuff and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. The male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) dissolved in drinking water separately and along with 25, 50, 100 mg/mL of Genistein for 21 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, micronucleus frequency and DNA damage (Comet assay) were performed on rat hepatocytes. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA along with Genistein showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the levels of blood serum enzymes i.e., SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (Po0.05). The HE staining of histological sections of the liver also revealed a protective effect of Genistein. A significant dose-dependent reduction in the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) along with Genistein (Po0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (Po0.05). Thus the present study supports the hepatoprotective role of Genistein.

  13. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.Gupta; J.B.S.Kachhawa; R.Chaudhary

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male albino rats. Methods: The methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck was administrated orally for 60 days at 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1·day-1 to male albino rats. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymides were assessed.Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in blood samples and reproductive organs. Results: A. lebbeck pod extract brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testis, seminal vesicles, epdidymis and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the numbers of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The Sertoli cell count as well as its cross sectional surface area were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol content of the testis, the fructose in the seminal vesicles and protein in the epididymis were significantly decreased. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin,haematocrit and blood sugar were within the normal range. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck pods causes spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats.

  14. Hazardous Effects of Potato Chips and Ketchup (fast food) Consumption on Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, it is easy and common to eat unhealthy food with poor nutritional value, low micro nutrients and high content of calories which may called junk or fast food. The present study aimed to shed the light on the hazardous effects of long term consumption of potato chips and ketchup as a model of the most popular fast food toppings or garnishing accessories. Eighty male and female rats were divided into four equal groups, each of ten rats. For four weeks, the animals were fed on basal diet (group 1), basal diet supplemented with 2 g of potato chips (group 2), basal diet supplemented with 1 g ketchup (group 3) while group 4 was supplemented with 2 g potato chips + 1 g ketchup beside their basal diet. The mortality was recorded in all treated groups but reached the maximum rate in males of group 4. The toxicological symptoms like tremors, dermatitis with general hair loss from the body, especially on the face region and eye bulge, were found in almost treated groups. The red blood cells count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly decreased in group 2 (supplemented with potato chips) and group 4 (supplemented with both potato chips + ketchup) as compared with control one. Significant reductions in white blood cells count (WBC) were observed in rats of groups 2 and 4 except in females of group 2. Lipid profile was affected seriously, especially in rats of group 2 (supplemented with potato chips), whereas significant increases were recorded in TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index, and significant reduction in HDL-C, especially in males, was recorded. The testosterone level was significantly reduced in all treated groups as compared to control group. The estradiol level was significantly increased in groups 2 and 4 as compared to group 3 and controls. In all parameters, the males were more seriously affected than females which may be related to gender differences in body composition, estrogen levels, growth rate, differences in food

  15. Dried Fruit Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) Protects Albino Rats from Adverse Effects of Whole Body gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered

  16. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  17.  The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kumar Eswar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

  18. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  19. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  1. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing the antioxidant status and DNA repair capacity of the animals. PMID:26429925

  2. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  3. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Bako

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5 mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa howed a significant increase (p<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.

  4. Effect of different forms of acute stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K

    2014-01-01

    Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in all the groups as compared to the normal control. And the stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 μ gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77).

  5. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Latif Abdul; Ahmad Shamshad; Tajuddin,; Qasmi Iqbal

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250...

  6. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnamoni Das; Sarajita Barman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C ...

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    G M Nitasha Bhat; Nagendra Nayak; Vinodraj, K.; N Chandralekha; Paul Mathai; J Cherian

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administrati...

  8. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  9. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    I G Bako; A M Mabrouk; S.M. Abubakar; Mohammed, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. ...

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gauri D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous

  11. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  12. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  13. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  14. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  15. Effect of Vitamins A, C, and E Supplementation in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Bilbis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (P<0.01 decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50±3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (P<0.05 induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  18. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  19. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,; Sarbast K. Q. Kheravii

    2011-01-01

    Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average...

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE ACTION OF GLUCOSE AND SCOPOLAMINE ON THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF ALBINO RATS USING DIGITAL ZERO MAZE APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Purpose of the Present study was to compare the action of glucose and scopolamine on the cognitive function using digital zero maze apparatus on albino rats. Method: The digital zero mazes was made of ply-wood in which to arms positioned at right angled related to each other .This apparatus is like a digital zero maze digit in appearance. Albino rats were given a free exploration session consisting of 10 minutes in the apparatus 24 prior to testing to allow familition to the testing apparatus. Albino rat was treated with glucose to determine the memory performance in second trials scopolamine was injected and effect was observed. Result: In the present study 2 groups were taken and had given treatment glucose and scopolamine (buscopan.The digital zero maze was design to study animal behavior after supervised training given to the rats the observation glucose and scopolamine were shows that the glucose a have some sought of cognition enhancing activity in experiment animals On the other hand the scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain. Conclusion: The result shows that glucose enhanced the activity while scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain.

  1. EFFECT OF AN ISOLATED COMPPOUND (AS-1 FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L. ON ASPIRIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective effect. Results were comparable to that of ranitidine, a standard anti ulcer drug. Conclusion: AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as anti gastric ulcer drug.

  2. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  3. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

  5. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Chukwuma Ekeanyanwu; Obioma Uzoma Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods:Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results:The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions:The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe.

  6. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran; Sherry Joseph Martin; Rasool Mahaboobkhan; Sabina Evan Prince

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Triphala against bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats. METHODS:Animals were divided into ifve groups of six rats and treated as fol ows:Group I was a normal control and received no treatment, Group II received only bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg), Groups III and IV received bromobenzene and Triphala (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), Group V received Triphala alone (500 mg/kg), and Group VI received bromobenzene and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Antioxidant status and serum kidney functional markers were analyzed. RESULTS:Bromobenzene treatment resulted in signiifcant (P<0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as wel as total reduced glutathione. There was a signiifcant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were signiifcant (P<0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as wel as signiifcant (P<0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations. CONCLUSION:Triphala treatment al eviated the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and kidney functional markers.

  7. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  8. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasra Ayuob

    Full Text Available A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3.Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed.Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities compared to the group which received PH alone.Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  9. The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Shyamal K.; Chandan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameter...

  10. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholin...

  11. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single do

  12. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  13. The protective role of bee honey against the toxic effect of melamine in the male rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N; El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Solamy, Suad M

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the protective role of natural bee honey against melamine toxicity in the kidney of male albino rats. The dietary supplementation of melamine at a dose of 20,000 ppm for 28 days induced renal dysfunction, as reflected by a significant increase in kidney function parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) and an increase in potassium levels. In addition, a decrease in catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in lipid peroxide in the kidney tissue homogenate were also observed. Histological changes in the melamine-treated group revealed hyperplasia and damage in kidney cells and the accumulation of melamine crystals in kidney tissues. Honey treatment for 28 days in rats concurrently administered melamine at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved the kidney function, increased antioxidant enzymes, and decreased lipid peroxide levels. The morphology of the kidney cells of the melamine-fed rats was also improved as a result of honey treatment. In conclusion, this study revealed that natural bee honey protects the kidney against the adverse effects induced by melamine toxicity in male albino rats.

  14. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (poil biodiesel could be chosen as an alternative fuel instead of diesel fuel.

  15. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Fagonia indica Burm in carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. Bagban; S.P. Roy; A.Chaudhary; S. K. Das; K.J. Gohil; K.K. Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Fagonia indica Burm. on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Animals in Group 1 served as vehicle control, Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (CCl4 2ml/kg, s.c) treated group, Group 3 served as standard (Silymarin 50mg/kg, p.o.) treated group. Group4 and 5 served as methanolic extract of Fagonia indica (MEFI) in different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o).The degree of protection was determined by measuring levels of biochemical marker like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Bilirubin (Total & Direct) and Cholesterol. The histopathological studies also show the hepatic protection of the test extracts. Results: The levels of the biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin and Cholesterol were significantly increased in CCl4 treated rats when compared with the normal group (P<0.05), but the MEFI (400 mg/kg, bw) treated rats showed maximum reduction of SGOT (114.83±1.51), SGPT (164.33±1.25), ALP (154.83±1.53), Total bilirubin (1.55±0.01), Direct bilirubin (0.65±0.009) and Cholesterol (193.00±1.06) in a significant manner. Histopathological studies also reveal the hepatoprotection property of MEFI in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: These results suggest that MEFI in different doses showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity and this might be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannins. Further research is sought to explore the exact mechanism of action and phytoconstituents responsible for the pharmacological response.

  17. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in Albino and Pigmented Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine

  18. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  19. Modulatory effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Puneet; Ansari, M Nazam; Bhandari, Uma

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Wistar rats (200-250 g) of either sex. The vehicle control rats were treated with 1% Tween 80 in normal saline (2 ml/kg, po) for 30 days. Hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by methionine administration (1 g/kg, po) for 30 days. A significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and homocysteine levels in serum and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in heart homogenates were observed with a concomitant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels in pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats, as compared to vehicle control (i.e. group I) rats. Further, curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment in methionine treated rats for 30 days significantly decreased the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and homocysteine levels in serum and TBARS levels in heart homogenates and increased serum HDL-C levels, as compared to pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats. The results of biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of rat's aortic section. The results of test drug were comparable to that obtained with folic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results suggest that curcumin has significant antihyperlipidemic and antihyperhomocysteinemic effect against methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

  20. Effect of long dose exposure of Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract on antioxidant defense system and body and organ weight changes of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Bilal Ahmad Zargar; Akbar Masood; Mohmmad Afzal Zargar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of long dose administration of methanol rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum and hydrogen peroxide on lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver, kidney, lung and brain tissue and body weight and organ weight changes of albino rats. Methods: The body and organ weight was monitored with digital scale balance and lipid peroxidation of RBC ghost membrane was monitored by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes were assayed by standard procedures. Results: Our study showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats for 25 weeks increased the malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of all the rats. However, rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and α- tocopherol had lower MDA levels in a dose dependent manner, which indicates decreased lipid peroxidation in these rats. Our results also showed decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels in different organs of H2O2 treated rats. Rats receiving methanolic extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15mg% for 25 weeks increased the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in different organs of the rats indicates the protective effect of the plant in combating oxidative stress undergone by the rats. No significant variation (P< 0.05) in the organ weights between the control and the treated groups was observed after 25 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study presents strong evidence of the nontoxic effect of the methanol extract of Podophyllumhexandrum. The findings also demonstrate that Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation in albino rats and explained the extensive utilization of the plant in traditional medicine.

  1. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  2. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  3. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  4. Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of flupirtine in brain of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango P

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: This study represents the neuroprotective characteristics of flupiritne against the excitotoxicity induced by NMDA in an in vivo rat models. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 135-141

  5. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Ghannadian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  6. Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of flupirtine in brain of albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elango P; Darling Chellathai; Saravana Babu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flupirtine (FP) is found to antagonize both glutamate and N methyl, D aspartate (NMDA) and the current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of flupirtine against NMDA induced neurotoxicity in experimental rat model. Methods: Excitotoxicty was produced in rat and it is counteracted by flupirtine. The animals were grouped as Group 1 (vehicle treated), Group 2 (received NMDA+vehicle), Group 3 (received FP+NMDA only), and Group 4 (received FP+vehicle) a...

  7. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, S. A.; Bilbis, L. S.; Saidu, Y.; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blo...

  8. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  9. Evaluation of effect of dietary supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don pulp oil on serum lipid parameters in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U

    2014-07-01

    The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940

  10. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Solanum Pubescens LINN ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Pushpalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.

  11. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir O El Sadik

    Full Text Available Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques.Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group: control group (Group I; full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies.Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous

  12. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  14. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  16. Protective effects of rosmarinic acid on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the liver of Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gul Goktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage

  17. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis

  18. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  19. ANTIDIARRHOEL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA (L. LESS ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panday Ganesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.

  20. Antipyretic activity of seeds from Red and White type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera in Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera (red and white types at dose rates of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg was administered orally in rats in which pyrexia was induced with brewers yeast. The standard drug used was aspirin (100 mg/kg. The standard drug showed antipyretic effect from first hour of the study onwards. It was found that during the third hour of the study N. nucifera red and white types, 600 mg/kg showed significant decrease in body temperature. During the fourth hour of the study, all the treatment groups showed antipyretic effect. A similar decrease in body temperature was observed on fifth hour of the study also. Hence the present study revealed that the N. nucifera (red and white types at the rate of 400 and 600 mg/kg is effective in reducing body temperature in yeast induced pynexia in rats. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 213-214

  1. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  2. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  3. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  4. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters co...

  5. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  6. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Lahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of Sacred/Holy Basil, i.e. Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum, belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoprotective effect. We wanted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum and observe whether synergistic hepatoprotection exists with silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats (150-200 g were divided into five groups. Groups A and B were normal and experimental controls, respectively. Groups C, D and E received the alcoholic extract of Ocimum Sanctum leaves (OSE 200 mg/kg BW/day, silymarin 100 mg/kg BW/day and OSE 100 mg/kg BW/day + silymarin 50 mg/kg BW/day p.o., respectively, for 10 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Groups B, C, D and E on the eighth day with paracetamol 2 g/kg BW/day. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum proteins, albumin globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and liver histopathology. The assay results were presented as mean and standard error of mean (SEM for each group. The study group was compared with the control group by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferoni′s test. A P-value of <0.01 was considered significant. Results: In groups C, D and E, liver enzymes and albumin globulin ratio were significantly (P < 0.01 closer to normal than in group B. Reduction in sinusoidal congestion, cloudy swelling and fatty changes and regenerative areas of the liver were observed on histopathological examination in groups C, D and E, whereas group B showed only hepatic necrosis. Conclusion: The Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract shows significant hepatoprotective activity and synergism with silymarin.

  8. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  9. The influence of lactation on L-proline absorption from small intestine in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, U; Sharma, R K

    1985-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of L-proline was studied in control and lactating rats from jejunum and ileum by in vivo method and presented per unit dry weight and per unit length of the respective segment. L-proline absorption was found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls. The results were discussed in light of serosal to mucosal ratio. By in vitro method also jejunal and ileal uptake of L-proline were found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls.

  10. Antifertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Plumbago indica and Aerva lanata on albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savadi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of roots of Plumbago indica and aerial parts of Aerva lanata were evaluated for antifertility activity using anti-implantation, abortificient, and motility of rat spermatozoa (in-vitro models. The anti-implantation effect seems to be depending on the dose as well as the initiation of treatment on specific days of pregnancy. P. indica has showed percentage pre-implantation loss of 40% and 50% against control at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 60% and 70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, whereas A. lanata has shown pre-implantation loss of 20% and 30% against control at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 30% and 40% at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Both P. indica and A. lanata at a concentration of 10% have shown no motility of rat spermatozoa within 60 seconds.

  11. Acute Oral Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Leaf Extracts Of Derris Scandens & Pulicaria Wightiana In Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Sabbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to find out LD50 and to ascertain the safety of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scan dens and Pulicaria wightiana by acute oral toxicity study in female rats as per OECD guideline 425.Methods: Rats were sequentially administered with ethanol leaf extracts of Derris scandens (Ds & Pulicaria wightiana(Pw  in single dosages of 175, 550, and 2000 mg/kg of body weight. All the animals were individually studied for mortality, wellness parameters and body weight for 14 days.Results: No mortality and no significant changes were observed in body weight and wellness parameters at 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt. doses of both Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana , which reveal the safety of these plants  in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight.Conclusion: Conclusively, LD50 value of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana were found to be more than 2000 mg/kg body weight.

  12. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  13. Histopathological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Taurine In Preventing Carbon Tetrachloride ­Induced Hepatic InjuryIn The Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf

    2003-01-01

    Taurine is an amino acid­ like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was inje...

  14. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  15. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  16. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  17. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  18. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Shyam S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete

  19. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of

  20. Peripheral blood and bone marrow responses under stress of cypermethrin in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Sunita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, and thus they carry considerable chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Haematotoxicity of cypermethrin, a broadly used type II pyrethroid, has been assessed in the present study. Selected parameters included determination of total RBC count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential leukocyte count (DLC, along with qualitative analysis of blood and bone marrow. Of these parameters, those showing significant decline following cypermethrin intoxication included total RBC count, Hb conc., PCV, MCV, MCH, whereas non-significant decrease was observed in the case of MCHC. ESR, TLC and DLC, on the other hand, increased significantly following cypermethrin intoxication. Qualitative changes included altered red cell morphology such as microcystosis, appearance of stomatocytes, poikilocytosis, giant platelet formation, etc. in peripheral blood and increased erythroid precursors in bone marrow of treated rats. These parameters were however normalised following twenty-two days of recovery phase

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar V; Meena Kumari K; Sarath babu; Vijay M; Lalit M; Rajput R

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods:The plant material was shade dried, powdered and extracted with ethanol. Liv 52 and silymarin were used as standard drugs and 2%gum acacia as a control (vehicle). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested, and phytochemical tests were also performed. Results:Paracetamol (2 g/kg) increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransfer (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the lipid peroxides. Treatment of Liv 52, silymarin and ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata (200 mg/kg) altered levels of biochemical marker and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Ethanolic extract revealed the presence of phenolic compound and flavanoids. Our findings suggested that ethanolic bark extract of Terminalia paniculata possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions:Terminalia paniculata possesses hepatoprotective activity. It could be an effective and promising preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. PROSTAGLANDINS AND 5-HT RESPONSE ON GASTRIC SECRETION IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Debnath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PGE1 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg dose dependently inhibited gastric secretion in pyloric legated rats model While PGF2 ∝ 0.1, 0.4 and 1mg/kg inhibited gastric acid secretion. Methysergide in the dose 0.05 mg/kg significantly stimulated the gastric secretion. When non-inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.1 and 5-HT (1.0 mg/kg are injected simultaneously there were potentiation of inhibitory activity on gastric secretary response on volume, acid output, chloride output and pepsin output. The inhibitory activity of both PGE1 (0.4 mg/ kg and 5-HT (5.0 mg/kg including the inhibitory potentiating activity could not be modified by the pretreatment of methysergide (0.05 mg/kg. Similarly stimulatory dose of PGF2 ∝ (0.4 mg/kg and inhibitory dose of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg administered together inhibitory response of PGE1 (0.4 mg/kg were also not modified by methysergide pretreatment.

  3. Spermatogenic activity of rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Chauhan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on orientation behavior and spermatogenesis in albino rats. A change in orientation behavior was assessed by orientation towards female, towards environment, towards self and type of mobility. Administration of 100 mg/Kg b. w. of ethanolic extract had pronounced effect on orientation of male towards the female rats. Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals. The increased spermatogenesis in treated group was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatocyte and spermatids. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac.   Industrial relevance: Study proposes to elucidate and demarcate the potential of Rasayan herbs in the treatment as well as uprooting the causes of disease; which is the underlying principle of Rasayana therapy. This leads to discovery of newer phytoconstituents with better activities and provide source of new biomolecules for biotechnologists to work on. The study explore the utilization of Rasyana herbs for effective management of sexual dysfunction.  It brings out a competent literature on rasayana, validating their utilization. It gives a larger platform for the herbal cultivators by providing scientific support and data to the traditional unvalidated herbal drugs as rejuvenative tonics.

  4. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Patel; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Ravindra Gendle; Basant Kaushik; Sudarshan K Singh

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytocons...

  5. Wound healing activity of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meena Kumari; Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar; Sarath babu; Rajshekar; Neelesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing effect of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa (C. verrucosa) in rats.Methods: Three wound models including incision, excision and dead space wounds were used in this study. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision models, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wounds, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelialization in excision wound model.Results: Two doses of the extract with and without dexamethasone showed significant increases in mean hydroxyproline, total protein content and dry weight of granulation tissue but it was higher with dose800 mg/kg comparing with the control. The dexamethasone treated group showed a significant(P<0.001) reduction in the wound breaking strength when compared to control group in incision type of wound model. Coadministration ofC. verrucosa with dexamethasone significantly(P<0.001) increased the breaking strength compared to the dexamethasone treated only group. In excision wound model, the percentage of the wound contraction was significantly(P<0.01)increased by two doses of test extract on all the days except the lower dose which exhibited only on12th,16th days of drug treatment and it also reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound contraction. It significantly (P<0.001) reduced the time required for epithelialization and reversed the epithelialization delaying effect of dexamethasone (P<0.001).Conclusions:C. verrucosawas found to possess significant wound healing property. This was evident by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, and granulation tissue dry weight content. HenceC. verrucosa could be a good wound healing agent.

  6. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  7. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRITHVISIGH R. RAJPUT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bhoyar AD, Vankhade GN, Rajput PR. 2011. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 118-123. Condensation of 2-substitutied 3,5-dichloroacetophenones (2a-b obtained from the condensation of 2-hydroxy 3,5-dichloro-acetophenone (1 and benzoyl chloride were dissolved in NaOH, on treatment under Baker-Venkatraman transformation in presence of KOH with pyridine gives 1-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-substituted-1,3-propanediones (3a-b. Then converted into 3-aroyl-6,8-dichloroflavanones (4a-d by using different aromatic aldehyde in ethanol containing little piperidine. The condensation of (4a-d and phenylhydrazinehydrochloride, piperidine in DMF gives 3-(2-hydroxy3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-substitution-1-phenyl-2pyrazolines (5a-d and condensation of (4a-d and hydroxylamine-hydrochloride gives 3-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-aroyl-5-substituted isoxazolines (6a-d. The above compounds are screened for their activities and have been found to exhibit significant effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats.

  8. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  9. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: A possible involvement of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM, family: Rutaceae which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT, ulcer index (UI, different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  10. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14CO2, and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  11. Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Ginseng on Experimental Liver and Kidney Injuries Induced by Insecticide Profenophos In Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Morsy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with histopathological and histochemical studies of profenophos on liver and kidney of male albino rats and the protective effects of vitamin C and ginseng to reduce the deleterious effect induced by profenophos. Oral administration of profenophos at dose level of 1/10 LD50 for 15 successive days induced histological changes in liver and kidney. No histological or histochemical change could be detected in liver and kidney of rats treated with each of vitamin C and ginseng. Profenophos treatment also resulted in histochemical changes in liver and kidney including decrease in protein granules and marked decrease in DNA and mucopolysaccharides content. Administration of vitamin C (0.01/ 100 g b.w and ginseng (20 mg/ kg b.w to profenophos treated animals resulted in an improvement in histological picture of liver and kidney as well as the histochemical parameters.

  12. Subchronic oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical indices in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Okon Ettebong; PaulAlozie Nwafor

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats. Methods: Subchronic toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) of the extract on alternate-day basis to different groups of rats for 28 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Haematological indices were preserved and the extract showed significant (P Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that ingestion of Eleucine indica whole plant extract for a long period of time reduces both bleeding and clotting times, reduces blood sugar and shows no apparent toxic effect on liver and kidneys. The results of this study may be useful as a basis for clinical trials in humans.

  13. Chronic Administration of High Doses of Nandrolone Decanoate on the Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahraki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are abused by athletes. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate chronic administration of high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND on the pituitary-gonadal axis and hematological parameters in normal male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were divided assigned to control (C, placebo (P and test (T groups (n = 10. Group T received 15 mg/kg intramuscular (IM ND for eight weeks. Group P received the same volume of peanut oil, but group C did not receive any agent during the trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, killed and blood samples collected from cervical vessels. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were determined by sensitive rat gonadotropins kit, using ELISA methods. Serum testosterone and hematological parameters were measured by ordinary laboratory methods. Obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 17 by ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD. Statistical difference considered significantly by P < 0.05. Results Serum testosterone, LH, FSH, weight gain, food and water intake in group T were significantly decreased compared to other groups (P < 0.05. In addition erythrocyte, leucocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit in group T were significantly increased compared to those of other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Chronic administration of high doses of ND can alter serum FSH, LH and testosterone and hematological parameters in male rats.

  14. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Whole number, distribution and co-expression of brn3 transcription factors in retinal ganglion cells of adult albino and pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás

    Full Text Available The three members of the Pou4f family of transcription factors: Pou4f1, Pou4f2, Pou4f3 (Brn3a, Brn3b and Brn3c, respectively play, during development, essential roles in the differentiation and survival of sensory neurons. The purpose of this work is to study the expression of the three Brn3 factors in the albino and pigmented adult rat. Animals were divided into these groups: i untouched; ii fluorogold (FG tracing from both superior colliculli; iii FG-tracing from one superior colliculus; iv intraorbital optic nerve transection or crush. All retinas were dissected as flat-mounts and subjected to single, double or triple immunohistofluorescence The total number of FG-traced, Brn3a, Brn3b, Brn3c or Brn3 expressing RGCs was automatically quantified and their spatial distribution assessed using specific routines. Brn3 factors were studied in the general RGC population, and in the intrinsically photosensitive (ip-RGCs and ipsilateral RGC sub-populations. Our results show that: i 70% of RGCs co- express two or three Brn3s and the remaining 30% express only Brn3a (26% or Brn3b; ii the most abundant Brn3 member is Brn3a followed by Brn3b and finally Brn3c; iii Brn3 a-, b- or c- expressing RGCs are similarly distributed in the retina; iv The vast majority of ip-RGCs do not express Brn3; v The main difference between both rat strains was found in the population of ipsilateral-RGCs, which accounts for 4.2% and 2.5% of the total RGC population in the pigmented and albino strain, respectively. However, more ipsilateral-RGCs express Brn3 factors in the albino than in the pigmented rat; vi RGCs that express only Brn3b and RGCs that co-express the three Brn3 members have the biggest nuclei; vii After axonal injury the level of Brn3a expression in the surviving RGCs decreases compared to control retinas. Finally, this work strengthens the validity of Brn3a as a marker to identify and quantify rat RGCs.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity. Results: AChE activity in the discrete regions of the brain of rats decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05 and 0.05 respectively) in diabetes. In vitro studies using cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of AChE activity in the brain of normal animals. Feeding with Cichorium intybus (chicory) leaf extract (500 mg/Kg) for 10 days resulted in an increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: The impairment in the glycemic control is the basic mechanism causing inhibition of neuronal activity. Cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats significantly inhibited the brain AChE activity of normal animals, indicating the presence of an inhibiting factor in the cerebrum of diabetic rats. Cichorium intybus when fed for 10 days offered neuroprotection by stimulating AChE activity. PMID:20336201

  17. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  18. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  19. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  20. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. PMID:27184238

  1. Discharge of lead contamination by natural compounds pectin and chitin:biochemical analysis of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT in albino rat as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of different concentrations of lead in drinking water on nucleic acid contents, nuclease activities and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (GOT) in different tissues and reduce toxic effects of lead on environment especially human and rats by using pectin and chitin natural compounds in rat diets. Methods:Male albino rats were divided into eight groups. Groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 were fed on synthetic diet and given deionized water containing 0, 150, 250 and 1 500 μg lead/mL. Groups 2 and 3 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%apple pectin or 2%grasp shell chitin and served as positive control. Groups 7 and 8 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%pectin or 2%chitin and drinking water containing 250 μg lead/mL. At the end of the experimental period, animals (6 week) were killed by decapitation. All organs of each rat were dissected out and chilled for determination of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT. Results:The data showed that higher lead concentration increased the activity of GOT in all organs. The concentrations of both DNA and RNA were increased with decreasing the activities of DNase and RNase. Adding 2%pectin or chitin with lead concentration 250 μg/mL showed discharge of lead, maintained the amount of nucleic acids and activated the related decomposition enzymes. Conclusions: Pectin or chitin natural compounds have the ability to chelate to lead and subsequently work as active natural compounds to discharge lead contamination.

  2. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  3. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  4. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf and low doses of gamma radiation alleviated amiodarone-induced lung toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MO and/or low doses of gamma radiation (LDR on amiodarone (AMD-induced lung toxicity in rats. AMD administered to female albino rats (100 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days. Rats received methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg bwt for 15 successive days and/or were exposed to whole body LDR (0.25Gy on the 1st and 10th days, up to a total dose of 0.5Gy. MO administration induced a significant decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Also, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxyproline (HYP was significantly decreased in lung tissue. Furthermore, MO significantly increased reduced glutathione (GSH content in lung tissue as compared with AMD. The histopathological investigation of lung tissue revealed the appearance of interstitial pneumonia in rats treated with AMD. The oral administration of MO and/or exposure to LDR reversed the biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by AMD. It can be posited that MO and LDR might have a considerable role in the prevention of lung toxicity induced by AMD.

  5. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD, 100 mg (2x CD, 250 mg (5x CD and 500 mg (10x CD/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Results: Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2x CD, 5x CD and 10x CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. Conclusion: The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  6. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    DMAB Dissanayake; P S Wijesinghe; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Wimalasena, S

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control gr...

  7. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium

  8. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  9. Fertility Regulation in Male Rats by Implemented Tetraazamacrocyclic Compounds of Iron(II: Synthetic, Spectroscopic, and Applied Aspects with Toxicological Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifertility and histopathological investigations were carried out on reproductive organs of male albino rats induced by tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of iron(II. The complexes were synthesized by the template condensation of 1,2-diaminoethane, 1,3-diaminopropane with succinic acid and phthalic acid in 2:2 molar ratios which are abbreviated as [Fe(TAMLnOAc] (n=1 or 2 and TAMLn represents tetraazamacrocyclic ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, and electronic spectra.

  10. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  11. Alterations in thyroid hormones, lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and protein plasma levels of male rats and their male offspring treated with lead acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a pervasive environmental pollutant known to induced a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunction in both laboratory animals as well as in human. The present work was directed to study the impact of lead (Pb) contamination on blood levels of thyroid hormones. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, total protein, albumin and globulin in male albino rats and whether this impact extends to their offspring growing up in same conditions. Animals were classified into three main groups; 1- control. 2- painter's (fathers). 3- first generation of male rats yielded from Pb-contaminated parents (fathers and mothers). groups 2 and 3 were levels; 100 and 200 mg l, drinking water with lead acetates at two dose levels; 100 and 200 mg l. drinking water for two months. The results revealed that lead contamination induced significant elevations (P4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in both fathers and offspring. Yet, lead significantly increase the plasma lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) with concomitant decreased in glutathione blood content in both fathers and male offspring. The plasma levels of total; protein were significantly increased as a response to the plasma albumin elevations and in turn the albumin / globulin ratio in both fathers and male offspring. Collectively, it was evident that lead high dose (200 mg) dose and the male offspring were highly contaminated than their fathers. The present investigation recommended that urban population ad persons whose work is associated with exposure to lead. Would expected to be at increased risk for lead exposure that will extend to their offspring, and they should be submitted with antioxidants and subjected to periodical medical examinations

  12. Cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract ofAnanas comosus against isoproterenol induced myocardial infraction in Wistar Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Saxena; Dharamveer Panjwani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of hydro alcoholic extract ofAnanas comosus (A. comosus)(HEAC), onIsoproterenol(ISO) induced myocardial infarction inAlbinoWistar rats. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced byIsoproterenol(85 mg/kg,s.c.) for two consecutive days at an interval of24 h.Rats were pretreated withHEAC(200-400 mg/kg/day, oral) for a period of30 days andIsoproterenol(ISO) was injected on31st and32nd day and after24 h blood was collected through retro-orbital plexus for the estimation of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies were also performed.Results:In the present study,ISO administration significantly elevated the cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it decreases high density lipoprotein and total protein in plasma and administration ofHEAC decreases the level of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it increases high density lipoprotein and total protein levels.Pretreatment with theHEAC protected the cardiotoxicity induced by Isoproterenol.The histopathological findings of theISO-induced myocardium showed infracted zone with inflammatory cells, lipid droplets, myocardial necrosis and vacuolization of myofibrils which were reduced by the pretreatment ofHEAC.Conclusion:It can be concluded thatHEAC possess cardioprotective activity againstIsoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  13. Agaricus blazei Murill as an efficient hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dbass, Abeer M.; Al- Daihan, Sooad K.; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is one of the very popular edible medicinal mushrooms. The present study investigated the protective effect of this biologically active mushroom on the tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Male albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain weighting (120–150 g) were categorized into five groups. The first group served as the normal control, the second and the third groups were treated with ...

  14. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pradiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  15. Carrot oil as an Antioxidant on some Biochemical and Haematological disorders in Male rats post exposure to γ Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of carrot oil as an antioxidant, our results recorded that blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and serum testosterone were significantly decreased on the 1st and 7th day post-exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation, while serum total cholesterol level, triglycerides level and malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a significant increase on the 1st and 7th days post-irradiation. Oral administration of carrot oil (200 mg/Kg b.w.) for consecutive 3 weeks before exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation in male albino rats, the data revealed significant amelioration in the previous parameters, it could be concluded that carrot oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

  16. Protective Role of L- Carnitine and Zinc against γ-Radiation induced Cardiac and testicular Disorders in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Carnitine is a dipeptide amino acid necessary for fat metabolism, it provides energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids to mitochondria to act as a fuel and it is considered a powerful antioxidant. In addition, zinc is an essential mineral which helps to increase the secretion of male sex hormones and raises the sperm count, so its combination with L-carnitine is useful for the fertility process. The present study aims to evaluate the potency of L-carnitine and zinc as radio- protective and curative agent pre and after exposure to γ-radiation through biochemical, histological, morphological abnormalities of sperms and DNA damage in the sperms induced by γ-irradiation by comet assay. Animals received L-carnitine (LC) and zinc (Zn) orally at the dose 9.45 mg/100 gm body wt./day for successive 20 days and then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at the dose 4 Gy (1 Gy for 4 days, day after day) on the 7th day from treatment with antioxidant. Histological examinations of heart and testis tissues showed that administration of LC and Zn have attenuated radiation induced damage and improved tissues architecture. Moreover, the observed amelioration in the tissues was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of their lipid peroxide levels (malondialdehyde (MDA)), together with an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Hormonal determinations of serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which carried out for fertility assessment showed that whole body γ-irradiation of rats induced significant decrease in serum testosterone while FSH and LH were significantly increased as compared with control group. On the other hand, irradiation caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal head, and / or tail of sperms in comparison to the control rats. The comet assay showed that exposure to γ-radiation induced DNA damage of sperms (tail moment values).

  17. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  18. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 r...

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Piper guineense aqueous extract against ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunji E. Oyinloye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G. on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in experimental animals, twenty-four Wistar male albino rats (weighing 150-170 g were divided into four groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w by oral gavage for 21 days. Serum triglyceride (TG levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST activities were determined in the liver. Results: At the end of the experiment, chronic administration of ethanol resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO with depletion in the levels of GSH as well as reduction in the activities of SOD and GST. TG levels, ALT and AST activities were elevated. This was attenuated by the co-administration of the P.guineense extract by oral gavage (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. Administration of the plant extract during ethanol exposure inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities as well as restoring GSH levels significantly. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of P.guineense possess some potent antioxidants which can ameliorate hepatic damage associated with chronic ethanol exposure in rat models. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 71-76

  20. Histological and Quantitative Study of the Effect of Eruca Sativa Seed Oil on The Testis of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. R. Salem and Nehal A. Moustafa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Eruca Sativa (E.S or Gargir seed oil is widely used in folk medicine. This study was conducted to investigate its possible effect on male rat fertility. Histological changes of the testis, level of testosterone hormone and sperm count were determined. The results revealed that administration of low dose of E.S. seed oil caused dilatation of the seminiferous tubules, proliferation of spermatogenic cells and increase of its mitotic activity. Increased number of sperms and epididymis weight, elevated level of testosterone hormone and hyperplasia of interstitial Leydig cells have also been noticed. DNA analysis revealed an increase of the percentage of haploid and decrease of diploid and tetraploid cells. Administration of E.S. seed oil at higher dose showed. decreased diameter of the seminiferous tubules, reduced spermatogenic activity and number of sperms . Also testosterone hormone level decreased and the interstitial cells appeared few. DNA analysis showed a reduction of the percentage of the haploid and increase of the percentage of diploid and tetraploid cells.

  1. [Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

    1996-01-01

    In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure. PMID:8967049

  2. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  3. The Effect of Moderate Hypothermia on Renin-Angiotensin – Aldosterone System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kourosh Arami

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia in nature occurs in hibernating animals. It has applications in medicine in open heart surgery,organ and connective tissue preserving, altitude medicine and geriatrics. Despite the vastness of studies on hypothermia many of its biologic and physiologic effects including endocrine system alterations are still poorly recognized. In this study the effect of hypothermia on renin- angiotensin-aldosterone axis was explored. Ten male wistar albino rats (mean age 5 months were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloralhydrat (0.5 m1/100gr body weight. Then animals were placed in hypothermia apparatus . Their body temperature were reduced to 250 C. AngiotensinI(ANGI and aldosterone (ALD levels of serum were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after hypothermia induction and once every 24 hours for three days. Plasma renin activity (PRA was also measured by using the standard formula of angiotensin determinates at two temperatures of 40C and 370C . The results showed that PRA,ANGI and ALD increased significantly immedietly after hypothermia (p<0.03. Later changes were followed as these factors decreased to basal level, except in the case of aldosterone which maintained its increased level significantly for 24 hours (p<0.05. It seems that moderate hypothermia have stimulatory effect on PRA,ANGI and ALD that results of this study confirm it.

  4. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (pbiodiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (pdiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (pdiesel groups. Lung Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Na, and Zn concentrations were different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Al concentration was different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Ca concentration was significantly (pbiodiesel groups. Serum and lung tissue bioelements concentrations were lower in diesel and biodiesel groups than in control group. Due to consumption for biochemical reaction of these elements, bioelements concentration could be low in diesel and biodiesel groups. Some trace elements concentrations in the kidney and liver were very high in the diesel groups. High concentration of these elements in the diesel groups might cause toxic effects. Fish oil biodiesel could be chosen as an alternative fuel

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Nitasha Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01. Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01. Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  6. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA LINN (EUPHORBIACEAE : EXPLORATION DES PROPRIETES ANTIBACTERIENNES ET DU POUVOIR CICATRISANT DE LA SEVE DE CETTE PLANTE CHEZ LE RAT ALBINOS DE SOUCHE WISTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. KLOTOE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha multifida Linn is a plant used in traditional medicine in the treatment of certain diseases or skin troubles in Republic of the Benin. In this study, the sap of the plant was used to evaluate its healing and antimicrobial activities.With this intention, the antimicrobic activity of the sap carried out starting from the method of dilution in solid medium was evaluated on two germs of references: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The results showed that J multifida has a very strong inhibiting activity on the growth of S. aureus (nearly 100% with one CMI equal to 20mg/ml and an average inhibition on the growth of E coli. The healing activity of the sap was required on the wounds (wound of excision of size 2,25cm2 carried out in the albino rat Wistar. The results indicated that at the end of 19 days of treatment (once every 48 hours, the wounds of the rats of the treated batch were healed to 99% compared to those of the batch untreated and being used as witness of which the percentage of retraction of the wounds is 43% at the same stage.

  7. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  8. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant.

  9. Subchronic oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical indices in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats. Methods: Subchronic toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract on alternate-day basis to different groups of rats for 28 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Haematological indices were preserved and the extract showed significant (P < 0.01–0.001 haemostatic potentials. There was significant reduction (P < 0.05–0.001 in total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001, alanine transaminase (P < 0.05, alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.001 and blood glucose (P < 0.001 compared to control. The level of total protein increased significantly (P < 0.05–0.001. Kidney functions were, however, intact. Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that ingestion of Eleucine indica whole plant extract for a long period of time reduces both bleeding and clotting times, reduces blood sugar and shows no apparent toxic effect on liver and kidneys. The results of this study may be useful as a basis for clinical trials in humans.

  10. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  11. Toxic Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive System of Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; JIA Zhen Chao; CHEN Jin Yao; HU Jun Xiang; ZHANG Li Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of Atrazine (ATZ) on the reproductive system of male rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ATZ by gavage at dosages of 0, 38.5, 77, and 154 mg/kg bw/day for 30 d. The toxic effects of ATZ to rats were assessed through histopathologcal observation, spermatozoa quality evaluation, testicular marker enzyme indicators, antioxidant capacity and reproductive hormone levels. Results Significant adverse effects on reproductive system were observed in rats exposed to ATZ at different dosages compared with 0 mg/kg group, including an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium in 154 mg/kg group;a decreased spermatozoa number and an increased spermatozoa abnormality rate in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups;decreased levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) with the increasing of ATZ concentration; a decreased level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a dose-dependent manner, and a decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 154 mg/kg group;and decreased serum levels of testosterone (T) and inhibin-B (INH-B) and an increased serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups, and an increased serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in 154 mg/kg group. Conclusion These results suggested that relatively high doses of ATZ could exert reproductive toxicity of male rats.

  12. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF DEHP IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract TITLE: Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the Male Rat. AUTHORS (ALL): Gray, Leon Earl1; Barlow, Norman J2; Furr, Johnathan R1; Brock, John 3; Silva, Manori J3; Barr, Dana B3; Ostby, Joseph S1SPONSOR NAME:INSTITUTIONS (AL...

  13. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system. PMID:27286640

  14. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system.

  15. Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Watcho, Pierre; Bouseko, Tepi Serges; Kenfack, Augustave; Tchoumboué, Joseph; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days. Results obtained from this study showed a significant (p propoxur (5.2 mg/kg) compared to the control. On the contrary, there was a significant (p propoxur at the dose of 5.2 mg/kg body weight. Propoxur had no significant effect on gestation, fertility and parturition indices, average birth weight, litter size and pups sex ratio of untreated female rats mated with treated males rats. These results suggested that propoxur increased food consumption, relative weight of reproductive and detoxication organs, decreased body weight gain and sperm density per gram of cauda epididymis without affecting the reproductive performances.

  16. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  17. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Salvacion Tan; Bajo, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in t...

  18. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  19. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  20. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  1. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  2. Biochemical study on the effect of some antioxidants on apoptosis in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male albino rats were whole body subjected to 2 Gy every other day up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Animals sacrificed on the 8th day after irradiation showed significant decreases in testis/body weight ratio. Biochemical analysis in testicular tissues showed significant decreases in SOD and CAT activities, concomitant with significant increase in XO activity and TBARS contents. Radiation exposure induced also significant increases in testicular DNA fragmentation, significant increases in mitochondrial NO and Ca+2 contents associated with significant decrease in nuclear GSH content. Testicular LDL-C content showed a significant increase which was much higher than its increase in serum, the content of HDL-C increased significantly, contrarily to serum where a significant decrease was recorded. Histological examination through electron microscope revealed apoptosis in testicular tissue. Either allopurinol (50 mg/kg body weight supplied via intra peritoneal injection) or Hesperidine (200 mg/kg body weight supplied orally by gastric intubation) or allopurinol + hesperidine supplied to rats during 7 consecutive days before irradiation or during 7 consecutive days after irradiation resulted in significant decrease of apoptosis associated with significant amelioration in the disequilibrium between antioxidants and oxidants. All treatments have improved the biochemical alteration in testicular tissues as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. However, the improvement was significantly higher when allopurinol, or hesperidine or allopurinol + hesperidine were administered pre-irradiation than post-irradiation. According to the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation would protect testicular tissues from apoptosis.

  3. Teratogenicity Induced By 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid and/or Gamma Irradiation on Bone of Fetuses and Placenta of Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) has revolutionized the management of severe treatment-resistant acne and it has been widely used for a range of dermatological conditions. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies were occurred in pregnant rats given isotretinion and/or exposed to gamma irradiation on specific days during organogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of isotretinoin administration and/or exposure to gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rats, vertebrae and neural spine of their fetuses. Isotretinoin at the dose level 70 mg/kg was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 11th to 15th days of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation 1.5 Gy as fractionated dose (0.5 Gy/3 times) on the 11th, 12th and 13th day of gestation. The experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20 th day of gestation) have demonstrated that isotretinoin intake from the 11th-15th days of gestation induced embryological, biochemical, histochemical and histopathological disorders in irradiated mothers and their fetuses. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase accompanied by a decline in total protein and DNA in the placenta tissues and vertebrae bone. In addition, histopathological results showed different distortions in the placenta which varied from necrotic nuclei of giant cells, haemorrhage and pyknotic nuclei in trophoblast. Moreover, ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layers and reduced number of chondrocytes together with severe damage in spine neural arch were viewed. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a serious and powerful drug and should be used with great caution, therefore, it is recommended that radiation workers especially females have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake during pregnancy.

  4. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Vigna mungo (Linn. Hepper on rifampicin-induced toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of seeds of Vigna mungo (AEVM (fabaceae against rifampicin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Settings and Design: Albino rats of either sex (200-250 g were selected and divided in to eight groups of six animals in each. Four groups for hepatoprotective activity and four groups for nephroprotective activity. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was positive control, group 3 was treated with standard drug, group 4 was treated with AEVM. Similarly it was done for nephroprotective activity. The results are evidenced on the basis of physical, biochemical, histological, and functional parameters. Materials and Methods: Drugs used are rifampicin, silymarin, diagnostic kits (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and BIT for hepatoprotective activity. BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid for nephroprotective activity. Seed powder of Vigna mungo was extracted with water. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done to identify the phytoconstituents. The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the AEVM were assessed in rifampicin-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic rats. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by "Tukey-Kramer" multiple comparison tests. Results: The AEVM showed the presence of amino acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, phytic acid, total phenolic compounds, saponins, and tannins. Rifampicin produced significant changes in physical (increased liver weight, decreased body weight, biochemical (increase in serum glutathione pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (BIT level, increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid level, histological (damage to hepatocytes, nephrons, and functional (barbiturates-induce sleeping time induced by rifampicin in liver and kidney

  5. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo; Subhangkar Nandy; Aswini Kumar Senapati; Sarada Prasad Sarangi; Saroj Kumar Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered...

  6. Impaired reproductive function of male rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, A; Dalimi, A; Movahedin, M

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the classical conditions known to have an adverse effect on female reproductive functions, but a few investigations into male reproductive parameters have been performed. This work was carried out to study the effects of Toxoplasma gondii on reproductive function in male rats. Male rats were infected with the RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites, and following every 10 days from 10 to 70 postinfection (PI), the percentage of body weight to testis weight ratio as well as epididymal sperm parameters (number, motility, viability, and morphology rates), serum testosterone (ST), intratesticular testosterone (ITT), serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH), intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase and fructose in seminal vesicles and coagulating glands were measured. The results of the study showed sperm motility, viability and concentration rates were significantly decreased temporary after infection up to 70 days. Sperm abnormality was also increased during these days. In addition, temporary alteration in ST, ITT, SLDH, intratesticular LDH and fructose in seminal vesicle and coagulating gland was observed PI. These findings suggest that toxoplasmosis can cause impermanent impairment on the reproductive parameters of male rats.

  7. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4–2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  8. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  9. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shehata, Iman H. [Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Elhalem, Sahar S. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models.

  10. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  11. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe3O4/SiO2 composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models

  12. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  13. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on some biochemical functions in female albino rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, F. L

    2007-01-01

    Background: Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the synergestic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on certain functional disorders in female rats. Material and methods: Mature female rats weighing about 120-150g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals,...

  14. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  15. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  16. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  17. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. PMID:27157738

  18. Studies on curacron food poisoning in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones

  19. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  20. THE EFFECT OF TRANSIENT AND PERSISTENT NEONATAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ON THE ADULT ALBINO RAT TESTIS (LIGHT ANDELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Elshall

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim of work: thyroid hormone is known to play a critical role in the development and growth of the testis. So, this study was designed to compare between the effect of transient and persistent neonatal hypothyroidism on the testis of adult rats. Material and Methods: Thirty newborn rats (1 day old were classified equally into control group and two experimental groups. In experimental group I, the transient hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by giving their lactating mothers 0.05%, 6-propyl-2 thiouracil (PTU through drinking water for 30 days after birth then the treatment was withdrawal for 60 days. In experimental group II, the persistent hypothyroidism was induced by giving the neonates 0.05% PTU through their mother milk until weaning then directly through drinking water for 90 days after birth. After 90 days postpartum, all animals were anaesthetized and their testes were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscope examination. Results: In experimental group I, the testes of transient hypothyroid rats appeared with large seminiferous tubules (ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly increased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by many Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatides and late spermatids. The interstitial spaces contained some Leydig cells and few fluid. In experimental group II, the testes of persistent hypothyroid rats appeared with small ST that the length of their diameters and the height of their lining epithelium were significantly decreased as compared to those of control rats. They were lined by thin disorganized germinal epithelium containing many Sertoli cells and few germ cells. Many sloughed degenerating cells and large multinucleated giant cells were seen in the lumen of ST. The interstitial spaces contained many connective tissue cells, congested blood vessels

  1. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  2. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF PROPOLIS EXTRACT (BEE GLUE) AGAINST METHOTREXATE-INDUCED STRESS IN LIVER AND BRAIN OF ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma A. Khalil, Amal A. A. EL-Kirsh, Enas Ali Kamel and Nourhan Gamal EL-Rahmany

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: Methotrexate, Propolis extract, Oxidative damage, Liver, Brain, Antioxidant enzymes, Rats Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate drug that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of MTX is often limited by its severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Propolis (bee glue) is a natural bee product rich in polyphenolic compounds known for antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of propolis...

  3. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi; Zuhira Benzekri; Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub; Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatograph...

  4. Dose-Related Effects of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on Gamma Radiation-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a widely used nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug, has consistently suggested a possible association between prenatal ASA ingestion and adverse effects in the pregnant mothers and their developing fetuses. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively define the effect of relatively low and high doses of ASA (25 mg/kg body wt. and 200 mg/kg body wt. respectively) on gestating rats and their possible impact on the irradiated ones. Therefore 36 pregnant rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Three rat groups were daily orally gavaged from the 7th to the 18th gestational days with: distilled water (Group 1), 25 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 2) and 200 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 3). The other three groups similarly received the same previous treatments besides 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation of each, to serve as: Group 4 (distilled water + irradiation), Group 5 (25 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation) and Group 6 (200 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation). All rat groups were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy and the uterine contents were examined. The lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg body wt.) treated group (Group 2) displayed healthy mothers and fetuses whereas that of the higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) (Group 3) despite not showing significant maternal or fetal mortalities, yet the intrauterine contents presented fetal developmental disorders including stunted growth and resorption together with some head and limb anomalies including plagiocephaly, marked acampsia and acrocontracture. Meanwhile, results have unexpectedly shown a radioprotective role of the lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg. body wt.) (Group 5) to pregnant rats and their fetuses as inspected by its efficacy in retrieving the radiation induced maternal weight loss together with its noticeable ameliorating effects on the intrauterine lethality of the affected fetuses and their externally detected abnormalities in addition toits effectiveness in retaining some

  5. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  6. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTILIPIDEMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOYA BEAN OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE LEVEL IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTER RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpanukpong, Richard Undigweundeye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Experimental studies in alloxan-induced diabetic animals have demonstrated several abnormalities upon induction such as physiological, biochemical and histological alterations. In this present study, the influences of graded doses of soya bean oil supplementation for 4weeks on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats were determined. Methodology: Sixty (60 male albino rats weighing about 240-260g were divided into 6 experimental groups of 10 rats per group viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Group I serve as male control, group II serve as diabetes control which were fed with normal rat chow while rats in the test group were fed with graded doses of soya bean oil supplements and water ad libitum for 4weeks, at the end of the supplementation, plasma lipid profile and glucose level were determined. Results: All the diabetic induced rats had significantly higher (p<0.01 Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but lower HDL-C levels than all the non-diabetic rats. The data obtained after supplementation revealed that soya bean oil significantly reduced the glucose level and ameliorated the lipid profile with attendant decrease in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels, but with a corresponding increases in HDL-C levels respectively when compared to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: The observation of significant changes in plasma lipid profile, glucose level might be as a result of supplementation with soybean oil. It is therefore concluded that Soya bean oil possess significant antidiabetic activity that can improve the physiological and biochemical parameters which are abnormally altered due to diabetes mellitus.

  7. NOOTROPIC ACTION OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA ROOT EXTRACT ON THE DENDRITIC MORPHOLOGY OF HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 NEURONS IN ONE MONTH OLD RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that Glycyrrhiza glabra (family: Leguminosae) aqueous root extract treatment in Wistar albino rats enhances both spatial learning ability and retention of learned tasks accordingly, the present study was designed to investigated the nootropic action of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra treatment on the dendritic morphology (dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections) of hippocampal CA1 neurons in one month old male Wistar albino rats. Methods: T...

  8. Reproductive toxicity of sodium valproate in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairy Laxminarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm motility were decreased significantly by sodium valproate. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. A histopathological study revealed that sodium valproate had caused sloughing of epithelial cells in testes. Conclusion: Sodium valproate causes reversible change in sperm motility, sperm count, morphology, and cytoarchitecture of testes.

  9. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on some biochemical functions in female albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, F. L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the synergestic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on certain functional disorders in female rats. Material and methods: Mature female rats weighing about 120-150g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with danazol at a daily dose of 1.8 mg/100 g b.wt/day for four weeks., group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (5 Gy, group 4: animals orally administrated with danazol two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Results : Blood and liver samples were obtained two week post irradiation. Erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, hamatocrite percentage (Ht and leucoyte counts (WBc,s were determined in blood. Total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, glucose as well as gamma glutamyle transferase (-GT, transmaminase aspartat (AST, alanine (ALT and estradiol serum hormone level were assessed. Peroxidative hepatic damage was investigated by assessing thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and total protein content in liver tissues. The data obtained revealed that exposure of rats to gamma radiation and / or danazol treatment or dual treatment caused a significant increase in ALT, AST, glucose, -GT, TC, TG, LDL-c and liver TABRS. While a significant decrease were recorded in RBc,s Hb, Wbc,s and HT. On the other hand, serum HDL, estradiol and liver total protein in group treated with danazol declined compared to control group. Conclusion: The results are of great importance from the stand point of radiation protection and drug safety.

  10. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

  11. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  12. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment.

  13. Effect of prenatal and perinatal acrylamide on the biochemical and morphological changes in liver of developing albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed Aly; El-Ghareeb, Abdel Whaab; Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Bakery, Ahlam El; Gad, Mammoun; Sabri, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    Acrylamide has been employed as an experimental probe to investigate biochemical and morphological changes in developing rat liver following toxin administration in pregnant rats. Non-anesthetized pregnant rats were given acrylamide by gastric intubation at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The pups were divided into three groups: Group A, mothers were treated with saline (control group); Group B, mothers were treated with acrylamide from day D7 of gestation till birth (prenatal intoxication); Group C, mothers were treated with acrylamide from D7 of gestation to D28 after birth (perinatal intoxication). Acrylamide-induced biochemical changes (in liver and serum) and morphological changes (in liver) were studied in control and acrylamide-treated developing pups. Prenatally and perinatally administered acrylamide significantly increased lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and total thiol levels in liver. Significant inhibition of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities was observed in liver tissue. Total lipids including cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in the serum. Acrylamide treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. Sodium and potassium concentrations were increased, but calcium, phosphorus and iron levels were significantly reduced in the serum. Acrylamide produced significant electrophoretic changes in serum proteins. The most noticeable change was splitting of beta-globulin into beta1- and beta2-globulins. Light microscopy showed acrylamide-induced fatty deposits, congested central vein, vacuolization and chromatolysis in hepatocytes. Ultrastructural studies revealed vacuolated cytoplasm, lipid droplets of variable size and mitochondria with damaged cristae and vacuolization. The nuclei in acrylamide-treated groups showed marked decrease in the staining of nuclear DNA. PMID:19862503

  14. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, S; Ansari, A.S.; N K Lohiya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2x CD), 250 mg (5x CD) and 500 mg (10x CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 ...

  15. Effect of aqueous extract ofMurraya koenigii on haematological, hormonal and lipid proifle of Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushmita Choudhury; Manoranjan Prasad Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of aqueous extract ofMurraya koenigii leaves on some haematological, hormonal and serum lipid parameters in rats. Methods: We evaluated whether oral administration ofMurraya koenigii affected the haematological, hormonal and lipid parameters. After 7 days of oral administration of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, other profiles were investigated. Results: The results showed that the extract administered significantly increased (P Conclusions: This study suggests that the extracts may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterol concentration, can act as a stimulant to thyroid functions as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders and also as a potent contraceptive.

  16. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  17. Alteration in memory and electroencephalogram waves with sub-acute noise stress in albino rats and safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundareswaran Loganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress.

  18. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatography. Possible teratogenic effects of the fruit pulp extract was investigated by its administration to twelve pregnant rats on the 7th day of gestation at a dose of 40.6 mg/kg body weight that is equivalent to one fourth of the LD50 of the extract. Results: Gross anatomical observation on the 20th day of gestation revealed a high percentage of resorbed fetuses, smaller size and weight fetuses as well as absence of coccygeal vertebrae, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and carpal and tarsal bones. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the extract of fruit pulp of Citrullus colocynthis, obtained from Libya, contain glucosidal as well as other principles that may cause teratogenic effects if given during at the early stage of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 438-445

  19. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokutima A. Eluwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  20. Mitogenic effects of propoxur on male rat bladder urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Cano, M; Johnson, L S; StJohn, M K; Asamoto, M; Garland, E M; Thyssen, J H; Sangha, G K; van Goethem, D L

    1994-11-01

    Propoxur produces bladder tumors in rats, but not other species. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects do not occur if urinary pH is lowered by administering propoxur in a semi-synthetic diet or co-administering it with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). We fed propoxur at 8000 p.p.m. in Altromin 1321 diet to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks, with or without NH4Cl as 10,000 p.p.m. of the diet. The urine of rats fed control diet with or without propoxur had a relatively high urinary pH (approximately 8); the addition of NH4Cl lowered the urinary pH by approximately 0.5-1.0 units. There was no evidence of urinary calculi or amorphous precipitate nor was there an increase in microcrystals or formation of different crystals than occur in normal rat urine. Propoxur produced hyperplasia of the urothelium, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and increased the labeling index for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These effects were significantly inhibited by co-administration with NH4Cl. There was no evidence of urothelial necrosis. Thus, the hyperplasia appears to result from a direct mitogenic effect of propoxur or a metabolite on the urothelium, rather than from toxicity and consequent regeneration. Based on the present study and previous investigations, the urothelial effects of propoxur in the rat are dependent on high urinary pH and high administered doses, factors which need to be incorporated into any mechanistic model for the chemical and into any extrapolation to potential effects in humans.

  1. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pmale animals (pfemale groups; dye contents in the whole brains were 0.14±0.01mg% in the control, 0.24±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.14±0.02mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. No statistical variance found between the control and 1800MHz exposed animals (p>0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. PMID:26723545

  2. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  3. Age-related changes in microsome-dependent conversion of T -T ,thyroid function and cadmium toxicity in albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair A. Moustafa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of age on microsomal function, manifested by its ability to convert thyroid hormone thyroxine (T to triiodothyronine (T&, was investigated using four age '& (-months. The data show impaired microsomal function with advancing age represented by a significant decrease in serum levels of T& and T&/T ratio. There was a decline in the liver glutathione (GSH, total proteins and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (*GT. There was an-age associated increase in liver content of the lipid peroxidation products, thiobarituric acid (TBA-reactants and the serum total protein. + +,-.'( +-/' +-old+0-1-mg/kg CdCl 2their controls were injected with distilled water. A higher susceptibility of senile rats to cadmium toxicity was manifested as a significantly higher decrease in their serum T& level and T&/T ratio than adult compared to control. A reduction in the adaptive response of senile animals was manifested by a less increase in hepatic GSH in senile than adult as compared to control. The level of hepatic TBA-reactants was significantly higher in treated than in control group. The increase was more pronounced in the senile group. A marked hepatic cellular damage indicated by an increase in the serum levels of the AST and ALT was more pronounced in senile compared with adult rats. Treatment resulted in a decrease in the serum *GT and liver triglycerides (TG. The decrease in both parameters was more evident in senile as compared to adult group. Key words: Introduction As nations become progressively associated decline in the above more industrialized, the incidence of variables may be further complicated by overweight, non-insulin dependent disturbance in the normal metabolism diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, and related and action of thyroid hormones, metabolic disorders has been shown to particularly T& (Wallace & Hofmann, increase especially at old age. Along ((%263 4(((with those changes

  4. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

  5. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  6. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  7. A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

  8. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  9. Progressive effects of the interaction of Sodium nitrite and sunset yellow on different physiological parameters in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman. G.E. Helal

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been noticed that the Egyptian children usually eat and drink food containing both food preservative and food colourants at the same time . This has attracted the attention to study the interaction between one of food preservatives (sodium nitrite and a food coloring agent (sunset yellow. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were devided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10mg sod. nitrite (NaNO3/kg and 0.5 mg/ kg /day sun set yellow (S.S.Y/. The third group received selenium (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of animals was left for another 15 days without treatment for recovery. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, R B C and WBC counts, Hb %. , Hct %. Serum inorganic phosphorus, serum protein and serum albumin. Significant increases were observed in serum glucose, T3, T4, calcium, GGT, LDH, Cpk, ALK.ph and cholesterol. Also cholesterol of brain, liver and heart were significantly elevated. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart beats, rectal temperature, AST and ALT activities of serum and tissues, acid phosphatase activity, total lipids of serum and tissues, cholesterol of muscle and kidney and serum triglycerides A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most biochemical and haematological parameters was observed after 15 days recovery or when selenium was administered This draws attention to the dangers of interactions of such preservatives and colorants. The present study showed that even the permitted doses of colourants and food preservatives may be harmful.

  10. Protective Effect Of Garlic Oil On Some Neurotransmitters And Physiological Parameters In Male Rats Exposed To electro pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing exposure to electro pollution has become inevitable for people living in civilized and industrialized environments. This pollution can increase the production and life-span of free radicals which are causative factors in the oxidative damage of cellular structures and functions. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station on the oxidative status parameters, neurotransmitters, glycemic index and lipid profile in male rats and the protective role of garlic oil. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into three equal groups; group 1 served as control, group 2 exposed for 24 hr to electro pollution emitted from mobile base station founded on a roof of building for 4 weeks and group 3 exposed to electro pollution as group 2 then supplemented by stomach tube with garlic oil (250 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Exposure to electro pollution caused significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) while significant decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were observed. Significant decrease in serotonin (5-HT) and significant increase in dopamine (DA) were also noticed with significant increase in serum glucose and significant decrease in insulin hormone. In addition, the lipid profile showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant increase in triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Garlic oil supplementation ameliorates almost these disturbances leading to the conclusion that garlic oil exhibited significant protection against oxidative stress, neuro degeneration, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia produced by electro pollution

  11. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  12. Effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2014-10-01

    Troxerutin is a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the flavonoid, rutin. It has been reported to possess the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. Troxerutin treatment reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high-cholesterol-induced insulin-resistant mice and in type-2 diabetic patients. However, the mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property was unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Wistar male albino rats were selected and divided into five groups. Group I: Control. Group II: High fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group V: Normal rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose uptake, and oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Diabetic rats showed impairment in insulin signaling molecules (IR, p-IRS-1(Tyr632), p-Akt(Ser473), β-arrestin-2, c-Src, p-AS160(Thr642), and GLUT4 proteins), glycogen concentration, glucose uptake, and oxidation. Oral administration of troxerutin showed near normal levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins in type-2 diabetic rats. It is concluded from the present study that troxerutin may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle.

  13. Gastric ulcer healing effect of wild honey and its combination with Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val.) Rhizome on male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Ketut Adnyana; Joseph I.Sigit; Larasati A.Kusumawardani

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder in human at any ages.In this research,the antiulcer activity of wild honey produced by Apis dorsata,alone or in combination with Turmeric Rhizome,was evaluated in healing acute gastric ulcer.Male Wistar albino rats (150-250 g) were induced ulcers with aspirin at 405 mg/kg BW and ethanol.Antiulcer evaluation was done based on the gastric acidity,numbers and diameter of ulcers,ulcer index,healing ratio,histological examinations,and body weight.The results showed that the groups given honey alone,turmeric alone,and combination of turmeric-honey displayed significant ulcer healing compared to the control group.Ulcers in the group administered with combination of turmeric-wild honey was different significantly from the turmeric alone and wild honey alone groups with increased body weight in that group.The result showed that wild honey (2125 mg/kg BW) had the greatest activity in healing ulcers among other groups.The combination of turmeric-wild honey had a good activity in healing ulcers and increased the body weight of the group.

  14. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on cyclophosphamide—induced testicular gametogenic and androgenic disorders in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UjjalBaranDas; MousumiMallick

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the detrimental effects of cyclophosphamide on the testicular androgenic and gametogenic activities through endocrine inhibiton and/or induction of oxidative stress in male albino rats and to evaluate the protective effect of ascorbic acid.Methods:The testicular△5,3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(HSD),17β-HSD,peroxidase and catalase activities along with the levels of malondialdehyde(MDA)and conjugated dienes in testicular tissue were measured for the evaluation of testicular oxidative stress.The plasma testosterone(T)level was measured by immunoassay7.Various germ cells at stage VⅡof spermatogenic cycle were quantified from testicular stained sections.Results:Cyclophosphamide treatment results in a significant inhibition in the testicular△5,3β-HSDand17β-HSDactivities,a decrease in plasma T level and a diminution in the coumts of various gern cells,Moreover,this treatment was also associated with a significant inhibition of the peroxidase and catalase activities along with high levels of MDA and conjugated dienes in the testis.All these changes were reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.Conclusion:Cyclophosphamide treatment at the dosage used caused testicular gametogenic and androgenic disor-ders as well as induced testicular oxidative stress that can be reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.

  15. Effects of cisplatin on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione redox status in the liver of male rats: The protective role of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević Ivana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxidative stress in cisplatin (CP toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with selenium (Se was investigated. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p. alone or in combination. The results suggest that CP intoxication induces oxidative stress and alters the glutathione redox status: reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG and the GSH/GSSG ratio (GSH RI, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation (LPO in rat liver. The pretreatment with selenium prior to CP treatment showed a protective effect against the toxic influence of CP on peroxidation of the membrane lipids and an altering of the glutathione redox status in the liver of rats. From our results we conclude that selenium functions as a potent antioxidant and suggest that it can control CP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  16. A 4-week toxicity study of methionine in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keigi; Toue, Sakino; Kawamata, Yasuko; Watanabe, Akiko; Miwa, Tadashi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-01-01

    To examine 4-week toxicity of l-methionine (methionine), 5-week-old Fisher strain male rats were fed on diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 (w/w) of added methionine. Although no deaths were recorded, the highest dose of methionine (2.7% [w/w] of diet) reduced food intake and significantly suppressed growth rate. Growth suppression was characterized by an increase in hemolysis, splenic, and hepatic accumulation of hemosiderin, hemolytic anemia, and promotion of hematopoiesis. Other changes observed in the highest methionine intake group were a decrease in white blood cell count, thymus atrophy, and histological abnormalities in the adrenal gland and testis. Small, but significant, growth suppression, accompanied by some minor changes in plasma biochemical parameters, was also seen in rats fed on a test diet containing 0.9% (w/w) of additional methionine. Thus, no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of diet-added methionine were determined at 0.3% and 0.9% (w/w), corresponding to 236 and 705 mg/kg/d body weight, respectively. Since the basal diet contained protein-bound methionine at 0.5% (w/w), NOAEL and LOAEL of total dietary methionine were estimated at 0.8% and 1.4% (w/w) of diet.

  17. Anxiolytic Effect of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicinal plants with natural antioxidants have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of complications such as anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM is one of the most widely used models to assess anxiety in small rodents. Objectives This study was designed to characterize the anxiolytic-like activity of Borago officinalis (Linnaeus, family Boraginaceae or Borage flowers extract, using an EPM test. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 grams were used in the present study. Thirty minutes after an intraperitoneal (IP injection of the Borage extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg or saline, each animal was placed in the EPM. Animal behaviors in the experimental sessions were recorded by a video camera located above the maze, interfaced with a monitor and a computer in an adjacent room. The time spent in the open arms, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM and the numbers of entries into the closed arms were recorded for five minutes. Results Statistical analysis indicated that acute IP injection of Borage extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the time spent in open arms and percentage of open arms entries. Whereas, the extract had no effect on the number of closed arm entries. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that injection of Borage extract might have an anxiolytic profile in rats. However, the exact mechanism (s related to the active compound (s in Borage extract should be elucidated in future studies.

  18. Urotensin Ⅱ inhibits carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ming WU; Hong-mei XUE; Lin XIAO; Rui-rong HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of urotensin Ⅱ (UV) on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB). Methods: The functional curve of carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. Results: UⅡ at the concentration of 3 nmol/L had no effect on the CSB, while at the concentration of 30, 300 and 3000 nmol/L inhibited the CSB, shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right. There was a marked decrease in peak slope and reflex decrease in blood pressure. These effects of UⅡ were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with verapamil (an antagonist of the L-type calcium channel, 10 μmol/L) partially eliminated the above effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Pretreatment with BIM-23127 (3 μmol/L),an antagonist of human and rat UⅡ receptors, abolished the actions of UⅡ on the CSB. Pretreatment with, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 100 μmol/L did not affect the inhibitory effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Conclusion: These data suggest that UⅡ exerts an inhibitory action on the isolated CSB. Such an action of UV is predominantly mediated by the UⅡ receptors in vascular smooth muscles, resulting in the opening of L-type calcium channels.

  19. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male