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Sample records for male accessory sex

  1. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.

  2. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT. We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P<0.01 and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P<0.01, which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  3. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

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    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  4. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Rylett, Caroline M; Keen, Jeff N; Audsley, Neil; Sajid, Mohammed; Shirras, Alan D; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2006-05-02

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1) is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. We have applied biochemical approaches, not used previously, to characterise

  5. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic β-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the β-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level

  6. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

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    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  7. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of epididy......Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers...... with the activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort...

  8. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  9. The male genital accessory gland complex of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA-FERNANDEZ, CASIMIRO; GARCIA, SONIA M. LAUER DE; GARCIA, ROSANE NUNES

    1998-01-01

    A topographical and histological study of the male genital accessory gland complex of Boophilus microplus was undertaken. Ten lobes were found, the most prominent of which is the single dorso-median lobe, subdivided into antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal lobes. The other lobes are: a pair of postero-ventral lobes, a pair of lateral lobes (subdivided into dorso-lateral and postero-lateral lobes), a pair of antero-ventral lobes, a single medio-ventral lobe and a pair of latero-ventral lobes. The...

  10. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

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    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  11. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

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    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  12. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  13. Secretory activity and endocrine regulation of male accessory glands in the blood-sucking bug Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Lêda Regis

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial cells of Panstrongylus megistus male accessory glands (MAG present ultrastructural characteristics of a secretory cell. Their secretory products are accumulated in the lumen of the four MAG lobes. During the first 8 days of adult life a strong secretion activity occurs, accumulating enough material to produce the first spermatophore. Cerebral neurosecretions as well as juvenile hormone are both involved in MAG secretory activity regulation. Juvenile hormone seems to be the responsible for the stimulation of most protein synthesis in male accessory glands. Cerebral neurosecretion seems to be necessary to stimulate juvenile hormone production and release by the corpus allatum. Furthermore, neurosecretion is required for some polypeptides synthesis by MAG. Although topic application of precocene II to adult males does not reproduce the same effects on MAG as does allatectomy, this compound causes strong reduction on male reproductive capacity.

  14. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  15. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  16. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

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    Soumita Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

  18. The Accessory Olfactory System Facilitates the Recovery of the Attraction to Familiar Volatile Female Odors in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Yoshikage; Nishimura, Masakazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2017-10-31

    Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified. In this study, we examined how olfactory systems are involved in the recovery of male attraction to female odors following habituation in mice. Presentation with volatile female odors for 5 min induced habituation in males. To evaluate male attraction to familiar volatile female odors, we measured the duration for investigating volatile female odors from the same female mouse, which was presented twice for 5 min with 1-, 3-, or 5-min interval. Intranasal irrigation with ZnSO4 solution almost completely suppressed investigating behavior, indicating that the main olfactory system is indispensable for inducing the attraction to volatile female odors. In contrast, removal of the vomeronasal organ, bilateral lesions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), or pharmacological blockage of neurotransmission in the AOB did not affect the investigation time at the first odor presentation. However, each one of the treatments decreased the investigation time in the second presentation, compared to that in the first presentation, at longer intervals than control treatment, indicating that the disturbance of neurotransmission in the accessory olfactory system delayed the recovery of the attraction attenuated by the first presentation. These results suggest that the accessory olfactory system facilitates the recovery of the attraction to familiar volatile female odors in male mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination

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    Sandro La Vignera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE associated (MAGI-APEpos. US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis, V (vesiculitis, and E (epididymitis in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI. Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.

  20. Gene expression changes in male accessory glands during ageing are accompanied by reproductive decline in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppik, Mareike; Fricke, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Senescence is accompanied by loss of reproductive functions. Here, we studied reproductive ageing in Drosophila melanogaster males and asked whether the expected decline in male reproductive success is due to diminished functionality of the male accessory gland (AG). The male AG produces the majority of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) transferred to the female at mating. SFPs induce female postmating changes and are key to male reproductive success. We measured age-dependent gene expression changes for five representative SFP genes in males from four different age groups ranging from 1 to 6 weeks after eclosion. Simultaneously, we also measured male reproductive success in postmating traits mediated by transfer of these five SFPs. We found a decreased in male SFP gene expression with advancing age and an accompanying decline in male postmating success. Hence, male reproductive senescence is associated with a decline in functionality of the male AG. While overall individual SFP genes decreased in expression, our results point towards the idea that the composition of an ejaculate might change with male age as the rate of change was variable for those five genes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  2. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Male Sterilization and Structure of the Male Reproductive Accessory Glands of the Khapra Beetle Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kawy, F.K.; El-Naggar, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the male reproductive ability of Trogoderma Granarium Everts as regards to sterilization and structural changes in the accessory glands due to gamma radiation were studied. The reproductive ability of males irradiated as full grown pupae and mated with normal females was dose-dependent. A dose 100 Gy increased sterility of males to about 61.1%, while 200 Gy dose sterilized males completely. The number of eggs per mated female was significantly different from the control. The number of eggs decreased from 51.1 at 50 Gy to 5.9 at 200 Gy. Eclosion and deformity of males irradiated from 50 to 200 Gy seemed to be less affected as compared to the reproductive ability. When full grown male pupae were irradiated with the sterilizing dose, a considerable effect on the structure of accessory glands was observed. The dose 200 Gy caused lysis and damage of all type of secretory cells. The secretory epithelial cells showed abnormal appearance and became separated from each other. The cytoplasm was often shrunk, leaving spaces. The muscular sheaths surrounding the gland and lining its lumen were shrunk and damaged in some parts. The mitochondria and golgi bodies were completely lost. The multi microvilli lining the lumen of the gland disappeared. The basement membrane became loose and acquired irregular appearance in most parts. Intercellular microtubules disappeared completely. The gland generally was greatly damaged and lost its normal structure

  3. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  4. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  5. Estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb is required for the learning of the male odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Maïna; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Hellier, Vincent; Bakker, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Odors processed by the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB, AOB) are important for sexual behavior. Interestingly, both structures continue to receive new neurons during adulthood. A role for olfactory neurogenesis in sexual behavior in female mice has recently been shown and gonadal hormones such as estradiol can modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, we wanted to determine the role of estradiol in learning the odors of sexual partners and in the adult neurogenesis of female aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), unable to produce estradiol. Female wild-type (WT) and ArKO mice were exposed to male odors during 7 days, and olfactory preferences, cell proliferation, cell survival and functional involvement of newborn neurons were analyzed, using BrdU injections, in combination with a marker of cell activation (Zif268) and neuronal fate (doublecortin, NeuN). Behavioral tasks indicated that both WT and ArKO females were able to discriminate between the odors of two different males, but ArKO mice failed to learn the familiar male odor. Proliferation of newborn cells was reduced in ArKO mice only in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Olfactory exposure decreased cell survival in the AOB in WT females, suggesting a role for estradiol in a structure involved in sexual behavior. Finally, newborn neurons do not seem to be functionally involved in the AOB of ArKO mice compared with WT, when females were exposed to the odor of a familiar male, suggesting that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the AOB is required for the learning of the male odor in female mice. Aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) presented deficits in olfactory preferences without affecting their olfactory discrimination abilities, and showed no functional involvement of newborn neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to the odor of a familiar male. These results suggest that estradiol-induced neurogenesis in the female AOB is required for the learning of the male odor. © 2016 International

  6. Understanding the New Context of the Male Sex Work Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor; Marino, Rodrigo; Harvey, Glenn P.; Jamieson, Maggie; Browne, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews past and recent research on male sex work to offer a context to understand violence in the industry. It provides a critical review of research to show, first, the assumptions made about male sex workers and violence and, second, how such discourses have shaped thinking on the topic. The article presents a case study and…

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram, E-mail: ekas2009@buc.edu.in

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs caused adverse effects on the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of mice • Heat shock proteins (Hsp60, 70 and 90) were

  8. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  9. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  10. Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.

  11. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  12. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  13. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland.

  14. Tissue specificity of the hormonal response in sex accessory tissues is associated with nuclear matrix protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzenberg, R H; Coffey, D S

    1990-09-01

    The DNA of interphase nuclei have very specific three-dimensional organizations that are different in different cell types, and it is possible that this varying DNA organization is responsible for the tissue specificity of gene expression. The nuclear matrix organizes the three-dimensional structure of the DNA and is believed to be involved in the control of gene expression. This study compares the nuclear structural proteins between two sex accessory tissues in the same animal responding to the same androgen stimulation by the differential expression of major tissue-specific secretory proteins. We demonstrate here that the nuclear matrix is tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, and undergoes characteristic alterations in its protein composition upon androgen withdrawal. Three types of nuclear matrix proteins were observed: 1) nuclear matrix proteins that are different and tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, 2) a set of nuclear matrix proteins that either appear or disappear upon androgen withdrawal, and 3) a set of proteins that are common to both the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle and do not change with the hormonal state of the animal. Since the nuclear matrix is known to bind androgen receptors in a tissue- and steroid-specific manner, we propose that the tissue specificity of the nuclear matrix arranges the DNA in a unique conformation, which may be involved in the specific interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences, resulting in tissue-specific patterns of secretory protein expression.

  15. Sex Hormones And Biochemical Profiles Of Male Gossypol Users In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of gossypol administration on sex hormones and biochemical parameters of male subjects. Twelve male subjects receiving 20mg daily gossypol at the family planning clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan were studied. Blood samples collected from the subjects ...

  16. Male lifespan and the secondary sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Literature speculating on the fetal origins of later life morbidity often invokes the "damaged cohort" theory, i.e., that maternal responses to exogenous shocks induce "stress reactivity" in fetuses and thereby shorten the lifespan of males in utero during stressful times. A rival, or "culled cohort," theory posits that exogenous shocks to gravid females induce spontaneous abortions of frail male fetuses, leaving relatively hardy survivors who enjoy, on average, lifespans longer than males in less stressed birth cohorts. A recent test based on archival data from Sweden supported the culled cohort theory. Several characteristics of the Swedish data, however, raise questions regarding the external validity of the findings. We repeat the test with data from Denmark, Iceland, and England and Wales. We use time-series methods that control for trends, seasonal cycles, and other forms of autocorrelation that could confound the test. None of the results supports the "damaged cohort" theory. Consistent with the Swedish findings and with evolutionary theory, we find support in Iceland and England and Wales for the "culled cohort" theory. We discuss the implications of our findings for basic research as well as for public health.

  17. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe 2 O 3 -NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Grmai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx. Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir and Female lethal (2d (Fl(2d. traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  19. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmai, Lydia; Hudry, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Bach, Erika A

    2018-02-01

    Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  20. Converging Evidence of Ubiquitous Male Bias in Human Sex Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gaetano

    Full Text Available Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night, observers tend to expect the presence of males-an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers' race (i.e. long term experience was varied while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change. It was thus found that: (i observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii observers of other-race stimuli--while still tending to accept stimuli as male--were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception.

  1. The male handicap: male-biased mortality explains skewed sex ratios in brown trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, P; Labbé, L; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  3. Beyond the Bravado: Sex Roles and the Exploitive Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Stan

    1986-01-01

    Examines the tendency of men to engage in domestic violence and sexual exploitation and presents male sex-role acquisition as a process of psychosocial violence against young boys, which creates a sense of shame, powerlessness, self-alienation, isolation from others, and retaliatory rage and inhibits capacities for intimacy and mutuality.…

  4. Job Orientation of Males and Females: Are Sex Differences Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Sex differences in job orientation found by Manhardt (1972) were explored to determine if they still exist, or if a trend toward similarity as found in studies on traits and behaviors prevails. Implications for personnel managers in handling differences on job orientation of males and females are discussed. (Author/KC)

  5. HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

    2014-03-01

    The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.

  6. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40 and the second group (n = 98 reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7.The results show that 29% (n = 40 of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8 who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002 than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  7. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  8. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  9. A long slanted transseptal accessory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old male with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was admitted for ablation of accessory pathway. Intracardiac electrogram revealed a left-side accessory pathway during tachycardia, which was successfully ablated from the right posterior tricuspid annulus because of a long slanted transseptal accessory pathway (2.2 cm.

  10. Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-05-01

    Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from Tijuana. In 2008, males from San Diego (N = 189) and Tijuana (N = 211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews, and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic, and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. FSWs' clients represent a sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission "bridge" through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives, and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.

  11. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function...... is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses...

  12. Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariño Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 31 male sex workers (MSWs in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that covered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status, and use of health and social services. Scales were included in order to assess attitudes towards condom use, knowledge about safe sex, perceptions about the risk of getting HIV, individual self-efficacy, and locus of control. The questionnaire also asked each respondent to rank his level of agreement with interactive strategies for gaining client compliance with safe sex practices. RESULTS: In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3% self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30% as bisexual. Alcohol and drug consumption and unsafe sexual practices were relatively low among the MSWs. Of the 31 MSWs responding, 21 of them (67.7% reported that they had been tested for HIV, but only 13 of them (41.9% said they had been vaccinated for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B. A variety of differences were found between the study's 17 street sex workers (sex workers who offer their services in public places such as streets and parks and the 14 independent sex workers (sex workers who are self-employed, advertise and manage their own business, and have an exclusive location for their commercial sex work. The street MSWs were younger and had less formal education. Independent MSWs were economically more settled, had been working longer in the sex industry, and were more comfortable about having sex with men. Independent MSWs were also more likely to report a gay sexual orientation and less likely to report using alcohol, marijuana, or other substances. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between street MSWs and independent MSWs are important since they could influence the negotiating of safer sex

  13. Etiological Diagnosis of Undervirilized Male / XY Disorder of Sex Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, I.; Ibrahim, M.; Parkash, A.; Lone, S. W.; Khan, Y. N.; Raza, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do clinical, hormonal and chromosomal analysis in undervirilized male / XY disorder of sex development and to make presumptive etiological diagnosis according to the new Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) classification system. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Unit at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2012. Methodology: Patients of suspected XY DSD / undervirilized male visiting endocrine clinic were enrolled in the study. Criteria suggested XY DSD include overt genital ambiguity, apparent female/male genitalia with inguinal/labial mass, apparent male genitalia with unilateral or bilateral non-palpable testes, micropenis and isolated hypospadias or with undescended testis. The older children who had delayed puberty were also evaluated with respect to DSD. As a part of evaluation of XY DSD, abdominopelvic ultrasound, karyotype, hormone measurement (testosterone, FSH, LH), FISH analysis with SRY probing, genitogram, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy and HCG stimulation test were performed. Frequencies and percentages applied on categorical data whereas mean, median, standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. Results: A total of 187 patients met the criteria of XY DSD. Age ranged from 1 month to 15 years, 55 (29.4%) presented in infancy, 104 (55.6%) between 1 and 10 years and 28 (15%) older than 10 years. Twenty five (13.4%) were raised as female and 162 as (86.6%) male. The main complaints were ambiguous genitalia, unilateral cryptorchidism, bilateral cryptorchidism, micropenis, delayed puberty, hypospadias, female like genitalia with gonads, inguinal mass. The karyotype was 46 XY in 183 (97.9%), 46 XX in 2 (1.1%), 47 XXY in 1 (0.5%), 45 X/46 XY in 1 (0.5%) patient. HCG stimulation test showed low testosterone response in 43 (23 %), high testosterone response in 62 (33.2%), partial testosterone response in 32 (17.1%) and normal testosterone response in 50 (26

  14. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  15. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  16. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D

    2010-01-07

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

  18. Metabolism in vitro 3H-testosterone in testis, epididymis and sex accessories of the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora-Dinkar, Renu; Dinakar, N.; Prasad, M.R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in the reproductive organs of intact, castrated and cyproterone acetate treated rhesus monkeys was studied in vitro. The main androgen metabolite in the epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and bulb-urethral glands of the intact monkeys was 5-α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Testosterone was not metabolized in slices of the testis, indicating very little 5-α-reductase activity in this organ. Bilateral castration caused a decrease in the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in all tissues studied. The decrease was greater in the caput than in the corpus and cauda epididymides. Treatment with cyproterone acetate did not affect the formation of DHT in the ductus deferens and accessory glands. Azoospermia, following administration of cyproterone acetate, had little effect on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in the corpus and cauda epididymides; however, in the caput region the extent of formation of DHT was markedly reduced. These results are discussed in relation to the influence of spermatozoa, testicular fluid and testicular and peripheral androgens on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in epididymis of the monkey. (author)

  19. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  20. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Omar A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM. Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. Conclusion The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  1. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2016 Print this issue Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  2. Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: overlapping HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Jorm, Anthony F; Samson, Luke; Joubert, Lynette; Singh, Shalini; Kermode, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex steroid levels in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; González, N

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; psex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (psex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Physical (Surgical) Castration as Treatment of Male Sex Offenders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvain, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014

  5. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  6. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  7. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  8. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  9. Correlates of unprotected sex with male clients among female sex workers in 13 Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-12-01

    This study examined correlates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex (UVA) with male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Baseline data were gathered from 1089 FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico enrolled in an evidence-based sexual risk reduction intervention. We used generalised estimating equations (GEE) to predict total UVA while controlling for the nested structure of the data. Total UVA with clients in the past month was examined in relation to selected sociodemographic, substance-use, and micro- and macro-environmental factors. A greater number of UVA acts was associated with three micro-level environmental factors (i.e. never getting condoms for free, unaffordability of condoms, greater number of clients per month), and three macro-level environmental factors (i.e. lower health and higher education indices, greater population size of city). These findings suggest the development of social and structural approaches to HIV prevention for FSWs in Mexico, including modification of venue-based policies that pressure FSWs to maximise client volume, changes to the work environment that promote availability and affordability of condoms, and improved population health. Moreover, our findings call for the development of context-specific HIV interventions that take into account variations in the sexual risk behaviours and HIV risk environments of FSWs throughout Mexico.

  10. Men's constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers.

  11. An Investigation of Sex-Related Slang Vocabulary and Sex-Role Orientation Among Male and Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna

    1974-01-01

    Undergraduate males, undergraduate females, and graduate student nurses (female) were asked to list all the slang expressions they knew for 17 sex-related stimulus words. Males listed a significantly larger total number of slang expressions than either female group. (Author)

  12. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  13. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  14. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  15. 'In different situations, in different ways': male sex work in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; King, Elizabeth J; Eritsyan, Ksenia U; Safiullina, Liliya; Rusakova, Maia M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of male sex work in St. Petersburg Russia with a focus on social vulnerabilities, HIV-risk perception and HIV-related behaviours. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals knowledgeable about male sex work through their profession and with male sex workers themselves. Male sex work involves a variety of exchanges, including expensive vacations, negotiated monetary amounts or simply access to food. Methods of finding clients included the Internet, social venues (e.g. gay clubs and bars) and public places (e.g. parks). Use of the Internet greatly facilitated male sex work in a variety of ways. It was used by both individuals and agencies to find clients, and appeared to be increasing. Men often reported not being professionally connected to other male sex workers and limited disclosure about their work. Many were aware of the work-related risks to personal safety, including violence and robbery by clients. Perceived risk for HIV was mostly abstract and several exceptions to condom use with clients were noted. Alcohol use was reported as moderate but alcohol was consumed frequently in association with work. These data suggest that the most salient risks for male sex workers include professional isolation, threats to personal safety, limited perceived HIV risk and sub-optimal levels of condom use.

  16. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members.

  17. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  18. Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers. PMID:24924872

  19. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  20. Wage differentials of males and females in same-sex and different-sex couples in Canada, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes five cycles of the General Social Survey in consecutive years from 2006 through 2010 to address the issue of differential wages amongst members of same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. We find that men in gay couples have wages that are statistically indistinguishable from those of males in heterosexual relationships. By contrast, a sizeable and statistically significant earnings premium exists for lesbians in same-sex couples.

  1. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Inconstant males' and the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Bodil; Bataillon, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    . Depending on the genetics of sex determination, we found pure dioecy, stable subdioecy (trioecy), and situations where inconstant males coexisted with either pure females or pure males. Under selfing and pollen limitation, certain conditions selected for inconstant males which will drive populations......Here, we evaluate the role of pollen limitation and selfing in the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plant species. We used a literature survey to explore which factors correlated with a significant occurrence of hermaphrodites in dioecious species. We developed models to explore...... the selective maintenance of labile sex expression. The models had similar ecological assumptions but differed in the genetic basis of sex lability. We found that a significant frequency of hermaphrodites was associated with animal pollination, and that hermaphrodites were ‘inconstant' males with perfect...

  3. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ... dar et al. 1978). Chromosome preparated from a single pair of salivary glands show extremely puffy and diffuse ..... Akhtar A. 2003 Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of.

  4. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  5. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.

  6. XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalem, Sharon; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Stavropolous, Dmitri J; Wherrett, Diane; Bägli, Darius J; Thomas, Paul; Chitayat, David

    2012-07-01

    Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome-linked gene SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss-of-function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have shown that ectopic expression of Sox3 in the bipotential gonad results in upregulation of Sox9, resulting in testicular induction and XX male sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which these rearrangements cause sex reversal and the frequency with which they are associated with disorders of sex development remains unclear. Rearrangements of the SOX3 locus were identified recently in three cases of human XX male sex reversal. We report on a case of XX male sex reversal associated with a novel de novo duplication of the SOX3 gene. These data provide additional evidence that SOX3 gain-of-function in the XX bipotential gonad causes XX male sex reversal and further support the hypothesis that SOX3 is the evolutionary antecedent of SRY. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome-linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad.

  8. Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome–linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box–containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad. PMID:21183788

  9. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  10. Australian men's sexual practices in saunas, sex clubs and other male sex on premises venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.

  11. 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites in male sex organs of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, G.; Bartke, A.; Bidmon, H.J.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Using autoradiography, binding sites for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 are found in certain genital organs of male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), in particular in basal epithelial cells and fibroblasts of the lamina propria of prostate glands. Scattered labeled cells are also present in the epithelium of coagulation and urethral glands. In contrast to the findings in mice, under the conditions of the experiment, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 binding sites are not recognizable in other accessory sex glands and gonads. The frequency of basal epithelial cells with [3H]1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 nuclear binding is higher in regressed dorsal prostate glands of animals living in short photoperiods. The data suggest that 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 may promote proliferation and differentiation in basal epithelial cells, modulated by the seasonal and functional status of the animal

  12. Exploring the population implications of male preference when the sex probabilities at birth can be altered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank T Denton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the population effects of male preference stopping rules and of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased birth sex ratios. Methods: The 'laboratory' is a closed, stable population with five age groups and a dynamic process represented by a compact Leslie matrix. The new element is sex-selective abortion. We consider nine stopping rules, one with no male preference, two with male preference but no abortion, and six with male preference and the availability of abortion to achieve a desired number of male births. We calculate the probability distribution over the number of births and number of male births for each rule and work out the effects at the population level if the rule is adopted by all women bearing children. We then assess the impact of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased sex ratios on the population. Results: In the absence of sex-selective abortion, stopping rules generally have no effect on the male/female birth proportions in the population, although they can alter the fertility rate, age distribution, and rate of growth. When sex-selective abortion is introduced the effect on male/female proportions may be considerable, and other effects may also be quite different. The contribution of this paper is the quantification of effects that might have been predictable in general but which require model-based calculations to see how large they can be. As the paper shows, they can in fact be very large: a population in which sex-selective abortion is widely practised can look quite different from what it would otherwise be.

  13. Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J M

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.

  14. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: results from an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered.

  16. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  18. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outsi...

  20. Aetiological diagnosis of male sex ambiguity: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Yves; Rey, Rodolfo; Teinturier, Cécile; Nicolino, Marc; Michel-Calemard, Laurence; Mowszowicz, Irène; Jaubert, Francis; Fellous, Marc; Chaussain, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Pierre; David, Michel; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; Forest, Maguelone G; Josso, Nathalie

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study, supported by the Biomed2 Programme of the European Community, was initiated to optimise the aetiological diagnosis in genetic or gonadal males with intersex disorders, a total of 67 patients with external sexual ambiguity, testicular tissue and/or a XY karyotype. In patients with gonadal dysgenesis or true hermaphroditism, the incidence of vaginal development was 100%, a uterus was present in 60%; uni or bilateral cryptorchidism was seen in nearly all cases of testicular dysgenesis (99%) but in only 57% of true hermaphrodites. Mean serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone and of serum testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin stimulation were significantly decreased in both conditions, by comparison with patients with unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism or partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS). Mutations in the androgen receptor, 90% within exons 2-8, were detected in patients with PAIS. Clinically, a vaginal pouch was present in 90%, cryptorchidism in 36%. In 52% of cases, no diagnosis could be reached, despite an exhaustive clinical and laboratory work-up, including routine sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor. By comparison with PAIS, unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism was characterised by a lower incidence of vaginal pouch (55%) and cryptorchidism (22%) but a high incidence of prematurity/intrauterine growth retardation (30%) or mild malformations (14%). reaching an aetiological diagnosis in cases of male intersex is difficult because of the variability of individual cases. Hormonal tests may help to discriminate between partial androgen insensitivity and gonadal dysgenesis/true hermaphroditism but are of less use for differentiating from unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism. Sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor after study of testosterone precursors following human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation is recommended when gonadal dysgenesis and true hermaphroditism can be excluded.

  1. The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the Policing of Masculinities in a Single Sex School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Frank, Blye

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into male teachers in one single sex high school in the Australian context to highlight how issues of masculinity impact on their pedagogical practices and relationships with boys. The study is situated within the broader international field of research on male teachers, masculinities and schooling in Australia, the UK…

  2. Change in sex pheromone expression by nutritional shift in male cockroaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Shearman, Melanie; Rapkin, James

    2017-01-01

    affected by dietary nutrient composition with higher values on carbohydrate-biased diet, and males had significantly higher and lower levels of consumption, lipid reserves, and sex pheromones when shifted to a carbohydrate-biased and a protein-biased diet, respectively, compared with males maintained...

  3. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, HP; VanDamme, JMM

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  4. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  5. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Controversies of Sex Re-assignment in Genetic Males with Congenital Inadequacy of the Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

    2017-09-01

    Sex assignment in 46XY genetic male children with congenital inadequacy of the penis (CIP) is controversial. Traditionally, children with penile length less than 2 cm at birth are considered unsuitable to be raised as males. They are typically re-assigned to female-sex and feminizing genitoplasty is usually done in infancy. However, the concept of cerebral androgen imprinting has caused paradigm shift in the philosophy of sex re-assignment. Masculinization of the brain, rather than length of the penis, is the modern criterion of sex re-assignment in CIP. This review summarizes the current understanding of the complex issue. In 46XY children with CIP, male-sex assignment appears appropriate in non-hormonal conditions such as idiopathic micropenis, aphallia and exstrophy. Female-sex re-assignment appears acceptable in complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS), while partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) patients are highly dissatisfied with the assignment of either sex. Children with 5-alpha reductase deficiency are likely to have spontaneous penile lengthening at puberty. Hence, they are better raised as males. Although female assignment is common in pure gonadal dysgenesis, long-term results are not known to justify the decision.

  7. The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Nieberding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant

  8. Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Aline Dayrell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the profile of male injecting drug users who have sex with other men (MSM IDUs recruited through a cross-sectional multi-city survey (AjUDE-Brasil II Project in six Brazilian cities, in 2000-2001. MSM IDUs were compared to other male IDUs using bivariate and multivariate procedures (logistic regression and answer tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm. Among the 709 male IDUs, 187 (26.4% reported ever having had sex with other men, while only 37 reported sex with other men in the previous six months. MSM IDUs were more likely to be unemployed (OR = 2.3, to have injected tranquilizers (OR = 3.6, and to be HIV-seropositive (OR = 2.1, compared to other male IDUs. Male same-sex relations in this subgroup appear to be associated with strategies to finance drug consuming habits, including sex for drugs with occasional female partners or obtaining injection paraphernalia from occasional sex partners. Further studies should focus on this especially vulnerable subgroup of IDUs, due to the bidirectional and complex interrelationships between their drug injecting habits and sexual risk behaviors.

  9. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  10. Nice guys finish last: same-sex sexual behavior and pairing success in male budgerigars

    OpenAIRE

    Puya Abbassi; Nancy Tyler Burley

    2012-01-01

    In budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social parrot in which females are socially dominant, males of all ages engage in a set of behaviors with other males that closely resembles the repertoire used in heterosexual courtship. One adaptive hypothesis for this tendency, the "courtship practice hypothesis," posits that males with greater experience in same-sex activities develop superior skills that increase their courtship success with females. To test this hypothesis, we measured individ...

  11. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions. Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions. Study Design - Community based cross sectional study. Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi. Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife. Sample size - 417 couples of the area. Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptions. Outcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night. Statistical analysis - By chi - square test. Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%. Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions. Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  13. Perceptions About Sex Related Myths And Misconceptions: Difference In Male And Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Raizada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions.Objectives: To identify the difference in percep­tions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions.Study Design - Community based cross sectional study.Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was un­dertaken in an urban area of Jhansi.Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife.Sample size - 417 couples of the area.Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptionsOutcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night.Statistical analysis - By chi - square test.Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%.Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions.Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.

  14. Sex-role identification of normal adolescent males and females as related to school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, R A; Curry, J F

    1983-12-01

    The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.

  15. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Nielsen, F. K.; Pedersen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The....... Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels.......Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS....... The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid...

  16. Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Darragh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene. First, we identify putative androconia that are specialized brush-like scales that lie within the shiny grey region of the male hindwing. We then describe putative male sex pheromone compounds, which are largely confined to the androconial region of the hindwing of mature males, but are absent in immature males and females. Finally, behavioural choice experiments reveal that females of H. melpomene, H. erato and H. timareta strongly discriminate against conspecific males which have their androconial region experimentally blocked. As well as demonstrating the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconius butterflies, the results describe structures involved in release of the pheromone and a list of potential male sex pheromone compounds.

  17. The weaker sex? The propensity for male-biased piglet mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Baxter

    Full Text Available For the most part solutions to farm animal welfare issues, such as piglet mortality, are likely to lie within the scientific disciplines of environmental design and genetic selection, however understanding the ecological basis of some of the complex dynamics observed between parent and offspring could make a valuable contribution. One interesting, and often discussed, aspect of mortality is the propensity for it to be sex-biased. This study investigated whether known physiological and behavioural indicators of piglet survival differed between the sexes and whether life history strategies (often reported in wild or feral populations relating to parental investment were being displayed in a domestic population of pigs. Sex ratio (proportion of males (males/males+females at birth was 0.54 and sex allocation (maternal investment measured as piglet birth weight/litter weight was statistically significantly male-biased at 0.55 (t(35 = 2.51 P = 0.017, suggesting that sows invested more in sons than daughters during gestation. Despite this investment in birth weight, a known survival indicator, total pre-weaning male mortality was statistically significantly higher than female mortality (12% vs. 7% respectively z = 2.06 P = 0.040. Males tended to suffer from crushing by the sow more than females and statistically significantly more males died from disease-related causes. Although males were born on average heavier, with higher body mass index and ponderal index, these differences were not sustained. In addition male piglets showed impaired thermoregulation compared to females. These results suggest male-biased mortality exists despite greater initial maternal investment, and therefore reflects the greater susceptibility of this sex to causal mortality factors. Life history strategies are being displayed by a domestic population of pigs with sows in this study displaying a form of parental optimism by allocating greater resources at birth

  18. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

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    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  19. Torque teno virus infection in male commercial sex workers in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Luvi, Sabrina Damara; Hartono, Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    The molecular epidemiology data of torque teno virus (TTV) in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of TTV in male commercial sex workers, as one of the high risk community for blood borne viruses pathogens in Surakarta, Indonesia. All blood samples collected from male commercial sex workers in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified PCR products were molecularly cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. TTV DNA was detected in 80.9% (72/89) samples. Furthermore, the molecular characterization revealed that the most prevalent was genogroup 3, followed by genogroup 2 and l, respectively. TTV was detected in male commercial sex workers in Surakarta with high infection rate. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Indonesian population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities.

  20. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  1. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  2. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2015-01-01

    for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary...

  3. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-07-29

    Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outside this context. This clinic-based observational study included consultations by male sex workers (n = 212), female sex workers (n = 801) and in men having sex with men who did not report being paid for sexual contacts (MSM, n = 2703) who received STI and HIV testing and counselling at our clinic during the study period. In this study we compare the consultations in male sex workers to those in in female sex workers and MSM. Demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour of the male sex workers, female sex workers and MSM were compared using chi-square tests and non-parametric tests. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses, determinants for STI positivity in male sex workers were evaluated. Male sex workers tested positive for STI (including HIV) in 40 % of the consultations; female sex workers and MSM respectively in 9 and 14 % of the consultations. A new HIV infection was found in 8 % of the consultations of male sex workers. Male sex workers were a young population of migrant sex workers from Eastern Europe. They reported more often to also have sex contacts with women and other sex workers. Male sex workers are at a higher risk for one or more new STI than female sex workers and other MSM, even after correction for age, ethnicity, known HIV positivity and behavioural variables. Male sex workers form a hidden key population that impacts the transmission of STI and HIV within the MSM population and, possibly, to the heterosexual population. They require specific targeted

  4. Synergistic Disruption of External Male Sex Organ Development by a Mixture of Four Antiandrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken

    2009-01-01

    : Strikingly, the effect of combined exposure to the selected chemicals on malformations of external sex organs was synergistic, and the observed responses were greater than would be predicted from the toxicities of the individual chemicals. In relation to other hallmarks of disrupted male sexual development......, and a pharmaceutical, finasteride, on landmarks of male sexual development in the rat, including changes in anogenital distance, retained nipples, sex organ weights and malformations of genitalia. These chemicals were chosen because they disrupt androgen action according to differing mechanisms of action. Results...... in male offspring. Conclusions: Since unhindered androgen action is essential for human male development in foetal life, these findings are highly relevant to human risk assessment. Evaluations that ignore the possibility of combination effects may lead to considerable underestimations of risks associated...

  5. A novel male-associated marker for sex identification in Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Ding, Huaiyu

    2017-08-01

    The Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis is a promising aquaculture fish with sexual dimorphism that males grow 2-3 times faster than females. Therefore, all-male breeding could increase production of this fish, and sex-linked markers would be useful during the breeding process. In this study, a male-associated marker named PuGT54 was isolated in P. ussuriensis from a previously constructed microsatellite library. A total of 185 P. ussuriensis individuals containing 95 females and 90 males were used to test the usage of this maker. And results showed that sexes of all individuals were successfully identified, indicating the high reliability and accuracy of this marker for sex identification. Furthermore, the male-specific fragment amplified by this maker was cloned and sequenced, which was 118 base pairs in length. As homologous genes of this fragment was not found through BLASTn, detailed information of the male-specific fragment is unknown presently. Nevertheless, this marker would be helpful in conservation, breeding and ecological study of P. ussuriensis.

  6. Male Sex Workers: Practices, Contexts, and Vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M. Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E.; Chan, Roy; Caceres, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Male sex workers (MSW) who sell/exchange sex for money or goods comprise an extremely diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterizing their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is very limited, as these men are generally included as subsets of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. MSW, regardless of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men, and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. There is growing evidence of a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some MSW in the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. There are several synergistic facilitator spotentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among MSW, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. The criminalization and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all increase HIV and STI risk for MSW and decrease their likelihood of accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among MSW, define them as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. PMID:25059939

  7. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  8. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  9. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as

  11. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Middle Grade Female and Male Students' Single-Sex Mathematical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design, this study examines the lived experiences of seven middle grade students, four females and three males, enrolled in a single-sex mathematics classroom within a coeducational school setting. The intent of the study is to understand, from students themselves, about the experience of single-sex…

  13. Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this analysis explores social and behavioural determinants of sexual risks among men who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Analysis showed a range and variation of men by age and social class. First male same-sex experiences occurred for diverse reasons, including love and pleasure, as part of sexual exploration, economic exchange and coercion. Condom use is erratic and subject to common constraints, including notions of sexual interference and motivations of clients. Low knowledge compounds sexual risk taking, with a widespread belief that the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex is lower than vaginal sex. Traditional family values, stereotypes of abnormality, gender norms and cultural and religious influences underlie intense stigma and discrimination. This information is guiding development of peer education programmes and sensitisation of health providers, addressing unmet HIV prevention needs. Such changes are required throughout Eastern Africa.

  14. Influence of electromagnetic pulse on the offspring sex ratio of male BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yan, Jia-Jia; Guo, Qi-Yan; Miao, Xia; Lang, Hai-Yang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Liu, Jun-Ye; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Public concern is growing about the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and its effect on male reproductive health. Detrimental effect of EMF exposure on sex hormones, reproductive performance and sex-ratio was reported. The present study was designed to clarify whether paternal exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) affects offspring sex ratio in mice. 50 male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were exposed to EMP daily for 2 weeks before mated with non-exposed females at 0d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after exposure. Sex hormones including total testosterone, LH, FSH, and GnRH were detected using radioimmunoassay. The sex ratio was examined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of D0, D21 and D28 showed significant increases compared with sham-exposed groups. The serum testosterone increased significantly in D0, D14, D21, and D28 compared with sham-exposed groups (p<0.05). Overall, this study suggested that EMP exposure may lead to the disturbance of reproductive hormone levels and affect the offspring sex ratio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. When Sex Work Becomes Your Everything: The Complex Linkages Between Economy and Affection Among Male Sex Workers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs), and existing studies explore limited subgroups or offer limited information about MSWs' perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives, and HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs' perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities, and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health, and well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  17. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  18. Postzygotic incompatibilities between the pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus: hybrid male sterility and sex ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech, C

    2006-11-01

    I examined the intrinsic postzygotic incompatibilities between two pupfishes, Cyprinodon elegans and Cyprinodon variegatus. Laboratory hybridization experiments revealed evidence of strong postzygotic isolation. Male hybrids have very low fertility, and the survival of backcrosses into C. elegans was substantially reduced. In addition, several crosses produced female-biased sex ratios. Crosses involving C. elegans females and C. variegatus males produced only females, and in backcrosses involving hybrid females and C. elegans males, males made up approximately 25% of the offspring. All other crosses produced approximately 50% males. These sex ratios could be explained by genetic incompatibilities that occur, at least in part, on sex chromosomes. Thus, these results provide strong albeit indirect evidence that pupfish have XY chromosomal sex determination. The results of this study provide insight on the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms, particularly the role of Haldane's rule and the 'faster-male' theory in taxa lacking well-differentiated sex chromosomes.

  19. Accessory tragi in three successive generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vora N

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man presented with clinical and histopathological features of accessory tragi. His father and 3 sons and 1 daughter had similar lesions. In view of this vertical transmission through 3 successive generations involving both the sexes, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is suggested.

  20. Stigma in Male Depression and Suicide: A Canadian Sex Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Gordon, Susan J; Creighton, Genevieve; Kelly, Mary T; Black, Nick; Mackenzie, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Stigma in men's depression and suicide can restrict help-seeking, reduce treatment compliance and deter individuals from confiding in friends and family. In this article we report sex comparison findings from a national survey of English-speaking adult Canadians about stigmatized beliefs concerning male depression and suicide. Among respondents without direct experience of depression or suicide (n = 541) more than a third endorsed the view that men with depression are unpredictable. Overall, a greater proportion of males endorsed stigmatizing views about male depression compared to female respondents. A greater proportion of female respondents endorsed items indicating that men who suicide are disconnected, lost and lonely. Male and female respondents with direct personal experience of depression or suicide (n = 360) strongly endorsed stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and a greater proportion of male respondents indicated that they would be embarrassed about seeking help for depression.

  1. Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Christine; Monto, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Recent research has provided increased information about the clients of sex workers; however, little is known about the population of older male customers who contract for heterosexual services online. Clients (N = 208) between 60 and 84 years of age were obtained through sex work review sites and online discussion forums. Participants completed a 129-item questionnaire focusing on physical health, sexual and non-sexual behaviors with sex providers, and the qualities sought in the same. More than half reported having visited sex providers between 13 and 24 times or more during the past 12 months. Participants' advancing age was positively associated with frequency of paid sex. Most frequent sexual activities with providers were fellatio without a condom, followed by penile-vaginal sex with a condom. Analyses also examine the relationship between aging and buying sex. Those with higher incomes and without spouses or partners were more likely to report non-sexual activities with providers, and many participants sought a "GFE" or girlfriend experience, in which paid sexual exchanges are part of a relationship that mirrors conventional non-remunerative relationships.

  2. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  3. A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF SEX DETERMINATION IN VERTEBRATES - BIG FEMALES ZW, BIG MALES XY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; DELOOZE, EMA

    1993-01-01

    Why are there two chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates; ZW/ZZ, meaning female heterogamety, and XX/XY, meaning male heterogamety? We propose an evolutionary explanation. Transition from environmental sex determination to genetic sex determination can result when an allele that

  4. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  5. Behavioral tactics of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) under varying operating sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Adkison, Milo D.; Ward, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated several reproductive-behavior patterns in male salmon, including competitive and sneaking tactics, the formation of hierarchies, and non-hierarchical aggregations around ripe females. Through behavioral observations at varying spatial and temporal scales, we examined the hypothesis that operational sex ratio (OSR) determines male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) distribution and breeding tactics. Patterns of male distribution and behavior varied over both coarse and fine scales, associated with apparent shifts in reproductive opportunities, the physical characteristics of the breeding sites, and the deterioration of the fish as they approached death. Females spawned completely within a few days of arriving on the spawning grounds, whereas males courted the available ripe females from the date of their arrival on the spawning ground until their death. This difference in reproductive lifespans tended to elevate late-season OSRs but was partially counterbalanced by male departures and the arrival of other ripe females. The proportion of males able to dominate access to ripe females decreased and the number of large courting groups increased over the course of the season, apparently related to both increasing OSR and the deteriorating physical condition of males. However, great variation in OSR was observed within the spawning sites on a given day. OSRs were generally higher in shallow than in deep water, perhaps because larger females or more desirable breeding sites were concentrated in shallow water. The aggregations of males courting females were not stable (i.e. many arrivals and departures took place) and male aggression varied with group size. Aggression was most frequent at low OSRs and in groups of intermediate size (2–4 males per female), and much less frequent in larger groups, consistent with the needs of maximizing reproductive opportunities while minimizing unproductive energy expenditure. These results indicate

  6. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  7. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  8. Performance, power and condom use: reconceptualised masculinities amongst Western male sex tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Each year large numbers of Western men travel to Thailand for sex tourism. Although many will use condoms during their sexual encounters, others will not, potentially exposing themselves to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Although sex tourism in Thailand has been well documented, the social drivers underpinning voluntary sexual risk-taking through the avoidance of condoms remain poorly understood. Engaging with R.W. Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and drawing on data collected from 1237 online discussion board posts and 14 face-to-face interviews, this study considers the ways in which understandings and performances of masculinities may inform the sexual risk-taking behaviours of Western male sex tourists. It argues that for some of these men, unprotected sex is viewed not as a reckless behaviour but, instead, as a safe and appropriate masculine practice, supported by relationships that are often framed as romantic and within a setting where HIV is still largely considered a homosexual disease. With sex workers often disempowered to request safer sexual practices, and some men's attitudes towards unprotected sex resistant to external health promotion advice, the paper concludes by considering what this might mean for policy and practice.

  9. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  10. The association between male-biased sex ratio and indicators of stress in red-spotted newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspbury, Andrea S; Grayson, Kristine L; Fantaye, Selamawit; Nichols, Ian; Myers-Burton, Miranda; Ortiz-Mangual, Xavier; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2017-05-01

    In populations with a male-biased operational sex ratio, coercive mating by males can have fitness consequences for females. One component of reduced fitness for females in populations with a male-biased OSR may be greater activation of the stress response, resulting in higher corticosterone release rates (CORT; a glucocorticoid stress hormone in amphibians). We test the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio affects female activity and release rates of CORT and testosterone (T) in male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). First, we evaluated if chemical cues from a male-biased sex ratio affect activity and CORT release rates in females. We predicted that females exposed to chemical cues of three males would be less active and have higher CORT release rates than those exposed to chemical cues of one male. Second, we measured CORT release rates of red-spotted newts in field enclosures with either a male-biased or a female-biased sex ratio. We predicted that females in the male-biased treatment would have higher CORT and T release rates than those in a female-biased treatment, owing to higher levels of male harassment. We also predicted that males would have higher CORT and T release rates in male-biased treatments due to higher levels of male-male competition. Females were not less active in response to chemical cues from more males over fewer males, but there was a positive relationship between female activity and CORT when they were exposed to the cues of three males. We also found that females, but not males, in the male-biased sex ratio treatment had higher CORT and T release rates than those in the female-biased treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio leads to a higher stress response, which may underlie the observed decrease in immune function and body condition in previous work exposing female red-spotted newts to a male-biased sex ratio. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanistic basis

  11. MR imaging of accessory muscles of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo; Nazar, Miguel E.; Martin, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe the normal anatomy and the characteristics in MRI of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle: the accessory soleus, accessory flexor digitorum longus, peroneus quartus, tibiocalcaneus internus and peroneocalcaneus internus. Material and methods: There were evaluated 280 symptomatic patients between 18 and 40 years old (85 % males). MR was performed in High Field Magnetic Resonance Units (1.5 T y 1.0 T) and multiplanar sequences. Results: We found 2 peroneus quartus (0.7%), 2 accessory soleus muscles (0.7%), 3 accessory flexor digitorum longus (1.07%) and 1 peroneocalcaneus internus (0.35%). Conclusion: The knowledge of the accessory muscles of the posterior ankle allow to explain different painful pathologies with instability or tendinous tears, which are difficult to diagnose if the muscle are not adequately recognized. (author)

  12. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  13. Using lod scores to detect sex differences in male-female recombination fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    2004-01-01

    Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One way to detect these differences is to use lod scores. In this study we focused on detecting RF sex differences and answered the following questions, in both phase-known and phase-unknown matings: (1) How large a sample size is needed to detect a RF sex difference? (2) What are "optimal" proportions of paternally vs. maternally informative matings? (3) Does ascertaining nonoptimal proportions of paternally or maternally informative matings lead to ascertainment bias? Our results were as follows: (1) We calculated expected lod scores (ELODs) under two different conditions: "unconstrained," allowing sex-specific RF parameters (theta(female), theta(male)); and "constrained," requiring theta(female) = theta(male). We then examined the DeltaELOD (identical with difference between maximized constrained and unconstrained ELODs) and calculated minimum sample sizes required to achieve statistically significant DeltaELODs. For large RF sex differences, samples as small as 10 to 20 fully informative matings can achieve statistical significance. We give general sample size guidelines for detecting RF differences in informative phase-known and phase-unknown matings. (2) We defined p as the proportion of paternally informative matings in the dataset; and the optimal proportion p(circ) as that value of p that maximizes DeltaELOD. We determined that, surprisingly, p(circ) does not necessarily equal (1/2), although it does fall between approximately 0.4 and 0.6 in most situations. (3) We showed that if p in a sample deviates from its optimal value, no bias is introduced (asymptotically) to the maximum

  14. Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: self and spouse ratings on the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P

    1984-02-01

    The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.

  15. Females scan more than males: a potential mechanism for sex differences in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Pottruff, Molly M; Shore, David I

    2013-07-01

    Recognition-memory tests reveal individual differences in episodic memory; however, by themselves, these tests provide little information regarding the stage (or stages) in memory processing at which differences are manifested. We used eye-tracking technology, together with a recognition paradigm, to achieve a more detailed analysis of visual processing during encoding and retrieval. Although this approach may be useful for assessing differences in memory across many different populations, we focused on sex differences in face memory. Females outperformed males on recognition-memory tests, and this advantage was directly related to females' scanning behavior at encoding. Moreover, additional exposures to the faces reduced sex differences in face recognition, which suggests that males may be able to improve their recognition memory by extracting more information at encoding through increased scanning. A strategy of increased scanning at encoding may prove to be a simple way to enhance memory performance in other populations with memory impairment.

  16. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  17. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Tan, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  18. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abughadeer, A.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  19. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Bingham, Nathan; Sekido, Ryohei; Parker, Keith L.; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Capel, Blanche

    2007-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. Among the four FGF receptors, FGFR2 showed two highly specific patterns based on antibody staining, suggesting that it might be the receptor-mediating FGF9 signaling in the gonad. FGFR2 was detected at the plasma membrane in proliferating coelomic epithelial cells and in the nucleus in Sertoli progenitor cells. This expression pattern suggested that Fgfr2 might play more than one role in testis development. To test the hypothesis that Fgfr2 is required for male sex determination, we crossed mice carrying a floxed allele of Fgfr2 with two different Cre lines to induce a temporal or cell-specific deletion of this receptor. Results show that deletion of Fgfr2 in embryonic gonads phenocopies deletion of Fgf9 and leads to male-to-female sex reversal. Using these two Cre lines, we provide the first genetic evidence that Fgfr2 plays distinct roles in proliferation and Sertoli cell differentiation during testis development. PMID:17940049

  1. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  2. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  3. Male Prison Inmates With Gender Dysphoria: When Is Sex Reassignment Surgery Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.

  4. Negotiating the Edge: The Rationalization of Sexual Risk Taking Among Western Male Sex Tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2017-09-08

    Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.

  5. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  6. Male sex workers: Are we ignoring a risk group in Mumbai, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male sex workers (MSWs have recently been recognized as an important risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Although there are global studies on MSWs, few such studies describe the behavioral patterns and STIs among this population in India. Methods: MSWs were evaluated at the Humsafar trust, a community based organization situated in suburban Mumbai, India. We report on the demographics, sexual behaviors, and STIs including HIV of these sex workers. Results: Of the 75 MSWs, 24 were men and 51 were transgenders. The mean age of the group was 23.3 (+ 4.9 years. About 15% were married or lived with a permanent partner. Of these individuals, 85% reported sex work as a main source of income and 15% as an additional source. All the individuals reported anal sex (87% anal receptive sex and 13% anal insertive sex. About 13% of MSWs had never used a condom. The HIV prevalence was 33% (17% in men vs 41% in transgenders, P = 0.04. The STI prevalence was 60% (58% in men vs 61% in transgenders, P = 0.8. Syphilis was the most common STI (28% in these MSWs. HIV was associated with being a transgender (41 vs 17%, P = 0.04, age > 26 years (57 vs 28%, P = 0.04, more than one year of sex work (38 vs 8%, P = 0.05, and income < Rs. 2000 per month (62 vs 27%, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and STI/HIV prevention and care.

  7. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inf...

  8. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  9. 46, XX male: a case study of clinical, hormonal and molecular cytogenetic evaluation of sex development disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahid, S.M.; Azhar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) create medical and social dilemma. Maleness with XX genotype is a rare genetic condition affecting one in 24,000 new-born males. The XX male syndrome is a varied condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentation. ranging from normal male genitalia to ambiguous sex. Chromosomal anomalies are important cause of lack of development in secondary sexual characteristics, delayed puberty, miscarriage, infertility and other associated problems. An individual having ambiguous sex may have lifelong impact on social, psychological and sexual functions. The present case study describes the hormonal, clinical and molecular cytogenetics data of sex development disorders in a patient who was phenotypically male but cytogenetic analysis revealed 46.XX. (author)

  10. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  11. Top, Bottom, and Versatile Anal Sex Roles in Same-Sex Male Relationships: Implications for Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P

    2018-06-01

    Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.

  12. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  13. Social factors and aromatase gene expression during adult male-to-female sex change in captive leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Mendoza, Daniel; Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Vázquez-Islas, Grecia; Burgos-Aceves, Mario A; Esquivel-Gutiérrez, Edgar R; Guerrero-Tortolero, Danitzia A

    2018-01-25

    Social factors and aromatase gene expression in the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea was studied when captive fish were separated by sex during the reproductive (April-June) and post-reproductive (July-September) seasons. Monosex females, monosex males, and mixed-sex, held in social sextet units were analyzed for sex steroids throughout confinement. At the end of the experiment, the gonad-sex was defined by histology, and gonad and brain aromatase gene expressions were quantified. Only males held in the monosex social units changed sex. Histology showed one male remained unchanged, six were found in a transitional sexual stage, in which two had intersex-predominantly-testes, and four had a more defined intersex ovo-testes pattern, and 11 were immature de novo females (neofemales). Neofemales and most intersex fish did not survive. In spring, 11-ketosterone showed a specific male profile, which suggests that male-to-female sex change was not triggered during the reproductive season. The low steroid levels in summer made it impossible to associate the sex change to a gonad hormonal shift; in September, gonad aromatase gene expression was not significantly different among groups. However, brain aromatase expression in intersex fish was significantly higher than monosex females, mixed-sex females, and neofemale groups. These results suggest that in the absence of female hormonal compounds, and at a time when male gonad steroidogenesis was diminished, the brain mediated male-to-male social-behavioral interactions, including stress, by increasing aromatization, resulting in derived intersex-male, which triggered more aromatization, followed by a sex change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  15. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  16. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  17. Molecular diagnostic testing for Klinefelter syndrome and other male sex chromosome aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Karl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sex chromosome aneuploidies are underdiagnosed despite concomitant physical and behavioral manifestations. Objective To develop a non-invasive, rapid and high-throughput molecular diagnostic assay for detection of male sex chromosome aneuploidies, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter, 47,XYY, 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY syndromes. Methods The assay utilizes three XYM and four XA markers to interrogate Y:X and X:autosome ratios, respectively. The seven markers were PCR amplified using genomic DNA isolated from a cohort of 323 males with aneuploid (n = 117 and 46,XY (n = 206 karyotypes. The resulting PCR products were subjected to Pyrosequencing, a quantitative DNA sequencing method. Results Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to establish thresholds for the discrimination of aneuploid from normal samples. The XYM markers permitted the identification of 47,XXY, 48,XXXY and 47,XYY syndromes with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both purified DNA and buccal swab samples. The 48,XXYY karyotype was delineated by XA marker data from 46,XY; an X allele threshold of 43% also permitted detection of 48,XXYY with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Analysis of X chromosome-specific biallelic SNPs demonstrated that 43 of 45 individuals (96% with 48,XXYY karyotype had two distinct X chromosomes, while 2 (4% had a duplicate X, providing evidence that 48,XXYY may result from nondisjunction during early mitotic divisions of a 46,XY embryo. Conclusions Quantitative Pyrosequencing, with high-throughput potential, can detect male sex chromosome aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity.

  18. The painful accessory navicular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  19. Painful accessory navicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  20. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  1. Heavy Alcohol Use Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Sex Workers in Thailand: A Neglected HIV/STI Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A

    2018-02-20

    There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.

  2. HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Leung, Phil W S; Li, C W

    2012-01-01

    Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers.

  3. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  4. Diversity of commercial sex among men and male-born trans people in three Peruvian cities.

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    Nureña, César R; Zúñiga, Mario; Zunt, Joseph; Mejía, Carolina; Montano, Silvia; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2011-11-01

    In Peru, commercial sex involving men and male-born travestis, transgenders and transsexuals (CSMT) is usually represented as a dangerous practice carried out on the streets by people experiencing economic hardship and social exclusion. However, in reality little is known about the complexities of this practice in Peru. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of the characteristics, patterns and sociocultural aspects of CSMT in three Peruvian cities. The study included participant observation in sex work venues and interviews with 42 sex workers and 25 key informants. We found that CSMT in Peru takes many forms (some not previously described in the country) and is practised in different places by people from various socioeconomic levels. In many cases, the practice appears linked to ideals of social mobility, migratory experiences and other economic activities. In addition, the increasing use of the Internet and mobile phones has changed patterns of sex work in Peru. We review the implications of these findings for future research and public health interventions.

  5. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

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    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  6. Preparation of slowly released male sex hormone drug by radiation polymerization technique and its evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rueizhi; Lei Shaoqiong; Li Ximing

    1992-01-01

    The radiation polymerization technique was used for immobilization testosterone propionate into crosslinked network of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate to prepare slowly released male sex hormone drug which is used for testicular prosthesis. The testicular prosthesis was transplanted into the scrotum of male rabbit whose testes was excised 2 months before the transplantation. Then the level of male sex hormone in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay once a week after transplantation. The results of measurement in a period of 6 months were shown that the testicular prosthesis has a stable release of male sex hormone. The testosterone level in serum of the castrated male rabbits rises markedly and finally stabilizes at the level of 429 ± 36 ng/100 ml after transplantation. Macroscopic examination of biopsies taken from the tissues around the testicular prosthesis showed that tissue compatibility was revealed well

  7. Burden of HIV and Syphilis: A Comparative Evaluation between Male Sex Workers and Non-Sex-Worker Men Who Have Sex with Men in Urban China.

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    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV and syphilis among male sex workers (MSWs is a major global concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference between MSWs and non-commercial MSMs in China.During 2008-09, in a cross-sectional study, 2618 adult MSM were recruited through respondent-driven and snowball sampling from seven cities of China. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, HIV-related knowledge and STI-related symptoms were collected and participants were tested for HIV and syphilis.Among 2618 participating MSM, 9.97% sold sex to males. HIV prevalence was 7.45% (6.13% among MSWs and 7.59% among non-MSW MSM and syphilis prevalence was 14.32% (10.73% for MSWs and 14.72% for non-MSW MSM. Compared to non-MSW MSM, MSWs were more likely to be younger (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 95%CI=0.88-0.93, never married (aOR = 4.38, 95% CI = 2.38-6.80, less educated, heterosexual (aOR = 13.04, 95% CI = 6.08-27.95, less knowledgeable regarding HIV (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96, experiencing symptoms of STI (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19, engaging in condomless vaginal intercourse (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19 and less likely to engage in condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.85.High HIV and syphilis prevalence warranted urgent intervention targeting MSWs as a separate sentinel group for efficient surveillance owing to their different distribution from non-MSW MSM. Although male sex workers and non-commercial homosexuals have similar rates of HIV and syphilis, MSWs have different characteristics which should be considered in designing intervention programs targeting them.

  8. Sex Differences in Spatial Memory in Brown-Headed Cowbirds: Males Outperform Females on a Touchscreen Task.

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    Mélanie F Guigueno

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in females and males can differ in species in which there are sex-specific patterns in the use of space. Brown-headed cowbirds are brood parasites that show a reversal of sex-typical space use often seen in mammals. Female cowbirds, search for, revisit and parasitize hosts nests, have a larger hippocampus than males and have better memory than males for a rewarded location in an open spatial environment. In the current study, we tested female and male cowbirds in breeding and non-breeding conditions on a touchscreen delayed-match-to-sample task using both spatial and colour stimuli. Our goal was to determine whether sex differences in spatial memory in cowbirds generalizes to all spatial tasks or is task-dependant. Both sexes performed better on the spatial than on the colour touchscreen task. On the spatial task, breeding males outperformed breeding females. On the colour task, females and males did not differ, but females performed better in breeding condition than in non-breeding condition. Although female cowbirds were observed to outperform males on a previous larger-scale spatial task, males performed better than females on a task testing spatial memory in the cowbirds' immediate visual field. Spatial abilities in cowbirds can favour males or females depending on the type of spatial task, as has been observed in mammals, including humans.

  9. Sex Differences in Spatial Memory in Brown-Headed Cowbirds: Males Outperform Females on a Touchscreen Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigueno, Mélanie F.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.; Sherry, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in females and males can differ in species in which there are sex-specific patterns in the use of space. Brown-headed cowbirds are brood parasites that show a reversal of sex-typical space use often seen in mammals. Female cowbirds, search for, revisit and parasitize hosts nests, have a larger hippocampus than males and have better memory than males for a rewarded location in an open spatial environment. In the current study, we tested female and male cowbirds in breeding and non-breeding conditions on a touchscreen delayed-match-to-sample task using both spatial and colour stimuli. Our goal was to determine whether sex differences in spatial memory in cowbirds generalizes to all spatial tasks or is task-dependant. Both sexes performed better on the spatial than on the colour touchscreen task. On the spatial task, breeding males outperformed breeding females. On the colour task, females and males did not differ, but females performed better in breeding condition than in non-breeding condition. Although female cowbirds were observed to outperform males on a previous larger-scale spatial task, males performed better than females on a task testing spatial memory in the cowbirds’ immediate visual field. Spatial abilities in cowbirds can favour males or females depending on the type of spatial task, as has been observed in mammals, including humans. PMID:26083573

  10. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

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    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  11. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in sterile hybrid male house mice.

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    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

  12. Interchromosomal insertional translocation at Xq26.3 alters SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Bryan; Hughes, James; Corbett, Mark; Shaw, Marie; Innes, Josie; Patel, Leena; Gecz, Jozef; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Thomas, Paul

    2015-05-01

    46,XX male sex reversal occurs in approximately 1: 20 000 live births and is most commonly caused by interchromosomal translocations of the Y-linked sex-determining gene, SRY. Rearrangements of the closely related SOX3 gene on the X chromosome are also associated with 46,XX male sex reversal. It has been hypothesized that sex reversal in the latter is caused by ectopic expression of SOX3 in the developing urogenital ridge where it triggers male development by acting as an analog of SRY. However, altered regulation of SOX3 in individuals with XX male sex reversal has not been demonstrated. Here we report a boy with SRY-negative XX male sex reversal who was diagnosed at birth with a small phallus, mixed gonads, and borderline-normal T. Molecular characterization of the affected individual was performed using array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes, whole-genome sequencing, and RT-PCR expression analysis of lymphoblast cell lines. The affected male carries ∼774-kb insertion translocation from chromosome 1 into a human-specific palindromic sequence 82 kb distal to SOX3. Importantly, robust SOX3 expression was identified in cells derived from the affected individual but not from control XX or XY cells, indicating that the translocation has a direct effect on SOX3 regulation. This is the first demonstration of altered SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal and suggests that SOX3 can substitute for SRY to initiate male development in humans.

  13. The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery

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    Vojkan Vukadinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.

  14. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  15. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueland, Svein; Groenlie Guren, Marianne; Rune Olsen, Dag; Poulsen, Jan Peter; Magne Tveit, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose:To determine the effect of curative radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) on the sex hormone levels in male rectal cancer patients. Materials and methods:Twenty-five male rectal cancer patients (mean age 65 years), receiving pelvic radiation therapy (2 Gyx23-25 fractions in 5 weeks) were included. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were determined before start of treatment, at the 10th and 25th fractions, and 4-6 weeks after completed radiotherapy. The testicular dose was determined by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results:Five weeks of radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) resulted in a 100% increase in serum FSH, a 70% increase in LH, and a 25% reduction in testosterone levels. After treatment, 35% of the patients had serum testosterone levels below lower limit of reference. The mean radiation dose to the testicles was 8.4 Gy. A reduction in testosterone values was observed already after a mean dose of 3.3 Gy (10th fraction). Conclusion:Radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) for rectal cancer resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH and LH and a significant decrease in testosterone levels, indicating that sex hormone production is sensitive to radiation exposure in patients with a mean age of 65 years

  16. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  17. Let’s Talk About Sex: Parental Communication and Sexual Behavior of Male Filipino Youth

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    Goldilyn D. Gumban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sexual behavior of young people is important in pursuing health development in our society. In the Philippines, current data shows that there is a drastic increase in sex related activities concerning our youths. According to past studies, strong familial relationship and parent-child connectedness decrease the likelihood of a child to engage in risky sex. Furthermore, families with strong communication and are open to sexual topics became closer, and more comfortable with each other. This quantitative, correlational study was designed to describe the level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and its relationship to the sexual behaviorsof male Filipino youths in Metro Manila. A total of 143 male respondents ages 18-25 from Metro Manila participated in the study through an online survey. Results suggest that that majority of the respondents reported low level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and a large number reported risky sexual behaviors. The results of this study suggested no significant relationship between the respondent‟s level of parental communication and their sexual behavior.

  18. Decreased serum levels of sex steroids associated with osteoporosis in a group of Romanian male patients

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    Popa Florina Ligia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With age, sex hormone deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD in men. The aim of our research is to analyze the role of serum sex steroids in assessing BMD in the men included in this study. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 146 men aged 65-85 years old with osteopenia or osteoporosis (study group and 121 men with normal BMD (control group. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt and free testosterone (Tf were measured by immunoassay, and estradiol (E2 levels were measured by the immunoenzymatic method. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Tf and E2 deficiency was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.007. No association was found between Tt deficiency and reduced BMD. Tf levels (p<0.001 and E2 levels (p=0.003 were significantly lower in patients with reduced BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Significant more cases with low levels of Tf (p=0.015 and E2 (p<0.001 were found in patients with osteoporosis compared to those with osteopenia. Conclusions. Sex hormones deficiency in men was significantly correlated with the decrease of BMD. Determination of serum Tf and E2 levels is important in assessing the risk of osteoporosis in male subjects.

  19. Factors associated with sex hormones and erectile dysfunction in male Taiwanese participants with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Der; Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hao, Lyh-Jyh; Chao, I-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been receiving an increasing amount of attention recently, but investigations regarding the potential impact of obesity, sexual behaviors, and sex hormones on erectile dysfunction (ED) in men have not completely clarified the association. To identify the relationship between ED, sexual behavior, sexual satisfaction, sex hormones, and obesity in older adult males in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 476 older adult males (≧40 years old). Their demographic data, body mass index (BMI), sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and ED status were assessed. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS) were used to assess ED, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. In all, 476 men were available for analysis. The mean age of the sample was 51.34 ± 7.84 years (range 40 to 70 years). The IIEF total score had a mean of 19.44 ± 4.98; 264 (55.5%) subjects had ED, 250 (52.9%) were currently obese (BMI ≧27), and 297 (62.4%) had metabolic syndrome. The results showed an increased risk of ED among obese men and subjects with lower levels of sex hormones and lower sexual desire. Testosterone levels were lower in subjects with obesity (P < 0.001). Among the predictors of ED, obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07-2.44, P = 0.021), abnormal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 10.59, 95% CI = 4.70-23.87, P < 0.001), and lower serum full testosterone (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 2.16-4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly independent factors. This study supports the idea of a close relationship between low levels of sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, obesity, and ED, and also shows that low free testosterone and hs-CRP may predict ED, even in obese populations. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. [Sexual behavior and sources of information about sex among male adolescents: An 8-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Cetin, Saniye; Bildik, Tezan; Erermiş, Serpil; Demiral, Nagehan; Ozbaran, Burcu; Tamar, Müge; Aydin, Cahide

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes over time in sexual attitude and behavior among adolescents, and to measure the effect of sources information about sex on these changes. This study was conducted in 2 stages, the first in 1996 and the second in 2004. In all, 392 male tenth grade students (150 in the first stage and 242 in the second stage) were evaluated. A personal information questionnaire developed by the authors was used to collect sociodemographic data, including sexual behavior, sexual attitude, and sources of information about sex. The findings show that there was a significant increase in intercourse and flirting behavior from 1996 to 2004, although no significant difference in masturbation was observed. Additionally, the number of male adolescents that reported family and pornographic films as their sources of information about sex increased 1.6-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively. A significant relationship between watching pornographic films and engaging in sexual intercourse was noted. The number of male adolescents age mean 16, engaging in sexual intercourse increased between 1996 and 2004. Pornographic films were observed to be the most common source of information about sex and also predicted the probability of adolescents having sex. Findings that indicate the need for better and more accurate sources of information about sex. The availability of good quality information about sex is critical to the development of the sexual identity and mental health of male adolescents.

  1. The Size Advantage Model of Sex Allocation in the Protandrous Sex-Changer Crepidula fornicata: Role of the Mating System, Sperm Storage, and Male Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique

    2015-09-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.

  2. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  4. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.

  5. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

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    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  6. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-06-01

    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  8. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

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    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  9. Condition dependence and the nature of genetic variation for male sex comb bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Abha; De Vito, Scott; Singh, Rama S

    2011-04-01

    Genetic architecture of variation underlying male sex comb bristle number, a rapidly evolving secondary sexual character of Drosophila, was examined. First, in order to test for condition dependence, diet was manipulated in a set of ten Drosophila melanogaster full-sib families. We confirmed heightened condition dependent expression of sex comb bristle number and its female homologue (distal transverse row bristles) as compared to non-sex sternopleural bristles. Significant genotype by environment effects were detected for the sex traits indicating a genetic basis for condition dependence. Next we measured sex comb bristle number and sternopleural bristle number, as well as residual mass, a commonly used condition index, in a set of thirty half-sib families. Sire effect was not significant for sex comb and sternopleural bristle number, and we detected a strong dominance and/or maternal effect or X chromosome effect for both traits. A strong sire effect was detected for condition and its heritability was the highest as compared to sex comb and sternopleural bristles. We discuss our results in light of the rapid response to divergent artificial selection for sex comb bristle number reported previously. The nature of genetic variation for male sex traits continues to be an important unresolved issue in evolutionary biology.

  10. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.

  11. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  12. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

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    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  14. Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals After Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Bizic, Marta R; Duisin, Dragana; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon

    2016-06-01

    Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) has proved an effective intervention for patients with gender identity disorder. However, misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision and request reversal surgery. This review is based on our experience with seven patients who regretted their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS. To analyze retrospectively seven patients who underwent reversal surgery after regretting their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS elsewhere. From November 2010 through November 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty. Preoperatively, they were examined by three independent psychiatrists. Surgery included three steps: removal of female genitalia with scrotoplasty and urethral lengthening, total phalloplasty with microvascular transfer of a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap, and neophallus urethroplasty with penile prosthesis implantation. Self-reported esthetic and psychosexual status after reversion surgery and International Index of Erectile Function scores for sexual health after phalloplasty and penile prosthesis implantation. Follow-up was 13 to 61 months (mean = 31 months). Good postoperative results were achieved in all patients. In four patients, all surgical steps were completed; two patients are currently waiting for penile implants; and one patient decided against the penile prosthesis. Complications were related to urethral lengthening: two fistulas and one stricture were observed. All complications were repaired by minor revision. According to patients' self-reports, all patients were pleased with the esthetic appearance of their genitalia and with their significantly improved psychological status. Reversal surgery in regretful male-to-female transsexuals after SRS represents a complex, multistage procedure with satisfactory outcomes. Further insight into the characteristics of persons who regret their decision postoperatively would facilitate better future

  15. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  16. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  17. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  18. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  19. Associations between maternal phenolic exposure and cord sex hormones in male newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhua; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Are maternal urinary phenol concentrations associated with cord steroid hormone levels and anogenital distance (AGD) in male newborns? High maternal urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) levels are associated with decreases in cord testosterone levels and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol in male newborns, but there was no significant association with AGD. Early life exposure to phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) is known to disrupt hormonal activities and affect reproductive development in males. However, studies on the health effects of prenatal human exposure are scarce. This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between maternal phenolic exposure and cord sex steroid hormones and AGD in male newborns. We recruited 100 mother-infant pairs from each of two hospitals, one in a polluted town (Guiyu) and the other in a cleaner town (Haojiang), from September 2010 to September 2011. One hundred and seventy eight maternal urine samples and 137 cord blood samples were available for quantification, thus 137 complete records entered into the final analysis. Of them, 77 pairs were from Guiyu, and 60 were from Haojiang. The chemical concentrations were determined by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS), and cord sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Neonatal anthropometric parameters including AGD were measured. Log2-transformed maternal urinary BPA concentration was negatively correlated with testosterone level and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol (T/E2) in male fetal cord blood after adjustment for potential confounders in linear regression models (βadjusted = -31.09 (95% CI, -53.07 to -9.11) and βadjusted = -0.08 (95% CI, -0.13 to -0.01), respectively). Moreover, compared with the lowest quartile group of BPA level, the highest group showed a significant decrease in testosterone level and T/E2 (βadjusted = -179.84 (95% CI, -333.45 to -26.24) and βadjusted = -0.37 (95% CI, -0.81 to

  20. The Black Male Urban Barbershop as a Sex-Role Socialization Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clyde W., II

    1985-01-01

    Participant observation found that the barbershop studies perpetuated sex-role stereotypes, encouraged sexist attitudes toward women and, in general, was a sex-role socialization setting that promoted sex-role inequality. (GC)

  1. Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction Following Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Lellé, Jean-Daniel; Zavlin, Dmitry; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard; Kovacs, Laszlo; Ehrenberger, Benjamin; Kluger, Anna-Katharina; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Schaff, Juergen

    2017-05-01

    Surveys on quality of life (QOL) of male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals have found low QOL scores before and increased satisfaction scores after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS). To our knowledge, many of them lack standardized questionnaires and comparisons with normative data to evaluate different vaginoplasty techniques. To analyze patient satisfaction and QOL after SRS. Forty-seven patients participated in this study. All patients had surgery with our self-developed combined technique on average 19 months before the survey. They completed a self-developed indication-specific questionnaire concerning demographic and socioeconomic issues and postoperative satisfaction. Furthermore, a standardized self-assessment questionnaire on satisfaction and QOL (Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit Module [FLZ M ]; Questions on Life Satisfaction Modules ) was used. The FLZ M consists of three modules (general life satisfaction, satisfaction with health, and satisfaction with body image) with scores of weighted satisfaction for each item. Results of the general and health modules were compared with normative data. Demographics, QOL, general life satisfaction, satisfaction with health, and satisfaction with body image. The self-developed indication-specific questionnaire showed that 91% experienced an improvement of QOL. All patients stated they would undergo SRS again and did not regret it at all. Patients stated their femininity significantly increased. For the FLZ M , the sum score for general life satisfaction (P patient satisfaction of this complex and non-standardized surgery. This is the first description of a new surgical technique (combined technique) for MTF SRS. QOL was assessed by a large number of patients by standardized questionnaires and could be compared with normative data. Because this is a retrospective study, we can draw only careful conclusions for pre- and postoperative changes. Our self-developed combined surgical technique seemed to have a positive influence on

  2. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  3. Nuclear organization in human sperm: preliminary evidence for altered sex chromosome centromere position in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, K A; Fonseka, K G L; Abogrein, A; Ioannou, D; Handyside, A H; Thornhill, A R; Hickson, N; Griffin, D K

    2008-06-01

    Many genetic defects with a chromosomal basis affect male reproduction via a range of different mechanisms. Chromosome position is a well-known marker of nuclear organization, and alterations in standard patterns can lead to disease phenotypes such as cancer, laminopathies and epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that normal mammalian sperm adopt a pattern with the centromeres aligning towards the nuclear centre. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that altered chromosome position in the sperm head is associated with male infertility. The average nuclear positions of fluorescence in-situ hybridization signals for three centromeric probes (for chromosomes X, Y and 18) were compared in normoozoospermic men and in men with compromised semen parameters. In controls, the centromeres of chromosomes X, Y and 18 all occupied a central nuclear location. In infertile men the sex chromosomes appeared more likely to be distributed in a pattern not distinguishable from a random model. Our findings cast doubt on the reliability of centromeric probes for aneuploidy screening. The analysis of chromosome position in sperm heads should be further investigated for the screening of infertile men.

  4. Morphology of the male agouti accessory genital glands (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 Morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias em cutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

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    Danilo J. Ayres de Menezes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the accessory genital glands of the male agouti was studied in twenty-three animals that were raised in captivity. Twenty animals had their genital glands dissected in situ for macroscopic description. The samples of each gland were recovered, embedded in paraffin, sliced and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. It was founded four pairs of glands: the vesicular glands, the coagulating glands, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands. Histological characteristics of the vesicular, coagulating and prostate glands showed similar morphology, within the pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The tubulo-alveolar type of the bulbourethral glands showed a lack of connective tissue among the tubules, a small amount of red stained presented it the cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuoles in the tissue. This study concluded that the agouti showed to have similar morphological aspect described in the others species of rodents.A morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias de cutias foram estudados em 23 animais criados em cativeiros. Vinte animais tiveram suas glândulas genitais dissecadas in situ para as descrições macroscópicas. Para o estudo microscópico foram utilizados três animais. Os fragmentos de cada glândula foram embebidos em parafina, seccionados e corados em hematoxilina e eosina. Foram encontrados quatro pares de glândulas: vesiculares, coaguladoras, próstata e bulbouretrais. As características histológicas da glândula vesicular, coaguladora e próstata mostraram morfologia similar, com epitélio colunar pseudoestratificado. O tipo tuboalveolar da glândula bulbouretral mostrou uma deficiência de tecido conjuntivo, citoplasma pouco corado e presença de vacúolos. Este estudo concluiu que a cutia apresenta as mesmas características morfológicas das glândulas genitais acessórias encontradas em roedores.

  5. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  6. WHOQOL-100 Before and After Sex Reassignment Surgery in Brazilian Male-to-Female Transsexual Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso da Silva, Dhiordan; Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Massuda, Raffael; Henriques, Alexandre Annes; Salvador, Jaqueline; Silveira, Esalba; Elias Rosito, Tiago; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    The 100-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-100) evaluates quality of life as a subjective and multidimensional construct. Currently, particularly in Brazil, there are controversies concerning quality of life after sex reassignment surgery (SRS). To assess the impact of surgical interventions on quality of life of 47 Brazilian male-to-female transsexual individuals using the WHOQOL-100. This was a prospective cohort study using the WHOQOL-100 and sociodemographic questions for individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The protocol was used when a transsexual person entered the ambulatory clinic and at least 12 months after SRS. Initially, improvement or worsening of quality of life was assessed using 6 domains and 24 facets. Subsequently, quality of life was assessed for individuals who underwent new surgical interventions and those who did not undergo these procedures 1 year after SRS. The participants showed significant improvement after SRS in domains II (psychological) and IV (social relationships) of the WHOQOL-100. In contrast, domains I (physical health) and III (level of independence) were significantly worse after SRS. Individuals who underwent additional surgery had a decrease in quality of life reflected in domains II and IV. During statistical analysis, all results were controlled for variations in demographic characteristics, without significant results. The WHOQOL-100 is an important instrument to evaluate the quality of life of male-to-female transsexuals during different stages of treatment. SRS promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships. However, even 1 year after SRS, male-to-female transsexuals continue to report problems in physical health and difficulty in recovering their independence. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Dwarf males, large hermaphrodites and females in marine species: a dynamic optimization model of sex allocation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the evolutionarily stable schedule of growth and sex allocation for marine benthic species that contain dwarf males. We consider a population in an ephemeral microhabitat that receives a constant supply of larvae. Small individuals can immediately reproduce as a dwarf male or remain immature and grow. Large individuals allocate reproductive resources between male and female functions. The fraction c of newly settled individuals who remain immature and the sex allocation of large individuals m are quantities to evolve. In the stationary ESS, if the relative reproductive success of dwarf males is greater than the survivorship of immature individuals until they reach a mature size, then the population is a mixture of females and dwarf males. If the opposite inequality holds, the population is dominated by hermaphrodites and lacks dwarf males. There is no case in which a mixture of hermaphrodites and dwarf males to be the ESS in the stationary solution. The ESS can be solved by dynamic programming when the strategies depend on the age of the microhabitat (c(t) and m(t)). Typically, the ESS schedule begins with a population composed only of hermaphrodites, which is replaced by a mixture of dwarf males and hermaphrodites and then by a mixture of dwarf males and pure females. The relative importance of these three phases depends on multiple parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  9. Presence of Putative Male-Produced Sex Pheromone in Lutzomyia cruciata (Diptera: Psychodidae), Vector of Leishmania mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A K; Rojas, J C; Cruz-López, L C; Malo, Edi A; Mikery, O F; Castillo, A

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) is a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and Central America. However, several aspects of its ecology and behavior are unknown, including whether a male pheromone partially mediates the sexual behavior of this sand fly. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral response of females to male abdominal extracts in a Y-tube olfactometer. The volatile compounds from male abdominal extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with those of female abdominal extracts. Finally, the disseminating structures of the putative sex pheromone were examined by scanning electron microscopy in the male abdomen. Females were more attracted to male abdominal extract than to the hexane control, suggesting the presence of male-produced sex pheromone. The male abdominal extracts were characterized by the presence of 12 sesquiterpene compounds. The major component, an unknown sesquiterpene with an abundance of 60%, had a mass spectrum with molecular ion of m/z 262. In contrast, the abdominal female extracts contained saturated fatty acids. Finally, we detected the presence of small "papules" with a mammiform morphology distributed on the abdominal surface of tergites IV-VII of male Lu. cruciata These structures are not present in females. We conclude that Lu. cruciata males likely produce a pheromone involved in attracting or courting females. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  11. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  12. Changes in HIV Seroprevalence and Related Behaviors Among Male Injection Drug Users Who Do and Do Not Have Sex With Men: New York City, 1990–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315

  13. Low reproductive skew despite high male-biased operational sex ratio in a glass frog with paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Alexandra; Trenkwalder, Katharina; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Ringler, Eva

    2015-09-03

    Reproductive skew, the uneven distribution of reproductive success among individuals, is a common feature of many animal populations. Several scenarios have been proposed to favour either high or low levels of reproductive skew. Particularly a male-biased operational sex ratio and the asynchronous arrival of females is expected to cause high variation in reproductive success among males. Recently it has been suggested that the type of benefits provided by males (fixed vs. dilutable) could also strongly impact individual mating patterns, and thereby affecting reproductive skew. We tested this hypothesis in Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, a Neotropical glass frog with prolonged breeding and paternal care. We monitored and genetically sampled a natural population in southwestern Costa Rica during the breeding season in 2012 and performed parentage analysis of adult frogs and tadpoles to investigate individual mating frequencies, possible mating preferences, and estimate reproductive skew in males and females. We identified a polygamous mating system, where high proportions of males (69 %) and females (94 %) reproduced successfully. The variance in male mating success could largely be attributed to differences in time spent calling at the reproductive site, but not to body size or relatedness. Female H. valerioi were not choosy and mated indiscriminately with available males. Our findings support the hypothesis that dilutable male benefits - such as parental care - can favour female polyandry and maintain low levels of reproductive skew among males within a population, even in the presence of direct male-male competition and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio. We hypothesize that low male reproductive skew might be a general characteristic in prolonged breeders with paternal care.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  15. Hazardous drinking and HIV-risk-related behavior among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk for HIV. Whereas the HIV risks of alcohol use are well understood, less is known about hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs, particularly in Mexico. We sought to identify risk factors for hazardous alcohol use and test associations between hazardous alcohol use and HIV risk behavior among male clients in Tijuana. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana (n = 400) completed a quantitative interview in 2008. The AUDIT was used to characterize hazardous alcohol use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent associations of demographic and HIV risk variables with hazardous alcohol use (vs. non-hazardous). Forty percent of our sample met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Variables independently associated with hazardous drinking were reporting any sexually transmitted infection (STI), having sex with a FSW while under the influence of alcohol, being younger than 36 years of age, living in Tijuana, and ever having been jailed. Hazardous drinkers were less likely ever to have been deported or to have shared injection drugs. Hazardous alcohol use is associated with HIV risk, including engaging in sex with FSWs while intoxicated and having an STI among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. We systematically described patterns and correlates of hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. The results suggest that HIV/STI risk reduction interventions must target hazardous alcohol users, and be tailored to address alcohol use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Discriminating males and unpredictable females: males differentiate self-similar facial cues more than females in the judgment of opposite-sex attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance and dissimilar (other-resemblance images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0% rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.

  18. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  19. Myths of Male Same-Sex Love in the Art of the Italian Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Haughton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual culture has much to contribute to an understanding of the history of sexuality. Yet, to date, the depiction of pederasty in the art of the Renaissance has not been covered adequately by dominant theoretical paradigms. Moreover, the interpretive approach of traditional art historical discourse has been both limited and limiting in its timidity toward matters concerning the representation of sexual proclivity between males. This article will address the ways in which Italian Renaissance artistic depictions of some mythological narratives were enmeshed with the period’s attitudes toward sexual and social relationships between men. Particular attention is paid here to the manner in which, under the veneer of a mythological narrative, certain works of art embodied a complex set of messages that encoded issues of masculine behaviour and performance in the context of intergenerational same-sex erotic relationships.  The primary case studies under investigation for these concerns of gender and sexuality in this particular context are Benvenuto Cellini’s marble Apollo and Hyacinth (1545, and Giulio Romano’s drawing of Apollo and Cyparissus (1524. By incorporating pictorial analysis, social history, and gender and sexuality studies, new possibilities will be offered for evaluating these artworks as visual chronicles of particular sexual and cultural mores of the period. Furthermore, this article will consider how visual representation of these mythic narratives of erotic behaviour between males conformed to the culturally defined sexual and social roles relating to the articulation of power that permeated one of the greatest milestones in art history.

  20. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  1. Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

  2. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.

  3. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  4. The ‘male escape hypothesis’: sex-biased metamorphosis in response to climatic drivers in a facultatively paedomorphic amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiron, Anthony G. E.; Lena, Jean-Paul; Baouch, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations. Through a replicated laboratory experiment, we showed that paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) metamorphosed at a higher frequency when water availability decreased and metamorphosed earlier when temperature increased in these conditions. All responses were sex-biased, and males were more prone to change phenotype than females. Our work shows how climatic variables can affect facultative paedomorphosis and support theoretical models predicting life on land instead of in water. Moreover, because males metamorphose and leave water more often and earlier than females, these results, for the first time, give an experimental explanation for the rarity of male paedomorphosis (the ‘male escape hypothesis’) and suggest the importance of sex in the evolution of paedomorphosis versus metamorphosis. PMID:28424346

  5. The 'male escape hypothesis': sex-biased metamorphosis in response to climatic drivers in a facultatively paedomorphic amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiron, Anthony G E; Lena, Jean-Paul; Baouch, Sarah; Denoël, Mathieu

    2017-04-26

    Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations. Through a replicated laboratory experiment, we showed that paedomorphic palmate newts ( Lissotriton helveticus ) metamorphosed at a higher frequency when water availability decreased and metamorphosed earlier when temperature increased in these conditions. All responses were sex-biased, and males were more prone to change phenotype than females. Our work shows how climatic variables can affect facultative paedomorphosis and support theoretical models predicting life on land instead of in water. Moreover, because males metamorphose and leave water more often and earlier than females, these results, for the first time, give an experimental explanation for the rarity of male paedomorphosis (the 'male escape hypothesis') and suggest the importance of sex in the evolution of paedomorphosis versus metamorphosis. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Behavioral and Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Testing Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-08-01

    We use data collected from a sample of 400 male clients of female sex workers (FSW) to examine their HIV testing behavior. We present frequencies of HIV testing and used bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess its socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates. We found that the majority (55 %) of male clients of FSW in Tijuana, Mexico had never had an HIV test and the prevalence of HIV testing within the past year was low (9 %). In multivariable analyses, significant correlates of having ever tested for HIV were higher age, higher HIV knowledge score, lower sexual compulsiveness score, lower misogynistic attitudes score, having a condom break during sex with a FSW, and higher frequency of sex with a FSW while she was high. Our findings represent an important starting point for developing effective interventions to address the need to promote HIV testing among this population.

  7. The Associations of Perceived Social Support with Key HIV Risk and Protective Factors Among Young Males Who Have Sex with Males in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Steinhaus, Mara; Sass, Justine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Siraprapasiri, Taweesap; Gass, Robert

    2018-06-01

    This study used respondent-driven sampling to explore the effects of social support on HIV risk and protective factors among young males who have sex with males (YMSM) in Bangkok (N = 273) and Chiang Mai (N = 243), Thailand. It compared different measures of social support, including living situation, the proportion of family and friends to whom the respondent had disclosed their same-sex attraction, and scores on the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support as predictors of two outcomes of interest-coerced first sex and HIV knowledge. Social support from family played a mediating role in both outcomes among YMSM in Bangkok but not those from Chiang Mai. Though social support from friends was also studied, it was less strongly associated with the outcomes of interest. The findings support interventions designed to leverage social support networks to increase HIV knowledge and decrease coerced first sex among YMSM. At the same time, they demonstrate that there is not a single risk or demographic profile encompassing all YMSM. Successful programs and policies will need to consider the specific attributes and social environment of YMSM in particular locations in order to effectively address HIV risks.

  8. Age, sex, and telomere dynamics in a long-lived seabird with male-biased parental care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Young

    Full Text Available The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia, a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1 cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years from one colony and 2 longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF, a lower window of TRF (TOE, and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to

  9. Otolith morphology varies between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive tactics in a vocal toadfish Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. High HIV Prevalence and Risk Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Patrick; Hoang, Tran Vu; Le, Linh-Vi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2-47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across 'bridging' categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87-7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02-6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46-19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These

  11. To fight or mate? Hormonal control of sex recognition, male sexual behavior and aggression in the gecko lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schořálková, Tereza; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš

    2018-01-01

    Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males. The administration of both T and DHT led to the expression of male-typical sexual behavior in females. However, in contrast to T, increased circulating levels of DHT alone were not enough to initiate the full expression of male-typical offensive aggressive behavior and development of hemipenes in females. Ovariectomized females were as sexually attractive as control females, which does not support the need for the demasculinization of the cues used for sex recognition by ovarian hormones as suggested in other sauropsids. On the other hand, our results point to the masculinization of the sex recognition cues by male gonadal androgens. Previously, we also demonstrated that sexually dimorphic growth is controlled by ovarian hormones in P. picta. Overall, it appears that individual behavioral and morphological sexually-dimorphic traits are controlled by multiple endogenous pathways in this species. Variability in the endogenous control of particular traits could have permitted their disentangling during evolution and the occurrence of (semi)independent changes across squamate phylogeny. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  13. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  14. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  15. Exploring the desires and sexual culture of men who have sex with male-to-female transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Daniel; Perry, Ashley; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) currently constitute a gap in the research community's understanding of male sexuality and sexual desire. In an effort to address this lack of knowledge, an ethnographic study of MSTW in New York City was conducted between December 2005 and May 2007, including in-depth interviews with MSTW (n = 15), key informant interviews (n = 13), and ethnographic observation of semi-private "tranny" parties held at various venues throughout New York City. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the sex marketplaces and the sexual experiences of an ethnographic sample of MSTW in New York City and (2) describe the ways MSTW construct their sexual partnering practices and the meanings attributed to those practices in relation to varying social contexts (in and outside the sex marketplace). In this analysis, we described the MSTW sex market landscape in New York and identified three major recurrent themes in the ways that MSTW organized their sexual desire for TW transitioning from sex marketplaces to social spaces in their lives: (1) phallus-centric trade sex market focus; (2) relational-companionship market focus; and (3) specialized market focus. Although the findings from the study are not representative of the broader MSTW population, they represent an important step in amassing a body of knowledge about an understudied and underserved sex market upon which future research is needed.

  16. The roles of Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes in sex determination and differentiation mechanisms: Ubiquity and diversity across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

  18. The relationship between female brooding and male nestling provisioning: does climate underlie geographic variation in sex roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.

  19. Opportunities to improve competitiveness in male sexual strain has genetic sex determination Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlemcani, Meriem

    2010-01-01

    The success of TIS program depends essentially on the capacity of the sterile males to compete with fertile males to couple with wild females. This program becomes more and more efficient if one good mastery its various factors, mainly the performances of males of the origin of ceratite in genetic sexing within the production unit of sterile flies of the National Center of the Sciences and Nuclear Technologies. Researches turned to the improvement of the competitiveness of the sterile males by the addition of bacteria in the nourishing circles of breeding. By basing itself on the symbiotic relations between the present bacteria in the bowel of the ceratite, we adopted, in this present work, a method of breeding which could improve the quality of the males of genetic sexing GSS. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in the ceratite (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aerogenes) into the middle of breeding according to various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by making various tests of quality control (weight, emergence, capacity in the flight, the longevity) and of reproduction (competitiveness, lasted mating, latent period). It turns out that the addition of Enterobacteriaceae in the middle of breeding outstandingly improved the percentage of emergence of the males of the GSS. Besides, these bacteria contributed to the improvement of the competitiveness of these males with regard to those of the other circles. Besides, the addition of Pseudomonas aerogenes in the middle of breeding gave the best latent period to the males GSS. We also noticed that the association of Enterobacteriaceae with Pseudomonas aerogenes has a positive effect on the capacity in the flight of the males of the GSS and their duration of mating.

  20. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  1. Diclofenac sex-divergent drug-drug interaction with Sunitinib: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Chii Chii; Ng, Salby; Chee, Yun Lee; Koo, Teng Wai; Liew, Ming Hui; Chee, Evelyn Li-Ching; Modamio, Pilar; Fernández, Cecilia; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Coadministration of diclofenac and sunitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, led to sex-divergent pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction outcomes. Male and female mice were administered 60 mg/kg PO sunitinib alone (control groups) or with 30 mg/kg PO diclofenac. Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney and liver were determined by HPLC and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. In male mice, diclofenac decreased AUC 0→∞ 38% in plasma (p diclofenac increased the liver uptake efficiency in male (27%, p diclofenac with probable clinical translatability due to potential different effects in male and female patients requiring careful selection of the NSAID and advanced TDM to implement a personalized treatment.

  2. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  3. A Comparative Study of Australian and New Zealand Male and Female Nurses' Health: A Sex Comparison and Gender Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony; Henwood, Tim; Oliffe, John L; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Kim, Jae Rin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the health and lifestyle behaviors between male and female nursing professionals. Biological, workplace, and lifestyle factors as well as health behaviors and outcomes are reported as different between male and female nurses. Although male nurses show distinct health-related patterns and experience health disparities at work, few studies have investigated health differences by sex in a large cohort group of nursing professionals. This observation study of Australian and New Zealand nurses and midwives drew data from an eCohort survey. A cohort of 342 females was generated by SPSS randomization (total N=3625), to compare against 342 participating males. Measures for comparison include health markers and behaviors, cognitive well-being, workplace and leisure-time vitality, and functional capacity. Findings suggest that male nurses had a higher BMI, sat for longer, slept for less time, and were more likely to be a smoker than their female nurse counterparts. Men were more likely to report restrictions in bending, bathing, and dressing. In relation to disease, male nurses reported greater rates of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease, including a three times greater incidence of myocardial infarction, and were more likely to have metabolic problems. In contrast, however, male nurses were more likely to report feeling calm and peaceful with less worries about their health. Important for nurse workforce administrators concerned about the well-being of their staff, the current study reveals significant sex differences and supports the need for gender-sensitive approaches to aid the well-being of male nurses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  5. Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female and Male Response of Ephestia calidella (Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The sex pheromone gland of female oases date moth, Ephestia calidella is located inter segmentally between eight and nine abdominal segment. Effect of three sub sterilizing doses 75, 100 and 125 Gy of gamma radiation on pheromone production and on male response were studied. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation reduce the pheromone production by female and the responsiveness of male. The effect was increased by increasing the radiation dose. Histological studies of pheromone gland also, indicated that gamma irradiation disturb epithelial cells of the gland and becoming thin at certain parts. Also, gland hairs ruptured or completely disappeared at the highest dose of 125 Gy.

  6. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    membrane targeting and association with ERES. We determine the localization of Sec16B by transient expression in HeLa cells, and find that the protein is evenly distributed throughout the cell except the nucleus at 37°C, as is also observed with mSec16A. When the temperature is lowered to 15°C, mSec16B...... proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms...... that regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...

  7. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varella Valentova, Jaroslava; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is

  8. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  9. EVALUATION OF MALE SEX HORMONES AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MALE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL DIABETIC CLINICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubajaka, C F; Meludu, S C; Dioka, C E; Onah, C E; Osuji, C U; Modebe, I A; Ifeadike, G C; Okwara, J E; Amah, U K; Nnebue, C C

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of male sex hormones and several trace elements are altered in type 2 diabetic mellitus and may have specific role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. To assess the levels of male sex hormones and trace elements in type 2 diabetic patients and to ascertain an association between male sex hormones and trace elements among diabetic subjects. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 125 diabetic and 50 non diabetic subjects. Venous blood samples were collected from all respondents and estimated for fasting blood glucose, male sex hormones and trace elements. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and comparison using Students' test and Pearson correlation analysis. The mean testosterone level was significantly lower in diabetics than in controls (3.9 ± 1.9ng/ml) in comparison with (5.1 ± 1.7ng/ml; P < 0.05). The mean value of Zinc, Manganese, Selenium and Chromium were significantly lower among the diabetics when compared with the controls (Zn;898.7 ± 131.0 μg/l; Mn:0.30 ± 0.06 μg/l;Se:51.3 ± 11.1 μg/l; Cr: 0.04 ± 0.03 μg/I) in comparison with (Zn: 1007.3 ± 85.2 μg/l; Mn: 0.05 ± 0.07μg/l; Se: 62.1 ± 11.1 μg/l; Cr: 0.06 ± 0.01 μg/l; P < 0.05).The mean Fasting Blood Glucose in diabetic subjects was significantly higher when compared with the controls (7.9 ± 3.7 mmol/l) in comparison with (4.6 ± 0.4 mmol/l; P < 0.05).The trace elements showed a positive correlation with testosterone in diabetic subjects (Zn r = 0.359, Ser = 0.443, Mn r = 0.350, P < 0.05). This study observed decreased levels of testosterone and trace elements in type 2 diabetics and a positive correlation between low testosterone and low trace elements levels in diabetic subjects. These trace elements are antioxidants and their low levels in diabetic patients may further increase the severity of the disease.

  10. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Thomas C. G.; David, Charles N.

    1986-01-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10-2 per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps cont...

  11. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  12. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  13. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jessica K; Innocenti, Paolo; Chippindale, Adam K; Morrow, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Medical Mistrust, Perceived Discrimination, and Risk Behavior Disclosure to Clinicians by U.S. Male Sex Workers and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Biomedical HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Holcomb, Richard; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-08-01

    Access to biomedical HIV prevention technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires individuals to disclose risk behavior to clinicians, but experiences of discrimination and medical mistrust may limit disclosure among male sex workers and other MSM. We explored experiences of perceived discrimination, medical mistrust, and behavior disclosure among male sex workers compared to other men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted 56 interviews with MSM and compared findings about medical mistrust, discrimination, and disclosure for 31 men who engaged in sex work vs. 25 men who did not. MSM who engaged in sex work reported more medical mistrust and healthcare discrimination due to issues beyond MSM behavior/identity (e.g., homelessness, substance use, poverty). MSM who did not report sex work described disclosing sex with men to clinicians more often. Both subgroups reported low PrEP awareness, but willingness to disclose behavior to obtain PrEP. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination create barriers for sexual behavior disclosure to clinicians, potentially impeding access to PrEP and other forms of biomedical HIV prevention. These barriers may be higher among male sex workers compared to other MSM, given overlapping stigmas including sex work, substance use, homelessness, and poverty. An intersectionality framework for understanding multiple stigmas can help to identify how these dynamics may limit access to biomedical HIV prevention among male sex workers, as well as suggesting strategies for addressing stigmas to improve the delivery of PrEP and other HIV prevention approaches in this population.

  15. Lack of differences between males with or without perceived same sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2006-02-01

    Adolescent males are often concerned that they may be homosexual because of a sense of sexual attraction to other males. This not uncommon concern is often expressed to pediatric endocrinologists who come into contact with these boys because of concerns with abnormal pubertal development. To explore the character and prevalence of these types of homosexual concerns we assessed the perceptions of a group of healthy adolescent males using a structured questionnaire. The aim of this study was to determine whether males concerned about homosexual tendencies manifest a unique self-perception profile or interact differently with others. A multi-item questionnaire regarding demographic, behavioral, psychological and sexual characteristics was administered to 52 18-24 year-old males. Overall, there were few differences between males admitting to an adolescent homosexual attraction to males and males without this attraction. Differences between these two groups included more exposure to some kinds of pornography (including male to male imagery), noticeable psychosexual responses to male pornography, internal questioning over homosexual tendencies, comparisons of genitalia and perceptions of body build. There were no differences in demographics, family structure, religious beliefs, socio-economic status, knowledge of puberty, inter-personal relationships or sources of information about sexuality.

  16. [Topography of the organs of the pelvic cavity and macroscopic and histologic findings of the sex organs of a male giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) with regard to fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartmann, C P; Beyer, C; Wissdorf, H

    1991-02-01

    A study was conducted on the reproductive organs of a male Giant Anteater. Discussed is the specific anatomy with its effect on fertility. The ovoid testicles are characterized by an intraabdominal position throughout life. Histologically documented is the active spermiogenesis. The accessory sexual glands consist of a glandula prostatica, glandula vesiculares and glandulae bulbourethrales. The short penis is situated immediately ventral to the anus. The existing anatomic individualities in comparison to other mammalia result in special reproductive aspects and should be taken into consideration for successful breeding.

  17. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex - Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-07-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature.

  18. The Dynamics of Male Brooding, Mating Patterns, ad Sex Roles in Pipefishes and Seahorses (Family Syngnathidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Anthony Bruce; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto speci...

  19. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  20. Towards 'reflexive epidemiology': Conflation of cisgender male and transgender women sex workers and implications for global understandings of HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Reisner, Sari L; Clark, Jesse L; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a widespread impact on global scientific and cultural discourses related to gender, sexuality, and identity. 'Male sex workers' have been identified as a 'key population' in the global HIV epidemic; however, there are methodological and conceptual challenges for defining inclusion and exclusion of transgender women within this group. To assess these potential implications, this study employs self-critique and reflection to grapple with the empiric and conceptual implications of shifting understandings of sexuality and gender within the externally re-created etic category of 'MSM' and 'transgender women' in epidemiologic HIV research. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of our previously published meta-analysis which aimed to identify the scope of peer-reviewed articles assessing HIV prevalence among male sex workers globally between 2004 and 2013. The inclusion of four studies previously excluded due to non-differentiation of cisgender male from transgender women participants (studies from Spain, Thailand, India, and Brazil: 421 total participants) increased the overall estimate of global HIV prevalence among 'men' who engage in sex work from 10.5% (95% CI 9.4-11.5%) to 10.8% (95% CI 9.8-11.8%). The combination of social science critique with empiric epidemiologic analysis represents a first step in defining and operationalising 'reflexive epidemiology'. Grounded in the context of sex work and HIV prevention, this paper highlights the multiplicity of genders and sexualities across a range of social and cultural settings, limitations of existing categories (i.e. 'MSM', 'transgender'), and their global implications for epidemiologic estimates of HIV prevalence.

  1. Hippocampus and cerebellum function following imipenem treatment in male and female rats: evaluation of sex differences during developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Leila; Golchin, Lale; Vahidi, Ali Asghar; Shabani, Mohammad

    2013-02-15

    The B-Lactam antibiotics have been suggested to have some degree of neurotoxicity in experimental animals as well as in clinical situations. This study has been elucidated the alteration in hippocampal and cerebellum function following adolescent imipenem exposure in male and female rats. Hippocampus and cerebellum related behavioral dysfunction in imipenem -treated [intraperitoneally, 40 and 80 mg/kg/day for one week from 23-day-old] rats were analyzed using explorative, motor function, learning and memory tasks [grasping, rotarod, open field shuttle box and Morris water maze tests]. Exposure to imipenem especially in high dosage impaired the motor coordination in male and female rats. There weren't any differences in grasping time in male and female rats. When the rearing and grooming frequency of their recorded in open field test, both males and females were dramatically affected by exposure to imipenem. Compared to the saline, male and female rats trained one week after imipenem injection showed significant memory deficits in the shuttle box and Morris water maze tests. Results in this study suggested that animals treated with imipenem suffer from motor activity and cognitive impairment. However, hippocampal and cerebellum functions of male and female rats were profoundly affected by exposure to imipenem while no sex-differences in the most variable were evident.

  2. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli; McInnis, Donald; Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo; Goncalves, Nilmara; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio; Nascimento, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  3. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  4. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  5. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans histone methyltransferase MET-2 shields the male X chromosome from checkpoint machinery and mediates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Checchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC, suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.

  7. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  8. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    OpenAIRE

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that t...

  9. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  10. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of culturally sensitive relationship education for male same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Hutsell, David W

    2016-09-01

    Relationship education, effective in improving relationship quality among different-sex couples, represents a promising and nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive relationship education program was developed specifically for male same-sex couples, which includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) and newly developed content to address unique challenges faced by this group (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 20 couples) was conducted to evaluate the program. To assess program efficacy, dyadic longitudinal data (collected at pre- and postprogram and 3-month follow-up) were analyzed using multilevel models that accounted for nonindependence in data from indistinguishable dyads. Results indicated significant program effects in comparison to waitlist controls on couple constructive and destructive communication, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. Gains in each of these areas were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although there was no evidence of within-person program effects on social support, satisfaction, or relationship instability immediately postprogram, all 3 showed within-person improvements by follow-up. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. In summary, study findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of the program and highlight the potential value of culturally sensitive adaptations of relationship education for same-sex couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  12. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China.Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia.The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.

  14. HIV prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Rui; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Zhibin; Wang, Ning; Wang, Bei

    2018-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients are vulnerable to HIV infection and serve as a bridge in HIV transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. To examine the factors of FSWs and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of HIV infection in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the Hekou county of the Yunnan province of China. We performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections and drug use. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among FSWs was 2.74%, and 15 male clients (2.62%) were HIV-positive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was a risk factor for HIV infection in FSWs and male clients, suggesting the increased role of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region. Positive urinalysis result for amphetamine-type stimulants was observed in FSWs with HIV infection. History of drug use was correlated with HIV infection, which increased the HIV infection risk of male clients, confirming that drug use is an important target in future interventions for HIV prevention.

  15. Estimating the Number of Male Sex Workers with the Capture- Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    (IDEA),Mobile Solutions group; 6Management Sciences for Health, Arlington, VA, USA. *For correspondence: Email: sadebajo@popcouncil.org; Phone: +234 806 887 9584. Abstract ... condom use among MSM and MSM sex workers is low as ... concurrent sexual relationships with women, are .... problematic situations.

  16. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  17. Correlates of HIV, STIs and Associated High Risk Behaviors among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L.; Goldenberg, Shira; Gallardo, Manuel; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Methods 400 men aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana’s “zone of tolerance,” where prostitution is practiced openly under a municipal permit system. Efforts were made to balance the sample between residents of the U.S. (San Diego County) and of Mexico (Tijuana). Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Results Mean age was 36.6. One quarter had injected drugs within the previous 4 months. Lifetime use of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine was 36%, 50% and 64%, respectively. Men had frequented FSWs for an average of 11 years, visiting FSWs an average of 26 times last year. In the past four months, one half reported having unprotected sex with an FSW; 46% reported frequently being high when having sex with an FSW. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was 4%, 2%, 2.5% and 7.5%; 14.2% were positive for at least one infection. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were living in Mexico, ever using methamphetamine, living alone, and testing positive for syphilis. Conclusions Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana had a high sex and drug risk profile. While STI prevalence was lower than among FSWs, HIV prevalence was comparable, suggesting the need for interventions among clients to prevent spread of HIV and STIs. PMID:19584699

  18. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  19. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  20. Secular decline in male testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin serum levels in Danish population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Juul, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function.......Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....

  1. Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Yu, Lei; Coolen, Lique M

    2004-04-01

    The mesolimbic system plays an important role in the regulation of both pathological behaviors such as drug addiction and normal motivated behaviors such as sexual behavior. The present study investigated the mechanism by which this system is endogenously activated during sexual behavior. Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied. The mesolimbic system consists of a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous studies suggest that these neurons are under tonic inhibition by local GABA interneurons, which are in turn modulated by mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands. To test the hypothesis that opioids are acting in the VTA during sexual behavior, visualization of MOR internalization in VTA was used as a marker for ligand-induced activation of the receptor. Significant increases in MOR internalization were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. The next goal was to determine if sexual behavior activates dopamine neurons in the VTA, using tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons and Fos-immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. Significant increases in the percentage of activated dopaminergic neurons were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. In addition, mating and sex-related cues activated a large population of nondopaminergic neurons in VTA as well as neurons in both the NAc Core and Shell. Taken together, our results provide functional neuroanatomical evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated by both sexual behavior and exposure to sex-related environmental cues.

  2. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  5. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously

  6. SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY WITH LAPAROSCOPIC SIGMOID COLON VAGINOPLASTY IN A MALE TO FEMALE TRANSSEXUAL: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Koji; Masumori, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    We herein report and discuss our first experience about a sex reassignment surgery (SRS) with laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty for a 40s male to female gender identity disorder. SRS for this subject included bilateral orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty, and vulvoplasty. About 20 cm of the sigmoid colon was harvested laparoscopicaly for the neovagina. Total operating time was about 9 hours, and the estimated blood loss was 900 ml without transfusion. There was no trouble during the postoperative course, and a sufficient length of vagina has been maintained.

  7. Polymorphic male color morphs visualized with steroids in monomorphic females: a tool for designing analysis of sex-limited trait inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael

    2012-02-15

    In diploid animals, males and females share most of the genome (except sex-specific elements, such as sex chromosome genes), yet despite sharing the underlying genes that hard-wire traits, males and females may differ in their phenotypes when traits are controlled by proximate mechanisms, such as hormones. In color polymorphic species where coloration is only expressed in one sex, the design of studies of the inheritance of color and coevolved morph-specific traits (e.g. territorial vs sneaker strategies, skewed energetic investment in territorial defense vs sperm production, etc.) is compromised as the expression of morph-coding genes is only visualized in one sex. Here, we circumvented this problem by first characterizing oxidative stress traits in both sexes and then using testosterone implants in females to expose their otherwise 'silent' coloration. Males of our model species are highly territorial and exhibit morph-specific levels of aggression, whereas females are non-territorial and display very low levels of aggression. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species levels were found to be morph specific regardless of sex, despite considerable differences in lifestyle. Males and females did differ remarkably, however, in superoxide levels depending on whether they sported a colored throat bib or not, a trait also used in male sexual signaling. Females with throat bibs had significantly lower levels of superoxide than females without a bib, which was not the case for males.

  8. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  9. Male Circumcision and Risk of HIV Acquisition among Men who have Sex with Men from the United States and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Sal y Rosas, Victor G.; Hughes, James P.; Baeten, Jared M.; Fuchs, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Casapia, Martín; Ortiz, Abner; Celum, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between male circumcision, insertive anal sex practices, and HIV acquisition in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Data were from 1824 HSV-2 seropositive, HIV seronegative MSM, 1362 (75%) from Peru and 462 (25%) from the US, who participated in a randomized placebo controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression for HIV prevention (HPTN 039). Circumcision status was determined by examination at enrollment. HIV testing was done every three months for up to 18 months. Partner-specific sexual behavior for up to the last three partners during the previous three months was analyzed. Results There was no significant association between male circumcision and HIV acquisition in univariate analysis (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.50–1.42). In a pre-specified multivariate analysis that assumed a linear relationship between the proportion of insertive acts and effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition, the interaction between circumcision and proportion of insertive acts was not significant (p=0.11). In an exploratory analysis that categorized behavior with recent partners by proportion of insertive acts (<60% or ≥60% insertive acts), circumcision was associated with a non-statistically significant 69% reduction in the risk of HIV acquisition (RR=0.31, 95% CI 0.06–1.51) among men who reported ≥60% of insertive acts with recent male partners. Conclusion Circumcision does not have a significant protective effect against HIV acquisition among MSM from Peru and US, although there may be reduced risk for men who are primarily insertive with their male partners. This association needs to be investigated across diverse cohorts of MSM. PMID:21099672

  10. Male self-disclosure of HIV infection to sex partners: a Hawaii-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey design with self-report to (a) describe serostatus disclosure to recent sex partners (SPs) among a multiethnic group of HIV-infected men from Hawaii, (b) explore factors influencing disclosure, and (c) examine relationships between disclosure and condom use. Respondents recalled their sexual experiences with up to three most recent SPs in the 3 months before survey administration. The men (N = 93) reported a disclosure rate of approximately 50% with 228 SPs. Disclosure was significantly influenced by SP serostatus, relationship status, self-efficacy for disclosure decision making, and cocaine use before sex. Disclosure was also significantly associated with condom use, highlighting the transmission risk reduction benefit of disclosure for these participants. HIV caregivers should routinely address disclosure to SPs and offer interventions to enhance condom use. Interventions for strengthening efficacy beliefs for disclosure decision making should be tailored to help men with multiple SPs and those with recent cocaine use.

  11. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  12. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  13. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  14. Context matters: the moderating role of bar context in the association between substance use during sex and condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Wagner, Karla D; Goodman-Meza, David; Semple, Shirley J; Chavarin, Claudia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    Tijuana is situated on Mexico's northern border with the U.S., where sex work is quasi-legal. Whereas previous work has focused on the risk behaviors of female sex workers (FSWs), less is known about the risk behaviors of their male clients. Further, research has not examined structural factors as moderators of the association between substance use and condom use, including the contexts in which sex takes place. The purpose of the current study is to examine whether having sex with FSWs in a bar moderates the link between alcohol intoxication during sex and condom use. We recruited 375 male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico from San Diego, California and Tijuana. Using computer assisted interviewing, we surveyed participants on their alcohol use, condom use, and physical contexts of sex with FSWs in the past 4 months. Results showed that more frequent intoxication during sex with FSWs is associated with more unprotected sex, but only among clients having sex with FSWs in a bar context. Results point to potential reasons for inconsistent condom use with FSWs in this context, including lower risk perceptions of sex with FSWs in bars. Future research should examine structural factors that underlie clients' risk behavior in bars in order to inform structural-level HIV prevention interventions.

  15. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  16. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies.

  17. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  18. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than...... in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were...

  19. Sex Role Socialization and Perceptions of Student Academic Dishonesty by Male and Female Accounting Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lento, Camillo; Sayed, Naqi; Bujaki, Merridee

    2018-01-01

    We examine differences between male and female accounting faculty members' perceptions of academic dishonesty and their uses of controls to prevent academically dishonest behaviour. We use socialization concepts to motivate our examination of these differences. Specifically, we find that females generally perceive academic dishonesty to be a more…

  20. Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, David J

    2017-07-01

    Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Stigmatized Woman: The Professional Woman in a Male Sex-Typed Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    1985-01-01

    Applies Erving Goffman's stigma theory to impressions of 25 women in educational administration careers. Analyzes data from an earlier study to show how women administrators, confronted with male leadership norms, deviate, acquire stigma, and become marginal. Concludes with suggestions for change, citing 32 references. (MLH)

  2. The Effects of Single-Sex Mathematics Classrooms on African American Males in the Ninth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner-Simmons, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Research indicated that educators must consider socio-ecological accommodations because not all students learn in cooperative groups. Students must be taught how to discover the process of learning and to apply knowledge to real life situations. Gurian and Ballew (2003) identified differences in the male and female brain and the differences in how…

  3. Distinct sperm nucleus behaviors between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination males are associated with replication and expression-related pathways in a gynogenetic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhi; Ding, Miao; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Coexistence and transition of diverse sex determination strategies have been revealed in some ectothermic species, but the variation between males caused by different sex determination strategies and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we used the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with both genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) strategies to illustrate this issue. We found out that males of GSD and TSD in gibel carp had similar morphology, testicular histology, sperm structure and sperm vitality. However, when maternal individuals were mated with males of GSD, sperm nucleus swelling and fusing with the female pronucleus were observed in the fertilized eggs. On the contrary, when maternal individuals were mated with males of TSD, sperm nucleus remained in the condensed status throughout the whole process. Subsequently, semen proteomics analysis unveiled that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways were inhibited in the sperm from males of TSD compared to males of GSD, and most differentially expressed proteins associated with DNA replication, transcription and translation were down-regulated. Moreover, via BrdU incorporation and immunofluorescence detection, male nucleus replication was revealed to be present in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of GSD, but absent in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of TSD. These findings indicate that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways are associated with the distinct sperm nucleus development behaviors in fertilized eggs in response to the sperm from males of GSD and TSD. And this study is the first attempt to screen the differences between males determined via GSD and TSD in gynogenetic species, which might give a hint for understanding evolutionary adaption of diverse sex determination mechanisms in unisexual vertebrates.

  4. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  5. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  6. (Patho)physiology of cross-sex hormone administration to transsexual people: the potential impact of male-female genetic differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooren, L.J.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Lapauw, B.; Giltay, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a limited body of knowledge of desired and undesired effects of cross-sex hormones in transsexual people. Little attention has been given to the fact that chromosomal configurations, 46,XY in male-to-female transsexuals subjects (MtoF) and 46,XX in female-to-male transsexual subjects

  7. Minority race and male sex as risk factors for non-beneficial gastrostomy tube placements after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Roland; Carrese, Joseph A; Cooper, Lisa A; Urrutia, Victor C; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding after stroke; however, PEG tubes placed in patients in whom death is imminent are considered non-beneficial. We sought to determine whether placement of non-beneficial PEG tubes differs by race and sex. In this retrospective cohort study, inpatient admissions for stroke patients who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharged to hospice, or died during the hospitalization, were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between race and sex with PEG placement. Of 36,109 stroke admissions who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharge to hospice, or experienced in-hospital death, a PEG was placed in 2,258 (6.3%). Among PEG recipients 41.1% were of a race other than white, while only 22.0% of patients without PEG were of a minority race (prace was associated with PEG placement compared to whites (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.57-1.96), and men had 1.27 times higher odds of PEG compared to women (95% CI 1.16-1.40). Racial differences were most pronounced among women: ethnic/racial minority women had over 2-fold higher odds of a PEG compared to their white counterparts (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.81-2.41), while male ethnic/racial minority patients had 1.44 increased odds of a PEG when compared to white men (95% CI 1.24-1.67, p-value for interaction race and male sex are risk factors for non-beneficial PEG tube placements after stroke.

  8. Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not.

  9. Minimization of Male Suffering: Social Perception of Victims and Perpetrators of Opposite-Sex Sexual Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinska, Anna Magda; Hilton, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Studies show equal impact of sexual harassment (SH) on men and women, whereas lay perceptions are that women suffer more. We identify the phenomenon of minimization of male suffering (MMS), which occurs when people assume that SH has less effect on men's well-being and which results in the perpetrators of SH on men being evaluated less harshly. To verify whether these effects occur, we conducted two studies in which we presented stories describing acts of sexual coercion (SC, study 1) and SC or financial coercion (FC, study 2) and measured the perceived suffering of victims and the perception of the perpetrators. Both studies showed that female victims were perceived to suffer more from SC and FC and that perpetrators of both acts on women were evaluated more negatively. The results support our hypothesis that the suffering of male victims is minimized as they are perceived to suffer less than women.

  10. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  11. Plasma levels of immune factors and sex steroids in the male seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue; Zhang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    To better understand the endocrine- and immune-response pattern during reproduction in a fish species having parental care behaviors and also to accumulate the endocrine- and immune-related data for future explanations of the low reproductive efficiency in seahorse species, the variations of immune factors and sex steroids in the plasma of the male lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus at different breeding stages, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy (early, middle, and late periods), and post-pregnancy, were investigated in the present study. The immune factors included monocytes/leucocytes (M/L), leucocyte phagocytic rate (LPR), immunoglobulin M (Ig M), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-α (IFN-α), and lysozyme (LZM). The sex steroids included testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11β-OHT), 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (17α-20β-P). Moreover, the immune metabolic activity of epithelium cells in the brood pouch at different breeding stages was also analyzed through ultrastructural observations of the abundance of cytoplasmic granules, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and exocytosis. The results show that a higher immune level was observed during pregnancy, particularly in the early and middle periods, and a lower immune level was noted during pre-pregnancy. Correspondingly, the epithelium cells in the brood pouch also showed a stronger immune metabolic activity during pregnancy and weaker activity during pre-pregnancy. Four sex steroids of T, 11β-OHT, 17α-MT, and E2 were higher during pre-pregnancy and lower during post-pregnancy, whereas 11-KT and 17α-20β-P, which were positively correlated with part immune factors, were higher during pregnancy. No negative correlations between sex steroids and immune factors were observed. In conclusion, the higher immune competence during pregnancy may indicate that parental care could improve immunity, which may

  12. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  13. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    OpenAIRE

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  15. 'He's not my pimp': toward an understanding of intimate male partner involvement in female sex work at the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, María Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Yotebieng, Kelly; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Syvertsen, Jennifer L

    2017-11-24

    Female sex work is often perceived as women being controlled by men. We used surveys and qualitative interviews with female sex workers and their intimate partners in two Northern Mexico cities to examine couples' own perceptions of their relationships and male partners' involvement in sex work. Among 214 couples, the median age was 34 and relationship duration was approximately 3 years. Only 10 women in the survey reported having a pimp, and the majority reported sole control over sex work decisions. Qualitative analyses revealed that while most men avoided direct involvement in sex work, they offered advice that was largely driven by concern for their partner's well-being. Our discussion of these results considers the broader socio-political context surrounding these relationships and how changing gender roles, economic insecurity and stigma shape couples' everyday social interactions. Assumptions that all sex workers' relationships are coercive and commercial marginalises these couples while leaving their health concerns unaddressed.

  16. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender constructions of male sex offenders in Germany: narrative analysis from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moertl, Kathrin; Buchholz, Michael B; Lamott, Franziska

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze how male sexual offenders construct mental images of masculinity and femininity to provide insight into therapeutic treatment for such patients. Thematerial examined in this studywas comprised of 21 videotaped prison group therapy sessions in which the participating sexual offenders talked about their crimes and biographies. Aqualitative data analysis softwarewas usedto apply a modified grounded theorymethodology to the transcribed sessions. The resulting categories can be understood as descriptions of how the imprisoned men constructed gender images, and were based on three narrative levels: the structure of narration, the narrative positions in the story, and the interaction between the narrator and the other participants. According to the categories describedin the narrative positions (the narrated self and the narrated significant male others), we constructed masculinity categorizations which corresponded to specific images of femininity (derived from the narrated significant female others).The constructionsprovided insight into the selfimage of the narrator, as well as the accountability and positioning of himself and the other in regard to perpetrator-victim constructions. The study further revealed whether the participants either accepted or rejected responsibility and guilt for their crimes; this is essential for psychotherapeutic process and treatment.

  18. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. O...

  19. Variations in the accessory structures of the clavicle: findings at chest radiographs and dry bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Min Suk; Suh, Kyung Jin; Joo, Kang; Chung, In Hyuk

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate normal variations and thus to avoid confusion in differentiation from lesions of the accessory structures (rhomboid fossa, foramen for supraclavicular nerve, conoid tubercle) of the clavicle in chest radiographs. We studied the variations of the clavicle in 300 chest radiographs (134 men, 166 women) and 355 dry bones (right 166, left 189;151 men, 74 women, 130 unknown sex). In chest radiographs, the incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa was 229 cases (39.5%; male 52.0%, female 29.9%); the flat type was 329 cases (56.9%; male 45.7%, female 65.7%); and the elevated type was 20 cases (3.5%;male 2.4%, female 4.3%). In the dry bones, the incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa was 129 cases (57.3%; male 59.6%, female 52.7%); the flat type was 65 cases (28.9%; male 24.5%, female 37.8%); and the elevated type was 31 cases (13.8%; male 15.9%, female 9.5%). The incidence of the foramen for supraclavicular nerve was 0.8% in chest radiographs, and 1.4% in the dry bones. The incidence of the elevated conoid tubercle was 65.1% (male 64.0%, female 65.9%) in chest radiographs, and 96.9% (male 95.4%, female 100.0%) in the dry bones. The incidence of the depressed rhomboid fossa in chest radiographs was higher in men and the right clavicle. The incidence of flat rhomboid fossa in chest radiographs decreased according to increase of age. The foramen for supraclavicular nerve was occasionally found ( 0.8% in chest radiographs; 1.4% in the dry bones)

  20. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  2. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  4. HIV prevention among male clients of female sex workers in Kaolack, Senegal: results of a peer education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P

    2000-02-01

    This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p money for unprotected sex (p taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges.

  5. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  6. Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.

  7. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna

    2012-12-17

    The categorization of individuals as "male" or "female" is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the "female" form at all levels, or the "male" form at all levels). About 1% of the human population is identified as "intersex" because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the "male" form at some levels and the "female" form at other levels. These two types of "intersex" reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior) leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the "male" form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics). Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-"intersex", when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits) and an intersex brain (a mosaic of "male" and "female" brain characteristics).

  8. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Z Aprison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.

  9. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  10. Cone-beam tomographic analysis of canalis sinuosus accessory intraosseous canals in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandourah, Abdalmalik O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, location and width of accessory canals (AC of canalis sinuosus (CS using cone beam computed tomography and compare our findings with recent literature. Additionally, intraosseous canals (IOC in the sinus wall other than the CS were noted. A retrospective analysis of 219 scans from our university department was conducted. The registered parameters were age, sex, location and width of canals. Group A consisted of 201 (85 males and 116 females adults ranged from 19 to 99 years of age (mean age = 47.5 years. A total of 136 patients (67.6% presented at least 1 AC, of which 55 cases showed a foramen width greater than 1 mm (27.4%. Group B had a sample size of 18 adolescents (7 males and 11 females with a range of age from 7 to 18 years (mean age = 15.8 years. Eight cases (44.4% presented at least one AC, of which only 3 had a foramen width greater than 1 mm (3.6%. ACs were found to occur predominantly at central incisors region (Group A and the left lateral incisor and canine as well as the central incisors regions (Group B. Adolescents showed a lower prevalence of accessory canals compared to adults. These findings supplement earlier reports on the anatomical variations of the intraosseous vessel and nerve conduits of the maxilla. Surgical interventions in this area can be planned more precisely, taking into account the three-dimensional imaging, thus possibly protecting these sensitive structures.

  11. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  13. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  14. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Maamari, Ricardo; Simon, James

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. The CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships survey evaluated the impact of VA on the physical and emotional aspects of sexual relationships between postmenopausal women and their male partners. Four thousand one hundred females and 4,100 males representing the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the United States were surveyed. Assessments included: (i) talking about VA and its symptoms; (ii) the impact of VA on intimacy, relationships, and women's self-esteem; (iii) talking about VA and erectile dysfunction (ED); and (iv) the impact of local estrogen therapy (LET) on intimacy and relationships. Descriptive data on the impact of VA. Twenty-eight percent of women did not tell their partners when they first encountered vaginal discomfort, mainly because they felt "it was just a natural part of growing older" (52%) or because of "embarrassment" (21%). Eighty-two percent of males wanted their partner to share their experiences with VA; males were also more comfortable discussing VA than females (68% vs. 58%, respectively). Having sex less often (women: 58%, men: 61%), less satisfying sex (women: 49%, men: 28%), and putting off having sex (women: 35%, men: 14%) were the main effects of VA. Intimacy avoidance was attributed to painful sex (women: 55%, men: 61%) and women's reduced sexual desire (women: 46%, men: 43%). Discussions about vaginal discomfort and ED were generally limited to partners and healthcare providers (HCPs). LET use resulted in less painful sex (women: 62%, men: 59%) and more satisfying sex (women: 47%, men: 49%). VA has an adverse emotional and physical impact on postmenopausal women and their partners. These findings may encourage more open communication about VA between couples and their HCPs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. [Excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Honghui; Tang, Kanglai; Deng, Yinshuan; Tan, Xiaokang; Zhou, Binghua; Tao, Xu; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qianbo

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular and to evaluate its effectiveness. Between May 2006 and June 2011, 33 patients (40 feet) with flatfoot related with accessory navicular were treated. There were 14 males (17 feet) and 19 females (23 feet) with an average age of 30.1 years (range, 16-56 years). All patients had bilateral accessory navicular; 26 had unilateral flatfoot and 7 had bilateral flatfeet. The disease duration ranged from 7 months to 9 years (median, 24 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-midfoot score was 47.9 +/- 7.3. The X-ray films showed type II accessory navicular, the arch height loss, and heel valgus in all patients. All of them received excision of accessory navicular and reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular with anchor. All patients got primary wound healing without any complication. Thirty patients (36 feet) were followed up 6-54 months with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved complete pain relief at 6 months after surgery and had good appearance of the feet. The AOFAS ankle-midfoot score was 90.4 +/- 2.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=29.73, P=0.00). X-ray films showed that no screw loosening or breakage was observed. There were significant differences in the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar-first metatarsal angle between pre-operation and last follow-up (P < 0.01). The excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular is a good choice for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular, with correction of deformity, excellent effectiveness, and less complications.

  16. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R

    2013-04-01

    In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Life tables from Utah, Denmark, and Sweden were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born in 1850-1910. The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared with Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah, the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing toward biological mechanisms or other unmeasured risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  18. Molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Hepatitis C virus among injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Marwoto; Arifin Adnan, Zainal; Hartono

    2018-05-01

    Male commercial sex workers are one of the high-risk community for blood-borne viruses. However, there are no data concerning the molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) circulated among male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia. Blood samples obtained from injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg, and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. Blood samples were also subjected to viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV, and HCV by nested (RT) PCRs. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV, and HCV were detected in 29.4% (10/34), 17.6% (6/34), and 52.9% (18/34), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 was predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a was predominated, followed by 1c, 3a, 1b, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  19. Study on the correlationship between serum levels of sex hormones and Th1/Th2 cytokines in male patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Su Shengou; Zhang Xuekun; Wang Hongfen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of sex hormones on the balance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with GD through investigation of changes of serum levels of sex hormones and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) after treatment. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , testosterone, FSH, LH (with RIA) and IFN-γ, IL-4 (with ELISA) were determined in 42 male patients with Graves' disease (both before and after 12 weeks of successful antithyroid therapy) and 40 controls. Results: The levels of E 2 , T, LH, FSH in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 2 was an independent fator affecting the levels of IL-4, and showed positive correlationship. The level of T was an independent factor affecting the levels of IFN-γ, also showed positive correlationship. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were independent factors to each other, and there was negative correlationship between them. Conclusion: There were changes in levels of sex hormones and imbalance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with Graves' disease. The sex hormones might have some effect on Th1/Th2 balance in male patients with GD. (authors)

  20. Donor/recipient sex mismatch and survival after heart transplantation: only an issue in male recipients? An analysis of the Spanish Heart Transplantation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Selles, Manuel; Almenar, Luis; Paniagua-Martin, Maria J; Segovia, Javier; Delgado, Juan F; Arizón, Jose M; Ayesta, Ana; Lage, Ernesto; Brossa, Vicens; Manito, Nicolás; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Diaz-Molina, Beatriz; Rábago, Gregorio; Blasco-Peiró, Teresa; De La Fuente Galán, Luis; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Gonzalez-Vilchez, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    The results of studies on the association between sex mismatch and survival after heart transplantation are conflicting. Data from the Spanish Heart Transplantation Registry. From 4625 recipients, 3707 (80%) were men. The donor was female in 943 male recipients (25%) and male in 481 female recipients (52%). Recipients of male hearts had a higher body mass index (25.9 ± 4.1 vs. 24.3 ± 3.7; P gender (P = 0.02). In the multivariate analysis, sex mismatch was associated with long-term mortality (HR, 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.04), and there was a tendency toward significance for the interaction between sex mismatch and recipient gender (P = 0.08). In male recipients, mismatch increased mortality mainly during the first month and in patients with pulmonary gradient >13 mmHg. Sex mismatch seems to be associated with mortality after heart transplantation in men but not in women. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  2. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  3. Male sex, African American race or ethnicity, and triiodothyronine levels at diagnosis predict weight gain after antithyroid medication and radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Miguel A; Loken, Won Mee J; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Safer, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether racial or ethnic differences affect weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism and to reassess established risk factors such as sex, age, and cause of hyperthyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 111 patients treated with radioiodine (RAI) for hyperthyroidism, with or without preceding antithyroid medication, during 2002 to 2005. We ascertained age, sex, race or ethnicity, insurance status, compliance with visits, serum triiodothyronine (T3) level at diagnosis, and cause of hyperthyroidism. Weights and serum thyroidstimulating hormone levels were obtained at diagnosis, at time of RAI therapy, and at 0 to 4 months, 4 to 8 months, 8 to 12 months, and 24 months after RAI treatment. There was a significant weight increase after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Levels of T3 at initial diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, male sex, and black or Hispanic ethnicity were found to be independent predictors of weight gain after RAI treatment. We found a significant interaction between race or ethnicity and sex in multivariate models. There was no difference in thyroid function across racial or ethnic groups or the sexes. Age, cause of hyperthyroidism, posttreatment thyroid-stimulating hormone level, compliance, and insurance status were not found to be significant predictors of weight gain. The T3 level at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is a strong predictor of weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Black race or ethnicity and male sex are also risk factors for weight gain.

  4. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  5. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man

  6. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Meisner, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have...

  7. A cross-sectional study of HIV and STIs among male sex workers attending Australian sexual health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Denton; Read, Phillip; Prestage, Garrett; Minichiello, Victor; Chow, Eric P F; Lewis, David A; McNulty, Anna; Ali, Hammad; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil

    2017-06-01

    Although sex work is frequently characterised as a practice with high risk for HIV and other STIs, little is known about the epidemiology of these infections among men who sell sex in Australia. This study reports the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis and HIV among men who have sex with men attending Australian publicly funded sexual health clinics and compares prevalence between sex workers and non-sex workers. From 2011 to 2014, de-identified patient data were extracted from 40 sexual health clinics in four Australian jurisdictions. The χ 2 and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of HIV and STIs among men attending these services who did and did not report sex work in the 12 months prior to consultation. All analyses were restricted to men who reported sex with other men and to each patient's first consultation at participating services. In total, 27 469 gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men attended participating clinics; 443 (1.6%) reported sex work. At first consultation, 18% of sex workers and 17% of non-sex workers were diagnosed with HIV or an STI (p=0.4): 13% of sex workers were newly diagnosed with chlamydia, 15% with gonorrhoea, 0.5% with infectious syphilis and 0.6% with HIV. After controlling for demographic and behavioural factors, sex work was not independently associated with an HIV or STI diagnosis. These findings provide estimates of HIV and STI prevalence among men who sell sex in Australia and they challenge assumptions of sex work as inherently risky to the sexual health of gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Integrating HIV Prevention and Relationship Education for Young Same-Sex Male Couples: A Pilot Trial of the 2GETHER Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W

    2017-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.

  9. Do male and female cowbirds see their world differently? Implications for sex differences in the sensory system of an avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning of brown-headed cowbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception. Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

  10. Female Mimicry by Sneaker Males Has a Transcriptomic Signature in Both the Brain and the Gonad in a Sex-Changing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Erica V; Liu, Hui; Lamm, Melissa S; Thomas, Jodi T; Rutherford, Kim; Thompson, Kelly C; Godwin, John R; Gemmell, Neil J

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behavior, morphology, and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioral and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads. For the first time in any organism, we find that female mimicry by sneaker males has a transcriptional signature in both the brain and the gonad. Sneaker males shared striking similarity in neural gene expression with females, supporting the idea that males with alternative reproductive phenotypes have "female-like brains." Sneaker males also overexpressed neuroplasticity genes, suggesting that their opportunistic reproductive strategy requires a heightened capacity for neuroplasticity. Bourgeois males overexpressed genes associated with socio-sexual behaviors (e.g., isotocin), but also neuroprotective genes and biomarkers of oxidative stress and aging, indicating a hitherto unexplored cost to these males of attaining the reproductively privileged position at the top of the social hierarchy. Our novel comparison of testicular transcriptomes in a fish with male sexual polymorphism associates greater gonadal investment by sneaker males with overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation and sperm quality control. We propose that morphological female-mimicry by sneaker male teleosts entails pervasive downregulation of androgenesis genes, consistent with low androgen production in males lacking well-developed secondary sexual characters. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Viability of the miss-sexed female pupae in the process of application of sterile insect technique of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing'e; Du Yinggang; Hou Weirong; Chen Jiahua

    2008-01-01

    Female pupae came from the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) were irradiated by 60 Co at 1d, 2d and 3d separately before emergence and the dosage were 90, 100 and 105Gy. The emergence percentage, flight ability and survival percentage under stress were tested. The irradiated female adults mated with unirradiated males and irradiated males came from GSS after emergence, the number of eggs and egg hatch rates were scored for each treatment at 10d and 17d separately. The results showed that the quality control trend of irradiated female were the same as the irradiated male. The irradiated female did not lay egg when mated with irradiated male. The number of eggs decreased sharp when the irradiated females mated with unirradiated males, and the number of eggs would decrease with the increase of irradiation dosage and decrease of pupae age. (authors)

  12. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  13. A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Müllerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Sun, Yunlv; Zhao, Jiue; Shi, Hongjuan; Zeng, Sheng; Ye, Kai; Jiang, Dongneng; Zhou, Linyan; Sun, Lina; Tao, Wenjing; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Kocher, Thomas D.; Wang, Deshou

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y chromosome. The coding sequence of amhy was identical to the X-linked amh (amh) except a missense SNP (C/T) which changes an amino acid (Ser/Leu92) in the N-terminal region. amhy lacks 5608 bp of promoter sequence that is found in the X-linked amh homolog. The amhΔ-y contains several insertions and deletions in the promoter region, and even a 5 bp insertion in exonVI that results in a premature stop codon and thus a truncated protein product lacking the TGF-β binding domain. Both amhy and amhΔ-y expression is restricted to XY gonads from 5 days after hatching (dah) onwards. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of amhy in XY fish resulted in male to female sex reversal, while mutation of amhΔ-y alone could not. In contrast, overexpression of Amhy in XX fish, using a fosmid transgene that carries the amhy/amhΔ-y haplotype or a vector containing amhy ORF under the control of CMV promoter, resulted in female to male sex reversal, while overexpression of AmhΔ-y alone in XX fish could not. Knockout of the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (amhrII) in XY fish also resulted in 100% complete male to female sex reversal. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the duplicated amhy with a missense SNP is the candidate sex determining gene and amhy/amhrII signal is essential for male sex determination in Nile tilapia. These findings highlight the conserved roles of TGF-β signaling pathway in fish sex determination. PMID:26588702

  14. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  15. Structure and chemical organization of the accessory olfactory bulb in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Ichimaru, Toru; Ohkura, Satoshi; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2007-03-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) were examined in male and female goats. Sections were subjected to either Nissl staining, Klüver-Barrera staining, lectin histochemistry, or immunohistochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). The goat AOB was divided into four layers: the vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), glomerular layer (GL), mitral/tufted (M/T) cell layer (MTL), and granule cell layer (GRL). Quantitative and morphometric analyses indicated that a single AOB contained 5,000-8,000 putative M/T cells with no sex differences, whereas the AOB was slightly larger in males. Of the 21 lectins examined, 7 specifically bound to the VNL and GL, and 1 bound not only to the VNL, but also to the MTL and GRL. In either of these cases, no heterogeneity of lectin staining was observed in the rostrocaudal direction. NOS-, TH-, DBH-, and GAD-immunoreactivity (ir) were observed in the MTL and GRL, whereas NPY-ir was present only in the GRL. In the GL, periglomerular cells with GAD-ir were found in abundance, and a subset of periglomerular cells containing TH-ir was also found. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that virtually all periglomerular cells containing TH-ir were colocalized with GAD-ir.

  16. Complete depletion of primordial germ cells in an All-female fish leads to Sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile All-male occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Shi-Zhu; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhong, Jian-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-11-18

    Gynogenesis is one of unisexual reproduction modes in vertebrates, and produces all-female individuals with identical genetic background. In sexual reproduction vertebrates, the roles of primordial germ cells on sexual dimorphism and gonadal differentiation have been largely studied, and two distinct functional models have been proposed. However, the role of primordial germ cells remains unknown in unisexual animals, and it is also unclear whether the functional models in sexual reproduction animals are common in unisexual animals. To solve these puzzles, we attempt to utilize the gynogenetic superiority of polyploid Carassius gibelio to create a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by a similar morpholino-mediated knockdown approach used in other examined sexual reproduction fishes. Through the germ cell-depleted gonad model, we have performed comprehensive and comparative transcriptome analysis, and revealed a complete alteration of sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the expression alteration leads to up-regulation of testis-biased genes and down-regulation of ovary-biased genes, and results in the occurrence of sterile all-males with testis-like gonads and secondary sex characteristics in the germ cell-depleted gynogenetic Carassius gibelio. Our current results have demonstrated that unisexual gynogenetic embryos remain keeping male sex determination information in the genome, and the complete depletion of primordial germ cells in the all-female fish leads to sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile all-male occurrence.

  17. Sex Workers, Fem Queens, and Cross-Dressers: Differential Marginalizations and HIV Vulnerabilities Among Three Ethnocultural Male-to-Female Transgender Communities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwahng, Sel Julian; Nuttbrock, Larry

    2007-12-01

    This article describes 3 distinct ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City: the low-income African American/Black and Latina(o) House Ball community; low-income, often undocumented immigrant Asian sex workers; and middle-class White cross-dressers. These communities are highly socially isolated from each other and are more connected to their ethnocultural contexts than to an abstract and shared transgender identity. Whereas previous research either has viewed male-to-female transgender people as one monolithic group or has separated them into abstract racial categories unconnected to their communities and lifestyles, this article positions them within specific social networks, cultures, neighborhoods, and lifestyles. With regard to HIV vulnerabilities, violence, and rape, House Ball community members seemed to engage in the riskiest form of survival sex work, whereas Asian sex workers seemed to engage in moderate-risk survival sex work. White cross-dressers seemed to engage in very low-risk recreational sex work.

  18. Perinatal testosterone contributes to mid-to-post pubertal sex differences in risk for binge eating in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Sinclair, Elaine B; Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to testosterone early in life may contribute to sex differences and pubertal changes in risk for eating pathology (i.e., females > males, after pubertal onset). Specifically, perinatal testosterone permanently alters brain structure/function and drives the masculinization of several sex-differentiated behaviors. However, the effects of perinatal testosterone are often not evident until puberty when increases in gonadal hormones activate the expression of sex typical behavior, including eating behaviors (e.g., chow intake; saccharin preference) in rodents. Despite perinatal testosterone's masculinizing effects on general feeding behavior, it remains unknown if perinatal testosterone exposure contributes to sex differences in pathological eating. The current study addressed this gap by examining whether perinatal testosterone exposure decreases risk for binge eating proneness after pubertal onset in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40 oil-treated control females; n = 39 testosterone-treated females; n = 40 oil-treated control males) were followed longitudinally across pre-to-early puberty, mid-to-late puberty, and adulthood. The binge eating prone (BEP)/binge eating resistant (BER) rodent model was used to identify individual differences in binge eating proneness across the dimensional spectrum. As expected, testosterone-treated females and control males showed masculinized (i.e., lower) risk for binge eating as compared to control females, but only after midpuberty. These animal data are significant in suggesting that perinatal testosterone exposure may protect against binge eating and underlie sex differences in binge eating prevalence during and after puberty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of guanfacine and sex-specific differences in effects on c-fos immunoreactivity and paired-pulse ratio in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Bentham, Matthew P; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Plantenga, Margreet E; McKee, Sherry A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2015-10-01

    The a2A-noradrenergic agonist guanfacine can decreases stress-induced smoking in female, but not male, human smokers. It is not known whether these effects are due to effects on mood regulation and/or result from nicotinic-cholinergic interactions. The objective of the study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the effect of guanfacine in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy in mice at baseline and in a hypercholinergic model of depression induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. The effects of guanfacine were measured in the light/dark box, tail suspension, and the forced swim test in female and male C57BL/6J mice. In parallel, electrophysiological properties were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, a critical brain region involved in stress responses. c-fos immunoreactivity was measured in other brain regions known to regulate mood. Despite a baseline sex difference in behavior in the forced swim test (female mice were more immobile), guanfacine had similar, dose-dependent, antidepressant-like effects in mice of both sexes (optimal dose, 0.15 mg/kg). An antidepressant-like effect of guanfacine was also observed following pre-treatment with physostigmine. A sex difference in the paired-pulse ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (male, 1.4; female, 2.1) was observed at baseline that was normalized by guanfacine. Other brain areas involved in cholinergic control of depression-like behaviors, including the basolateral amygdala and lateral septum, showed sex-specific changes in c-fos expression. Guanfacine has a robust antidepressant-like effect and can reverse a depression-like state induced by increased acetylcholine (ACh) signaling. These data suggest that different brain areas are recruited in female and male mice, despite similar behavioral responses to guanfacine.

  20. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003-7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003-7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of "sex with a man in last 12 months" between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. A considerable number of new studies with estimates of

  1. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female dancers and athletes, part 1: Influence of sex on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; Liederbach, Marijeanne; Kremenic, Ian J; Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among dancers is much lower than among team sport athletes, and no clear disparity between sexes has been reported in the dance population. Although numerous studies have observed differences in landing biomechanics of the lower extremity between male and female team sport athletes, there is currently little research examining the landing biomechanics of male and female dancers and none comparing athletes to dancers. Comparing the landing biomechanics within these populations may help explain the lower overall ACL injury rates and lack of sex disparity. The purpose was to compare the effects of sex and group (dancer vs team sport athlete) on single-legged drop-landing biomechanics. The primary hypothesis was that female dancers would perform a drop-landing task without demonstrating typical sex-related risk factors associated with ACL injuries. A secondary hypothesis was that female team sport athletes would display typical ACL risk factors during the same task. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematics and kinetics were recorded as 40 elite modern and ballet dancers (20 men and 20 women) and 40 team sport athletes (20 men and 20 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Joint kinematics and kinetics were compared between groups and sexes with a group-by-sex multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by pairwise t tests. Dancers of both sexes and male team sport athletes landed similarly in terms of frontal-plane knee alignment, whereas female team sport athletes landed with a significantly greater peak knee valgus (P = .007). Female dancers were found to have a lower hip adduction torque than those of the other 3 groups (P = .003). Dancers (male and female) exhibited a lower trunk side flexion (P = .002) and lower trunk forward flexion (P = .032) compared with team sport athletes. In executing a 30-cm drop landing, female team sport athletes displayed a greater knee valgus

  2. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  3. [Study on HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and female sex workers of low-cost venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y Q; Li, J J; Fang, N Y; Wang, B; Wang, J W; Liang, S S; Shen, Z Y; Lan, G H; Zhang, H M; Wu, X H; Lu, H X; Ge, X M

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand HIV-1 subtype characteristics and transmission clusters in elderly male clients and female sex workers (FSWs) of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in FSWs and elderly male clients (≥50 years) of low-cost commercial sex venues in 4 cities and 9 counties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by convenient sampling in 2012. The blood sample was collected from each case for HIV-1 antibody detection. The pol gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from viral RNA template extracted from plasma samples. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and the subtypes were identified. Results: A total of 4 048 elderly male clients and 784 FSWs were surveyed, and 116 HIV-1 infections were detected, the positive rate was 2.5% (103/4 048) in the clients and 1.7% (13/784) in FSWs. The gene amplification and sequencing of HIV-1 detected in 84 blood samples indicated that 53 pol gene sequences were successfully determined (48 blood samples from elderly male clients and 5 blood samples from FSWs). Among 53 pol sequences, 48(90.6% ), 4(7.5% ), and 1(1.9% ) sequences were identified as CRF01_AE, CRF08_BC, and CRF07_BC, respectively. Two transmission clusters were identified among CRF01_AE, including 4 sub-clusters. One transmission cluster was identified among CRF08_BC. The transmission cluster or sub-cluster were from the infected individuals at same low-cost commercial sex venue, or different low-cost commercial sex venues in the same town, or same place, or adjacent villages and towns. Conclusions: CRF01_AE was the predominant HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and FSWs of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, circulating in same venue or adjacent villages and towns. The HIV-1 positive male clients and FSWs might play an important role in the spread of the strains.

  4. Male self-disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to sex partners: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive men face multiple challenges when deciding whether to disclose their serostatus to sex partners. The purpose of this literature review (1996-2004) is to identify valid and reliable research results that identify factors influencing serostatus disclosure to sex partners by men who are HIV-positive. Articles included in the review were identified through an electronic search using pertinent terms related to disclosure to sex partners, followed by a search of references for additional articles. A compilation of research results for 17 articles is presented under the headings of background, contextual, and psychosocial factors influencing disclosure. An analysis of the data suggests that differences in disclosure rates vary based on sex partner factors including serostatus, relationship status, and number of sex partners. Rates of disclosure to primary sex partners ranged from 67% to 88%, suggesting that nearly one third of main sex partners were not disclosed to and were at risk of contracting HIV, whereas a pattern of lower disclosure among casual partners was evident. As the number of sex partners increased, the likelihood of disclosure to all sex partners decreased, ranging from one quarter (25%) to slightly over half (58%). In addition, perceived efficaciousness and positive outcome expectations were the most frequent theoretical constructs embedded in the research associated with disclosure, suggesting that these factors play an important role in the process of disclosure to sex partners. Interpersonal factors that positively influenced self-disclosure included spousal support, emotional investment, and communication about safe sex, including asking about a partner's serostatus. Self-disclosure was not consistently associated with safer sex. Recommendations for future research are presented, based on the results included in this review.

  5. A comparison of male sex workers in Prague: Internet escorts versus men who work in specialized bars and clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Johnson, Michael David; Weiss, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Prague, the Czech Republic, is a popular sex tourism destination where sex work is decriminalized and young men offer sexual services at low prices relative to countries in Western Europe. This quantitative survey aimed to identify some of the demographic characteristics of these young men and their experiences in the sex industry. Internet escorts (N = 20) and sex workers in bars and clubs (N = 20) completed the survey anonymously in spring 2011. The results showed that sex workers in clubs often had troubled pasts and were forced into sex work to survive. They also reported incidents of violence, serious alcohol and drug use, as well as frequent gambling. The larger group of sex workers in Prague is made up of Internet escorts who have backgrounds that are not atypical for the average Czech youth. They had fewer problems with drugs and alcohol but were twice as likely as sex workers in bars and clubs to be victims of violent crime. Plans for interventions to help those who would change their line of work, as well as the importance of sociocultural context in understanding sex workers, are discussed.

  6. BODY SIZE AND HAREM SIZE IN MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: MANIPULATING SELECTION WITH SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Langston, Nancy; Gori, Dave

    1996-10-01

    We experimentally manipulated the strength of selection in the field on red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to test hypotheses about contrasting selective forces that favor either large or small males in sexually size dimorphic birds. Selander (1972) argued that sexual selection favors larger males, while survival selection eventually stabilizes male size because larger males do not survive as well as smaller males during harsh winters. Searcy (1979a) proposed instead that sexual selection may be self limiting: male size might be stabilized not by overwinter mortality, but by breeding-season sexual selection that favors smaller males. Under conditions of energetic stress, smaller males should be able to display more and thus achieve higher reproductive success. Using feeders that provisioned males or females but not both, we produced conditions that mimicked the extremes of natural conditions. We found experimental support for the hypothesis that when food is abundant, sexual selection favors larger males. But even under conditions of severe energetic stress, smaller males did not gain larger harems, as the self-limiting hypothesis predicted. Larger males were more energetically stressed than smaller males, but in ways that affected their future reproductive output rather than their current reproductive performance. Stressed males that returned had smaller wings and tails than those that did not return; among returning stressed males, relative harem sizes were inversely related to wing and tail length. Thus, male body size may be stabilized not by survival costs during the non-breeding season, nor by energetic costs during the breeding season, but by costs of future reproduction that larger males pay for their increased breeding-season effort. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device, it...

  8. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  9. Sex Workers, Fem Queens, and Cross-Dressers: Differential Marginalizations and HIV Vulnerabilities Among Three Ethnocultural Male-to-Female Transgender Communities in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Hwahng, Sel Julian; Nuttbrock, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 3 distinct ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City: the low-income African American/Black1 and Latina(o) House Ball community; low-income, often undocumented immigrant Asian sex workers; and middle-class White cross-dressers. These communities are highly socially isolated from each other and are more connected to their ethnocultural contexts than to an abstract and shared transgender identity. Whereas previous research either has viewed mal...

  10. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of European sex equality law on the UK legislation: a challenge to the “male norm”?

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    It has been argued that some of the main provisions of the EU sex equality law, namely the Equal Treatment and the Equal Pay Directives, have hardly had any influence on the decision to introduce legislation in the UK, aimed at eliminating discrimination based on sex with regard to pay, access to jobs, training and working conditions. The Equal Pay Act (1970) and the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which represent the two main pillars of equality legislation in the UK, were both introduced pri...

  12. Expression profile of doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 during gonadal sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Horiguchi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Sex change in fish involves a dramatic transformation of gonadal tissue and a switch in gametogenesis. Doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 (DMRT1), encoded by the DMRT1 gene, is involved in testicular differentiation in a wide range of vertebrates as well as in sexual differentiation and gonadal sex change. In the present study, we investigated changes in the expression of dmrt1 during artificial gonadal sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization, using an anti-wrasse-Dmrt1 antibody that we prepared. We found that dmrt1 expression was predominantly observed in the testes, and that Dmrt1 was expressed in Sertoli cells of testes and a few granulosa cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes of the ovary. Additionally, the upregulation of dmrt1 expression was consistent with an increase in spermatogenic cyst quantity rather than proliferation of presumptive spermatogonia, suggesting that dmrt1 is involved in the progression of spermatogenesis during sex change. Changes in the localization of Dmrt1 during gonadal sex change further implied that Sertoli cells originate from somatic cells adjacent to gonial germ cells during testicular formation in the three-spot wrasse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behavior, and intimate partner violence among African American adolescent females with a male sex partner recently released from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-08-01

    Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.

  15. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  16. Does Accessory Ossicle Affect Management Plan in an Athlete After Ankle Sprain? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Şeyma TORĞUTALP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Os subfibulare is an accessory ossicle that lies at the distal part of lateral malleolus. It is typically asymptomatic and detected incidentally by the presence of ankle injuries. A case report of sixteen years old male athlete with ankle injury was presented.

  17. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Kathoey (Male-to-Female Transgender) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past 6 months. Almost all participants reported al...

  18. Male or female, we will create them: the ethics of sex selection for non-medical reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, David

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the arguments for and against the practice of sex selection for non-medical reasons (e.g. parental preferences, family balancing, religious reasons) in light of the new technology of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). It distinguishes between arguments about the risks to the future child, the mother and society, on the one hand, and the inherent wrongness of the practice as an illegitimate interference in the natural course of reproduction, on the other. The article tries to show that at least in the well defined context of sex selection by PGD, when IVF was performed for independent medical reasons, there is no danger to either the child or the mother and hence that the practice should be permitted. Furthermore, the alleged dangers to society are demonstrated to be mostly illusory. On the one hand, the demographic danger is usually overstated and lacks historical support. On the other hand, the feminist claim that sex selection is necessarily discriminatory is found to be both theoretically and empirically groundless. The article's conclusion is that despite widespread intuitive objection to the practice of sex selection, it can be justified in terms of parental autonomy and falls within the value of family planning. This liberal view does not, however, imply that having a child of the desired sex is the parents' right, nor does it apply to sex selection in later phases of gestation (abortions and obviously, infanticide).

  19. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex

  20. Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M van der Elst

    Full Text Available Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW in Africa.We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men. Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men, intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women, and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001. Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2% and men (69.7% felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women mostly lacked reading skills.About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

  1. Correlates of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and associated high-risk behaviors among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L; Goldenberg, Shira; Gallardo, Manuel; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2009-08-24

    To determine sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana. Four hundred men aged 18 years or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's 'zone of tolerance,' where prostitution is practiced openly under a municipal permit system. Efforts were made to balance the sample between residents of the United States (San Diego County) and of Mexico (Tijuana). Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Mean age was 36.6 years. One-quarter had injected drugs within the previous 4 months. Lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine was 36, 50, and 64%, respectively. Men had frequented FSWs for an average of 11 years, visiting FSWs an average of 26 times last year. In the past 4 months, one-half reported having unprotected sex with a FSW; 46% reported being high fairly or very often when having sex with a FSW. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was 4, 2, 2.5, and 7.5%; 14.2% were positive for at least one infection. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were living in Mexico, ever using methamphetamine, living alone, and testing positive for syphilis. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana had a high sex and drug risk profile. Although sexually transmitted infection prevalence was lower than among FSWs, HIV prevalence was comparable suggesting the need for interventions among clients to prevent spread of HIV and sexually transmitted infections.

  2. Sex differences, effects of male presence and coordination of nest visits in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) during the immediate postnatal period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, B.; Parker, E.; Bemis, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about sex differences in parental behavior of biparental mammals and if mates in such species coordinate care of young. We studied parental care displayed by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) under seminatural laboratory conditions during the first 3 d of life of their offspring. Through direct observations and videotaping, we monitored members of male-female pairs to determine if sex differences in early parental behavior exist and if mothers and fathers coordinate visits to the nest. To assess the impact of fathers on survival of pups and behavior of mothers, we also examined parental care displayed by single females toward their young. Male and female members of breeding pairs differed dramatically in degree of parental care. Females spent more time in the nest with young and licked them more frequently than did males. Additionally, females maintained the nest more frequently than did males, whereas they maintained runways less frequently. Although coordination of visits to the nest was not perfect between members of pairs, pups of pairs were left alone for less time than were pups of single females. Parental behavior displayed by paired and single females did not differ, nor did survival of their young to day 3 or 15. We suggest that provision of ample space and cover to vole parents rearing young in captivity promotes expression of sex differences in parental behavior, but that even seminatural conditions are not sufficient to yield benefits of father presence to survival of young. Under more challenging conditions, such as cold temperatures or presence of predators, benefits of father presence might emerge.

  3. Black Otherfathering in the Educational Experiences of Black Males in a Single-Sex Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooms, Derrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: A good deal of research has been written about the problems and challenges facing Black male youth in their educational endeavors, ranging from academic performances, aspirations, and outcomes to student-teacher relationships, social experiences, and identity development. Statements calling for more Black male teachers abound…

  4. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K; Aksglaede, L; Fedder, J; Viuff, M H; Main, K M; Gravholt, C H

    2017-08-01

    What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter Syndrome. However, this has never been systematically studied in 46,XX DSD males. In this nationwide registry study including 44 males with a verified diagnosis of 46,XX DSD we aimed to estimate incidence, prevalence and diagnostic delay. Further, we aimed to study morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic outcome parameters using the Danish registries. The socioeconomic outcome parameters were education, income, retirement, parenthood and cohabitation. 46,XX DSD males were born during 1908-2012 and follow-up started at birth or at start of registration and ended in 2014. Potential cases (n = 69) were identified in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry and the diagnosis was verified by medical record evaluation (n = 44). A randomly selected age-matched control group of 100 males and 100 females per case was identified by Statistics Denmark. Among newborn males the prevalence of diagnosed 46,XX DSD males was 3.5-4.7 per 100 000. Median age at diagnosis was 17.0 years (range: 0.0-62.8). Overall morbidity was increased compared to male controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.3) but not when excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) than male controls

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU) among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers' use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients' CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized. PMID:26316978

  6. Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey (Mandrillus sphinx): influence of sex, male status, and individual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Vaglio, Stefano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Calamai, Luca; Knapp, Leslie A

    2010-03-01

    Primates are traditionally considered to be microsmatic, with decreased reliance on olfactory senses in comparison to other sensory modalities such as vision. This is particularly the case for Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines). However, various lines of evidence suggest that chemical communication may be important in these species, including the presence of a sternal scent-gland in the mandrill. We investigated the volatile components of mandrill odor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 97 volatile components in 88 swabs of the sternal gland secretion and 95 samples of sternal gland hair saturated with scent-gland secretion collected from 27 males and 18 females. We compared odor profiles with features of the signaler using principle components and discriminant function analyses and found that volatile profiles convey both variable (age, dominance rank in males) and fixed (sex, possibly individual identity) information about the signaler. The combination of an odor profile that signals sex, age, and rank with increased motivation to scent-mark and increased production of secretion in high-ranking males leads to a potent signal of the presence of a dominant, adult male with high testosterone levels. This may be particularly relevant in the dense Central African rain forest which mandrills inhabit. By contrast, we were unable to differentiate between either female cycle stage or female rank based on odor profiles, which accords with behavioral studies suggesting that odor signals are not as important in female mandrills as they are in males. The similarity of our findings to those for other mammals and in primates that are more distantly related to humans suggests a broader role for odor in primate communication than is currently recognized.

  7. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 'Just getting by': a cross-sectional study of male sex workers as a key population for HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and sex work characteristics, recent sexual practices, HIV risk perception and testing history, and HIV and syphilis prevalence of Cercado (downtown) and non-Cercado (close urban) male sex workers (MSWs) in Lima, Peru. Eighty-nine MSWs completed a self-administered survey and participated in HIV and syphilis testing. Cercado MSWs had significantly lower median weekly earnings than non-Cercado MSWs (US$43 vs US$72, p=0.04). Most non-Cercado MSWs (81%) reported only insertive anal intercourse with male/transgender partners, while Cercado MSWs primarily reported only insertive (52%) or insertive and receptive (45%) anal intercourse (p=0.03). Consistent condom use was low with insertive and receptive anal intercourse in both subgroups. Among MSWs with recent female partners, condom use with the last partner was lower among Cercado versus non-Cercado MSWs for vaginal sex (37% vs 65%, p=0.04) and anal sex (27% vs 80%, p=0.01). More Cercado than non-Cercado MSWs (57% vs 42%) perceived high HIV risk (p=0.05) and Cercado MSWs had a much higher prevalence than non-Cercado MSWs of HIV (23% vs 4%, p=0.04) and syphilis (22% vs 0%, p=0.02) infections. MSWs in Lima are diverse and Cercado MSWs are 'just getting by,' engaging in more risk behaviours, and more likely to have HIV/STIs. Future research should identify, describe and carry out HIV/STI testing with broader groups of MSWs and their client and non-client partners. Prevention efforts should provide HIV/STI risk reduction education for MSWs and related subgroups who are currently not targeted such as female partners.

  9. CONSTRUCTION AND REARING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA, GENETIC SEXING STRAINS, VIENNA-8 WITH MALES CARRYING THE MARKER SERGEANT-2 (VIENNA-8/Sr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A trial on the construction, maintenance and adaptation of the genetic sexing strain Vienna-8/Sr2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), has been done in the fruit fly laboratories of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) in the cooperation with the laboratories of International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. This trial was successful and this strain was maintained in the medfly laboratories of the EAEA for more than 10 generations up till now. Vienna-8/ Sr 2 is very stable strain and carries the dominant mutation called sergeant-2 (Sr 2 ) and could be used as a visible marker for the sterile male flies released in the field for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly. This visible marker simplifies the discrimination between released sterile males and wild males caught in field monitoring traps. Males of this strain have three white stripes on the abdomen while wild males have only two stripes. The use of this genetic marker, as a replacement of the external dye marker, clearly has an immediate positive impact on the efficiency of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs (by using gamma radiation)

  10. Inherited Sterility Induced in Progeny of Gamma Irradiated Males Spiny Bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. II. Effect on Larval and Pupal Mortality, Development and Sex Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.R.H.; Sallam, H.A.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. adult males were irradiated with sub sterilizing doses of 50,80,100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation. The number of surviving larvae was dose dependant and larval/pupal mortality increased as the dose applied to P1 males was increased. The larval mortality among F3 was reduced compared with that of the F1 and F2. The average developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence at the four tested doses was slightly affected among the progeny descendant of irradiated P1 males through the three successive generations. The percentage of adult emergence was evidently reduced among F1 and F2 progeny resulting from parental males exposed to the three higher irradiation doses (80,100 and 150 Gy).The sex ratio was slightly altered in favor of males among the majority of all treatments. Raman studies of irradiated and unirradiated stones at different temperatures and irradiation times showed a relation between the bands of scattered peaks corresponding to (OH) stretching modes of vibration with the color changes

  11. Sexual risk behaviors for HIV infection in Spanish male sex workers: differences according to educational level, country of origin and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, R; Salmerón, P; Gil, M D; Gómez, S

    2012-05-01

    The stigma associated with male sex workers (MSW) hinders the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV infection in this population. These factors make social and public health resources less accessible to MSW. To improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies, this study examines social factors such as educational level, country of origin, and sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews of 100 MSW in Castellón and Valencia (Spanish cities) indicate that knowledge of HIV transmission is good; nevertheless, MSW significantly overestimate or underestimate some sexual practices. Levels of condom use are high; notably, they are higher during anal sex. Levels of condom use are lower with intimate partners than with clients. MSW do not present differences in terms of the socio-demographic variables analyzed and sexual orientation. Furthermore, regression analyses are not significant. These results offer more accurate profiles of MSW than were previously available, which will ultimately help improve the effectiveness of prevention programs.

  12. Pheromone Binding Protein EhipPBP1 Is Highly Enriched in the Male Antennae of the Seabuckthorn Carpenterworm and Is Binding to Sex Pheromone Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The seabuckthorn carpenterworm moth Eogystia hippophaecolus is a major threat to seabuckthorn plantations, causing considerable ecological and economic losses in China. Transcriptomic analysis of E. hippophaecolus previously identified 137 olfactory proteins, including three pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs. We investigated the function of E. hippophaecolus PBP1 by studying its mRNA and protein expression profiles and its binding ability with different compounds. The highest levels of expression were in the antennae, particularly in males, with much lower levels of expression in the legs and external genitals. Recombinant PBP1 showed strong binding to sex-pheromone components, suggesting that antennal EhipPBP1 is involved in binding sex-pheromone components during pheromone communication.

  13. The Effects of the Determinants of Women's Movement Into and Out of Male-dominated Occupations on Occupational Sex Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.

    Although occupational sex segregation has decreased over the last 25 years, it is still a major social concern primarily because of the role it plays in perpetuating the gender wage gap. This paper uses data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a study that followed a random sample of 10,317 high school graduates, to assess the determinants of…

  14. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  15. HIV-related risk behaviors among kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past six months. Almost all participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32 and 36%, respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in the job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.

  16. Health, Trust, or “Just Understood”: Explicit and Implicit Condom Decision-Making Processes Among Black, White, and Interracial Same-Sex Male Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the novel sex-linked testis-specific retrotransposed PGAM4 gene influences human male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Okuda

    Full Text Available The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes.We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4 on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme's activity both in vitro and in vivo.These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.

  18. Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Ryan; Page, Chloe E; Coutellier, Laurence

    2016-09-22

    Stress-induced modifications of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are believed to contribute to the onset of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, which are more prevalent in women. In depression, the PFC is hypoactive; however the origin of this hypoactivity remains unclear. Possibly, stress could impact the prefrontal GABAergic inhibitory system that, as a result, impairs the functioning of downstream limbic structures controlling emotions. Preclinical evidence indicates that the female PFC is more sensitive to the effects of stress. These findings suggest that exposure to stress could lead to sex-specific alterations in prefrontal GABAergic signaling, which contribute to sex-specific abnormal functioning of limbic regions. These limbic changes could promote the onset of depressive and anxiety behaviors in a sex-specific manner, providing a possible mechanism mediating sex differences in the clinical presentation of stress-related mood disorders. We addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model of stress-induced depressive-like behaviors: the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm. We observed changes in prefrontal GABAergic signaling after exposure to UCMS most predominantly in females. Increased parvalbumin (PV) expression and decreased prefrontal neuronal activity were correlated in females with severe emotionality deficit following UCMS, and with altered activity of the amygdala. In males, small changes in emotionality following UCMS were associated with minor changes in prefrontal PV expression, and with hypoactivity of the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that prefrontal hypoactivity observed in stress-related mood disorders could result from stress-induced increases in PV expression, particularly in females. This increased vulnerability of the female prefrontal PV system to stress could underlie sex differences in the prevalence and symptomatology of stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Development and Open Pilot Trial of an HIV-Prevention Intervention Integrating Mobile-Phone Technology for Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.

  20. Male Sex Workers in Spain: What has Changed in the Last Lustrum? A Comparison of Sociodemographic Data and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Salmerón-Sánchez, P; Gil-Llario, M D; Castro-Calvo, J

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the evolution of risky factors related to HIV infection among Male Sex Workers (MSW) in Spain between 2010 and 2015. Participants were 180 MSW: 100 in 2010 and 80 in 2015. Socio-demographic characteristics, condom use with clients and personal partners, and other aspects about HIV infection were explored (serostatus, HIV information, perceived risk and fear, and drug use). The proportion of Spanish MSW (nonimmigrants) (5.5 vs. 62.5 %), educational level (19.8 vs. 40.5 % reported university degree), and the percentage of self-identified as bisexual (20.2 vs. 55.8 %) increased in 2015, whereas the percentage of MSW who self-identified as sex workers (62 vs. 25.8 %) decreased. The percentage of condom use has decreased during oral sex (76.8 vs. 35.5 %), vaginal sex (97.6 vs. 50.7 %) and insertive (99.6 vs. 92.2 %) and receptive (99.7 vs. 93 %) anal sex. The proportion of MSW living with HIV climbed from 1.1 to 13.6 %. The possible influence of economic crisis over MSW's profile changes in the 5-year period, and the necessity of more efficient health strategies based on culture and sexual orientation are discussed. The evolution observed indicates that this population is still at high risk for HIV and STI, therefore governmental resources have to be increased due the consequences among MSW and general society.

  1. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  2. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  3. GIRLFRIENDS, SEX AND VIOLENCE: THE ATTITUDES AND REPORTED BEHAVIOURS OF ADOLESCENT MALES IN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulumeoderhwa, Maroyi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognised that levels of gender violence in contemporary South Africa are very high and that a significant part of this violence involves forced sex. The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR (2008 has characterised the country as being in a “state of sexual tyranny”. The specific aim of this research is to better understand the important beliefs and attitudes of a sample of young urban men concerning girlfriends, violence and sex. Such beliefs and attitudes are likely to result in behaviours which have direct implications for the high levels of gender violence, the high rates of HIV prevalence and the incidence of new infections

  4. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  5. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40–49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time. By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%–2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%–0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%). Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission

  6. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  7. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  8. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic... system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood system...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices intended...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  13. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  14. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parts, or tools will be taken into account as originating or non-originating materials, as the case may... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  16. Vitamin D deficiency intensifies deterioration of risk factors, such as male sex and absence of vision, leading to increased postural body sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthias; Anschütz, Wilma; Vettorazzi, Eik; Breer, Stefan; Amling, Michael; Barvencik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Due to inconsistent findings, the influence of vitamin D on postural body sway (PBS) is currently under debate. This study evaluated the impact of vitamin D on PBS with regards to different foot positions and eye opening states in community-dwelling older individuals. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed PBS in 342 older individuals (264 females [average age (± SD): 68.3 ± 9.0 years], 78 males [65.7 ± 9.6 years]). A detailed medical history and vitamin D level were obtained for each individual. Fall risk was evaluated using the New York-Presbyterian Fall Risk Assessment Tool (NY PFRA). PBS parameters (area, distance, velocity, frequency) were evaluated on a pressure plate with feet in closed stance (CS) or hip-width stance (HWS), open eyes and closed eyes. Statistical analysis included logarithmic mixed models for repeated measures with the MIXED model procedure to test the influence of vitamin D (categorized in 30 μg/l), foot position, eye opening state, age, sex and frequency of physical activity on PBS. Vitamin D was not an independent risk factor for falls experienced in the last 12 months. Nonetheless, PBS was higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (risk factors for increased PBS like male sex and absence of vision are additionally compromised by vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) in colorectal cancer: possible associations with male sex and KRAS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2006-11-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with extensive promoter methylation seems to be a distinct epigenotype of colorectal cancer. However, no study has comprehensively examined features of colorectal cancer with less extensive promoter methylation (designated as "CIMP-low"). Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight), we quantified DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1, and NEUROG1] in 840 relatively unbiased, population-based colorectal cancer samples, obtained from two large prospective cohort studies. CIMP-low (defined as 1/5 to 3/5 methylated promoters) colorectal cancers were significantly more common among men (38 versus 30% in women, P = 0.01) and among KRAS-mutated tumors (44 versus 30% in KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumors, P = 0.0003; 19% in BRAF-mutated tumors, P CIMP-low tumors (47%) than in CIMP-high tumors (with > or =4/5 methylated promoters, 12%, P CIMP-0 tumors (with 0/5 methylated promoters, 37%, P = 0.007). The associations of CIMP-low tumors with male sex and KRAS mutations still existed after tumors were stratified by microsatellite instability status. In conclusion, CIMP-low colorectal cancer is associated with male sex and KRAS mutations. The hypothesis that CIMP-low tumors are different from CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors needs to be tested further.

  19. Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in southern China: sexual and drug-using behaviours among female sex workers and male clients in Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods.

  20. Antimüllerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, Mirte R.; Soleman, Remi S.; Kuijper, Esther A. M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; De Roo, Chloe; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A. A.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of

  1. Antimullerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, M.R.; Soleman, R.S.; Kuijper, E.A.M.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; De Roo, C.; Tilleman, K.; De Sutter, P.; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Broekmans, F.J.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimüllerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of

  2. Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion, or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3, with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5% drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%. As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6, penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8, and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9. Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0 and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5. Conclusions Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and

  3. Antenna-predominant and male-biased CSP19 of Sesamia inferens is able to bind the female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Yang, Ke; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-02-25

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors (ORs), but this has not been clarified in moths. In this study, we built on our previously reported segment sequence work and cloned the full length CSP19 gene (SinfCSP19) from the antennae of Sesamia inferens by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) assays indicated that the gene was expressed in a unique profile, i.e. predominant in antennae and significantly higher in male than in female. To explore the function, recombinant SinfCSP19 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified by Ni-ion affinity chromatography. Binding affinities of the recombinant SinfCSP19 with 39 plant volatiles, 3 sex pheromone components and 10 pheromone analogs were measured using fluorescent competitive binding assays. The results showed that 6 plant volatiles displayed high binding affinities to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 2.12-8.75 μM), and more interesting, the 3 sex pheromone components and analogs showed even higher binding to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 0.49-1.78 μM). Those results suggest that SinfCSP19 plays a role in reception of female sex pheromones of S. inferens and host plant volatiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facilitating access to sexual health services for men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Barrington, Clare; Bolaños, Herbert; Arandi, Cesar Galindo; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to accessing sexual health services among gay, bisexual and heterosexual-identifying men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City, to inform the development of high quality and population-friendly services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 purposively sampled individuals, including 8 transgender, 16 gay/bisexual and 5 heterosexual-identifying participants. Topical codes were applied to the data using software Atlas.ti™ to compare data between sub-groups. Analysis revealed that public clinics were most commonly used due to their lower cost and greater accessibility, but many participants experienced discrimination, violation of confidentiality and distrust of these services. Transgender and gay/bisexual-identifying participants preferred clinics where they felt a sense of belonging, while heterosexual-identifying participants preferred clinics unassociated with the men who have sex with men community. The most prominent barriers to sexual health services included fear of discrimination, fear of having HIV, cost and lack of social support. Findings highlight the need to strengthen existing public sexually transmitted infection clinics so that they address the multiple layers of stigma and discrimination that men who have sex with men and transgender persons experience.

  5. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  6. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  7. Old age and male sex are associated with increased risk of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis: analysis of data from local health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Hee Man; Ko, Geun Jun; Woo, Myoung Lyeol; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yu Jin; Han, Ki Jun; Song, Si Young; Cho, Hyeon Geun

    2011-06-01

    Silent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is often detected during routine screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, the risk factors and clinical implications of silent GERD remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the risk factors for asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by analyzing the local area health examination data. The Korean National Health Insurance Corporation provides a bi-annual health examination performed by qualified local hospitals for the early detection of cancer in medical insurance holders over 40 years of age. Participants who completed self-reported questionnaires on health, followed by EGD at the Myongji Hospital (Goyang, Korea), were enrolled in this study. The data of a total of 5301 participants who underwent EGD between January 2005 and December 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis was 6%. In the multivariate analysis, erosive esophagitis was strongly associated with an age greater than 60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-1.0), male sex (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0), hiatus hernia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.1-4.0), duodenal ulcer (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5), hypertension (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0), and smoking (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8). Of the 320 participants with erosive esophagitis, 145 (45.3%) were asymptomatic participants, and those who were more frequently greater than 60 years (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and male (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in adults older than 40 years is strongly associated with old age (≥ 60 years) and male sex compared with symptomatic erosive esophagitis. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Females of a gift-giving spider do not trade sex for food gifts: a consequence of male deception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandulli-Alonso, Irene; Quaglia, Agustín; Albo, Maria J

    2017-05-15

    Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts. Though the treatments strongly affected fecundity, females of all groups had similar number of matings. This confirms that female receptivity is independent of their nutritional state, i.e. polyandry does not prevail as a foraging strategy. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis, in which the majority (62%) of gifts in nature are nutritive, female receptivity depends on hunger. We therefore propose that the dependence of female receptivity on hunger state may have evolved in species with predominantly nutritive gifts but is absent in species with predominantly worthless gifts.

  9. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  10. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  11. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun

    2016-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  12. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  13. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Sperm parameters in rats after low-dose irradiation of sex cells in male parents during two cycles of gametogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, N.O.; Chub, N.N.; Brizgalova, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic combined (internal and external) irradiation in low doses (absorbed doses 0.4 - 3.6 cGy) during two cycles of gametogenesis results in defective stimulation of spermatogenesis in male rats and provokes genotoxic action. The offspring from fathers with 0.7 and 3.6 cGy irradiation have decreased viability and oligozoospermia in mature age. The offsprings from the father with 3.6 cGy have increased sensitivity to weak irradiation and react by increases oligozoospermia. The data are accord with the idea about more pronounced genetic radioresistance of premeiosis cells during gametogenesis

  15. The relationship between health worker stigma and uptake of HIV counseling and testing and utilization of non-HIV health services: the experience of male and female sex workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, Laura; Reddy, Aditi; Mbote, David; Kraemer, John; Stockton, Melissa; Kemunto, Caroline; Krotki, Karol; Morla, Javier; Njuguna, Stella; Dutta, Arin; Barker, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    The barrier HIV-stigma presents to the HIV treatment cascade is increasingly documented; however less is known about female and male sex worker engagement in and the influence of sex-work stigma on the HIV care continuum. While stigma occurs in all spheres of life, stigma within health services may be particularly detrimental to health seeking behaviors. Therefore, we present levels of sex-work stigma from healthcare workers (HCW) among male and female sex workers in Kenya, and explore the relationship between sex-work stigma and HIV counseling and testing. We also examine the relationship between sex-work stigma and utilization of non-HIV health services. A snowball sample of 497 female sex workers (FSW) and 232 male sex workers (MSW) across four sites was recruited through a modified respondent-driven sampling process. About 50% of both male and female sex workers reported anticipating verbal stigma from HCW while 72% of FSW and 54% of MSW reported experiencing at least one of seven measured forms of stigma from HCW. In general, stigma led to higher odds of reporting delay or avoidance of counseling and testing, as well as non-HIV specific services. Statistical significance of relationships varied across type of health service, type of stigma and gender. For example, anticipated stigma was not a significant predictor of delay or avoidance of health services for MSW; however, FSW who anticipated HCW stigma had significantly higher odds of avoiding (OR = 2.11) non-HIV services, compared to FSW who did not. This paper adds to the growing evidence of stigma as a roadblock in the HIV treatment cascade, as well as its undermining of the human right to health. While more attention is being paid to addressing HIV-stigma, it is equally important to address the key population stigma that often intersects with HIV-stigma.

  16. HIV Infection, risk factors and health services use among male-to-female transgender sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria Rosário Oliveira; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique; Dias, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    Male-to-female transgender sex workers (TSW) have been identified as a key population at risk for HIV. This study examined risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among TSW, and described health services use. A participatory cross-sectional survey was conducted with 125 TSW recruited in locations and networks where sex workers congregate. HIV-risk behaviors were common among participants. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the previous month was reported by 12.0% of participants and was associated with Portuguese nationality, inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners and not been reached by HIV prevention programs in the previous year. Ever use of psychoactive substances was reported by 61.6% of participants and was associated with being non-employed, doing full-time sex work, having higher number of non-paying partners and having never used health services. Also, ever use of psychoactive substances was negatively associated with older age and Portuguese nationality. About 34% of the participants reported having not been tested in the previous 12 months; 20.2% never used the health services. Overall, 14.9% (95%CI: 8.0-21.0%) reported being HIV-positive. Of those, 22.2% (95%CI: 1.0-43.5%) had unprotected sex with clients in the previous month, 26.7% (95%CI: 1.3-52.0%) had unprotected sex with non-paying partners in the previous year, 13.3% (95%CI: 0.0-33.0%) had ever injected drugs, 60.0% (95%CI: 23.0-97.0%) reported a past STI and 33.3% (95%CI: 2.0-64.6%) had currently HIV/STI co-infection. The socioeconomic, relational or partnering, and structural contexts conducive to increased risk are warranting further investigation. This knowledge would be valuable to inform prevention programs. HIV interventions, including secondary prevention, should address specific needs of TSW. Outreach initiatives aimed to reach TSW who are difficult to access can play a role in promoting access to health services and reducing HIV infection and transmission.

  17. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  18. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  19. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  20. Changes in Prevalence of HIV or Syphilis among Male Sex Workers and Non-Commercial Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China: Results of a Second Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanwei; Zhang, Yanting; Li, Ke; Zhao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A previous time-location sampling survey (TLS) was performed in 2008 to evaluate the HIV or syphilis infection rate among male sex workers (MSWs) and non-commercial men who have sex with men (ncMSM) in Shenzhen, China. This is a second TLS performed in 2014. This article describes the findings and changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. TLS was used to collect information as a second cross-sectional survey to an earlier TLS assessment. Data on behavior (e.g., sexual history and sexual behavior) were analyzed. Blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. To determine the changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, we analyzed these results and compared them to the results of our first survey. A total of 965 participants were recruited, including 489 MSWs and 476 ncMSM. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 9.7%: 2.9% for MSWs and 16.8% for ncMSM (PHIV prevalence in MSWs decreased from 4.5% in 2008 to 2.9% in 2014 (P = 0.143) but increased in ncMSM (7.0% in 2008 vs 16.8% in 2014, PHIV and syphilis in MSWs but not in ncMSM. The study indicated the need for continued efforts to improve public health, particularly to counter the rising rate of HIV in ncMSM.

  1. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 μg), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 μg), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy

  2. Impact of Energy Availability, Health and Sex on Hemoglobin Mass Responses Following LHTH Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikura, Ida A; Burke, Louise M; Bergland, Dan; Uusitalo, Arja L T; Mero, Antti A; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-02-12

    We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed. Hypoxic exposure (hours) was calculated with low (600h) groupings. Absolute and relative percentage ΔHbmass (%ΔHbmass) was significantly greater in females (6.2±4.0%, paltitude training, while emphasizing the importance of athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline Hbmass and hematological response to hypoxia.

  3. MRI findings of spinal accessory neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.E.; Greditzer, H.G.; Melisaratos, D.P.; Wolfe, S.W.; Feinberg, J.H.; Sneag, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterise the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of patients with spinal accessory nerve (SAN) denervation. Material and methods: Twelve patients who had SAN denervation on electromyography (EMG) were included. The sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles and the SAN were assessed using MRI. Results: Trapezius muscle atrophy was seen in 11 (92%), and of those patients, T2/short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal hyperintensity was also demonstrated in seven (58%). All three patients with prior neck surgery had scarring around the SAN, and one of these patients demonstrated a neuroma, which was confirmed surgically. Conclusion: Features of SAN neuropathy on MRI include atrophy and T2/STIR signal hyperintensity of the trapezius, and in patients who have had posterior triangle neck surgery, scarring may be seen around the nerve. - Highlights: • Spinal accessory nerve injury is most commonly the result of neck surgery. • MRI findings include trapezius muscle atrophy and T2 signal hyperintensity. • In cases of suspected injury, the course of the spinal accessory nerve should be assessed on MRI.

  4. Accessory mammary tissue associated with congenital and hereditary nephrourinary malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, C E; Betti, R

    1996-05-01

    The association between polythelia (supernumerary nipple) and kidney and urinary tract malformations (KUTM) is controversial. Some authors reported this association in newborns and infants. Case-control studies dealing with adult subjects are not found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of the association between accessory mammary tissue (AMT) and congenital and hereditary nephrourinary defects in an adult population compared to a control group. The study was performed in 146 white patients (123 men, 23 women) with AMT out of 2645 subjects consecutively referred to us for physical examination. The following investigations were undertaken: ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and the kidneys, ECG, echocardiogram, roentgenogram of the vertebral column, urinalysis, and other laboratory tests. A sex- and age-matched control group without any evidence of AMT or lateral displacement of the nipples underwent the same examinations. Kidney and urinary tract malformations were detected in 11 patients with AMT (nine men, two women) and in one control. These data indicate a significantly higher frequency of KUTM in the AMT-affected patients compared to controls (7.53% vs. 0.68%, P < 0.001). A broad spectrum of KUTM was discovered in association with AMT: adult dominant polycystic kidney disease, unilateral renal agenesis, cystic renal dysplasia, familial renal cysts, and congenital stenosis of the pyeloureteral joint. Accessory mammary tissue offers an important clue for congenital and hereditary anomalies of the kidneys and urinary collecting systems. Patients with AMT should, therefore, be extensively examined for the presence of occult nephrouropathies.

  5. Welfare of entire males and females in organic pig production when reared in single-sex groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    90 min in total. Number of skin lesions and prevalence of lameness and general debility were assessed for each animal. The mean aggression levels were 4.3 interactions per animal per hour during ‘roughage provision’ and 1.9 during ‘post-roughage provision’, with no difference between genders......In the 25 EU countries more than 100 million male piglets are castrated each year. Castration is particularly problematic in organic pig production because it conflicts with the high welfare and other ethical standards associated with this system of animal production. The objective...... kg. Behaviour observations was made in two different periods, ‘roughage provision’ with observation of aggressive interactions lasting 30 min, and ‘post-roughage provision’ with observations of aggressive interactions, number of mountings and number of active animals in intervals of 15 min, lasting...

  6. Psychosocial correlates of safe sex communication between Latina women and their stable male partners: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are fo