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Sample records for malathion

  1. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be checked for signs of infestation. Does malathion kill head lice eggs? Yes. The malathion lotion (Ovide*) ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  2. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  3. Persistence of malathion residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The persistence of succinate- 14 C-malathion in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 32 weeks. The insecticide penetrated readily into the seed and up to 16% of the applied dose was found to be bound after 32 weeks in storage. Total terminal residues declined to 9.3 and 21.0 mg/kg from initially applied doses of 12.2 and 24.4 mg/kg respectively. A small percentage of malaoxon was detected only during the early weeks after treatment (3-5%). Malathion was the major constituent of the extractable residues. In addition, seven degradation products were detected and identified. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor malathion on whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Dhar, U.; Kapoor, V.; Bawa, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Two groups of rats were treated with gamma radiation and propylene glycol or malathion in propylene glycol and two groups of unirradiated rats were given propylene glycol or malathion in propylene glycol. Measurements were made on blood glucose, plasma sodium and potassium. Radiation caused an increase in blood glucose and plasma potassium and a fall in plasma sodium. Malathion increased the effects of radiation on blood glucose and reduced the effects of plasma electrolytes

  5. Dermal absorption of a dilute aqueous solution of malathion

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    Scharf John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide commonly used on field crops, fruit trees, livestock, agriculture, and for mosquito and medfly control. Aerial applications can result in solubilized malathion in swimming pools and other recreational waters that may come into contact with human skin. To evaluate the human skin absorption of malathion for the assessment of risk associated with human exposures to aqueous solutions, human volunteers were selected and exposed to aqueous solutions of malathion. Participants submerged their arms and hands in twenty liters of dilute malathion solution in either a stagnant or stirred state. The "disappearance method" was applied by measuring malathion concentrations in the water before and after human exposure for various periods of time. No measurable skin absorption was detected in 42% of the participants; the remaining 58% of participants measured minimal absorbed doses of malathion. Analyzing these results through the Hazard Index model for recreational swimmer and bather exposure levels typically measured in contaminated swimming pools and surface waters after bait application indicated that these exposures are an order of magnitude less than a minimal dose known to result in a measurable change in acetylcholinesterase activity. It is concluded that exposure to aqueous malathion in recreational waters following aerial bait applications is not appreciably absorbed, does not result in an effective dose, and therefore is not a public health hazard.

  6. Biodegradation and Utilization of Organophosphorus Pesticide Malathion by Cyanobacteria

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    Wael M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of filamentous Cyanobacteria were used to study their growth and utilization of organophosphorus pesticide malathion. A sharp decrease in the growth of the algal strains was observed by increasing the concentration of malathion. Amongst them Nostoc muscorum tolerated different concentrations and was recorded as the highest efficient strain for biodegradation (91% of this compound. Moreover, carbohydrate and protein content of their cells overtopped the other strains especially at higher concentrations. The algal strains were further subjected to grow under P-limitation in absence and presence of malathion. Although, the algal growth under P-limitation recorded a very poor level, a massive enhanced growth and phosphorous content of cells were obtained when the P-limited medium was amended with malathion. This study clarified that N. muscorum with its capability to utilize malathion as a sole phosphorous source is considered as an inexpensive and efficient biotechnology for remediation of organophosphorus pesticide from contaminated wastewater.

  7. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The degradation of 14 C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author) [pt

  8. Combate ao Panstrongylus megistus com o Malathion concentrado

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available O Malathion concentrado (0-0 dimetilfosforo ditioato de dietil mercapto - succinato foi usado para combater o Panstrongylus megistus, principal vector da doença de Chagas, numa zona endêmica do Estado da Bahia. A eficácia do malathion no controle desse triatomíneo foi constatada após ter sido aplicado três vezes, no período de um ano e meio, em intervalos senjestrais. A ação letal do inseticida tanto se faz sobre as formas ambulantes, como sobre os ovos de P. megistus. Em vista da eficácia para o controle do triatomíneo, de não terem sido observados efeitos tóxicos colaterais para o homem e do custo operacional ser relativamente baixo, os Autores concluem que o malathion é uma arma valiosa para uso nas campanhas contra os transmissores da doença de Chagas.Concentrated Malathion was used against Panstrongylus megistus, the principal local vector of Chagas' Disease, in an endemic area in the State of Bahia, Brasil. The efficacy of malathion in the controle of this triatominae was demonstrated after three applications six months apart. The insecticide is lethal to all stages of vector including the eggs. In view of its effectiveness in the control of the triatomine, the absence of any noticeable signs of intoxication in the personnel applying the insecticide and in residents of the treated houses or domestic animals, and the relatively low operational cost, the Authors conclude that malathion is a valuable weapon in campaigns to control the veçtors of Chagas Disease.

  9. 40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sugar, tops 8 Blackberry 8 Blueberry 8 Boysenberry 8 Carrot, roots 8 Chayote, fruit 8 Chayote, roots 8... removed 2 Cowpea, forage 135 Cowpea, hay 135 Cranberry 8 Cucumber 8 Currant 8 Date, dried fruit 8 Dewberry... in the drying of grape (raisins). (iii) Total residues of malathion resulting from drying of grape on...

  10. Effects of Malathion Dust and Mexican Tea Powder ( Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at the Bako Agricultural Research Center, from January to July 2013. Combinations of different rates of Malathion and Mexican tea powder were evaluated against the maize weevil in no choice situations. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete design with ...

  11. Persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice: Direct and indirect applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out: (i) to study the persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice following multiple applications of 14 C-malathion to the bagged rice and (ii) to determine the degradation of malathion in stored milled rice and stored paddy following direct and single application of 14 C-malathion. The storage conditions were similar to those found in the local rice godowns. Three applications of malathion to the bagged milled rice resulted in the accumulation of malathion and its metabolites in and/or on the rice grains over the storage period. After 9 months' storage, ca. 4% of the total applied radioactivity, which amounted to 10 μg/g equivalent of 14 C residues, were found in and/or on the grains. About one fourth of the residue remained as the unchanged parent compound. On the other hand, when 14 C-malathion at the 10 ppm level was mixed directly with the milled rice or paddy prior to storage, the amount of malathion (recovered in the chloroform extracts) decreased from 6.2 μg/g at zero time to 2.9 μg/g after 3 months' storage for the milled rice samples. The major metabolite in the milled rice and paddy samples was malathion monocarboxylic acid with trace amounts of malathion dicarboxylic acid and malaoxon. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Studies on residues of 14C malathion in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezal, F.; Bennaceur, M.

    1991-04-01

    The extractability, the mobility and formation of bound 14C labelled residues in two soils under normal conditions were investigated with malathion. Comparison is made between irradiated and autoclaved soils. The highest concentration of the product is found in the first section (0-4cm) after experiment. Three compounds were found in the soils. 14C malathion is decomposed to 14C02. The degradation is more important in organic matter rich soil. In rich soil, 50% of 14C product is degradated after 17 days. This percentage is only 10%, for poor soil. The 14CO 2 produced in non-sterile soil is 33,05%. This percentage is respectively 10,92% and 3,57% only for irradiated and autoclaved soils

  13. Combate ao Panstrongylus megistus com o Malathion concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available O Malathion concentrado (0-0 dimetilfosforo ditioato de dietil mercapto - succinato foi usado para combater o Panstrongylus megistus, principal vector da doença de Chagas, numa zona endêmica do Estado da Bahia. A eficácia do malathion no controle desse triatomíneo foi constatada após ter sido aplicado três vezes, no período de um ano e meio, em intervalos senjestrais. A ação letal do inseticida tanto se faz sobre as formas ambulantes, como sobre os ovos de P. megistus. Em vista da eficácia para o controle do triatomíneo, de não terem sido observados efeitos tóxicos colaterais para o homem e do custo operacional ser relativamente baixo, os Autores concluem que o malathion é uma arma valiosa para uso nas campanhas contra os transmissores da doença de Chagas.

  14. Residues of Malathion and Metabolites in and on the Cotton Leaf vs. Toxicity to the Boll Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Wolfenbarger

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied at 12 and 16 oz [A.l.]/a to cotton near Mercedes, TX, in 1995 and sampled on 0, 2, 4 and 6 d posttreatment to determine residues of malathion, malaoxon, and iso-malathion. Residues were then compared to determine toxicity to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Residues of malathion comprised 99% of the leaf washes and 100% of the leaf...

  15. Using Ultraviolet Irradiation for Removal of Malathion Pesticide in Water

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    M Shayeghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus pesticides are one of the most consumable poisons. Such poisons can enter water sources by different routes. Since consuming some drinking water containing an amount of poison higher than the standard level, causes undesirable effects on human health. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of elimi­nating malathion from water by ultraviolet irradiation (UV mercury lamp with a medium pressure.Methods: In this experimental- applied study, variants of initial pHs and initial concentrations and exposure times were investigated. Initial concentrations of malathion were 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l. The samples were then exposed to UV irradiation interruptedly the time periods of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. The UV lamp used in the reactor was medium pressure (irradiation intensity= 200 W/m2. The amounts of malathion were determined before and after the irradiation by HPLC instrument. Moreover, the results obtained from the study were analyzed using SPSS software and ANOVA and t-test statistical trials.Results: The minimum reduction occurs at 10 min (%46 and the maximum reduction in 60 min (% 87.25 (P< 0.05. In addition, the effectiveness of irradiation process decreases with increasing the poison concentration (P< 0.001. However, the efficiency of the process increases with pH increase.Conclusion: The results show the most effectiveness were achieved at 60 min and 0.5 mg/l and pH= 9. Therefore, the application of UV reactors could be considered as an appropriate method.

  16. Lethality of gamma radiation and malathion to the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eesa, N.M.; Moursy, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The lethality of gamma radiation and the organo phosphorous insecticide, malathion, as well as the combined action of both was determined for the five larval instars of the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella (Hubner). The younger instars were more susceptible to both gamma radiation and malathion. The L D 50 values of gamma radiation increased gradually with the instar. Malathion was highly toxic to the first four instars, but the fifth instar required a much larger dose. Gamma radiation combined with malathion at the L D 25 values was antagonistic when evaluated against each of the five larval instars of the indian meal moth. Thus, the use of gamma radiation with malathion does not seem to be a promising control strategy. However, further research investigations are needed to confirm this finding.3 tab

  17. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  18. Terminal residues of the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion and dimethoate, in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, A.H.; Dougan, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the fate of 14 C malathion and 14 C dimethoate applied under field conditions to tea was made. The aqueous infusion of tea extracted ca. 50% of the total radioactivity of either pesticide. In the case of malathion this activity was mainly due to the presence of the parent compound and its oxygen analogue while dimethoate was metabolized to a considerable extent and the oxygen analogue was the major component found. (author)

  19. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  20. TRACER PATHWAY DARI INSEKTISIDA MALATHION DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP ORGAN HATI DAN OTAK TIKUS

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    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to settle on the pathway of insecticide contamination in the aquatic environment forwarding toward aquatic plants and animals by using radioisotope 14C labelled malathion. Then by using the same labelled malathion, its pathway to the mammals, i.e. mice, was also determined. The first step of the research was aimed to detect the pathway of malathion residues in water moving toward aquatic plants i.e. Hydrilla verticillata and aquatic animals i.e. fishes. Subsequently, in the second step of the research, the pathway of this labelled malathion from aquatic animals (fish to mammals (mice. Then, in the third step of this research, the influence of polluting dose of malathion 96 EC, which wasfrequently found in vegetables in Indonesia, on the mammals’ organ i.e. liver and brain of mice. All of the treatments’ results were compared to the controls’ using Student t-test. Analysis of the results showed that the residual insecticide can be absorbed by the aquatic plans and then entered the fish body through food chain, and also through the gills, skin, scales. Furthermore, it was substantiated that the mammals obtained residual malathion through its food chain, that is, when the fishes were eaten by the mice or other mammals. The concentration of the insecticide observed, malathion, absorbed by water plants, fish organ and mice organ found to be different. This study also proved that the concentration dose of malathion found in vegetables in Indonesia can cause abnormality in the livers of the mice, if it was taken consecutively for 60 days. It was also shown in this study that the brains of the treated mice did not show any significant abnormality.

  1. Impact of isomalathion on malathion cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human HepaRG cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Josse , Rozenn; Sharanek , Ahmad; Savary , Camille C; Guillouzo , André

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Isomalathion is a major impurity of technical grade malathion, one of the most abundantly applied insecticides; however little is known about its hepatotoxicity. In the present study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of malathion and isomalathion either individually or in combination, were assessed using the metabolically competent human liver HepaRG cell line. Isomalathion reduced cell viability starting at a 100 μM concentration after a 24h exposure. It also significant...

  2. Effects of Malathion Acute Toxicity on Behavioral and Haematological Parameters in Capoeta damascina (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae

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    Saeed Shahbazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available   The present study investigated the effects of acute toxicity of malathion on behavioral and haematological parameters in the cyprinid Capoeta damascina. The specimens were collected from the Kordan River, Karaj, Iran in August, 2014 and were exposed to different concentrations of malathion at the laboratory (24, 48, 72 mg L‑1 based on 96h-LC (10; 30; 50; 90 which was 6.08 (5.22-7.18 mg L-1. The animals were then exposed to 0.76, 1.00 and 1.52 mg L-1 of malathion for 10 days. Blood samples were collected in days 1, 5 and 10. Red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (PVC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were measured. Behavioral abnormalities were observed in fishes exposed to high levels of malathion. The specimens exposed to malathion had significantly lower RBC, WBC, Hb, PVC but higher MCV and MCH than those of the control group. No significant difference was detected in MCHC the exposed and control specimens. Hematological parameters (except MCHC were significantly correlated with exposure time. In conclusion, malathion showed extensive haematological effects on C. damascina that might be used as bioindicator of this pesticide in flowing waters.  

  3. Label-free aptamer-based sensor for specific detection of malathion residues by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yonghui; Teng, Yuanjie; Li, Pan; Liu, Wenhan; Shi, Qianwei; Zhang, Yuchao

    2018-02-01

    A novel label-free aptamer surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for trace malathion residue detection was proposed. In this process, the binding of malathion molecule with aptamer is identified directly. The silver nanoparticles modified with positively charged spermine served as enhancing and capture reagents for the negatively charged aptamer. Then, the silver nanoparticles modified by aptamer were used to specifically capture the malathion. The SERS background spectra of spermine, aptamer, and malathion were recorded and distinguished with the spectrum of malathion-aptamer. To enhance the characteristic peak signal of malathion captured by the aptamer, the aggregate reagents (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2) were compared and selected. The selectivity of this method was verified in the mixed-pesticide standard solution, which included malathion, phosmet, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and fethion. Results show that malathion can be specifically identified when the mixed-pesticide interferences existed. The standard curve was established, presenting a good linear range of 5 × 10- 7 to 1 × 10- 5 mol·L- 1. The spiked experiments for tap water show good recoveries from 87.4% to 110.5% with a relative standard deviation of less than 4.22%. Therefore, the proposed label-free aptamer SERS sensor is convenient, specifically detects trace malathion residues, and can be applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of other pesticides.

  4. Physiological and Histopathological Investigations on the Effects of -Lipoic Acid in Rats Exposed to Malathion

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of -lipoic acid treatment in rats exposed to malathion. Forty adult male rats were used in this study and distributed into four groups. Animals of group 1 were untreated and served as control. Rats of group 2 were orally given malathion at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW for a period of one month. Experimental animals of group 3 were orally given -lipoic acid at a dose level of 20 mg/kg BW and after 3 hours exposed to malathion at the same dose given to group 2. Rats of group 4 were supplemented with -lipoic acid at the same dose given to group 3. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and acid phosphatase (ACP, and the values of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were statistically increased, while the values of total protein and total albumin were significantly decreased in rats exposed to malathion. Moreover, administration of malathion for one month resulted in damage of liver and kidney structures. Administration of -lipoic acid before malathion exposure to rat can prevent severe alterations of hematobiochemical parameters and disruptions of liver and kidney structures. In conclusion, this study obviously demonstrated that pretreatment with -lipoic acid significantly attenuated the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by malathion. Also, the present study identifies new areas of research for development of better therapeutic agents for liver, kidney, and other organs' dysfunctions and diseases.

  5. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  6. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical aptasensor for determination of malathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal, E-mail: nirmalprabhakar@gmail.com; Thakur, Himkusha; Bharti, Anu; Kaur, Navpreet

    2016-10-05

    An electrochemical aptasensor based on chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (CHIT-IO) film deposited on fluorine tin Oxide (FTO) was developed for the detection of malathion. Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy and UV–Visible spectroscopy. The biotinylated DNA aptamer sequence specific to the malathion was immobilized onto the iron oxide doped-chitosan/FTO electrode by using streptavidin as linking molecule. Various characterization studies like Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Electrochemical studies were performed to attest the successful fabrication of bioelectrodes. Experimental parameters like aptamer concentration, response time, stability of electrode and reusability studies were optimized. Aptamer immobilized chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (APT/SA/CHIT-IO/FTO) bioelectrodes exhibited LOD of about 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min and spike-in studies revealed about 80–92% recovery of malathion from the lettuce leaves and soil sample. - Highlights: • An electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of Malathion has been developed. • Chitosan-iron oxide NP deposited FTO sheets provides platform for aptamer immobilization. • Aptasensor has efficiency to detect malathion upto 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min.

  8. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  9. Determination of insecticides malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in zucchini by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam M. Lofty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-cyhalothrin insecticide residues in zucchini. The developed method consists of extraction with acetone, purification and partitioning with methylene chloride, column chromatographic clean-up, and finally capillary gas chromatographic determination of the insecticides. The recoveries of method were greater than 90% and limit of determination was 0.001 ppm for both insecticides. The method was applied to determine residues and the rate of disappearance of malathion and λ-cyhalothrin from fruits of zucchini (open field treatment, 50 cc of Malason/Cormandel 57% EC (emulsifiable concentrate for 100 L of water, 20 cc of LAMBDA SUPER FOG 5% liquid for 100 L of water. The insecticide incorporated into the plants decreased rapidly with a half-life time around 0.77 day (18.5h for malathion and 4 days for λ-cyhalothrin. It is not recommended to use zucchini before 12 h of malathion application. For λ-cyhalothrin, the preharvest interval is 5 days. Four market samples were chosen from different regions from A.R.E. and all of them showed no residues of malathion or λ-cyhalothrin.

  10. Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmonds, C.; Dutta, H.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Malathion is a widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Its wide use provides many occasions for its entry into aquatic environments. The presence of this chemical in the aquatic environment would adversely affect many non-target species like fish. About 50 to 90% of the absorbed malathion can be eliminated in one to three days by the fish. About 25% of malathion remained in river water after 2 wk, and 10% remained after 4 wk from the time of its entry. Respiratory distress is one of the early symptoms of pesticide poisoning. These toxicants appear to cause a loss of adhesion between the epithelial cells and the underlying pillar cell system, accompanied by a collapse of the structural integrity of the secondary lamellae. Gills are important in respiration as well as osmoregulation of the fish. Therefore it was decided to study the effects of malathion on the gills of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Bluegills were selected for this study due to the following reasons: (1) Bluegills are more sensitive to malathion when compared to fathead minnows and goldfish. (2) They are important both as edible and game fish. (3) They are easily available and easy to maintain in the laboratory.

  11. Degradation of 14C-malathion and 14C-chlorpyrifos-methyl on stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos-methyl on wheat stored under laboratory conditions was monitored using radiolabelled compounds. Metabolites of both insecticides were isolated and identified, although the formation of bound residues was the most significant feature in the breakdown pattern in both cases. After 5 months of storage, only 16% of the applied dose of malathion remained intact, the remainder being present as free metabolites (25%) or bound residues (42%). Chlorpyrifos-methyl degraded considerably more slowly than malathion, there being 60% of the applied dose still present after 14 months of storage. The bound residues accounted for 29% of the activity after this time. Attempts to determine the location of the activity within the grain suggested that it was concentrated in the germ by a factor of 10. Unfortunately, it was found not to be feasible to isolate the bran layer where a similar concentration of activity might have been expected. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo for treatment of head lice in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Tempark, Therdpong; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-04-01

    Help eradicate or at least alleviating head lice in a primary school with malathion shampoo and to study clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo. All students were examined by using a fine-toothed lice comb to help detect live lice. Direct visual examination and the collection of nits for microscopic examination were performed to differentiate viable nits from empty nits. Diagnosis of head lice was made by the presence of lice. All students that had lice and/or nits were treated with malathion shampoo. Malathion shampoo was also provided for all family members. Pediculocidal efficacy was by the presence or absence of live lice. Blood for red blood cell cholinesterase activity was drawn in 32 volunteers before treatment and after the second treatment. At the first visit, 629 students were examined and 48 students had live head lice. The infestation rate was 13% in girls and 1.3% in boys. The cure rate was 93% after the first treatment. The reported side effects were nausea, a burning sensation, and irritation that was found in five (4%), 10 (7%) and three (2%) students respectively. The mean of RBC cholinesterase activity before and after two applications showed significant changes (p = 0.03). It was -7.5 +/- 4.1% reduction from the initial, but all were in the normal range. There was no report of clinical manifestation of malathion toxicity. Malathion shampoo is safe and effective in the treatment of head lice. There is significant skin absorption so a scalp examination for head lice should be done before subsequent application to avoid unnecessary exposure.

  13. Studies on bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Azam, F.; Malik, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extractability and formation of bound 14 C-labelled residues in clay loam soil under laboratory conditions were investigated with malathion. 14 C-malathion rapidly decomposed to 14 CO 2 . Twelve days after treatment 56% of the applied dose was lost as 14 CO 2 . Methanol gave the highest extraction efficiency; 6% of the applied radiocarbon was extractable while bound residues amounted to 38%. The soil containing 14 C-labelled residues was fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions. These fractions contained 7.83%, 16.81% and 19.36%, respectively of applied radiocarbon. (author)

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Green-Tea on biochemical and Histopathological Changes of liver in Male Rats Poisoned by Malathion Insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Raoofi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide which is widely used in agriculture, veterinary and industries. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of Malathion’s main molecular mechanisms of action in plasma, liver, pancreas, muscles and the brain. Green tea (Camellia sinensis, which is the most common drink across the world after water, has many antioxidant properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of Malathion on the liver and the preventive effects of green tea on Malathion-induced poisoning. Seventy-two Wistar male rats were randomly divided into the control, the sham, and the experimental groups (receiving respectively 40 mg/kg of Malathion; 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of green tea; and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Malathion and green tea respectively. All injections were performed intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. On the 15th day, blood samples were taken from the hearts of the rats to measure serum level of hepatic enzymes, and their liver tissues were removed to be studied. To do the statistical analysis One-way ANOVA test and Duncan’s test at the 5% significance level were used. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total Oxidation Capacity(TOC concentrations in the treatment groups with Malathion and green tea extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses showed a significant decline compared to the Malathion group(p<0.05, whileTotal Antioxidant Capacity (TAC level showed a significant increase with various doses of green tea and Malathion compared to the Malathion group (p<0.05. Green tea, probably due to its strong antioxidant properties, could improve the destructive effects of Malathion on the rat liver.

  15. Survey of Permethrin and Malathion Resistance in Human Head Lice Populations from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Knorr, Mette; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    was selected, 2 ng of permethrin and 100 ng of malathion per head louse, respectively. Head lice were collected from heads of infested children in Denmark at 33 primary schools, one kindergarten, and seven boarding schools. The lice were collected by combing of dry hair, with a fine-toothed antilouse comb...

  16. Malathion exposure modulates hypothalamic gene expression and induces dyslipedemia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezg, Raja; Mornagui, Bessem; Benahmed, Malika; Chouchane, Sonia Gharsalla; Belhajhmida, Nadia; Abdeladhim, Maha; Kamoun, Abdelaziz; El-fazaa, Saloua; Gharbi, Najoua

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides is virtually ubiquitous. These inevitable agents are neurotoxicants, but recent evidence also points to lasting effects on carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 32 repeated treatment days with malathion, an OP insecticide, on some molecular and metabolic parameters. Malathion at 100 mg/kg was administered by gavage in Wistar rats. Results of this study indicate a significant decrease in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA, of malathion-treated rats. This result, in accordance with that of diabetic type 2 rat model, may be due to very potent negative feedback effects of glucocorticoids on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In addition, we have recorded a significant increase in hypothalamic inducible NO synthase mRNA which probably enhances the negative feedback. These alterations are accompanied with hypertriglyceridemia that may be a favourable condition to insulin resistance. Thus, results of the present study suggest that malathion can be considered as an important risk factor in the development of diabetes type 2, which prevalence increased substantially in our country and around the world. Clearly, we need to focus further research on the specific incidences of hazardous food chemical contaminant that might be contributing to epidemic health perspectives. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  18. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  19. Lipid metabolism disturbances contribute to insulin resistance and decrease insulin sensitivity by malathion exposure in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Bouzid, Kahena; Douib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Elj, Naziha; El Fazaa, Saloua; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-04-01

    Several studies showed that organophosphorus pesticides disturb glucose homeostasis and can increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on glucose metabolism regulation, in vivo, during subchronic exposure. Malathion was administered orally (200 mg/kg), once a day for 28 consecutive days. Plasma glucose, insulin and Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased while hepatic glycogen content was decreased in intoxicated animals compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a significant disturbance of lipid content in subchronic treated and post-treated rats deprived of malathion for one month. In addition, we used the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β). Our results show that malathion increases insulin resistance biomarkers and decreases insulin sensitivity indices. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there was a positive and strong significant correlation between insulin level and insulin resistance indices, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β. Similarly, a negative and significant correlation was also found between insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices. For the first time, we demonstrate that malathion induces insulin resistance in vivo using homeostasis model assessment and these changes were detectable one month after the end of exposure. To explain insulin resistance induced by malathion we focus on lipid metabolism disturbances and their interaction with many proteins involved in insulin signaling pathways.

  20. Determination of insecticides malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in zucchini by gas chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Lofty, Hayam M.; Abd El-Aleem, Abd El-Aziz A.; Monir, Hany H.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-cyhalothrin) insecticide residues in zucchini. The developed method consists of extraction with acetone, purification and partitioning with methylene chloride, column chromatographic clean-up, and finally capillary gas chromatographic determination of the insecticides. The recoveries of method were greater than 90% and limit of determination was 0.001 ppm for both insecticide...

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure to malathion and bifenthrin in mosquito control sprayers through dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Sasrisuk, Somnuek; Preklang, Smart; Yoosook, Witaya; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2013-12-01

    To assess occupational exposure of malathion and bifenthrin concentrations by dermal contact and urinary 3-(2-chloro-3, 3, 3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2, 2-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic (TFP) acid, health symptoms developed and the relationship between bifenthrin concentrations and TFP acid in urine of the mosquito control sprayers. The aerosols of these two pesticides were collected using 100 cm2 cotton patches attached on the skin of upper legs of 54 volunteer of mosquito control sprayers. Their urine samples were also collected before and after application. These subjects exposed to average malathion and bifenthrin concentrations of 0.18 and 0.32 microg/cm2, respectively After application, the average concentration of urinary TFP acid in the sprayers was 39.22 +/- 0.77 mg/g creatinine ranging from 0.58 to 261.19 mg/g creatinine. A significant difference was found between urinary TFP acid levels before and after application (p bifenthrin concentrations through dermal contact and urinary TFP acid levels were not significantly correlated (p > 0.05). The mosquito control sprayers had dermal contact with smoke of malathion and bifenthrin and some sprayers developed health symptoms after exposure. They should use protective clothing made ofplastic, nylon or polyester to protect sprayers from skin contact.

  2. Malathion acute toxicity in tadpoles of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, morphological and behavioural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. David

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the median lethal concentration (LC50, morphological deformities and changes in behavioural responses caused by commercial formulations of malathion on Duttaphrynus melanostictus tadpoles. The LC50 value was found to be 7.5 mg/l and ability of malathion to cause morphological anomalies and changes in behavioural responses in tadpoles were studied at sublethal concentrations of 0.5 mg/l (1/15th, 0.75 mg/l (1/10th and 1.5 mg/l (1/5th for a duration of 5 days. The morphological defects and changes in behavioural responses like notochord curvature and loss of fright response respectively were witnessed as an important conduct; in addition, other symptoms under both the parameters were known to be time (i.e. developmental stage and concentration dependent thereby acknowledging the direct cause of damage due to malathion. Thus, based on the present study, care must be taken when this chemical is in use at agricultural sites especially nearby aquatic ecosystems.

  3. The organophosphate malathion disturbs gut microbiome development and the quorum-Sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Chi, Liang; Tu, Pengcheng; Bian, Xiaoming; Thomas, Jesse; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun

    2018-02-01

    The gut microbiome has tremendous potential to impact health and disease. Various environmental toxicants, including insecticides, have been shown to alter gut microbiome community structures. However, the mechanism that compositionally and functionally regulates gut microbiota remains unclear. Quorum sensing is known to modulate intra- and interspecies gene expression and coordinate population responses. It is unknown whether quorum sensing is disrupted when environmental toxicants cause perturbations in the gut microbiome community structure. To reveal the response of the quorum-sensing system to environmental exposure, we use a combination of Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing to examine the impacts of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, malathion, on the gut microbiome trajectory, quorum sensing system and behaviors related to quorum sensing, such as motility and pathogenicity. Our results demonstrated that malathion perturbed the gut microbiome development, quorum sensing and quorum sensing related behaviors. These findings may provide a novel mechanistic understanding of the role of quorum-sensing in the gut microbiome toxicity of malathion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A supersensitive silver nanoprobe based aptasensor for low cost detection of malathion residues in water and food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Rajni; Mittal, Sherry; Sharma, Rohit K.; Wangoo, Nishima

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, we report a highly sensitive, rapid and low cost colorimetric monitoring of malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) employing a basic hexapeptide, malathion specific aptamer (oligonucleotide) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a nanoprobe. AgNPs are made to interact with the aptamer and peptide to give different optical responses depending upon the presence or absence of malathion. The nanoparticles remain yellow in color in the absence of malathion owing to the binding of aptamer with peptide which otherwise tends to aggregate the particles because of charge based interactions. In the presence of malathion, the agglomeration of the particles occurs which turns the solution orange. Furthermore, the developed aptasensor was successfully applied to detect malathion in various water samples and apple. The detection offered high recoveries in the range of 89-120% with the relative standard deviation within 2.98-4.78%. The proposed methodology exhibited excellent selectivity and a very low limit of detection i.e. 0.5 pM was achieved. The developed facile, rapid and low cost silver nanoprobe based on aptamer and peptide proved to be potentially applicable for highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of trace levels of malathion in complex environmental samples. Figure S2. HPLC Chromatogram of KKKRRR. Figure S3. UV- Visible spectra of AgNPs in the presence of increasing peptide concentrations. Inset shows respective color changes of AgNPs with peptide concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 100 mM (a to e). Figure S4. UV- Visible spectra of AgNPs in the presence 10 mM peptide and varying aptamer concentrations. Inset shows the corresponding color changes. a to e shows aptamer concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 1000 nM. Figure S5. Interference Studies. Ratio of A520 nm/390 nm of AgNPs in the presence of 10 mM peptide, 500 nM aptamer, 0.5 nM malathion and 0.5 mM interfering components i.e. sodium, potassium, calcium, alanine, arginine

  5. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  6. Lactobacillus casei stimulates phase-II detoxification system and rescues malathion-induced physiological impairments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Ganguli, Abhijit; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is renowned for its inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that eventually leads to widespread disturbance in the normal physiological and behavioral activities of any organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are still an underexploited and inexhaustible source of significant pharmaceutical thrust. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify and characterize the indigenous LAB isolated from different traditional food against malathion-induced toxicity. The results demonstrated that malathion at its LD50 concentration decreased various C. elegans physiological parameters such as survival, feeding, and locomotion. Among the screened isolates, L. casei exhibited an excellent protective efficacy against malathion-induced toxicity by increasing the level of AChE and thereby rescued all physiological parameters of C. elegans. In addition, short-term exposure and food choice assay divulged that L. casei could serve as a better food to protect C. elegans from noxious environment. The expression analysis unveiled that L. casei gavage upregulated the phase-II detoxification enzymes coding genes metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst-8) and thereby eliminated malathion from the host system. Furthermore, the upregulation of ace-3 along with down-regulation of cyp35a in the nematodes supplemented with L. casei could be attributed to attenuate the malathion-induced physiological defects in C. elegans. Thus, the present study reports that an indigenous LAB-L. casei could serve as a promising protective agent against the harmful effects of pesticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations

  8. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: dsparl@siu.edu; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  9. The resistance map of Aedes aegypti (Linn. to cypermethrin and malathion in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Ikawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of Dengue Haemmorhaegic Fever (DHF is spread through all districts in Indonesia. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Control such as vector control, focussing to break DHF transmission. Some research about Ae. aegypti resistance had been done in DHF endemic area in Central Java. Resistance status of Ae. aegypti against insecticide programme promoted by health government in middle and low endemic DHF in Central Java was investigated in this research. Sample collected from 100 houses selected purposively in every village, at every District there were 3 villages selected. Samples consisted of egg, larvae and adult mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti, and reared to get F1. Resistance test of Ae. aegypti done by using WHO susceptibility impregnated paper test procedure. This research showed that Ae. aegypti in all research location had been resistance to malathion 0.8% with mosquitoes mortality average between 13.80%-61.67% and almost all sample is resistance to cypermethrin 0.05% with mosquitoes mortality between 10.00%-63.33% except with sample from Banjarnegara District which has mosquitoes mortality of 84.20%. The conclusion of this research is that Ae. aegypti in all research location had been resistance to malathion. Almost all location resistant to cypermethrin except Banjarnegara District sample which has tolerance level.

  10. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holem, Ryan R. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); ENTRIX, Inc., Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)], E-mail: hopkinsw@vt.edu; Talent, Larry G. [Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected.

  11. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  12. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holem, Ryan R.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected

  13. Notochord in Tilapia nilotica Exposed to Sublethal Dose of Malathion, S[1, 2-Di(EthoxycarbonylEthyl] Dimethyl Phosphorothiolothionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Amparado

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Tilapia nilotica embryos to sublethal dose of 1.0 ppm commercial grade malathion, S[1,2-di(ethoxycarbonylethyl] dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate from day-10 post fertilization resulted in notochordal aberrations. Pesticide-treated fishes exhibited constriction of the notochordal sheath, folding at the posterior sections and larger notochord than those of the control group.

  14. Evaluation of wet air oxidation variables for removal of organophosphorus pesticide malathion using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgoren, Melike; Gengec, Erhan; Veli, Sevil

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with finding optimum reaction conditions for wet air oxidation (WAO) of malathion aqueous solution, by Response Surface Methodology. Reaction conditions, which affect the removal efficiencies most during the non-catalytic WAO system, are: temperature (60-120 °C), applied pressure (20-40 bar), the pH value (3-7), and reaction time (0-120 min). Those were chosen as independent parameters of the model. The interactions between parameters were evaluated by Box-Behnken and the quadratic model fitted very well with the experimental data (29 runs). A higher value of R 2 and adjusted R 2 (>0.91) demonstrated that the model could explain the results successfully. As a result, optimum removal efficiency (97.8%) was obtained at pH 5, 20 bars of pressure, 116 °C, and 96 min. These results showed that Box-Behnken is a suitable design to optimize operating conditions and removal efficiency for non-catalytic WAO process. The EC 20 value of raw wastewater was measured as 35.40% for malathion (20 mg/L). After the treatment, no toxicity was observed at the optimum reaction conditions. The results show that the WAO is an efficient treatment system for malathion degradation and has the ability of converting malathion to the non-toxic forms.

  15. Assessment of cardiotoxicity and effects of malathion on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using computer vision for heart rate quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneschi, Daniele; Simoneschi, Francesco; Todd, Nancy E

    2014-06-01

    Malathion, a common organophosphate insecticide, is a proven acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is the most applied organophosphate insecticide in the United States. The use of zebrafish as a model to study the effects of pesticides on development is an innovative approach yielding relevant implications for determining the potential toxic effects of these pesticides on humans. In this study, a simple noninvasive technique was developed to investigate the cardiotoxicity of malathion on Danio rerio embryos, and to detect and quantify its effect on heart rate. Videos were recorded under a stereomicroscope and examined with our custom-made software (FishBeat) to determine the heart rate of the embryos. The pixel average intensity frequency (PI) of the videos was computed at its maximum probability to indicate the average number of heartbeats per second. Experimental observations successfully demonstrated that this method was able to detect the heart rate of zebrafish embryos as compared with manual stopwatch counting, with no significant difference. Embryos were treated acutely with increasing malathion concentrations (33.3 and 50 μg/mL malathion) at 52, 76, and 96 hpf. Embryos treated with 33.3 μg/mL malathion had significant bradycardia at 52 and 76 hpf, whereas embryos treated with 50 μg/mL malathion presented bradycardia at all hpf. These novel observations confirmed that malathion, acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, induced heartbeat irregularity in zebrafish embryos.

  16. Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective Effects of Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) Essential Oils Against Malathion-Induced Oxidative Stress in Young Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Slimen; Jallouli, Manel; Gharbi, Najoua; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-10-01

    We aimed in the present study to investigate the hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against malathion-induced oxidative stress in young male mice as well as the possible mechanism implicated in such protection. Animals were divided into eight groups of 12 each: Control, malathion (200 mg/kg b.w.); Various doses of LSEO (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg b.w.), malathion+various doses of LSEO. Malathion and LSEO were daily per orally (p.o.) administered by intragastric gavage during 30 days. We initially found that malathion treatment induced body weight gain decrease as well as a clear nephro- and hepatotoxicity as assessed by significant relative liver and kidney weight increase and related hemodynamic parameters deregulation. Malathion exposure of mice also induced a considerable perturbation of metabolic parameters. On the other hand, we showed that malathion administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and Fe-SOD in the kidney and liver. More importantly, LSEO treatment abolished all malathion-induced body gain loss, liver and kidney relative weight increase, hemodynamic and metabolic disorders, as well as hepatic and renal oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggest that LSEO exerted potential hepato- and nephroprotective effects against malathion-induced oxidative stress in mice. The beneficial effect of LSEO might be related, in part, to its antioxidant properties.

  17. The effect of γ-irradiation on the toxicity of malathion in V79 hamster cells and Molt-4 human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Goodwin, M.; Delaney, S.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in irradiation of food and agricultural products for insect disinfestation, sprout inhibition, delayed ripening and the reduction of microbiological loads. Irradiation to a maximum dose of 10 kGy is recognized as safe by national and international regulatory agencies. To address the question, whether irradiation of pesticide residues might produce radiation products that were less or more toxic than the original pesticide, effects were observed of 10 kGy of γ-radiation on malathion as measured by sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei formation, cell survival, growth rate and polyploid formation. No significant differences were found between effects of irradiated and unirradiated malathion on any of these end- points. Polyploid formation was the most dramatic effect of both irradiated and control malathion on V79 Chinese hamster cells. Cell survival, polyploid formation and growth rate were slightly better in cells treated with irradiated malathion. In Molt-4 human lymphocyte cell, micronuclei formation was not affected by unirradiated or irradiated malathion. Compared to malathion alone, the lack of such biological effects indicates that none of the presumed radiation-induced breakdown products increased or decreased the endpoints studied. The number of SCE was consistently, but not significantly, higher in cells treated with irradiated malathion. There were no significant differences in cell survival or micronucleus formation in the human lymphocyte cell line Molt-4 treated with irradiated or control malathion. Thus, the irradiation of the pesticide malathion to 10 kGy, a recommended upper dose for most food irradiations, does not significantly alter its toxicity in these in vitro systems. (author). 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  19. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: "1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of "1H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by changes in the

  20. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of {sup 1}H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by

  1. Biological fate of 32P malathion in gallus domesticus (Desi poultry birds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Paul, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    During this study, a minor surgical technique was developed for the separation of urine and faeces in birds and fate of 32 P malathion was studied, following a single oral dose of 394 mg/kg. The birds showed characteristic signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning and the results suggested that the compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, significant quantities being detected in plasma after 0.5 h of ingestion. Highest concentration of 32 P in various organs decreased and at 48 h, it was not detected except in liver, kidney, lung and spleen when only traces were observed. The cumulative urinary and faecal excretion study revealed that within 24 h 90% is rapidly excreted mainly via the urine and only small amounts in the faeces. Metabolism studies showed that the compound is quickly metabolised. Because of the rapid turnover of the compound, this study indicated that the accumulation of this compound is unlikely in the body system

  2. Removal of malathion from aqueous solution using De-Acidite FF-IP resin and determination by UPLC-MS/MS: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Mu; Alothman, Z A; Khan, M R

    2013-10-15

    In the present study, De-Acidite FF-IP resin was used to remove a highly toxic and persistent organophosphorus pesticide (malathion) from the aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of various experimental parameters such as effect of pH (2-10), contact time (10-120 min), resin dose (0.05-0.5 g), initial malathion concentration (0.5-2.5 µg mL(-1)) and temperature (25-65°C). The concentration of malathion was determined using a sensitive, selective and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The uptake rate of malathion on De-Acidite FF-IP resin was rapid and equilibrium established within 40 min. Kinetics studies showed better applicability for pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the isotherm constants were calculated for malathion. The values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) were computed from the Van't Hoff plot of lnKC vs. 1/T which showed that the adsorption of malathion was feasible, endothermic and spontaneous. The regeneration studies were carried out which demonstrated a decrease in the recovery of malathion from 95% to 68% after five consecutive cycles. Breakthrough and exhaustive capacities of malathion were found to be 1.25 mg g(-1) and 3.5 mg g(-1), respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran and 14C-malathion in stored soybean seeds and their toxicological effects on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; Taha, H.

    2005-01-01

    Soybeans treated with 1 4C -carbofuran or 1 4C -malathion at a dose of 30 mg/kg and stored for 30 weeks showed that the organophosphorus insecticide malathion had a higher binding tendency to soybean seeds than the carbamate insecticide carbofuran. The amount of malathion bound 1 4C -residues were almost three times higher (as percentage of applied dose) than carbofuran bound residues. Sub-chronic feeding experiments on mice for 90 days with a diet containing the bound 1 4C -residues at a dose of 0.91 and 2.39 ppm/day/mouse for carbofuran and malathion, respectively, caused non-significant symptoms of toxicity during the period of the experiment. A slight inhibition in plasma and erythrocyte choline esterase activities was observed during the second and third months in both treated mice fed on carbofuran or malathion. Liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and kidney functions showed non-significant differences from control values in case of mice fed on 1 4C -bound carbofuran residues. However, these mentioned blood parameters showed only slight increase, as compared with controls, in treated mice fed on 1 4C -bound malathion residues

  4. Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Castle

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of dengue fever in Jamaica from October to December 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult Aedes aegypti. This was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in Kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. The insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 mL/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. The results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with Aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. Consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.

  5. FIELD TRIALS OF FENITROTHION, MALATHION, AND DDT DUSTS AGAINST FLEAS ON RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII IN CILOTO, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah percobaan penanggulangan pinjal Xenopsyll cheopis dari tikus Rattus rattus diardii dilaku­kan di Ciloto dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978. Racun serangga yang digunakan 50 % mala-thion wdp, 40 % fenitrothion wdp dan 75 % DDT wdp. dicampur dengan serbuk bedak sehingga ter­dapat 5 % zat racun aktif (active ingredient. Percobaan dilakukan pada 3 dusun. Pengamatan dilakukan dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978 di daerah percobaan dan daerah kontrol DDT 5 % tidak effektif untuk pemberantasan pinjal, malathion 5 % effektif sampai 15 minggu dan Fenitrothion 5 % sampai 19 minggu sesudah perlakuan pertama. Ketiga racun serangga juga effektif untuk tungau dan kutu, tapi tidak demikian untuk tungau dewasa mesostigmatik (mesostigmatic mites.

  6. Rapid analysis of malathion in blood using head space-solid phase microextraction and selected ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, A; Yashiki, M; Nagasawa, N; Iwasaki, Y; Kojima, T

    1997-08-04

    A simple and rapid method for analysis of malathion in blood was developed using head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry/ electron impact ionization-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/EI-SIM). A vial containing a blood sample, ammonium sulphate, sulphuric acid and fenitrothion as an internal standard, was heated at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The extraction fiber of the SPME was exposed for 5 min in the head space of the vial. The compounds absorbed on the fiber were detached by exposing the fibre in the injection port of GC-MS. A straight calibration curve was obtained between malathion concentrations of 2.5 to 50.0 micrograms g-1 in blood. No interfering substances were found, and the time for analysis was 40 min for one sample.

  7. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Senoro, Delia B.; Maravillas, Sharon L.; Ghafari, Nima; Rivera, Clarissa C.; Quiambao, Erwin C.; Lorenzo, Maria Carmina M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin), cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil). In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, i...

  8. Insecticide resistance to permethrin and malathion and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Francis

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance. The Center for Disease Control (CDC bioassay revealed that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew, Jamaica were resistant to permethrin (15 μg/bottle with mortalities at 0-8% at 30 minute exposure time, while contact with malathion (50 μg/bottle revealed ≤ 50% mortality at 15 minutes, which increased to 100% at 45 minutes. The standard susceptible New Orleans (NO strain exhibited 100% mortality within15 minutes. The activities of multifunction oxidases and p-nitro phenyl-acetate esterases were significantly greater in most Jamaican populations in comparison to the NO strain, while activities of glutathione-S-transferase, acetylcholinesterase, α-esterase and ß-esterase activity were relatively equal, or lower than that of the control strain. The frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the voltage dependent sodium channel gene were measured. All collections were fixed for Cys1,534 while 56% of mosquitoes were Ile1,016/Val1,016 heterozygotes, and 33% were Ile1,016 homozygotes. Aedes aegypti from St. Andrew Jamaica are resistant to permethrin with variations in the mode of mechanism, and possibly developing resistance to malathion. Continued monitoring of resistance is critically important to manage the spread of the vector in the country.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of malathion using Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: statistical analysis and optimization of operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Omidvar Borna, Mohammad; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Kakavandi, Babak; Sillanpää, Mika; Asadi, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    A Zn2+-doped TiO2 is successfully synthesized by a facile photodeposition method and used in the catalytic photo-degradation of organophosphorus pesticide, malathion. The obtained photocatalysts are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase and rutile phases for the Zn2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes of 12.9 nm. Zn2+-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 3.0%wt Zn doping at 200 °C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. 60 sets of experiments were conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) by adjusting five operating parameters, i.e. initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH, reaction time at five levels and presence or absence of UV light. The analysis revealed that all considered parameters are significant in the degradation process in their linear terms. The optimum values of the variables were found to be 177.59 mg/L, 0.99 g/L, 10.99 and 81.04 min for initial malathion concentration, catalyst dose, pH and reaction time, respectively, under UV irradiation (UV ON). Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values of degradation and mineralization were 98 and 74%, respectively. Moreover, the effects of competing anions and H2O2 on photocatalyst process were also investigated.

  10. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia B. Senoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil. In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides resulted to adverse effects to public health and environment. Studies showed that 95% of the applied pesticides went to non-target species. Data from previous studies in Pagsanjan Laguna, Philippines were used as input data. Dispersion, Gaussian plume, and regression equations were employed to simulate the behavior of L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion in air, water and soil. Substance decay was calculated using first order reaction. This study showed how L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan, and malathion behaved in the environment after release from nozzle spray, and its possible duration of stay in the environment. It will also show a tool in determining the percolation depth through soil by endosulfan. This tool can be utilized in determining the depth of contaminated soil during remediation strategic planning and project implementation of similar environmental condition.

  11. Combined acute ecotoxicity of malathion and deltamethrin to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera): comparison of different data analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Camara, Baba Issa; Felten, Vincent; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

    2018-04-19

    We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes. Through the surface response approach and isobologram analysis, we concluded that there was a significant antagonistic effect of the binary mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion that occurs on D. magna immobilization, after 48 h of exposure. Index approaches and surface response approach with isobologram analysis are complementary. Calculation of mixture toxicity index and safety factor index allows identifying punctually the type of interaction for several tested mixtures, while the surface response approach with isobologram analysis integrates all the data providing a global outcome about the type of interactive effect. Only the surface response approach and isobologram analysis allowed the statistical assessment of the ecotoxicological interaction. Nevertheless, we recommend the use of both approaches (i) to identify the combined effects of contaminants and (ii) to improve risk assessment and environmental management.

  12. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. On the effect of minocycline on the depressive-like behavior of mice repeatedly exposed to malathion: interaction between nitric oxide and cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Amirkhanloo, Roya; Arefidoust, Alireza; Yaftian, Rahele; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of minocycline in mice exposed to organophosphate pesticide malathion and possible involvement of nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in this paradigm. Mice were administered specific doses of malathion once daily for 7 consecutive days. After induction of depression, different doses of minocycline were daily injected alone or combined with non-specific NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, specific inducible NOS inhibitor, AG, NO precursor, L-arginine, and PDE5I, sildenafil. After locomotion assessment in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the FST and TST. Moreover, hippocampal nitrite concentrations and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured. The results showed that repeated exposure to malathion induces depressive-like behavior at dose of 250 mg/kg. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility times in FST and TST (P minocycline (80 mg/kg) with either L-NAME (3 mg/kg) or AG (25 mg/kg) significantly exerted a robust antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST (P minocycline at the same dose which has antidepressant-like effect, significantly reduced hippocampal nitrite concentration. The investigation indicates the essential role for NO/cGMP pathway in malathion-induced depressive-like behavior and antidepressant-like effect of minocycline. Moreover, the interaction between nitrergic and cholinergic systems are suggested to be involved in malathion-induced depression.

  14. A probabilistic risk assessment for the Kirtland's warbler potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos and malathion during the breeding season and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Priest, Colleen D; Olson, Adric D; Teed, R Scott

    2018-03-01

    Two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and malathion, are currently undergoing reregistration in the United States and were recently used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as case studies to develop a national procedure for evaluating risks to endangered species. One of the endangered bird species considered by the USEPA was the Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii). The Kirtland's warbler is an endangered migratory species that nests exclusively in young jack pine stands in Michigan and Wisconsin, and winters in the Bahamas. We developed probabilistic models to assess the risks of chlorpyrifos and malathion to Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season and the spring and fall migrations. The breeding area model simulates acute and chronic exposure and risk to each of 10 000 birds over a 60-d period following initial pesticide application. The model is highly species specific with regard to the foraging behavior of Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season. We simulated the maximum application rate and number of applications allowed on the labels for representative use patterns that could be found within 3 km of the breeding areas of Kirtland's warbler. The migration model simulates 10 000 birds during the course of their 12- to 23-d migration between their breeding area and the Bahamas. The model takes advantage of more than a century of observations of when, where, and for how long Kirtland's warblers forage in different habitats during the course of their migration. The data indicate that warblers only infrequently stop over in habitats that could be treated with chlorpyrifos and malathion. The breeding area and migration models resulted in predictions of very low acute and chronic risk for both pesticides to Kirtland's warblers. These results were expected, given that field observations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler has dramatically increased in abundance in recent decades. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  15. Binding of chlorfenvinphos and malathion with DNA and their detection using new sensitive luminescent Tb(III) complex probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azab, Hassan A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia (Egypt); Kamel, Rasha M., E-mail: rashamoka@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, 43518 Suez (Egypt)

    2016-02-15

    In this work, the interaction of new luminescent terbium-N(acetoacetyl)-3-allyl-2hydroxybenzaldehyde hydrazone complex in a metal ligand ratio 1:2 in ethanol was studied with different pesticides, using fluorescence technique. The results indicate that the pesticides chlorfenvinphos and malathion exhibit quenching effect on the characteristics emission peak for Tb(III) at λ=545 nm. The luminescence variations values using the probe Tb(III)(HBH){sub 2} fit Stern–Volmer equation, where the detection limits are 4.53 and 9.59 µmol/L for chlorfenvinphos and malathion, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the interaction of the complex with the two pesticides were calculated, where the reaction is spontaneous through the obtained negative values of free energy change ΔG, and the process is of exothermic nature with decrease in entropy. Hence the nature of forces acting between the complex and pesticide molecules are Vander Val's and hydrogen bond. Also, it was found that the quenching mechanism is static type. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new sensing complex was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different real water samples (tap, river, and waste water) with precise recovery. Also, the effect of different concentrations of pesticides on the fluorescence spectrum of DNA was studied. - Highlights: • The method can be used for detection of pesticides in environmental samples. • The DL is 4.53 and 9.59 µmol L{sup −1} for chlorfenvinphos and malathion respectively. • Stern–Volmer studies at different temperatures were studied. • Effect of some interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated.

  16. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis of gonads of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus after the exposure of endosulfan and malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Vijayaprasadarao, K; Rajakumar, A; Murugananthkumar, R; Prathibha, Y; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have raised public concern, since their effects have been found to interfere with the physiological systems of various organisms, especially during critical stage of development and reproduction. Endosulfan and malathion, pesticides widely used for agricultural purposes, have been known to disrupt physiological functions in aquatic organisms. The current work analyzes the effects of endosulfan (2.5 parts per billion [ppb]) and malathion (10 ppb) on the reproductive physiology of catfish (Clarias batrachus) by evaluating protein expression profiles after 21 days of exposure. The proteomic profile of testis and ovary after exposure to endosulfan showed downregulation of proteins such as ubiquitin and Esco2, and upregulation in melanocortin-receptor-2 respectively. Malathion exposed ovary showed upregulated prolactin levels. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in gonads due to the exposure to these pesticides may serve as crucial indications to denote their disruptive effects at the level of proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. II. Entomologic and operational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R T; Solis, M; Weathers, D B; Taylor, J W

    1975-03-01

    In a large-scale study in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, spray operations resulted in an immediate and sharp decline in numbers of the vector, Anopheles albimanus. The adult population of this mosquito remained at less than 1% of previous levels until several weeks after a 50-day spray period (27 October-16 December 1972) during which six cycles were completed. The study area offered ideal conditions of wind, temperature, humidity, and mountain barriers. Mosquitoes in the area were highly susceptible to malathion. Results indicated that aerial ULV treatment with malathion can reduce A. albimanus populations rapidly and effectively when applications are made over an area as large as 20,000 acres. Preliminary results showed that effective control was not achieved in areas one-quarter that size; these areas were not sufficiently large, and infiltration of mosquitoes from adjacent untreated areas was possible.

  18. Deciphering mechanisms of malathion toxicity under pulse exposure of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trác, Ngoc Lâm; Andersen, Ole; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2016-01-01

    ; enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); and AChE gene expression. The results showed no difference in survival among equivalent integrated doses. Adverse sublethal effects were driven by exposure concentration rather than pulse...... duration. Specifically, short pulse exposure to a high concentration of malathion resulted in more immobilized daphnids, lower AChE and CbE activities, and a higher transcript level ofAChE gene compared with long pulse exposure to low concentration. The expression of the AChE gene was up...

  19. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  20. INMUNOTOXICIDAD DE MALATIÓN Y CLORPIRIFOS EN LA LOMBRIZ DE TIERRA Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA | IMMUNOTOXICITY OF MALATHION AND CHLORPYRIFOS IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cortesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of malathion and chlorpyrifos on immune responses of Eisenia sp. were assessed using standard toxicity assays. In plastic containers with natural soils as substrate, mature sexually earthworms were exposed to malathion (300 mg kg-1of soil and chlorpyrifos (300 mg kg-1of soil during 7 and 21 days. After exposure periods, cellular viability, total number of coelomocytes (NTC, percentage of phagocytic cells (PCF, lysozyme activity and hemolytic percentage were determined. Malathion and chlorpyrifos exposures caused a significant decrease in NTC, lysozyme and hemolytic activities, but these variables were not affected by time of exposure. PCF declined in earthworms exposed to both pesticides; this decline was dependent of the time-exposure. The results suggest an immunotoxic action of both agrochemicals on humoral and cellular immune responses of Eisenia sp., which could intensify the detrimental effects caused by biotic stressors, such as pathogens microrganisms that live in the soil. The immune responses mediated by the coelocmocytes of Eisenia sp. evaluated in this study were negatively affected by malathion and chlorpyrifos, demonstrating their sensitivity as potential biomarkers useful in early detection of environmental impact by organophosphate pesticides.

  1. Effects of malathion on the insect succession and the development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the field and implications for estimating postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Wei, Shi; Xiao-Shan, Liu; Hai-Yang, Wang; Run-Jie, Zhang

    2010-03-01

    A field study on the effects of malathion on insect succession and the development of carrion flies on corpses, and its quantitative determination from the larvae on decomposing rabbit carrion was conducted. The rabbits were treated with malathion at concentrations of lethal, half-lethal and fourth-lethal doses. Malathion altered decomposition rates and species diversity: Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the most abundant adult species in all the experiments; third instar larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were not found on the toxic carcasses but were collected from the control; the appearance of beetles on the treated carcass was later by 1 to 3 days than on the control carcass. Development rate of the dominated species C. megacephala larvae and pupae was observed. Stepwise increases in the period of larval development, the maximum length of larvae, and weight of pupae were observed with increasing malathion concentrations. However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the pupal stage. The differences in development rate were sufficient to alter postmortem interval estimates based on larval development by 12 to 36 hours. The time of finding fresh pupae from the fourth-lethal carcass was 12 hours later than the control. Accumulations of the pesticide in larvae were observed, but no correlations were found between larvae concentrations and the initial quantity administered to rabbits.In conclusion, it is necessary to consider the effects of malathion present in decomposing bodies when estimating the postmortem interval based on entomological evidence. The results of this study have more practical implications for forensic investigations because it is under natural conditions.

  2. Effects of GST Polymorphism on Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against DNA Damage Induced by Combined Treatment of Malathion and Parathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus pesticides has been widely used in agriculture fields to control various crop insects and their extensive use pose human life at threat because of their adverse effects on human health. In this study, we checked the effects of GST polymorphism on ameliorative effect of curcumin and carvacrol against DNA damages. Methods: Comet assay was used to assess the DNA damage and results were expressed as Tail moment. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with combined concentration of malathion and parathion (i.e. 30 µg/ml of malathion and 2.5 µg/ml of parathion in presence of combination of curcumin and carvacrol (25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol in order to observe the ameliorative role of curcumin and carvacrol. Multiplex PCR was performed for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping. Results: Curcumin in combination with carvacrol (i.e. 25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol significantly reduced the DNA damage caused by combined action of malathion and parathion which supports their antigenotoxic property. No significant relationship of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism with genotoxicity of both the pesticides and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol was observed. Conclusion: Malathion and parathion were genotoxic in human PBL. Curcumin and carvacrol had an antigenotoxic effect against the malathion and parathion while there was not any significant effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of these pesticides and antigenotoxicity of curcumin and carvacrol.

  3. A refined ecological risk assessment for California red-legged frog, Delta smelt, and California tiger salamander exposed to malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, Yvonne H; Manning, Gillian E; Breton, Roger L; Winchell, Michael F; Padilla, Lauren; Rodney, Sara I; Hanzas, John P; Estes, Tammara L; Budreski, Katherine; Toth, Brent N; Hill, Katie L; Priest, Colleen D; Teed, R Scott; Knopper, Loren D; Moore, Dwayne Rj; Stone, Christopher T; Whatling, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The California red-legged frog (CRLF), Delta smelt (DS), and California tiger salamander (CTS) are 3 species listed under the United States Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), all of which inhabit aquatic ecosystems in California. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has conducted deterministic screening-level risk assessments for these species potentially exposed to malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide. Results from our screening-level analyses identified potential risk of direct effects to DS as well as indirect effects to all 3 species via reduction in prey. Accordingly, for those species and scenarios in which risk was identified at the screening level, we conducted a refined probabilistic risk assessment for CRLF, DS, and CTS. The refined ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted using best available data and approaches, as recommended by the 2013 National Research Council (NRC) report "Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides." Refined aquatic exposure models including the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD), the Variable Volume Water Model (VVWM), the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were used to generate estimated exposure concentrations (EECs) for malathion based on worst-case scenarios in California. Refined effects analyses involved developing concentration-response curves for fish and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for fish and aquatic invertebrates. Quantitative risk curves, field and mesocosm studies, surface-water monitoring data, and incident reports were considered in a weight-of-evidence approach. Currently, labeled uses of malathion are not expected to result in direct effects to CRLF, DS or CTS, or indirect effects due to effects on fish and invertebrate prey. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:224-239. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and

  4. MSPD procedure combined with GC-MS for the determination of procymidone, bifenthrin, malathion and pirimicarb in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos Silva Bezerra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine procymidone, malathion, bifenthrin and pirimicarb in honey is described. The best results were obtained using 1.0 g of honey, 1.0 g of silica-gel as dispersant sorbent and acetonitrile as eluting solvent. The method was validated by fortified honey samples at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5 to 1.0 mg kg-1. Average recoveries (n=7 ranged from 54 to 84%, with relative standard deviations between 3.7 and 8.5%. Detection and quantification limits attained by the developed method ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg-1 and 0.07 to 0.25 mg kg-1 for the honey, respectively.

  5. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  6. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands.

  7. Chlorpyrifos and Malathion have opposite effects on behaviors and brain size that are not correlated to changes in AChE activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Creton, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphates, a type of neurotoxicant pesticide, are used globally for the treatment of pests on croplands and are therefore found in a large number of conventional foods. These pesticides are harmful and potentially deadly if ingested or inhaled in large quantities by causing a significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the central and peripheral nervous system. However, much less is known about the effects of exposure to small quantities of the pesticides on neural systems and behavior during development. In the current study we used zebrafish larvae in order to determine the effects of two of the most widely used organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, on zebrafish behavior and AChE activity. Embryos and larvae were exposed to the organophosphates during different time points in development and then tested at 5 days post-fertilization for behavioral, neurodevelopmental and AChE abnormalities. The results of the study indicate that chlorpyrifos and malathion cause opposing behaviors in the larvae such as swim speed (hypoactivity vs. hyperactivity) and rest. Additionally, the pesticides affect only certain behaviors, such as thigmotaxis, during specific time points in development that are unrelated to changes in AChE activity. Larvae treated with malathion but not chlorpyrifos also had significantly smaller forebrain and hindbrain regions compared to controls by 5 days post-fertilization. We conclude that exposure to very low concentrations of organophosphate pesticides during development cause abnormalities in behavior and brain size. PMID:25983063

  8. Chlorpyrifos and malathion have opposite effects on behaviors and brain size that are not correlated to changes in AChE activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Creton, Robbert

    2015-07-01

    Organophosphates, a type of neurotoxicant pesticide, are used globally for the treatment of pests on croplands and are therefore found in a large number of conventional foods. These pesticides are harmful and potentially deadly if ingested or inhaled in large quantities by causing a significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the central and peripheral nervous system. However, much less is known about the effects of exposure to small quantities of the pesticides on neural systems and behavior during development. In the current study we used zebrafish larvae in order to determine the effects of two of the most widely used organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, on zebrafish behavior and AChE activity. Embryos and larvae were exposed to the organophosphates during different time points in development and then tested at 5 days post-fertilization for behavioral, neurodevelopmental and AChE abnormalities. The results of the study indicate that chlorpyrifos and malathion cause opposing behaviors in the larvae such as swim speed (hypoactivity vs. hyperactivity) and rest. Additionally, the pesticides affect only certain behaviors, such as thigmotaxis, during specific time points in development that are unrelated to changes in AChE activity. Larvae treated with malathion but not chlorpyrifos also had significantly smaller forebrain and hindbrain regions compared to controls by 5 days post-fertilization. We conclude that exposure to very low concentrations of organophosphate pesticides during development cause abnormalities in behavior and brain size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency of a bagasse substrate in a biological bed system for the degradation of glyphosate, malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin under tropical climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roffignac, Laure; Cattan, Philippe; Mailloux, Julie; Herzog, David; Le Bellec, Fabrice

    2008-12-01

    After the rinsing of spray equipment, the rinsing water contains polluting products. One way to avoid pollution is to bring the rinsing water over a purification system, a biological bed. The system consists of an impermeable tub filled with a biomix substrate that facilitates biodegradation of pesticides. Usually, straw is one component of the biomix. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of an unusual substrate, bagasse, a residue of sugar cane, for the degradation of three pesticides, glyphosate, malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin. Results showed that more than 99% of malathion and glyphosate were degraded in 6 months. In the biological bed, the DT(50) value for malathion was 17 days, for glyphosate 33 days and for lambda-cyhalothrin 43 days. The degradation rate of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) residues from the degradation of glyphosate was slower than that of the other pesticides (DT(50) 69 days). Finally, the innocuousness of the biomix after 6 months of degradation was confirmed by biological tests. Although the degradation rates of the three pesticides in the present bagasse-based system were similar to those under temperate conditions, the degradation conditions were improved by comparison with those in soil under the given tropical conditions. Further benefits of this system are pesticide confinement, to avoid their dispersion in the environment by liquids or solids, and a lower overall cost. Finally, possibilities for optimising the bagasse-based system (e.g. management of the water content and nature of the biomix) are discussed.

  10. Efficient Degradation of Malathion in the Presence of Detergents Using an Engineered Organophosphorus Hydrolase Highly Expressed by Pichia pastoris without Methanol Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun-Peng; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Lian; Li, Chun-Xiu; Xu, Dian-Sheng; Xu, Jian-He

    2017-10-18

    The biodegradation of pesticides by organophosphorus hydrolases (OPHs) requires an efficient enzyme production technology in industry. Herein, a Pichia pastoris strain was constructed for the extracellular expression of PoOPH M9 , an engineered malathion-degrading enzyme. After optimization, the maximum titer and yield of fermentation reached 50.8 kU/L and 4.1 g protein /L after 3 days, with the highest space-time yield (STY) reported so far, 640 U L -1 h -1 . PoOPH M9 displayed its high activity and stability in the presence of 0.1% (w/w) plant-derived detergent. Only 0.04 mg/mL enzyme could completely remove 0.15 mM malathion in aqueous solution within 20 min. Furthermore, 12 μmol malathion on apples and cucumbers surfaces was completely removed by 0.05 mg/mL PoOPH M9 in tap water after 35 min washing. The efficient production of the highly active PoOPH M9 has cleared a major barrier to biodegradation of pesticide residues in food industry.

  11. Levels of insecticide resistance to deltamethrin, malathion, and temephos, and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from the Guadeloupe and Saint Martin islands (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Gelasse, Andric; Ramdini, Cédric; Gaude, Thierry; Faucon, Frédéric; David, Jean-Philippe; Gustave, Joël; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Fouque, Florence

    2017-02-10

    In the Guadeloupe and Saint Martin islands, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only recognized vectors of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. For around 40 years, malathion was used as a mosquito adulticide and temephos as a larvicide. Since the European Union banned the use of these two insecticide molecules in the first decade of the 21st century, deltamethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis are the remaining adulticide and larvicide, respectively, used in Guadeloupe. In order to improve the management of vector control activities in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin, we investigated Ae. aegypti resistance to and mechanisms associated with deltamethrin, malathion, and temephos. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected from six different localities of Guadeloupe and Saint Martin. Larvae were used for malathion and temephos bioassays, and adult mosquitoes for deltamethrin bioassays, following World Health Organization recommendations. Knockdown resistance (Kdr) genotyping for V1016I and F1534C mutations, and expression levels of eight enzymes involved in detoxification mechanisms were examined in comparison with the susceptible reference Bora Bora strain. Resistance ratios (RR 50 ) calculated for Ae. aegypti larvae showed high resistance levels to temephos (from 8.9 to 33.1-fold) and low resistance levels to malathion (from 1.7 to 4.4-fold). Adult females displayed moderate resistance levels to deltamethrin regarding the time necessary to affect 50% of individuals, varying from 8.0 to 28.1-fold. Molecular investigations on adult mosquitoes showed high resistant allele frequencies for V1016I and F1534C (from 85 to 96% and from 90 to 98%, respectively), as well as an overexpression of the glutathione S-transferase gene, GSTe2, the carboxylesterase CCEae3a, and the cytochrome genes 014614, CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, and CYP9J23. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and Saint Martin exhibit multiple resistance to organophosphates (temephos and malathion), and

  12. Assessment of persistence and residue of diazinon and malathion in three rivers (Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky of Bushehr Province 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Shayeghi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water contamination due to insecticides, often generates dangerous results for consumers. Immoderate consumption of insecticides in neighboring farms contaminates rivers. Assessment of residue of phosphorus insecticides which are used in farms near rivers can play a key role in preventing probable poisonings and aquatic ecosystems polution. Methods: In this case control study, water of three permanent rivers in Bushehr province and urban water pipe network of Bushehr city were assessed in different months in 2004-2005 and 216 samples were collected on the whole. In each river,three stations were used for sampling. After the sampling, extraction processes were accomplished using solvents such as: acetone, methylen-chloride and benzene. For detection and measurement of TLC Scanner apparatus was used. Results: Residues of diazinon and malathion were found in water of the three rivers in spring and summer. And in other seasons the rate of residues were very low or zero. The statistical analysis of the results through one-sidedanalysis variance, showed that diazinon and malathion residues in the water of the surveyed rivers in different months had significant difference (p 0.05, while malathion residue was significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: In the first and second months after applying the two insecticides, their residues level in all three rivers of Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky are more than acceptable contamination level, the higher levels belong to diazinon. Precautions must be considered in using the water for drinking purposes and also using aquatic foods which are provided from these rivers.

  13. role of gamma rays and carbohydrate sources on the ability of exopolysaccharides of lactic acid bacteria to bind malathion and seliton insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, H.H.; El-Shatoury, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    six lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated from yoghurt and cottage (unfatted cheese) cheese. only three strains namely lactococcus lactis, lactobacillus helveticus and streptococcus thermophilus were able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) when cultured in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth (MRS) medium. MRS containing sucrose, instead of the original media containing glucose was found to be the best media for EPS production . lactococcus lactis, lactobacillus helveticus and streptococcus thermophilus produced 650, 644 and 649 mg/L EPS when grown on MRS containing sucrose compared with 567, 584 and 293 mg/L when they grown on MRS containing glucose, respectively. by increasing the concentration of sucrose in the medium, significant increases in EPS production was observed. maximum EPS was produced at 15 g/L sucrose for both lactococcus lactis and streptococcus thermophilus (900 mg/L). 800 mg/L EPS was produced by lactobacillus helveticus at 20 g/L sucrose. exposing the bacterial isolates to 1 kGy increased their ability to bind malathion. malathion binding of irradiated lactococcus lactis, lactobacillus helveticus and streptococcus thermophilus cells were 30 %, 19.8 % and 13 % more than non-irradiated controls. also exposing lactococcus lactis to 1 kGy increased their binding capacity to seliton by 33.8 % on the other land irradiating lactobacillus helveticus cells caused a decrease in the binding capacity of seliton by 5 % . irradiated and non-irradiated cells of streptococcus thermophilus failed to bind the seliton.

  14. Photometric microdetermination of malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, B.J.

    1962-01-01

    Carboxylic esters and lactones react with alkaline hydroxylamine to yield hydroxamates; these in acidic solution form colored iron(III) complexes. A photometric determination of such esters and lactones is thus permitted and has been extensively applied ( I-6). Hestrin ( 3) utilized this method for the microdetermination of acetylcholine and his procedure is much used for the in vitro study of cholinesterase activity and inhibition (4-6).

  15. Worker exposure and a risk assessment of malathion and fenthion used in the control of Mediterranean fruit fly in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John W; Lee, Su-Gil; Heath, Linda M; Pisaniello, Dino L

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, an outbreak of Mediterranean fruit fly in Adelaide was controlled by South Australian Government workers applying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) to domestic gardens. Residents made claims of adverse effects associated with allegations that worker application practices were poor and led to contamination of homes, residents and pets. The concerns led to a Parliamentary enquiry, the suspension of OP applications for fruit fly control, and the investigation of alternative methods of combating fruit fly in metropolitan Adelaide. The extent of exposure of workers and residents was not estimated. This paper describes a simulated application of the OPs concerned (fenthion and malathion) with measurements of potential exposure through inhalation, dermal contact and deposition of pesticides on surfaces. The data were used as part of a toxicological risk assessment to determine the likely impact of the use of these insecticides. Malathion, used as a 1% suspension in a protein bait mixture, was found to have little potential for airborne exposure, although some workers were found to have up to 0.315 microg/cm(2) malathion deposited on overalls (principally on forearms) and over 500 microg deposited on liner gloves and hats, respectively. Risks to workers and residents were low, with exposures likely to be a small fraction of the acceptable daily intake. Fenthion, used as a 0.05% foliar cover spray, was found between 0.02 and 0.23 mg/m(3) in air 10 m downwind from spray activity and was unlikely to pose a significant risk to residents, since exposures were of short durations of up to 20 min. Personal air samples of spray workers averaged 0.55 mg/m(3) (Workplace Exposure Standard 0.20mg/m(3)). Since workers were usually engaged in spraying for a large proportion of the day, this demonstrates the need for respiratory protective equipment. Maximum deposition of fenthion on workers overalls ranged from 0.06 to over 0.20 microg/cm(2), although little was found on

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadkhaniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2≥0.993 over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2≥0.991 and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350∘C, and longer lifespan (over 250 times than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples.

  17. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Jr., R. H.; Peterle, T. J. [Ohio Co-Operative Wildlife Research Unit, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1963-09-15

    The distribution of malathion (0,0-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a forested area of east-central Ohio was studied during the summer of 1962. This broad-spectrum insecticide was selected for study on the basis of its increased use in the control of many important forest insect pests in deciduous and coniferous forests of the United States. The need for greater knowledge of the ecology of a forested area, coupled with the need for a more complete understanding of the effects of an insecticide on the fauna, provided the unique possibility of studying the problems simultaneously through the utilization of an isotope-labelled insecticide. S{sup 35} was selected because of its low beta energy (0.167 MeV) and the adequate half-life (87.1 d). Preliminary one-tenth-acre plot studies in the summer of 1961 provided us with potential application rates in terms of total radiation and also allowed the development of sample preparation technique. A faunal survey of two 20-acre watersheds was conducted during the summer of 1961. In May of 1962, one of the watersheds was treated with an application of 2 lb technical-grade malathion per acre in a formulation of xylene, triton X-155 emulsifier and water. Themalathion was synthesized with S{sup 35} by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, England. 1 c of activity was aerially applied to one of the 20-acre forested areas on 15 May and 25 May 1962. The specific activity of the synthesized malathion was 17. 5 m c/mM. The distribution of components of the aerial spray within the forest was measured. Electrically-operated air samplers provided estimates of drift off the area; helium-filled balloons bearing frosted-glass discs measured above-canopy application; glass discs suspended vertically as well as bark sampler, measured quantities settling out at different layers in the canopy; glass discs and spotting-enamel paper not only allowed a measure of horizontal distribution but a check of a standard spray

  18. Efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes en la degradación de clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión Inorganic nutrients effect addition over the chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Upegui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes (una sal de fósforo o un fertilizante comercial con N, P y K como alternativa para mejorar la capacidad de degradación de los microorganismos en una matriz sólida, contaminada con los pesticidas organofosforados: clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión, se realizaron experimentos de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas de oscuridad, temperatura y humedad por 30 días. En todos los tratamientos hubo degradación de los pesticidas; sin embargo, en el tratamiento con fósforo los tiempos para degradar el clorpirifos y el metil paratión fueron mayores. La presencia de los pesticidas no generó efectos tóxicos detectables sobre la microflora en ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados. La actividad biológica de las matrices no presentó una relación directa con la capacidad de degradación.In order to evaluate the effect of inorganic nutrient addition (phosphorus or commercial fertilizer over the microbial degradation capacity present in a solid matrix contaminated with chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion, microcosms assays were held under controlled conditions of light, moisture and temperature for 30 days. Results showed that even though three treatments microorganisms were able to degrade the three organophosphorus pesticides, microorganisms of phosphorus-enrichment treatment were less efficient to degrade Chlorpyrifos and Methyl Parathion than microorganisms of Fertilizer-enrichment treatment. It was not observed a direct relation between mineralization and microbial pesticides degradation capacity. The microbial activity was not affected by the presence of organophosphorus pesticides.

  19. 马拉硫磷及其水解产物对圆瘤浮萍的生长抑制及氧化损伤作用%Inhibitory Effect of Malathion and Its Hydrolysates on the Growth of Duckweed ( Lemna gibba L. ) and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文萍; 钱双双; 徐吉洋; 吴声敢; 柳新菊; 吕露; 关文碧; 安雪花

    2017-01-01

    为了探讨马拉硫磷和主要水解产物对圆瘤浮萍的生长抑制作用及可能的氧化损伤机制,采用静态培养法,研究不同浓度的马拉硫磷及其水解产物二甲基二硫代磷酸酯(DMDTP)、二甲基硫代磷酸酯(DMTP)、二甲基磷酸酯(DMP)对圆瘤浮萍生长、叶绿素含量、叶绿体活性、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.结果表明,暴露7 d后,浓度为100 mg a.i.·L-1处理下的浮萍叶状体生长量与空白对照组无显著性差异;DMDTP、DMTP和DMP对圆瘤浮萍叶状体生长量的半数抑制浓度(7 d-IC50)分别为52.9、45.5和98.0 mg a.i.·L-1.随着试验液中DMDTP、DMTP和DMP浓度的升高,圆瘤浮萍叶绿素含量均明显降低,叶绿体活性则分别表现为诱导-抑制、抑制和抑制效应.在DMDTP、DMTP和DMP胁迫下,脂质过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)含量明显增加;圆瘤浮萍体内的抗氧化酶系统均受到影响.总体表现为随着DMDTP浓度的增加,SOD活性先降低后升高;DMTP和DMP胁迫下,SOD活性呈现先降后升再降的趋势;POD和CAT活性则随3种水解产物浓度的增加呈现先升后降趋势;这表明抗氧化酶系统对外部胁迫的应答很复杂.马拉硫磷对圆瘤浮萍的毒性较小,其水解产物DMDTP、DMTP和DMP均对圆瘤浮萍的生长产生一定的毒性作用.在实际生产中,应多加关注马拉硫磷水解产物对环境生物的风险评估.%In the present study, we aimed to explore toxic effects of malathion, dimethyl dithiophosphate (DMDTP),dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP) and dimethyl phosphate (DMP) on Lemna gibba L. Toxic effects of malathion, DMDTP, DMTP and DMP on the growth, relative chlorophyll content and chloroplast activity of Lemna gibba L. were assessed using static methods. At a concentration of 100 mg a.i.·L-1 , there was no significant difference be-tween malathion and the blank control, while the 7-day IC50 of DMDTP, DMTP

  20. Effect of Malathion on the Microbial Ecology of Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    L. Long, Y. Fan, J. Gan, J. Fang, and W. Jin, “A review on the detox - ification of organophosphorus compounds by microorganisms,” African Journal of...from pseudomonas diminuta as a model for the detoxication of o-ethyl s-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (vx),” Biochem- ical

  1. The Effect of Malathion on the Activity and Performance of Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    were discoveries of the 18th and 19th century; hydrogen cyanide in 1782, cyanogen chloride in 1802, phosgene in 1812, mustard in 1822, and...conducted sarin gas attacks in Japan. The first attack targeted three judges and was conducted outside their apartment complex in the town of Matsumoto...the use of chemical warfare agents. In 1982, in Chicago, Tylenol capsules were laced with 95-100 mg of cyanide , with the lethal does being

  2. Fate of Malathion in an Activated Sludge Municipal Wastewater Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    abdominal cramps, diarrhea, muscle fasciculation or weakness, and increased salivation , lacrimation, urination, and perspiration (Casarett, Doull...has a hydrolysis half-life of 1,000 hours at pH 7, and an extremely low volatility of 10.5 mg/m3 (Sidell, 1997; Munro et al., 1999). In comparison...soman 4 has the next lowest hydrolysis half-life of 60 hrs at pH 6, respectively (Munro et al., 1999). Tabun has the second lowest volatility of

  3. The Fate of Malathion on Copper and Iron Piping Within a Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    application in biological, polymers and plastics , explosive, inorganic compounds as well as metal and alloy research (Dodd & Tonge, 1987). There are...submerged in a dielectric fluid [i.e. water] prior to the EDM sending an electrically charged brass wire over the sample. The wire disintegrated the...period, the coupon samples were removed from the glass vial, placed on a plastic sample holder, and allowed to dry in the desiccator for a four-hour

  4. Toxicity bioassay and effects of sub-lethal exposure of malathion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ksu-network

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... glutamate pyruvic transaminase. Non-target animals including fish are greatly affected by the indiscriminate use of these pesticides. Fish appear to posses the same biochemical pathways to deal with the toxic effects of endogenous and exogenous agents as mammalian species does (Lackner, 1998).

  5. 75 FR 17712 - Malathion and Diquat Dibromide; Cancellation Order for Amendments to Terminate Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Table 1 of Unit II. in a manner inconsistent with any of the Provisions for Disposition of Existing... requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of uses of the products listed in Table 1, pursuant... the registrants listed in Table 2 to voluntarily amend to terminate certain uses of these product...

  6. Detection and Characterization of Malathion Adherence to Piping Materials Used in Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    obvious of them all is the use of a known binding energy standard. This can be conducted with a number of different calibrants, but gold (Au), silver (Ag...Ksp = 10 - 20) [43]. Corrosion also produces hydroxide ions at the cathodic end of the galvanic cell, which can react with bicarbonate and calcium to...80] Table 3. Binding Energy Values for Carbon (eV) [78] C-C 284.8 C-O-C ~286 O-C=O ~288.5 Metal sulfide ~161.5 Thiol bound to gold , Au-S 162.5

  7. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MALATHION 5-E GRAIN PROTECTANT CONTAINS CYTHION, 09/05/1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... ' .... wil ..... raia ..... ... tMtlted K .. aia ~.u •.••• 1, I r.ill" ., 1I.1.,,,lutl ; •. g i. :! ". i ••• lena,.' wa'e .. ';'1' 1000 b ..... A • .,I,. a ..... raia I" 1M", ... or 1 ... ..1 ...

  8. 75 FR 26227 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Butoxide MGK 264 000769-00620 SMCP Malathion 57% Malathion Premium Grade 000769-00621 SMCP Malathion EM-5... Home & Garden Pyrethrins Insect Bomb Piperonyl Butoxide MGK 264 000769-00857 Science Red Arrow...

  9. 75 FR 5643 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... 000769-00621 SMCP Malathion EM-5 Malathion 000769-00623 Special Outdoor Fly Kil Pyrethrins Insect Killer... 50% Malathion Malathion Spray 000769-00847 Pratt's Home & Garden Pyrethrins Insect Bomb Piperonyl...-00099 Flyer's Insecticide Resmethrin 047000-00132 Wasp & Hornet Insect Resmethrin Bomb 048668-00004 PPP...

  10. Effects of malathion and carbendazim on Amazonian freshwater organisms: comparison of tropical and temperate species sensitivity distributions and water quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Artero, A.; Waichman, A.V.; Geber-Correa, R.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticides for freshwater ecosystems in the Amazon has relied on the use of toxicity data and water quality criteria derived for temperate regions due to a lack of ecotoxicological studies performed with indigenous species. This leaves an unknown margin of uncertainty for the

  11. 76 FR 40359 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ....... Malathion. 048273-00026 Marman Malathion 56 Malathion. EC. 062719-00308 Vista Fluroxypyr 1- methylheptyl...%C12). 047371-00157 Formulation RTU- Alkyl* dimethyl 6075(la). ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride *(50%C12... Corporation, 451 Florida Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70801-1765. 5481 Amvac Chemical Corporation, 4695 MacArthur...

  12. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for McClellan Air Force Base, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    lakes and Dursban insecticide in standing waters. Adult mosquito control is accomplished by dispersion of malathion insecticide from Ultra-Low Volume...Solanum nigrum Typhaceae Cattail family Common cattail Typha latifolia L F9 Family Common Name Scientific Name Urticaceae Creek nettle Urtica...USED AT McCLELLAN AFB 1. Insecticides Diazionon 4E 47.5% Conc. Emulsion Diazinon 0.5% Oil Solution Malathion 57% Conc. Emulsion Malathion 95% Tech

  13. Battala et al pdf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    Several hundreds of pesticides of diverse chemical nature are widely ... little research in the identification of a comprehensive list of OP degradation .... the Malathion is more stable at acidic pH. At pH 8.5 the degradation rate of malathion is more. The results show that alkaline hydrolysis was the most competitive pathway for.

  14. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1. Perbedaan kemampuan daya serap tumbuhan air Hydrilla verticillata, Enceng gondok (Eichhomia crassipes dan Kangkung terhadap residu Malathion, menggunakan akuarium (diisi dengan air + Hydrilla Verticillata + Enceng Gondok + Kangkung + Malathion radioisotope 14C. 2. Perbandingan kadar malathion dalam jaringan ikan yang mendapat makanan Hydrilla verticilata dengan yang mendapat makanan kangkung, menggunakan: (akuarium pertama diisi air + Hydrilla Vericillata + ikan mas + Malathion radioisotope 14C; akuarium ke dua diisi air + kangkung + ikan mas + malathion radiisotop 14C. 3. Perbandingan ukuran penyerapan pada jaringan mammalia (tikus yang diberi makan jaringan ikan mas dengan yang diberi makan tumbuhan air (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. Jaringan ikan mas dan kangkung dilakukan pengabuan basah, lalu diberikan masing-masing kepada 30 ekor tikus. Kadar Malathion dari semua percobaan satu, dua dan tiga, diketahui dengan menggunakan alat pencacah Sintilator cair (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer, LSC- 753 (ALOKA”. Hasil yang didapat dibandingkan dengan menggunakan uji-t Student. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa: 1. Hydrilla Verticillata lebih efisien dari pada Enceng Gondok dan Kangkung dalam menyerap residu insektisida malathion dalam air. 2. Ikan yang diberi makan Hydrilla verticillata mengkonsentrasikan malathion lebih tinggi dari pada ikan yang diberi makan kangkung. 3. Mammalia (tikus yang mengkonsumsi daging ikan yang terkontaminasi akan mengkonsentrasikan malathion dalam tubuhnya lebih banyak dari pada tikus yang memakan sayuran (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine: 1.The comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata, water hyacinth and water spinach of Malathion insecticide residues in water, (aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + water hyacinth + water spinach + 20 mci 14C malathion radioisotope; 2

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 13, No 17 (2014), Tissue diversity in respiratory metabolism and free radical .... of malathion on biochemical composition and haematological parameters of ... to earthworms (Aporrectodea longa) in naturally spiked soil, Abstract PDF.

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides and an insect growth regulator on the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzen, G W; Maldonado, S N; Rojas, M G

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory culture of Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, was exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of insecticides and an insect growth regulator using a spray chamber bioassay. Materials tested were azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, fipronil, malathion, cyfluthrin, dimethoate, spinosad, methyl parathion, acephate, oxamyl, and tebufenozide. At full rates, spinosad was significantly less toxic to female C. grandis than other treatments except endosulfan. Fipronil and malathion were significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. Most of the chemicals tested were highly toxic to male C. grandis; spinosad was least toxic. At reduced rates, most of 4 selected chemicals tested were low in toxicity to C. grandis; however, a reduced rate of malathion was significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. No C. grandis pupae developed from parasitism during a 24-h treatment period with malathion or spinosad. The sex ratio of progeny from sprayed adults appeared to be unaffected by the treatments.

  17. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal - Vol 4, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and Sprout Studies of ... Farmers' Practices and Combinations of Malathion and Neem Seed Powder ... Protolitic Equilibria and Stability Constants of Mn (II) and Ni (II) Complexes of ...

  18. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  19. Ukpebor 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reproducible analytical method utilising GC-MS is presented for the analysis of thirteen organophosphorus ... the more water soluble compounds of malathion and dimethoate, reproducibility ... stream of nitrogen (99.999%), and reconstituted.

  20. 424 Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Although, successful control of mosquito vectors with. Malathion ... containing 500mls of distilled water and allowed to hatch to 1st instar larvae and kept to .... and the rate of inhibition of emergence increased with increased.

  1. Effect of natural and chemical insecticides on Hyalopterus pruni and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Anthmis pseudocotula and their mixtures with chemical insecticide (Malathion) on growth of ... ed the use of natural extracts of Fagonia arabica, Salix ..... Studies on the efficacy of neem products against the aphid Aphis.

  2. Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, and Insecticidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    deionized water. One percent oil concentration was used based on commercial botanical insecticides such as Neem (Azadiractin), Ecotrol (Rosmarinus...analyses for E. capillifolium oil and two commercial insecticides (Malathion, Neem ) topically applied to adult azalea lace bugs, S. pyrioides...0.93 (0.06) . . . 262.58 < 0.0001 exposure time . 695 0.44 (0.04) . . . 135.87 < 0.0001 a Malathion and Neem used as positive baseline controls for

  3. Evaluation of the protective effect of garlic oil on hepatic injury induced by pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was directed to evaluate the effect of repeated daily oral administrations of two pesticides; malathion (organophosphorus) and lannate (carbamate) at dose levels of 27.5 and 3.4 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Garlic oil at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg body weight was given by gavage during pesticides treatment (garlic oil + pesticides) to evaluate its role against the harmful effects of the two selected pesticides in male albino rats. The level of serum 14 C-isoleucine (4 μCi/100 g body weight) twenty-four hours post administration of malathion or lannate and also garlic oil was studied. Malathion and lannate treatments resulted in significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, 5-nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase and serum total calcium level. On the other hand, pesticides treatment caused significant decrease in serum inorganic phosphorus. The level of serum 14 C-isoleucine twenty-four hours post administration of malathion or lannate and also garlic oil was significantly increased due to pesticides treatment and decreased in case of garlic oil treatment. The protective role of garlic oil was clear to some extent and could ameliorate the activities of some serum enzymes in addition to inorganic phosphorus. The administration of garlic oil to malathion treated animals was more effective in ameliorating the disturbed levels in case of malathion than that occurred with lannate pesticide treatment

  4. A rapid and inexpensive bioassay to evaluate the decontamination of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, David M; Martin-Brown, Skylar A; Sagar, Sanjay Gupta; Durham, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid bioassay using adult red flour beetles was developed for use in assessing the decontamination of environments containing organophosphates and related chemicals. A decontamination protocol was developed which demonstrated that 2 to 3 applications of 5% bleach solution were required to obtain nearly complete decontamination of malathion. The bioassay was also used to screen common household cleaners as potential decontaminating agents, but only 5% bleach was effective at improving survival of insects on steel plates treated with 25% malathion. A toxic degradation product (malaoxon) was detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry; this toxin affected the decontamination efficacy and resulted in continued toxicity to the beetles until subsequent decontaminations. The bioassay provides evidence to support the use of red flour beetles as a sensitive, less expensive method for determining safety levels of environments contaminated with malathion and other toxins, and may have application in the study of chemical warfare agents.

  5. Assessing the impact of atmospheric chemistry on the fate, transport, and transformation of adulticides in an urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, S.; Yoon, S.; Guagenti, M. C.; Sheesley, R. J.; Usenko, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are literal hot spots of mosquito-borne disease transmission and air pollution during the summer months. Public health authorities release aerosolized adulticides to target adult mosquitoes directly in to the atmosphere to control mosquito populations and reduce the threat of diseases (e.g. Zika). Permethrin and malathion are the primary adulticides for controlling adult mosquito populations in Houston, TX and are typically sprayed at night. After being released into the atmosphere adulticides are subject to atmospheric oxidation initiated by atmospheric oxidants (e.g. O3 and NO3) which are driven by anthropogenic air pollutants (e.g. NOx; NO and NO2). Particulate matter (PM) samples were measured at both application and downwind locations. Sampling sites were determined using the combination of atmospheric plume transport models and adulticide application data provided by Harris County Public Health Mosquito Division. Atmospheric PM samples were taken using a Mobile Laboratory, equipped with total suspended PM and PM2.5 (PM with diameter Interestingly, during malathion-use periods, atmospheric malaoxon concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were similar to corresponding TSP samples. This suggests that the majority of the malathion (and malaoxon) was associated with fine PM. During permethrin-use periods, atmospheric permethrin concentrations measured in the PM2.5 samples were an order and half lower in magnitude. This suggests that permethrin may be undergoing less volatilization into the gas phase after application as compared to malathion (and or malaoxon). Unlike permethrin, malathion was not sprayed with a carrier or a synergistic compound. As a result, malathion may be more prone to volatilization. The atmospheric oxidation and migration to fine PM may result in decreased efficacy and increase atmospheric transport, both of which have environmental and human health consequences.

  6. Dietary intake of food contaminants in the Netherlands (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Dokkum, W. van; Paauw, C.G. van der; Vos, R.H. de; Kort, W.L.A.M. de; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the level of exposure to food contaminants (cadmium, lead, PCBs, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, nitrate and malathion) a total-diet study was carried out. A total of 226 food products were analysed individually; the concentration of contaminants in products not selected for analysis was estimated

  7. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    high bioavailability of organic compounds. However, amended SSL soil was analyzed for presence of metabolic transformation products from nitroaromatic...Phillips, C.; Checkai, R. 1999. Comparison of malathion toxicity using enchytraeid reproduction test and earthworm toxicity test in different soil ...OF TNT IN AMENDED SANDY LOAM SOIL ON TOXICITY TO THE ENCHYTRAEID WORM, ENCHYTRAEUS CRYPTICUS Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  8. Isolation and characterization of two malathiondegrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas mendocina degrading malathion were studied. Morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA genes for bacterial identification were selected. Biodegradation of some organophosphorus compounds with the 2 bacterial isolates was determined by high performance liquid ...

  9. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Andrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide to T. castaneum adults of the Nikinci population selected with pirimiphosmethyl and deltamethrin, while malathion was the weakest, and both selection procedures changed/reduced significantly only the toxicity of deltamethrin and bifenthrin, increasing their resistance ratios (RR at the LD50 from 1.1 to 1.8 (bifenthrin and from 0.9 to 2.2 (deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide for Jakovo adults selected with the LD80 of pirimiphosmethyl, while malathion was again the least toxic. Selection of that population had no effect on insecticide toxicity, except of malathion, which had a rise in RR at the LD50 from 26.0 to 29.8.

  10. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    to be the cause of the degradation of the quality of sur- face and ground waters ... network and the nature of the soil generally clay lateritic with high permeability. .... 0.006 0.008 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.007 0.008 0.004 0.004 0.004 Malathion.

  11. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  12. Evaluation of ULV Applications Against Old World Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species in Equatorial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ClarkeMosquito Control Products, Roselle , IL) and the Terminator Diesel ULV Sprayer/Compres- sor (ADAPCO Solutions & Technology, Sanford, FL). TheGrizzly is...Products, Roselle , IL). Fy- fanon is a 96.5% malathion oil-based formulation rated for ULV or thermal fog insecticide application. Mala- thion is one of

  13. Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-03-01

    In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95 L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Zero valent iron reduces toxicity and concentrations of organophosphate pesticides in contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Baun, Anders; Vastrup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    including synthesis intermediates and degradation products of organophosphates. The ZVI treatment showed that all the contaminants were degraded with the exception of two diesters (phosphorothioates). The most rapid reduction was found for methyl parathion, ethyl parathion and malathion, which had first...

  15. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  16. Oprensning af forureningen på depotet ved Høfde 42 ved hjælp af nul-valent jern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Kjeldsen, Peter; Petersen, Peter Alfred

    Rapporten beskriver forsøg med nul-valent jern på forurenet vand og sediment fra depotet ved Høfde 42 på Harboøre Tange. Resultaterner viser, at parathion og malathion hurtigt og fuldstændigt bliver omdannet til langt mindre toksiske forbindelser, og endvidere nedbrydes mange af de tilstedeværende...

  17. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  18. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  19. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  20. Effect of natural and chemical insecticides on Hyalopterus pruni and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of water extracts of Fagonia arabica, Salix alba and Anthmis pseudocotula and their mixtures with chemical insecticide (Malathion) on growth of. Hyalopterus pruni and characters of Armeniaca vulgaris plants and their soils. The data revealed that F.arabica extract at 20% ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR THE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased concern about the sublethal effects of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides on human and animal health. This class of chemicals has been shown to affect the immune function of macrophages and lymphocytes. Malathion, an OP compound, is one of the most widely used ...

  2. Interaction of chemical cues from fish tissues and organophosphorous pesticides on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Jonathan D.; Farris, Jerry L.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladocera are frequently used as test organisms for assessing chemical and effluent toxicity and have been shown to respond to stimuli and cues from potential predators. In this study, the interactive effects of visual and chemical cues of fish and two organophosphorous pesticides on survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia were examined. A significant chemical cue (homogenized Pimephales promelas) and malathion interaction was observed on C. dubia survival (P = 0.006). Chemical cue and 2.82 μg/L malathion resulted in a 76.0% reduction in survival compared to malathion alone (P < 0.01). Furthermore, potentiation of malathion toxicity varied based on the source of chemical cues (i.e., epithelial or whole body). It is unclear in this study whether these chemical cues elicited a predation-related stress in C. dubia. Future research should examine the mechanism of this interaction and determine what role, if any, stress responses by C. dubia might play in the interaction. - Potentiation of organophosphorous pesticide toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) chemical cues was observed

  3. A Pharmacokinetic Study of the Effects of Stress on Chemical Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    strength of the immune system is also affected by stress in cancer progression studies done in humans (Delahanty, 1996:48). Robert Sapolsky has...146: 704- 712 (November 1997). Wester, R.C., D. Quan and H.I. Maibach. "In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption of Model Compounds Glyphosate and Malathion

  4. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  5. Submerged Macrophytes Mitigate Direct and Indirect Insecticide Effects in Freshwater Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  6. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Brogan

    Full Text Available Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades. However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern

  7. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  8. Peningkatan dan aktivitas enzim asetilkolinesterase pada nyamuk Aedes aegypti yang diseleksi dengan malation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Jayanti Gunandini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Elevated and Activity of Acetilcholinesterase Enzyme on Aedes aegypti Selected by Malathion. The aim of this research was to study the effect of selection by malathion on the activity level  Acetilcholinesterase enzyme on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Selection of Aedes aegypti larval by mean of malathion have been conducted for 20 generations. During the selection process time has been increased of concentration applied and exposure. For generation 0-5 (F0-F5, a concentration of 25 µl/l (24 ppm was used to expose the larvae to malathion for five minutes. In generation 6-10 (F6-F10 the concentration has increased to 50 µl/l (48 ppm; in F11-F15 the concentration used was 100 µl/l (96 ppm whereas in F16-F20 200µl/l (192 ppm was used. Mosquito generations that would be regarded as representative and reference groups were F0, F5, F10, F15 and F20. The LC50 of F0, F5, F10, F15 and F20 was 0,025; 0,032; 0,042; 0,062 and 0,071 ppm respectively. Increases LT50 values was also observed in Aedes aegypti selected by malathion. The LT50 of F0, F5, F10, F15 and F20 generations was 7,9; 11,3; 18; 30,6 and 33,1 minutes respectively. The low levels of malathion resistance could be conferred by the elevated of α-esterase. The values of the α-esterase in F0, F5, F10, F15 and F20 were 0,155; 0,174; 0,203; 0,209 and 0,215 µmol/min/mg protein respectively. The acetilcholinesterase activities were also raised in F0, F5, F10, F15 and F20, the value of acetilcholinesterase activities were 20,35; 20,26; 23,14; 23,18 and 24,9%.

  9. Tingkat Kerentanan Aedes aegypti (Linn. terhadap Malation di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi P. Ambarita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDengue vector control program in Indonesia and also South Sumatera Province has been using malathion quite long enough. The extensive use of chemical in dengue vector control can lead to development of resistance. This study aims to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti against malathion in 11 district of South Sumatera Province. Larva or pupae were collected with entomology survey kit and colonized until first generation (F1 that were used for bioassay. This test was conducted according to WHO adult susceptibility bioassay procedure.Twenty five blood-fed mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide impregnated paper in each of 4 WHO test kits and 1 control tube. Aedes aegypti from all study sites were still susceptible to operational dose of malathion (5%after 1 hour exposure. The estimated resistance ratio (ERR of knockdown time (KT to operasional dose of malathion is about 1,02 – 1,27 for KT50 and 0,96 – 1,24 for KT95. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dose (0,8% of malathion showed a variety of susceptibility after 24 hours. Strain of 7 districts showed resistance, 3 districts toleran and 1 district still susceptible. The detection of resistance can actually help public health personnel to formulate appropriate steps in encountering the reduction in effectiveness of vector control efforts.Keywords : Aedes aegypti, Malathion, Susceptibility, South SumateraAbstrakProgram pengendalian vektor DBD di Indonesia termasuk di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan telah cukup lama menggunakan malation dengan konsentrasi 5%. Penggunaan satu jenis insektisida kimiawi secara ekstensif dapat memicu perkembangan resistensi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan status kerentanan Aedes aegypti terhadap malation dari 11 kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. Larva atau pupa dikumpulkan menggunakan alat survei entomologi dan selanjutnyadipelihara hingga mendapatkan generasi pertama (F1 yang akan digunakan pada uji

  10. The stable isotope fingerprinting technique for agricultural pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, N.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-12-01

    The compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental, and forensics field. In particular, the stable isotope ratio of pesticide is applied to biological process and reaction in the soil and distribution channel as forensics science. The aim of this study is to measure the stable isotope ratios of pesticide using various analytical methodologies, GC/IRMS, EA/IRMS, and LC/IRMS under high accuracy and precision. Therefore, these methods seemed to be important knowledge as geological field. In particular case, we present the method to measure carbon isotope ratio of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using GC/IRMS with cryo-focusing system to identify the source. In December 2013, food poisoning occurred after eating frozen dumplings (i.e., pizza and chicken nuggets) in Japan. There was a very high concentration, maximum value 15,000ppm, of malathion (diethyl (dimethoxythiophosphorylthio) succinate) in products. This incident was caused by an employee of process, and threatened the food safety. We analyzed the δ13C of malathion ranged from -30.63‰ to -29.54‰ (S.D. 0.10‰), the differences less than 1.0‰. All malathion emulsion sold in Japan are imported from Cheminova India Lat., Denmark to Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Japan. After that, Japanese each manufacture buy from Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd. And blended malathion and organic solvent (ethylbenzene and xylene). Therefore, ethylbenzene and xylene may be important tool as source identification. We measured the δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene, too. As the results, the δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene ranged from -28.20‰ to -20.84‰ (S.D. 0.16‰), -28.69‰ to -25.15‰ (S.D. 0.13‰), respectively. The δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene can be identified manufacture, although the δ13C of malathion indicated same value. In addition, we measured five pesticides (acephate, acetamiprid, glufosinate, glyphosate, and oxamyl) using

  11. Genetic sexing strains for four species of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Genetic sexing strains were assembled by using classical genetic and cytogenetic techniques for four medically important species of insects. Male linked reciprocal translocations were used to impose pseudolinkage of sex and selectable genes (shown in parentheses) for Anopheles albimanus (propoxur resistance), Anopheles quadrimaculatus sp. A (malathion resistance), Stomoxys calcitrans (dieldrin resistance; malathion resistance, and black pupa), and Musca domestica (black pupa). These strains would be of great value in implementation of the sterile insect technique for control of these species because the females can either be killed in the egg stage (in the case of insecticide resistance as the selectable gene) or they can be separated from the males and thus excluded from releases. (author). 13 refs

  12. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi, Sihem

    2010-01-01

    Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

  13. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)], E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2008-05-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively.

  14. Polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate film based disposable nucleic acid biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, Manoj K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-04-18

    Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry, Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. These biosensing electrodes have a response time of 30 s, are stable for about 5 months when stored in desiccated conditions at 25 deg. C and can be used to amperometrically detect chlorpyrifos (0.0016-0.025 ppm) and malathion (0.17-5.0), respectively. The additive effect of these pesticides on the amperometric response of the disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes has also been investigated.

  15. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Harpal; Malhotra, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively

  16. Development of the radioimmunoassay for prolactin, vasopressin and argin in invasotocin in view of reproduction phenomena in normal conditions and under the action of environmental noxious agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionescu, L.

    1979-10-01

    Radioimmunoassay procedures for testosterone, thyroglobulin, gonadotropin-inhibiting urinary substance (GIS), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and vasopressin were developed with reagents either locally produced or obtained from other sources. Studies of the effects of a pesticide, Malathion, on serum prolactin, FSH and LH levels in rats and of the effects of two herbicides, Amitrol and Atrazin, on thyroglobulin levels in human thyroid cell cultures were carried out. In the former, significant effects of Malathion on serum prolactin, FSH and LH levels, depending on dose level and mode of administration, were observed. In the latter, thyroglobulin levels in the cell cultures were proved resistant to Amitrol and Atrazin. The significance of these findings is discussed

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on insecticides of grains and storage raw-materia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manco, E.A.C.

    1987-12-01

    To study the effect of gamma irradiation on deltametrina, malathion and fenitrothion, the saturated filter paper technique was used. The filter paper, saturated with the products, was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation - 10, 20 and 40 kGu at a 12.76 kGy rate p/h. Adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. reared at 25 0 +- 1 0 C and relative humidity of 70 +- 5% were used. The dead rate used and life expectancy was calculated using the best regression as indicator of the degradation factor of the insecticide. It was noted that gamma radiation degraded deltametrina and fenitrothion, the latter more markedly at a 40 kGy dose. Gamma radiation had no effect on malathion and the insects submitted to it showed a life expectancy smaller than the controls. (author) [pt

  18. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  19. Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI-YING BO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

  20. Sorption and movement of pesticides on thin layer plates of Brazilain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, K.A.; Helene, C.G.; Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution, and movement in water on thin layers plates of 7 soils of 3 organochlorine, 2 organophosphorus and 1 carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory. Generally, all substances were sorbed most and moved least on soils richest in organic matter. However, sorption was not a function of organic matter content alone. Aldrin and DDT were most strongly sorbed and did not move from the point of application on the thin layer plates of any soil. On all 7 soils, carbaryl was the least strongly sorbed insecticide. On 5 soils, lindane, parathion and malathion were increasingly strongly sorbed, but on the other 2 soils lindane was mostly strongly sorbed. The apparent greater mobility of 14 C-labelled malathion on thin layers of soils repeatedly leached could be explained by the formation of more polar substances. (author) [pt

  1. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals.

  2. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    researchers began to test the idea of attracticides. Protein-hydrolysate baits were first used in Hawaii for the control of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The spray mixture contained protein hydrolysate, sugar, and parathion (Steiner 1952). In 1956, malathion (a fumigant, contact, stomach poison) was combined with protein bait to eradicate the C. capitata from Florida (Steiner et al. 1961). A mixture of technical grade malathion (> 95%) and NuLure (Protein Insecticide Bait 7 or PIB-7) at a ratio of 1:4 (malathion:NuLure) was used to eradicate C. capitata from Brownsville, Texas (Stephenson and McClung 1966). Lopez et al. (1969) also used a malathion-bait combination at the same ratio to control the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), applied at discrete locations; however, they did not elucidate the rationale for their 1:4 ratio. Later, Harris et al. (1971) showed that effectiveness of malathion to kill fruit flies was directly proportional to the ratio of malathion to NuLure; a ratio of 1:4 was more effective than other ratios tested. Thus, flies responding to the attracticide only needed fume exposure, contact, taste, or ingest mixture, whereupon they died in a short time. This may be the reason why the adequacy of the bait in the malathion-bait sprays was not questioned. The main reason for the wide use of malathion is its low mammalian toxicity as well as its low price

  3. Evaluation of Four Bio fertilizers for Bioremediation of Pesticide contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Kabbany, S.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to asses the ability of mixed populations of microorganisms which produced as a bio fertilizers by the General Organization of Agriculture Fund, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (phosphoren, microbien, cerealin and azospirillum) to degrade five selected pesticides representing different classes including organophosphate, carbamate and chlorinated organic compounds. There were differences in rates of biotransformation, suggesting the selective induction of certain metabolic enzymes. Inoculation of soil incorporated with malathion, fenamiphos, carbaryl, aldicarb and dieldrin, resulted in ca. 80-90% removal of malathion and fenamiphos within 8 days, carbaryl and aldicarb within 11-15 days respectively. Dieldrin removal occurred slowly within 2 months. These data suggest that bioremediate may act as potential candidates for soil inoculation to bioremediate pesticide contaminated soil. The production of Co2 (soil respiration ) was stimulated by some pesticides. In samples with microbien, an about 2 times higher Co2 production was measured

  4. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szperlinski, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  5. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueruqe, NM; Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  6. Acute and Chronic Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytraeus crypticus, in Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Checkai, R. Comparison of Malathion Toxicity Using Enchytraeid Reproduction Test and Earthworm Toxicity Test in Different Soil Types. Pedobiologia...Russow, R.; Richnow, H.H.; Kastner, M. Fate and Metabolism of [ 15 N]2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Soil . Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2004, 23, pp 1852–1860...ENCHYTRAEUS CRYPTICUS, IN NATURAL SOILS ECBC-TR-981 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini Carlton T. Phillips Jan E. Kolakowski Carl

  7. Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Longterm Groundwater Monitoring Health and Safety Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    glands. It is less toxic to humans than most anticholinesterase agents because malathion and its metabolite, malaoxon, are metabolized in the liver to...During the early and middle 1980s, the U.S. army conducted an incineration project designed to excavate and treat soils beneath leachpits and cesspools...contamination, but was unable to remove all contaminated soil . At many locations, remediation action levels could not be achieved before groundwater was

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Measurement of Percutaneous Penetration of Low Molecular Weight Toxins of Military Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-21

    DDT from soil . Toxicologist, 10 (1990) 156. 37. D.A.W. Bucks, J.-P.L. Marty, and H.I. Maibach, Percutaneous absorption of malathion in the guinea-pig...tissue. The pigs were then housed in stainless steel metabolism cages for approximately 3 days. Urine and feces were collected twice a day. The pigs were...site as previously described (8). The patch kept the application site from contacting the metabolism cage and prevented radioactive exfoliated skin

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of the combined action of pesticides and radiation on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Fesenko, Eh.V.; Antoshchina, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of the combined action of pesticides and irradiation at the G 0 stage was studied in cultured human lymphocytes. Carbophos (malathion) increased the yield of chromosome and chromatid fragments in irradiated lymphocytes. Herbicide 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) raised lymphocyte radiosensitivity by increasing the yield of chromosome type aberrations, the radiosensitizing effect of the herbicide decreased as its concentration increased. 4 refs

  10. HPLC WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatographic determination of organophosphorous compound has been done by reverse phase chromatography in goats. The goats were dying showing the symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning. The viscera and stomach contents sample were received from Project Co-Ordinator, Animal Disease Research Institute, Phulnakhara, Cuttack, Orissa. The analysis of samples by HPLC with UV detector after cleaning up in Solid Phase Extraction (SPE revealed presence of malathion that was later quantified.

  11. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  12. De-contamination of pesticide residues in food by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Mohamed, Khaled A.; Al-Saqer, Omar A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of gamma irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in vegetables and fruits was investigated. Radiation - induced decontamination of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in selected vegetables and fruits. Residues of malathion (0.5 ppm in potatoes, 8 ppm in onions and dates), pirimiphos-methyl (1 ppm in onions and grapes) and cypermethrin (0.05 ppm in potatoes and 0.1 ppm in onions) were not reduced to below maximum residue limits (MRLs) for irradiation doses up to 1 kGy. The same trend was observed when irradiation was performed for grapes fortified with malathion (8 ppm) and cypermethrin (2 ppm) for absorbed doses up to 2 kGy. Ionizing radiation reduced the residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0.05 ppm in potatoes at1 kGy, 1 ppm in grapes at 2 kGy and 0.1 ppm in dates at1 kGy), malathion (8 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) and cypermethrin (2 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) to below maximum residue limits (MRLs). - Highlights: ► The role of irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in food products was investigated. ► Radiation-induced removal of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in food products. ► Radiation can reduce the pirimiphos-methyl in potatoes, grapes and dates to below MRLs. ► Radiation can reduce the malathion and cypermethrin in grapes to below MRLs. ► Radiation is used for dual objectives of reducing pesticide residues and improving food safety.

  13. Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Anderson, Guthrie, and Walton 1993 Demeton-8- methyl Duckweed ( Lemna minor ) PE, PD Approximately 10% total transformation (PE and PD) measured in 48...Duckweed ( Lemna minor ) PE, PD Approximately 25% total transformation (PE and PD) measured in 24 hours Gao et al. 1998 Malathion Parrot feather...in 14 days Anderson, Kruger, and Coats 1994 Metolachor Duckweed ( Lemna minor ) PE 25% remaining in the water after 16 days Rice, Anderson, and

  14. Community air monitoring for pesticides-part 2: multiresidue determination of pesticides in air by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Matt; Lee, P

    2014-03-01

    Two multiresidue methods were developed to determine pesticides in air collected in California. Pesticides were trapped using XAD-4 resin and extracted with ethyl acetate. Based on an analytical method from the University of California Davis Trace Analytical Laboratory, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine chlorothalonil, chlorthal-dimethyl, cycloate, dicloran, dicofol, EPTC, ethalfluralin, iprodione, mefenoxam, metolachlor, PCNB, permethrin, pronamide, simazine, trifluralin, and vinclozolin. A GC with a flame photometric detector was used to determine chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, fonophos, fonophos oxon, malathion, malathion oxon, naled, and oxydemeton. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 78 to 92 % for low level (0.5 μg) and 37-104 % for high level (50 and 100 μg) recoveries. Little to no degradation of compounds occurred over 31 days; recoveries ranged from 78 to 113 %. In the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) method, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by GC-MS to determine chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan 1, endosulfan sulfate, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, propargite, and trifluralin. A liquid chromatograph coupled to a MS was used to determine azinphos-methyl, chloropyrifos oxon, DEF, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, diuron, EPTC, malathion, malathion oxon, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, phosmet, propanil, simazine and thiobencarb. Trapping efficiencies for compounds determined by the CDFA method ranged from 10 to 113, 22 to 114, and 56 to 132 % for 10, 5, and 2 μg spikes, respectively. Storage tests yielded 70-170 % recovery for up to 28 days. These multiresidue methods represent flexible, sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective ways to determine residues of various pesticides in ambient air.

  15. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  16. Treatment of Pesticide Contaminated Wastewater by Soil Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    *S. Jilani; M. A. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used pesticides in the country for agriculture crop production. Due to least water solubility and toxicity, its removal need especial attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be an efficient and cost effective method for decontamination of toxic pesticides from the environment. In this study, malathion degrading bacterial isolate, identified as Pseudomonas, was used to assess its biodegradation potential for cypermethrin in aqueous system. The e...

  17. Digestive enzyme as benchmark for insecticide resistance development in Culex pipiens larvae to chemical and bacteriologic insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nashwa H; Bahgat, Iman M; El Kady, Gamal A

    2013-04-01

    This work monitored changes in some digestive enzymes (trypsin and aminopeptidase) associated with the building up of resistance in Cx. pipiens larvae to two chemical insecticides (methomyl and/or malathion) and one biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis-H14 or B.t H 14). The LC50 value of methomyl for both field- and the 12th generation (F12) of the selected strain was 1.789 ppm and 8.925 ppm respectively. The LC50 value of malathion for both field and the F12 of the selected strain was 0.082 ppm and 0.156 ppm respectively, and those of B.t H14 of field strain and the F12 was 2.550ppm & 2.395ppm respectively. The specific activity of trypsin enzyme in control susceptible colony was 20.806 +/- 0.452micromol/min/mg protein; but at F4 and F8 for malathion and methomyl treated larvae were 10.810 +/- 0.860 & 15.616+/-0.408 micromol/min/mg protein, respectively. Trypsin activity of F12 in treated larvae with B.t.H14 was 2.097 +/- 0.587 microiol/min/mg protein. Aminopeptidase specific activity for susceptible control larvae was 173.05 +/- 1.3111 micromol/min/mg protein. This activity decreased to 145.15 +/- 4.12, 152.497 +/- 6.775 & 102.04 +/- 3.58a micromol/min/mg protein after larval (F 12) treatment with methomyl, malathion and B.t H 14 respectively.

  18. Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of some organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDA A. AKL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three rapid, simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A, B and C are described for the determination of two organophosphorus pesticides, (malathion and dimethoate in formulations and vegetable samples. The methods A and B involve the addition of an excess of Ce4+ into sulphuric acid medium and the determination of the unreacted oxidant by decreasing the red color of chromotrope 2R (C2R at a suitable lmax = 528 nm for method A, or a decrease in the orange pink color of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G at a suitable lmax = = 525 nm. The method C is based on the oxidation of malathion or dimethoate with the slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS and the determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting it with amaranth dye (AM in hydrochloric acid medium at a suitable lmax = 520 nm. A regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration range of 0.1-4.2 μg mL−1. The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, the detection and quantification limits were calculated. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are 0.25-4.0 μg mL−1. The developed methods were successfully applied to the determination of malathion, and dimethoate in their formulations and environmental vegetable samples.

  19. Biodegradation and kinetics of organic compounds and heavy metals in an artificial wetland system (AWS) by using water hyacinths as a biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Mendoza-Pérez, J A; Tabla-Hernandez, J; Martínez-Tavera, E; Monroy-Mendieta, M M

    2018-01-02

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from the Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The present study indicated that the water hyacinths absorbed nearly 1.8-16.6 g of COD kg -1 dm (dry mass of water hyacinth), while the absorbance efficiency of BOD was observed to be 45.8%. The results also indicated that the maximum absorbance efficiency of malathion, 2,4-D, and piroxicam was observed to be 67.6%, 58.3%, and 99.1%, respectively. The kinetics of organic compounds fitted different orders as malathion followed a zeroth-order reaction, while 2,4-D and piroxicam followed the first-order reactions. Preliminary assessment of absorption of heavy metals by the water hyacinth in the AWS was observed to be (all values in mg g -1 ) 7 (Ni), 13.4 (Cd), 16.3 (Pb), and 17.5 (Zn) of dry biomass, thus proving its feasibility to depurate wastewater.

  20. Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, A; Talebi, K

    2003-01-01

    Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

  1. Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

    2014-09-29

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals.

  2. Adulticidal Susceptibility Evaluation of Aedes albopictus Using New Diagnostic Doses in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Junaid; Ahmad, Abu H; Ahmad, Hamdan; Ishak, Intan H; Rus, Adanan Che; Maimusa, Hamisu A

    2017-09-01

    Insecticide-based vector control approaches are facing challenges due to the development of resistance in vector mosquitoes. Therefore, a proper resistance surveillance program using baseline lethal concentrations is crucial for resistance management strategies. Currently, the World Health Organization's (WHO) diagnostic doses established for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles species are being used to study the resistance status of Aedes albopictus. In this study, we established the diagnostic doses for permethrin, deltamethrin, and malathion using a known susceptible reference strain. Five field-collected populations were screened against these doses, following the WHO protocol. This study established the diagnostic dose of malathion at 2.4%, permethrin at 0.95%, and deltamethrin at 0.28%, which differ from the WHO doses for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles spp. Among the insecticides tested on the 5 wild populations, only deltamethrin showed high effectiveness. Different susceptibility and resistance patterns were observed with permethrin, malathion, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) at 4%. This study may assist the health authorities to improve future chemical-based vector control operations in dengue-endemic areas.

  3. [Susceptibility of natural populations of dengue vector to insecticides in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacoloma, Liliana; Chaves, Bernardo; Brochero, Helena Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Physiological resistance of natural population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemical control as a main control strategy during dengue outbreaks. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti was assessed for the carbamate propoxur, the adulticide malathion and the larvicide temephos on 13 natural populations of Ae. aegypti immature forms were taken from 8 Colombian localities. These included the following: Bucaramanga (1), Sabana de Torres (2), Girardot (2), La Mesa (2), Villavicencio (2), Puerto López (2), San José del Guaviare (1) and Florencia (1). Susceptibility tests mainly consisted of the standardized bioassay outlined by WHO (1981) and CDC bottles (1998). Colorimetric tests were undertaken to determine enzyme levels possibly responsible for the reduction of susceptibility to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. All specimens demonstrated susceptibility to malathion and propoxur insecticides. Four of the 13 populations revealed susceptibility to the temephos larvicide. Seven of 11 populations showed a limited increase in values for nonspecific esterase enzymes. The Bucaramanga population was the only one which showed an increase in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enzymes. Neither population was found with modified acetilcolinesterase. The widespread susceptibility to organophosphates used as adulticides indicated that malathion, the most used insecticide in Colombia, remains effective in interrupting the transmission of dengue. Physiological resistance to insecticides occurring in communities of a single township proved to be a localized phenomenon.

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  5. Field evalution of controling methods of mango fruit flies bactrocera zonata (Biptera:Tephritidae in the southern part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bactrocera zonata (Diptera, Tephritidae, is considered as a dangerous pest of mango in the south of Iran, which its control is one of the main concerns of farmers who are facing numerous problems. To assay the different methods for controlling B. zonata, this study was carried out. Method: The treatments were, A spraying 7% methyl eugenol+7% technical malathion on trunk and tree branches, B soaking 8-10 layers of jute sacks with previous treatment that were attached to tree branches, C bucket trap along with chipboard that was saturated with 6 ml of methyl eugenol, D spraying 3% protein hydrolysate+3 ppm malathion (EC 57% on the trunk and tree branches, E spraying 3% sugar permit+3 ppm malathion on the trunk and tree branches, and F control (no treatment. The experiments were repeated at two consecutive years. Results: The results confirmed that the differences among treatments and the effect of the year on the treatments were significant (p>1%. The treatment D captured the highest numbers of fruit flies in both years of replications. The treatments had significant effect on percentage of fruit infestation. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that treatments C and B had the greatest impact on pest control.

  6. A quantitative approach for integrating multiple lines of evidence for the evaluation of environmental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J. Schleier III

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis often considers multiple lines of evidence during the decision making process. Researchers and government agencies have advocated for quantitative weight-of-evidence approaches in which multiple lines of evidence can be considered when estimating risk. Therefore, we utilized Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to integrate several human-health risk assessment, biomonitoring, and epidemiology studies that have been conducted for two common insecticides (malathion and permethrin used for adult mosquito management to generate an overall estimate of risk quotient (RQ. The utility of the Bayesian inference for risk management is that the estimated risk represents a probability distribution from which the probability of exceeding a threshold can be estimated. The mean RQs after all studies were incorporated were 0.4386, with a variance of 0.0163 for malathion and 0.3281 with a variance of 0.0083 for permethrin. After taking into account all of the evidence available on the risks of ULV insecticides, the probability that malathion or permethrin would exceed a level of concern was less than 0.0001. Bayesian estimates can substantially improve decisions by allowing decision makers to estimate the probability that a risk will exceed a level of concern by considering seemingly disparate lines of evidence.

  7. Susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Brazilian populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Barros, V C; de Souza, S F; Barros, S S; Teodoro, L P; Soares, Z R; Gontijo, N F; Reithinger, R

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the insecticide susceptibility of two geographically separated Lutzomyia longipalpis populations (Lapinha and Montes Claros) with different histories of insecticide exposure (i.e. no exposure and repeated exposure, respectively). (i) Bioassay monitoring of sand fly survival over time when exposed to a range of insecticides; and (ii) analysis of the level of insecticide detoxification enzymes in individual sand flies caught at both study sites. Insecticides tested were the organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion and the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and deltamethrin. Survival analyses showed that whilst there was no overall significant difference in susceptibility of both populations to organophosphates, Lapinha sand flies were significantly more susceptible to pyrethroids than those from Montes Claros. Multiple regression analyses also showed that insecticide susceptibility in both locations varied with sand fly sex. The relative susceptibilities of the two sand fly populations to tested insecticides were also compared. Thus, Montes Claros sand flies were most susceptible to malathion, followed by fenitrothion, deltamethrin and permethrin. Those from Lapinha were most susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin, followed by malathion, permethrin, deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Montes Claros sand flies had significantly lower insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than Lapinha sand flies. Our results are the first record of significantly reduced susceptibility to the insecticides used in control of wild populations of Lu. longipalpis. They demonstrate the importance of evaluating chemicals against this species by conventional bioassay and microplate assays before and during spraying programmes.

  8. Assessing joint toxicity of four organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using acetylcholinesterase activity as an endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2015-07-01

    Mixtures of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems. These pesticides inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have potential to interfere with behaviors that may be essential for the survival of species. Although the effects of individual anticholinesterase insecticides on aquatic species have been studied for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. In the present study, brain AChE inhibition in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a series of concentrations of the organophosphates (malathion and triazophos) as well as the carbamates (fenobucarb and carbosulfan) was measured. In equitoxic mixtures, the observed AChE activity inhibition of the malathion plus triazophos, and triazophos plus carbosulfan mixtures, was synergism. In equivalent concentration mixtures, the combination of malathion plus fenobucarb mixture conformed to synergism, while the observed AChE activity inhibition of the remaining pairings was less than additive. Single pesticide risk assessments are likely to underestimate the impacts of these insecticides on carps in aquatic environment where mixtures occur. Moreover, mixtures of pesticides that have been commonly reported in aquatic ecosystems may pose a more important challenge than previously anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by using a new sensitive luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azab, Hassan A., E-mail: azab2@yahoo.com; Anwar, Z.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; El-Asfoury, M.H.

    2015-01-15

    This work describes the application of fluorescence for investigating the interactions of Eu(III)-TAN-1,10 phenanthroline (where TAN=4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione) with pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, Heptachlor. The complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, x-ray spectroscopy, solid fluorescence and thermal analysis. The results indicated that the composition of this complex is [Eu(TAN){sub 2}(Phen)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]Cl. The luminescence properties of the complex in different solvents and at different pH values have been investigated. The results show that the complex exhibits more efficient luminescence at pH=7.5. The interactions of Eu-complex with different pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, and Heptachlor) in aqueous medium have been investigated by fluorescence measurements. The luminescence intensity of the probe is quenched by Malathion and enhanced by (Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Chlorpyrifos). Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 0.47, 1.02, 0.66, 0.64 µmol/L for Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Malathion, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. The emission quantum yield (QY=0.71) of Eu(III)-complex was determined using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ΔG. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, river, and waste water). - Highlights: • A new luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex has been developed for sensing some organophosphorus pesticides. • Four guest pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion

  10. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples by using a new sensitive luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Anwar, Z.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Khairy, Gasser M.; El-Asfoury, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the application of fluorescence for investigating the interactions of Eu(III)-TAN-1,10 phenanthroline (where TAN=4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione) with pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, Heptachlor. The complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, x-ray spectroscopy, solid fluorescence and thermal analysis. The results indicated that the composition of this complex is [Eu(TAN) 2 (Phen)(H 2 O) 2 ]Cl. The luminescence properties of the complex in different solvents and at different pH values have been investigated. The results show that the complex exhibits more efficient luminescence at pH=7.5. The interactions of Eu-complex with different pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, and Heptachlor) in aqueous medium have been investigated by fluorescence measurements. The luminescence intensity of the probe is quenched by Malathion and enhanced by (Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Chlorpyrifos). Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence variations of the probe in solution. The detection limits are 0.47, 1.02, 0.66, 0.64 µmol/L for Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Heptachlor, and Malathion, respectively. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters of the pesticides with probe were evaluated. The emission quantum yield (QY=0.71) of Eu(III)-complex was determined using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction is spontaneous with negative ΔG. Effect of some relevant interferents on the detection of pesticides has been investigated. The new method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in different types of water samples (tap, river, and waste water). - Highlights: • A new luminescent probe of Eu (III) complex has been developed for sensing some organophosphorus pesticides. • Four guest pesticides Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Endosulfan, and

  11. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Peck, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was discovered in southern Mexico sometime in 1977 near Tapachula, Mexico. Farmers in Texas and other states of the United States became concerned that the Mediterranean fruit fly would spread northward through Mexico and into the US. In response to this threat to US agriculture, funds were appropriated by Congress to be used by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit flies from Mexico and establish a barrier zone in Guatemala to keep the Mediterranean fruit flies from spreading northward into Mexico. In Mexico and Guatemala, the organisation called MOSCAMED was created to support the programme. Aerially applied malathion bait sprays were used in the suppression programme beginning in Mexico in 1982 and beginning in Guatemala in 1985. Mexico has been free of the Mediterranean fruit fly since 1982, except for outbreaks in the southernmost state of Chiapas, adjacent to Guatemala. The spraying of malathion was banned by the government of Guatemala in early 1996 because of concern regarding possible adverse effects on honey bees. By this time, research had been started to evaluate the use of xanthene dyes as a potential alternative to malathion in protein bait sprays for the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Liquido et al. 1995). Light-activated toxicity of xanthene dyes has been documented for more than two dozen insect species overall (Heitz 1997). Field trials of xanthene dyes, as a safer alternative to malathion in bait sprays targeting the Mediterranean fruit fly, were begun in Hawaii in 1994 and in Guatemala in 1996 and proved to be promising. By the end of 1996, xanthene dyes were registered as a substitute for malathion to suppress/eradicate Mediterranean fruit flies in the barrier zone. In January, 1997, MOSCAMED-Guatemala began a spray programme with xanthene dyes as the toxicant in a protein bait

  12. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  13. Potential of contact insecticides to control Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a vector of laurel wilt disease in avocados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Crane, Jonathan H; Peña, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an invasive ambrosia beetle that vectors laurel wilt, a new disease that threatens avocado and other species in the Lauraceae Family. The lethal concentrations (LC50 & 90) of nine commercial insecticides to X. glabratus were determined by using a bolt-dip bioassay. Different formulations of bifenthrin, permethrin, fenpropathrin, z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin, 1-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, malathion, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and methomyl were tested. Four concentrations of each insecticide were tested (0.5, 0.1, 0.03, and 0.01 of the label rate) and with water as a control. Beetles were exposed to treated bolts and mortality registered 48 h later. After 2 wk, bolts were destructively sampled to determine the number of beetles that constructed galleries and were alive inside the wood. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 & 90. Six pesticides were applied directly to the trunk and limbs of avocado trees in a commercial grove. Limbs of treated trees were cut weekly after the application and exposed to X. glabratus to determine the number of beetles boring into the logs. The toxicity of pesticides to X. glabratus was greatly reduced 2 wk after application. Among the tested pesticides, malathion and z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin provided the best suppression of X. glabratus. Among the insecticides registered for use in avocado, fenpropathrin and malathion were the most effective in protecting trees from attack by X. glabratus. Other pesticides that are currently not registered for use in avocados could be useful for managing this ambrosia beetle.

  14. An evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique as a simple tool for high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry determination of insecticides in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Irina; Kanashina, Daria; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2017-08-25

    A sample pre-treatment technique based on evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EVA-DLLME), followed by HPLC-MS/MS has been developed for the determination of organophosphate insecticides (malathion, diazinon, phosalone) in wine samples. The procedure includes the addition of mixture of organic solvents (with density higher than water), consisting of the extraction (low density) and volatile (high density) solvents, to aqueous sample followed by heating of the mixture obtained, what promotes the volatile solvent evaporation and moving extraction solvent droplets from down to top of the aqueous sample and, as a consequence, microextraction of target analytes. To initiate the evaporation process an initiator is required. It was established that hexanol (extraction solvent) and dichloromethane (volatile solvent) mixture (1:1, v/v) provides effective microextraction of the insecticides from wine samples with recovery from 92 to 103%. The conditions of insecticides' microextraction such as selection of extraction solvent, ratio of hexanol/dichloromethane and hexanol/sample, type and concentration of initiator, and effect of ethanol as one of the main components of wine have been studied. Under optimal experimental conditions the linear detection ranges were found to be 10 -7 -10 -3 gL -1 for malathion, 10 -9 -10 -4 gL -1 for diazinon, and 10 -6 -10 -2 gL -1 for phosalone. The LODs, calculated from a blank test, based on 3σ, found to be 3×10 -8 gL -1 for malathion, 3×10 -10 gL -1 for diazinon and 3×10 -7 gL -1 for phosalone. The advantages of EVA-DLLME are the rapidity, simplicity, high sample throughput and low cost. As an outcome, the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by a reference GC-MS method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistência de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in integrated peach production on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência (duração da atividade nociva de cinco agrotóxicos indicados na Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP foi avaliada, expondo-se adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ao contato com resíduos de inseticidas, pulverizados sobre folhas, a diferentes intervalos de tempo, baseando-se na metodologia sugerida pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os resultados obtidos em relação à persistência, permitiu classificar os agrotóxicos, produto comercial/ingrediente ativo (g ou mL de produto comercial 100L-1, Dipterex 500/triclorfom (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrotiona (150 e Tiomet 400 CE/dimetoato (120 como levemente persistentes (5-15 dias; o inseticida Malathion 1000 CE/malationa (200 como moderadamente persistente (16-30 dias e o fungicida/acaricida Kumulus DF/enxofre (600 como persistente (> 31 dias a adultos de T. pretiosum.The persistence (duration of harmful activity of five insecticides indicated in the Integrated Peach Production (IPP was evaluated by adult exposure of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to insecticide residues on plant leaves at different time intervals after treatment using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC based on the suggested methodology.The results obtained in relation to the disease persistence will permit to classify the pesticides, commercial formulation/active ingredient (g or mL commercial formulation 100L-1, Dipterex 500/trichlorphon (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrothion (150 and Tiomet 400 CE/dimethoate (120 as slightly persistent (5-15 days; the insecticide Malathion 1000 CE/malathion (200 as moderately persistent (16-30 days and the fungicide Kumulus DF/sulphur (600 as persistent (>31 days to T. pretiosum adults.

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  18. Evaluación del movimiento de plaguicidas hacia la cuenca del lago de tota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mojica

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tota lake catchment is a major onion-producing area in Colombia. Conventional agricultural practices use pesticides to control diseases that attack the crop, and in onion- production in this area fungicides are most commonly used due to the Paramo weather conditions and its location, 3015 meters above sea level (masl. These factors are conducive to the proliferation of fungi in the soil and in crops. In order to evaluate the movement of pesticides to Lake Tota, water samples and suspended sediments were taken for seven months in several channels that traverse the area and flow into the lake. In surface waters, malathion, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and chlorothalonil were detected and even quantified in some samples. In suspended sediments, malathion was detected at concentrations between 1.90 mg/kg and 4.38 mg/kg, and chlorothalonil ranged from 0.27 mg/kg to 1.29 mg/kg. To determine concentrations of fungicides in surface water closer to the source water samples from a runoff plot located in the study area were monitored for tebuconazole and difenoconazole. In dissolved form, tebuconazole was found at a concentration of 4800 ng/L and difenoconazole at a concentration of 330 ng/L. The Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI was used to assess the risk of surface water contamination by pesticides commonly used in onion production. Index values indicating high to very high risk of surface water contamination were found for tebuconazole, malathion and chlorothalonil. These results agree with the experimental evaluations.

  19. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  20. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon ® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:436-450. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

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    Hassan Mo'awia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State, Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan and White Nile area (Central Sudan using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1 of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE, non-specific carboxylesterases (EST, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450. Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.

  2. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Widaa, Sally Osman; Osman, Osman Mohieldin; Numiary, Mona Siddig Mohammed; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Abushama, Hind Mohammed

    2012-03-07

    Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State), Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan) and White Nile area (Central Sudan) using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1) of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), non-specific carboxylesterases (EST), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450). Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.

  3. Insecticide resistance of Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian; Li, Yiji; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Ning; Chang, Xuelian; Li, Chunyuan; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-03

    Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in Southeast Asia, including Hainan Island, China. Vector control is the main malaria control measure, and insecticide resistance is a major concern for the effectiveness of chemical insecticide control programs. The objective of this study is to determine the resistance status of the main malaria vector species to pyrethroids and other insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for indoor residual sprays. The larvae and pupae of Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled from multiple sites in Hainan Island, and five sites yielded sufficient mosquitoes for insecticide susceptibility bioassays. Bioassays of female adult mosquitoes three days after emergence were conducted in the two most abundant species, Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus, using three insecticides (0.05% deltamethrin, 4% DDT, and 5% malathion) and following the WHO standard tube assay procedure. P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were measured. Mutations at the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene and the ace-1 gene were detected by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis, respectively. An. sinensis and An. vagus were the predominant Anopheles mosquito species. An. sinensis was found to be resistant to DDT and deltamethrin. An. vagus was susceptible to deltamethrin but resistant to DDT and malathion. Low kdr mutation (L1014F) frequency (P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activities were detected in deltamethrin-resistant An. sinensis, and significantly higher P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were found in malathion-resistant An. vagus mosquitoes. Multiple insecticide resistance was found in An. sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China. Cost-effective integrated vector control programs that go beyond synthetic insecticides are urgently needed.

  4. Insecticide resistance status of the Anopheles funestus population in Central African Republic: a challenge in the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangba, Marina Lidwine Olé; Deketramete, Tanguy; Wango, Solange Patricia; Kazanji, Mirdad; Akogbeto, Martin; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane

    2016-04-25

    In the Central African Republic, malaria is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death among children. This disease appears to be hyperendemic but no substantial entomological data, including data on Anopheles spp. susceptibility to insecticides, is available. This study evaluates, for the first time in the CAR, the status of insecticide resistance in the Anopheles funestus population, the second major vector of malaria in Africa. WHO standard bioassay susceptibility tests were performed on the An. funestus population using F1 generation from gravid females mosquitoes (F0) collected by manual aspirator sampling of households in Gbanikola, Bangui in October 2014 to assess: (i) An. funestus susceptibility to bendiocarb, malathion, permethrin, lamda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and DDT, and (ii) the effect of pre-exposure to the piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on insecticide susceptibility. Additional tests were conducted to investigate metabolic resistance status (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, and esterases). A high phenotypic resistance of An. funestus population to malathion, DDT and pyrethroids was observed with a mortality rate ranging from 23 to 74%. For the pyrethroid groups, the mortality rate was 35, 31 and 23% for lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin, respectively. In contrast a 100% mortality rate to bendiocarb was recorded. Knockdown time (KDT) was long for all pyrethroids, DDT and malathion with KDT50 higher than 50 min. Pre-exposure of An. funestus to PBO synergist significantly restored susceptibility to all pyrethroids (Fisher's exact test P P450 monooxygenases, esterases and glutatione S-transferases in the resistance of An. funestus population from Gbanikola (Wilcoxon test P resistance to insecticide was detected in An. funestus population from the district of Gbanikola, Bangui. This study suggests that detoxifying enzymes are involved in insecticide resistance of An. funestus. However

  5. Assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique for pesticide adsorption and degradation on 'as-received' treated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J P; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T; Fallavier, M; Khoury, R; Wehbé, N

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PD-TOFMS) technique as a tool for direct characterization of pesticides adsorbed on agricultural soil is made for the first time in this study. Pellets of soils impregnated by solutions of three pesticides, namely norflurazon, malathion and oxyfluorfen, as well as deposits of these solutions onto aluminum surfaces, were investigated to this end. The yield values of the most characteristic peaks of the negative ion mass spectra were used to determine both the lowest concentrations detected on soils and limits of detection from thin films. The lowest values on soils are for malathion (1000 ppm range), and the largest for norflurazon (20,000 ppm), which is close to the limit of detection (LOD) found for the pesticide on the aluminum substrate (approximately 0.2 microg . cm(-2)). Different behaviors were observed as a function of time of storage in the ambient atmosphere or under vacuum; norflurazon adsorbed on soil exhibited high stability for a long period of time, and a rapid degradation of malathion with the elapsed time was clearly observed. The behavior of oxyfluorfen was also investigated but segregation processes seem to occur after several days. Although by far less sensitive than conventional methods based on extraction processes and used for real-world analytical applications, this technique is well suited to the study of the transformations occurring at the sample surface. A discussion is presented of the future prospects of such experiments in degradation studies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

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    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies

  7. The association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and organophosphate pesticides exposure: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Liqin; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Jingwen; Mei, Surong

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies show the association between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), yet various research results remain controversial. To explore the hazard of OPs exposure to human health, three kinds of OPs (Terbufos, Malathion, and Diazinon) that are non-halogenated aliphatic compounds were included in the meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Web of Science Databases for articles published from 1985 to February 2017. The databases were also searched for eligible studies through a manual references search. The random-effect model was utilized to compute the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). A total of ten observational studies (five cohort, four case-control, and one nested case-control) were included in our meta-analysis, with a pooled OR of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.43) of Malathion, Terbufos and Diazinion. The general heterogeneity for OR was moderate (P h  = 0.032, I 2  = 41.2%). The OR estimates in the subset analyses were utilized to compare the association between the three kinds of OPs and NHL; Terbufos (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.36) and Malathion (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.67) had a statistically non-significant relationship, whereas Diazinon (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.73) was significantly associated with an increased NHL risk. Because immune dysfunction was thought to increase NHL risk, the toxicity levels in the immune system of the three types of OPs were compared. Malathion attacked immune cells via a direct effect and Diazinon disrupted the neuro-immune system, which involves the cholinergic system of lymphocytes via indirect immune damage, whereas an immunotoxic effect involving Terbufos was not reported. Overall, the present meta-analysis indicated a statistically significant association between Diazinon exposure and NHL risk. - Highlights: • The present meta-analysis indicated a significantly positive association between Diazinon exposure and NHL risk.

  8. Determination of pesticide residue levels in omani and UAE vegetable farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, F.A.; Dahmani, J.H.A.; Kaakeh, W.; Deadman, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation of 40 different vegetable growing farms of Al-Batinah (Oman) and Al - Ain (UAE) regions different pesticide residues were found to be present on all soil samples which varied in their types and levels according to the region. In Omani soil samples, cypermethrin was the most frequent pesticide, followed by chlorpyrifos, malathion, phenthoate, triazophos and deltamethrin. In UAE farm soil samples, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were detected in all the regions, while phenthoate was detected in the Eastern and Northern regions only. (author)

  9. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species Avaliação de inseticidas organofosforados e piretroides sintéticos contra seis mosquitos vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Montada Dorta

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.Três compostos organo-fosforados - malation, folition e temefos -e dois piretroides sintéticos - alfametrina e deltametrina - foram usados para controlar o estado da susceptibilidade das larvas e adultos de seis mosquitos vetores na Índia. Foram utilizadas cepas de laboratório e área de Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis e Aedes albopictus (Dengue e cepas de laboratório de Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles stephensi e Anopheles culicifacies (Malária e Culex tritaenorhynchus (encefalite japonesa. Os valores de C1(50 obtidos para esses inseticidas mostram que todas as espécies incluindo as cepas de área foram muito susceptíveis. Nos

  10. Temperature selection of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as influenced by various toxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R H

    1976-08-01

    Previous exposure to sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), Guthion, malathion, Dursban, and Dibrom lowered the preferred temperature for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tested in a horizontal temperature gradient. Lindane, CuSO/sub 4/, ZnSO/sub 4/, CdSO/sub 4/, Sevin, heptachlor, and fenitrothion did not change the preferred temperature significantly. Comparison with other published results indicates that those substances that increase the preferred temperature are more toxic (based on relevant changes in 24-h LC50) at low temperatures and vice versa. It is suggested that such shifts in selected temperature may be of potential immediate, short-term, survival value to the fish. (auth)

  11. Insecticide residues in stored grains in Sonora, Mexico: quantification and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Madrid, M L; Valdez-Hurtado, S; Vargas-Valdez, N D; Salazar-Lopez, N J; Silveira-Gramont, M I; Loarca-Piña, F G; Rodríguez-Olibarria, G; Wong-Corral, F J; Borboa-Flores, J; Burgos-Hernández, A

    2008-02-01

    Food safety has acquired great attention by food importer and exporters. Food rejection or acceptance across international borders is based on the compliance with international food regulations. Due to the lack of recent data on pesticide residues in Mexican grains, this study focused on detecting and quantifying insecticide residues in stored wheat, corn, chickpeas, and beans, as well as to determine their mutagenic potential. Grains were sampled from primary storage sites in Sonora, Mexico. Malathion, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD and 4,4-DDT were analyzed in 135 samples. Grain samples were not mutagenic and most pesticide levels were within regulation limits.

  12. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  13. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Fruits import by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamees Munef Abdul-Latef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables.  This studycollected 24 samples and reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. For determination of pesticide residues used in Some fruits which were collected from different markets of Baghdad city to make 24 samples from (peel , core, mixture for each type of fruits markets as:  Oranges( Egypt , Africa, Pomegranate ( Egypt, Mango ( Kenya , Pears (China,  Plum fruits ( Africa , Kiwi (Turkey .That detective of ( 5 different  pesticides (diazinon,  malathion, chlorpyrifos ,parathion  and cypermethrin. The results were detected of multi-residues of  pesticides on the fruit in ( peel , core , mixture may be in the limit of Maximum residue limits(MRL or higher of it   . The pesticides detected that exceeding the limits are: cypermethrin  in Kiwi (peel, core and mixtureat(0.204,0.038, 0.537, in pomegranate detected in (peel and mixture at (0.509,0.189 mg/kg , Diazinondetccted in Egyptian orange in (peel ,core and mixture at (0.031,0.207, 0.099 mg/kg . Malathion and Parathion was not detected at any type of fruits and  that results was compared with codex of FAO/WHO(2013. That data is important to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated Fruits Imported to our country .

  14. Feasibility of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct analysis of samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Riahi, Farhad

    2014-05-23

    The capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was investigated and evaluated, for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new injection port was designed and constructed, resulting in possibility of direct injection of the known sample volume, without tedious sample preparation steps (e.g. derivatization, solvent evaporation, and re-solving in another solvent…). Malathion as a test compound was extracted from different matrices by a rapid and convenient DLLME method. The positive ion mobility spectra of the extracted malathion were obtained after direct injection of carbon tetrachloride or methanol solutions. The analyte responses were compared and the statistical results revealed the feasibility of direct analysis of the extracted samples in carbon tetrachloride, resulting in a convenient methodology. The coupled method of DLLME-CD-IMS was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, recovery, and enrichment factor. Finally, various real samples of apple, river and underground water were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy extraction of the analyte using DLLME separation before the direct analysis by CD-IMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF TWO VEGETABLES EXTRACTS AND DYE PHLOXINE-B, FOR THE CAPTURE OF THE FLY OF THE CASTILLA WALNUT IN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Torija-Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most effective treatment to capture Rhagoletis zoqui and use it as an alternative to chemical insecticides, this study was developed in two orchards of walnut, during June, July and August of 2010 in San Nicolas de los Ranchos, Puebla. The toxicity of the aqueous extracts from Ricinus communis and Argemone mexicana plants as well as the dye Phloxine-B were evaluated and compared the effectiveness with the commercial insecticide, Malation®, upon R. zoqui. The experiment was tested under a block design organized at random with three repetitions. Mc Phail traps and PET bottles were used in the experiment. The efficiency of the treatments was measured by the rate of capture Flies / Trap / Day (FTD and two-factor ANOVA, with a significance of 0.05 %. Statistical differences were observed between treatments. Malathion® presented the highest capture rate, comparing F.T.D. treatments of Malathion in both orchards, the second most efficient treatment was the extract of R. communis; by the other hand, the treatment less efficient of capture rate in both orchards was the dye Phloxine-B.

  16. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  17. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L"−"1 of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  18. The effect of agrochemicals on indicator bacteria densities in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2010-12-01

    Water bodies, which are monitored for microbial water quality by quantification of faecal indicator organisms (IOs), can contain various zoonotic pathogens contributed by livestock waste and other sources. Sediments can serve as reservoirs of IOs and other enteric microorganisms, including pathogens. Agrochemicals may influence the survival of these microorganisms in water bodies impacted by livestock waste by enhancing or reducing their survival. Complex, 1100 l, freshwater mesocosms containing leaf litter, zooplankton, periphyton, phytoplankton, and invertebrate and vertebrate animals were used to investigate the response of Escherichia coli and enterococci to agrochemicals. Replicate tanks were treated with atrazine, malathion, chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer, either alone at 1× or 2× their expected environmental concentrations (EECs) or in pair-wise combinations at their EECs. IOs inoculated in sediment (∼10⁴ cfu per 100 ml) were enumerated over 28 days. IOs generally declined over time, but manova revealed that addition of fertilizer and atrazine resulted in significantly greater IO densities. Malathion, chlorothalonil and agrochemical concentration (1× vs 2×) did not significantly affect IO densities and no significant interactions between agrochemicals were noted. The augmentation of IO densities in sediments by fertilizer and atrazine may impact their reliability as accurate predictors of water quality and human health risk, and indicates the need for a better understanding of the fate of IOs and enteric pathogens in sediments exposed to agrochemicals. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Insecticide resistance, associated mechanisms and fitness aspects in two Brazilian Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, P F; Bellinato, D F; Martins, A J; Valle, D

    2017-12-01

    In Brazil, insecticide resistance in Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to pyrethroids and to the organophosphate (OP) temephos is disseminated. Currently, insect growth regulators (IGRs) and the OP malathion are employed against larvae and adults, respectively. Bioassays with mosquitoes from two northeast municipalities, Crato and Aracaju, revealed, in both populations, susceptibility to IGRs and malathion (RR 95  ≤ 2.0), confirming the effectiveness of these compounds. By contrast, temephos and deltamethrin (pyrethroid) resistance levels were high (RR 95  > 10), which is consistent with the use of intense chemical control. In Crato, RR 95 values were > 50 for both compounds. Knock-down-resistant (kdr) mutants in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the pyrethroid target site, were found in 43 and 32%, respectively, of Aracaju and Crato mosquitoes. Biochemical assays revealed higher metabolic resistance activity (esterases, mixed function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases) at Aracaju. With respect to fitness aspects, mating effectiveness was equivalently impaired in both populations, but Aracaju mosquitoes showed more damaging effects in terms of longer larval development, decreased bloodmeal acceptance, reduced engorgement and lower numbers of eggs laid per female. Compared with mosquitoes in Crato, Aracaju mosquitoes exhibited lower OP and pyrethroid RR 95 , increased activity of detoxifying enzymes and greater effect on fitness. The potential relationship between insecticide resistance mechanisms and mosquito viability is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Avaliação da sensibilidade de adultos de Culex quinquefasciatus Say a inseticidas químicos de contato Evaluation of the sensitivity of the adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de adultos do pernilongo doméstico Culex quinquefasciatus a 5 inseticidas químicos foi avaliada sob condições de laboratório pelo critério de Tempo Letal Mediano (TL50. Foram utilizados o organofosforado Malathion e quatro piretróides: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate e Alfamethrin. Foi sugerida uma técnica simples e eficiente para se avaliar adultos de um dia de idade incluindo 5 repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos mostraram ser o método bastante adequado para avaliações rotineiras. Não ocorreu resistência a esses 5 princípios ativos, na população natural de Culex quinquefasciatus estudada.The sensitivity of the adult house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus to 5 chemical insecticides was evaluated under laboratory condictions, based on the Median Lethal Time (LT50 criterion. The organophosphorous Malathion and four pyrethroids: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate and Alfamethrin were utilized. An easy and efficient technique was suggested for the testing of one-day-old adults, including five repetitions for each treatment. The results revealed the full adequacy of this method for routine use. Further, no resistance to the 5 chemical compounds was detected among this natural population of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  3. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, decontamination and desorption of organophosphorous compounds from skin and synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircioiu, Constantin; Voicu, Victor A; Ionescu, Mihaela; Miron, Dalia S; Radulescu, Flavian S; Nicolescu, Adrian C

    2013-05-23

    Chemical warfare agents, such as soman, and pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos or malathion, are toxic organophosphorous compounds (OPCs) that are readily absorbed by the skin. Decontamination using solvents or surfactants may modify the cornified layer - the skin's main barrier against xenobiotic penetration. Thus, effective skin decontamination with fewer side effects is desired. We determined the membrane absorption, decontamination and desorption of toxic OPCs using human skin and synthetic membrane (cuprophane, cellulose acetate, methyl ethyl cellulose, acetophane and nylon) models, and estimated the efficacy of adsorptive powders (bentonite and magnesium trisilicate) at inhibiting this transfer. Using validated flow-through and static diffusion cell and HPLC methods, we found that the transfer of OPCs depends on their membrane affinity. The chlorpyrifos transfer decreased with a decrease in the membrane hydrophilicity, and that of malathion across hydrophilic membranes was less than half of that across hydrophobic membranes. We reliably modeled the toxicant transfer through the skin and synthetic membranes as first-order kinetic and/or square root law transfer processes, suggesting a potential application of synthetic membranes for predicting percutaneous absorption of OPCs. All tested adsorptive powders, applied either alone or as mixtures, significantly reduced the toxicant amount transferred across all membrane models, suggesting a potential therapeutic application with fewer later undesired effects on intact skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of non-target-site resistance in imidazolinone-resistant Imisun sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Breccia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The first commercial herbicide-resistant trait in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is known as ‘Imisun’. Imidazolinone resistance in Imisun cultivars has been reported to be genetically controlled by a major gene (known as Imr1 or Ahasl1-1 and modifier genes. Imr1 is an allelic variant of the Ahasl1 locus that codes for the acetohydroxyacid synthase, which is the target site of these herbicides. The mechanism of resistance endowed by modifier genes has not been characterized and it could be related to non-target-site resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s in Imisun resistance. The response to imazapyr herbicide in combination with P450s inhibitor malathion was evaluated in 2 Imisun lines, IMI-1 and RHA426. Malathion reduced herbicide efficacy in both lines, but IMI-1 was affected in a greater extent. A significant reduction in plant growth in response to P450s inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide treatment was detected in the Imisun line HA425. The increased susceptibility to imazapyr after P450s-inhibitor treatment indicates that herbicide metabolism by P450s is a mechanism involved in Imisun resistance. These results also suggest the involvement of different P450s isozymes in endowing resistance to imazapyr in Imisun cultivars.

  5. Study on the interaction of catalase with pesticides by flow injection chemiluminescence and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xijuan; Wang, Zhuming; Chen, Donghua; Luo, Kai; Xiong, Xunyu; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-08-01

    The interaction mechanisms of catalase (CAT) with pesticides (including organophosphates: disulfoton, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, isocarbophos, dimethoate, dipterex, methamidophos and acephate; carbamates: carbaryl and methomyl; pyrethroids: fenvalerate and deltamethrin) were first investigated by flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis and molecular docking. By homemade FI-CL model of lg[(I0-I)/I]=lgK+nlg[D], it was found that the binding processes of pesticides to CAT were spontaneous with the apparent binding constants K of 10(3)-10(5) L mol(-1) and the numbers of binding sites about 1.0. The binding abilities of pesticides to CAT followed the order: fenvalerate>deltamethrin>disulfoton>isofenphos-methyl>carbaryl>malathion>isocarbophos>dimethoate>dipterex>acephate>methomyl>methamidophos, which was generally similar to the order of determination sensitivity of pesticides. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that CAT bound with hydrophobic pesticides by hydrophobic interaction force, and with hydrophilic pesticides by hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. The pesticides to CAT molecular docking study showed that pesticides could enter into the cavity locating among the four subdomains of CAT, giving the specific amino acid residues and hydrogen bonds involved in CAT-pesticides interaction. It was also found that the lgK values of pesticides to CAT increased regularly with increasing lgP, Mr, MR and MV, suggesting that the hydrophobicity and steric property of pesticide played essential roles in its binding to CAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  7. Joint environmental assessment 1997--2001 of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Curly Top Virus Control Program for Bureau of Land Management and Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The DOE, Naval Petroleum reserves in California (NPRC), proposes to sign an Amendment to the Cooperative Agreement and Supplement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) to extend the term of the Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) in California. This program involves Malathion spraying on NPRC lands to control the beet leafhopper, over a five year period from 1997 through 2001. It is expected that approximately 330 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) and approximately 9,603 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2) will be treated with Malathion annually by CDFA during the course of this program. The actual acreage subject to treatment can vary from year to year. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in a Joint Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1011) with the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acting as lead agency, in consultation with the CDFA, and the DOE acting as a cooperating agency. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the conduct of the Curly Top Virus Control Program in California is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is consequently issuing a FONSI.

  8. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN PEACH FARMING TO LARVAE OF Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE IN SEMI-FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO VARGAS CASTILHOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of five insecticides, regularly used in peach farming, was assessed for larvae of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae by means of bioassay in semi-field conditions. The bioassay was based on the counting of captured larvae after release in peach trees treated with the insecticides (% of active ingredient in spray liquid: deltamethrin (0.001, fenthion (0.050, phosmet (0.100, lufenuron (0.005 and malathion (0.200. Bait-cards with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were used to capture larvae from treated plants; five of them were fixed in plant canopy and five others left on the soil around stem. A protective barrier made up of galvanized steel sheet was used for each plant to avoid loss of larvae. The number of larvae feeding on the bait-cards was measured for four days. According to the number of captured larvae, each insecticide effect was estimated and classified into toxicity categories as stated by the International Organization for Biological and Integratec Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Based on observations, the insect growth regulator lufenuron was harmless, while the neurotoxins deltamethrin and malathion were slightly harmful; and lastly, fenthion and phosmet were moderately harmful to C. externa larvae in semi-field conditions. Thus, lufenuron should be recommended for integrated pest management, since it would preserve this predator species in peach orchards.

  9. Sol-gel electrospinning preparation of hybrid carbon silica nanofibers for extracting organophosphorus pesticides prior to analyzing them by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Kermani, Mansoure

    2018-07-13

    Carbon-silica hybrid nanofibers as high performance coatings for solid-phase microextraction fibers were used for analyzing some pesticides by using gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry. To that end, the fibers were prepared by carbonizing sol-gel based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile and tetraethyl orthosilicate nanofibers as carbon and silica precursors, respectively. Different parameters affecting the electrospinning and the extraction processes including spinning distance, voltage, feeding rate, stirring rate, salt concentration, temperature and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology. The method involved deionized water samples spiked with pesticides at different concentration levels. The calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0.1-20 and 0.05-20 μg L -1 with determination coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.9976 and 0.9928 for malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The limits of detection of 0.032 and 0.019 μg L -1 and the limits of quantification of 0.1 and 0.05 μg L -1 were found for malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Acceptable reproducibility values were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3) lower than 6 and 15%, for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. Finally, the relative recoveries of the proposed method were calculated in the range of 80-111% for real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Discriminating concentrations for three insecticides used in public health in a Lutzomyia longipalpis experimental strain from Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceló, Catalina; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Santamaría, Erika

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, periurban populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis , vector of the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the upper and middle valley of the Magdalena River, may be exposed to insecticide applications with different purposes. Thus, it is important to begin a susceptibility surveillance of this species to insecticides. To determine indicators of susceptibility to three insecticides habitually used in public health, such as malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in an experimental strain of L. longipalpis . We used the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Groups of 10 to 15 unfed females were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticides using 250 ml glass bottles as test chambers. Mortality was registered every five minutes for an hour. Diagnostic concentrations and lethal times for each insecticide were calculated. In the evaluated L. longipalpis strain, the diagnostic concentrations and times were 75 µg/ml and 25 minutes for malathion, 10 µg/ml and 35 minutes for deltamethrin, and 15 µg/ml during 30 minutes for lambda-cyhalothrin. Baseline data over mortality response to three insecticides were established in a susceptibility strain of L. longipalpis vector. These indicators will allow establishing comparisons with populations of L. longipalpis exposed regularly or sporadically to chemical control measures to detect changes in their resistance to these insecticides.

  11. Determinasi Strain Aedes aegypti (Linn. yang Rentan Homozigot dengan Metode Seleksi Indukan Tunggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfanda Isfanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aedes aegypti is a type of mosquito that can carry dengue virus, yellow fever and chikunguya. The spread of this mosquito is very broad, covering almost all tropical regions worldwide. This study aims to determine the vulnerability status of homozygous Ae. aegypti. Sample of Ae. aegypti is mosquito strain from Health Entomology Laboratory Bogor Institute of Agriculture and at random sampling. Ae. aegypti eggs which comes from the breeders hatched separately. Insecticide‐treated paper (impregnated paper malathion, bendiokarb and deltamethrin are use for insecticides testing using WHO test kit. The analysis showed that the mosquito Ae. aegypti tested with a single sib‐selection method and were exposed to the insecticide malathion, propoksur, and showed an increasing trend sipermetrin vulnerability homozygous at each generation. As for the fourth generation (F4 has not shown changes into a strain that is homozygous susceptible to three types of insecticides. The formation of homozygous susceptible strains take over five generations.Keywords: Ae. aegypti, malathion, bendiocarb, deltamethrin, single sib‐selection methodAbstrak. Aedes aegypti merupakan jenis nyamuk yang dapat membawa virus dengue, demam kuning (yellow fever dan chikunguya. Penyebaran nyamuk ini sangat luas, meliputi hampir semua daerah tropis di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui status kerentanan nyamuk Ae. aegypti secara homozigot. Nyamuk Ae. aegypti yang dijadikan sampel yaitu nyamuk dewasa strain yang ada di Laboratorium Entomologi Kesehatan Institut Pertanian Bogor dan diambil secara acak. Telur Ae. aegypti yang berasal dari satu indukan ditetaskan secara terpisah. Insektisida yang digunakan untuk pengujian menggunakan kertas berinsektisida (impregnated paper malation, bendiokarb, dan deltametrin dengan menggunakan WHO test kit. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti yang diuji dengan metode seleksi indukan tunggal serta dipaparkan

  12. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  13. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} modified with WO{sub 3} on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Gracia-Pinilla, M.A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, PIIT Km 6, Carretera al Aeropuerto, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Hernández-Ramírez, A., E-mail: aracely.hernandezrm@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}. • The mineralization rate was improved when WO{sub 3} content on TiO{sub 2} was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO{sub 3} (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO{sub 2} was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA{sub BET}), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO{sub 3} was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}, respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} and bare TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst activity on

  14. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A.; Gracia-Pinilla, M.A.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and WO 3 /TiO 2 (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • The mineralization rate was improved when WO 3 content on TiO 2 was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO 3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO 2 was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA BET ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO 3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 ) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 , respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 and bare TiO 2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability

  15. Enhanced 2,4-D Metabolism in Two Resistant Papaver rhoeas Populations from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Torra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas, the most problematic broadleaf weed in winter cereals in Southern Europe, has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, 2,4-D. The first reported resistance mechanism in this species to 2,4-D was reduced translocation from treated leaves to the rest of the plant. However, the presence of other non-target site resistance (NTSR mechanisms has not been investigated up to date. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to reveal if enhanced 2,4-D metabolism is also present in two Spanish resistant (R populations to synthetic auxins. With this aim, HPLC experiments at two 2,4-D rates (600 and 2,400 g ai ha−1 were conducted to identify and quantify the metabolites produced and evaluate possible differences in 2,4-D degradation between resistant (R and susceptible (S plants. Secondarily, to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the resistance response, dose-response experiments were performed using malathion as its inhibitor. Three populations were used: S, only 2,4-D R (R-703 and multiple R to 2,4-D and ALS inhibitors (R-213. HPLC studies indicated the presence of two hydroxy metabolites in these R populations in shoots and roots, which were not detected in S plants, at both rates. Therefore, enhanced metabolism becomes a new NTSR mechanism in these two P. rhoeas populations from Spain. Results from the dose-response experiments also showed that pre-treatment of R plants with the cytochrome P450 (P450 inhibitor malathion reversed the phenotype to 2,4-D from resistant to susceptible in both R populations. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that a malathion inhibited P450 is responsible of the formation of the hydroxy metabolites detected in the metabolism studies. This and previous research indicate that two resistant mechanisms to 2,4-D could be present in populations R-703 and R-213: reduced translocation and enhanced metabolism. Future experiments are required to confirm these hypotheses

  16. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  17. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended.

  18. Limited impacts of truck-based ultra-low-volume applications of mosquito adulticides on mortality in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, F D; Margotta, J W; Pokhrel, V; Walker, T W; Vaeth, R H; Hoffman, W C; Fritz, B K; Danka, R G; Rinderer, T E; Aldridge, R L; Linthicum, K J; Ottea, J A; Healy, K B

    2017-12-01

    Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91.4 m from a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume sprayer. Honey bee mortality was both absolutely low (61 m had limited impacts on honey bee mortality while providing effective mosquito control.

  19. Produção e utilização de gotas com diâmetro uniforme The generation and use of uniformly sized droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Geraldo Corrêa

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A execução da pesquisa com freqüência requer o desenvolvimento de aparelhagem específica. Para estudo dos parâmetros das populações de gotas produzidas por pulverizadores é necessário conhecer o fator de espalhamento de diversas formulações sobre superfícies de amostragem (papel kromekote, melamina (fórmica, vidro etc.. Essa determinação requer aparelhagem geradora de gotas com diâmetro uniforme. Com este objetivo principal, realizou-se o presente trabalho. Além de sua utilização para investigar o comportamento físico da pulverização, o aparelho poderá ter outras aplicações no campo da biologia, como a distribuição uniforme de esporos em dose determinada sobre superfícies vegetais, permitindo, também, observações sobre o efeito tóxico de determinadas doses de defensivos sobre vegetais e animais. O aparelho produziu gotas com diâmetro que, em média, apresentaram coeficiente de variação de 2,36%. o fator de espalhamento para solução aquosa de rodamina a 0,2% sobre papel kromekote apresentou a variação de 1,32 a 1,71 quando se usaram, respectivamente, gotas entre 98 e 325 micra. Para Malathion a 96% de principio ativo, sobre papel kromekote, as gotículas apresentaram fatores de espalhamento variando de 4,09 a 5,18 quando se utilizaram gotas entre 80 e 217 micra. A melamina branca (fórmica apresentou menores variações nesse fator quando lhe foi aplicado o Malathion.This paper deals with the construction and use of a spinning disc atomizer that produces uniformly sized droplets. The device has a special use in the determination of the spread factor on several sampling surfaces (Kromekote paper, glass, plastic etc.. Furthermore, it permits the study of spraying performance, the inoculation of known spore doses of fungi and observations about toxical effects of pesticides on vegetables and animals. The apparatus showed a narrow droplet size spectrum, with a coefficient of variation about 2.36%. The spread

  20. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysoyu, D.; Tiryaki, O.; Secer, E.; Aydin, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 1 4C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 1 4C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  1. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 4. Evaluation of various packaging materials for treated corn grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villacarlos, L.T.

    1976-03-01

    The effectiveness of five different containers, bell jar, malathion-impregnated bag, plastic woven sack, polyethylene bag (0.006 and 0.008 inch thickness) and polypropylene bags (0.004 inch thickness), in protecting irradiated or fumigated corn grains against reinfestation by rice weevils was evaluated. Results from this study showed that all materials tested except for the plastic woven sack prevented penetration by rice weevils from 1 to 6 months of storage. Fumigation with methyl bromide killed all the immature stages of the weevil but irradiation with 15 krad allowed a few to survive up to two months after irradiation. Fumigation was effective in killing all stages of the weevil but some residues were left after treatment. A dose higher than 15 krad that will kill all the stages of the weevils in a short time should be tried for disinfestation of stored grains

  2. Kinetic Approach for the Adsorption of Organophosphorous Pesticides from Aqueous Solution Using “Waste” Jute Fiber Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumaar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically activated “Waste” Jute Fiber carbon has been effectively used for the removal of five organophosphorous pesticides (malathion, monocrotophos, methylparathion, phosphamidon and dimethoate from aqueous solutions. The prepared activated jute fiber carbon was characterized by using Elemental analyzer and proximate analysis methods. The adsorption equilibrium was examined at 28 ºC. Three different kinetic models, the pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Elovich kinetic models were selected to analyses the adsorption process. To compare the fitness of pseudo first order and pseudo second order, sum of the squares of the errors and correlation coefficient, r2 values were calculated. The Elovich model was used to confirm the chemisorptions.

  3. [Use of new tools for controlling triatomines in different entomologic situations in the American continent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, A M

    1997-01-01

    The field results of new tools for triatomine control developed under the sponsorship of WHO/TDR are reported: a) A slow-release "paint" containing malathion; b) fumigant cans containing cypermethrin and DDVP, and c) sensor boxes for the detection of triatomine infestations. Field assays were performed in Chile, Honduras and Paraguay against Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus, accordingly to a standard protocol designed by a WHO experts committee. Preliminary 6 months post-treatment results for the three countries show an efficient control when insecticide paints were used indoors and in the peridomicilium, keeping reinfestation near zero. The final results presented for Chile two years post-treatment confirmed the superiority of the slow-release "paints". Sensor boxes were less effective than man/hour captures in the detection of infested houses.

  4. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Am Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  5. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  6. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author) [pt

  7. Toxicities of azadirachtin and polychlorinated petroleum Hydrocarbon against resist and susceptible strains of tribolium castaneum (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Riaz, M.; Riaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The LC/sub 50/ values for malathion-resistant (PAK) and organo-50 phosphate-susceptible (FSS-II) strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adult beetles were determined through filter paper impregnated method against azadirachtin (Nimbokil 60 EC) and polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachtin. Furthermore, both the insecticides were equally toxic to the adult beetles of T. castaneum as the difference was non-significant because of overlapping 95% FLs to LC./sub 50/. (author)

  8. SURVEILLANCE OF SEAPORT RODENTS AND ITS PARASITES AT SEMARANG, CENTRAL JAVA, AND UJUNG PANDANG, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Megawe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survai rodent dan pinjal dilakukan di pelabuhan Semarang dan Ujung Pandang pada bulan Desember 1984 — Mei 1985. Pada survai tersebut ditemukan 3 jenis tikus yaitu Rattus norvegicus, R. r. diardii dan R. exulans dan satu jenis cecurut Suncus murinus. Jenis tikus yang banyak di­temukan di pelabuhan Semarang adalah R. r. diardii sedang di pelabuhan Ujung Pandang adalah R. norvegicus. Pinjal Xenopsylla cheopis ditemukan di kedua daerah yang disurvai, infestasi lebih tinggi pada R. norvegicus dan R. r. diardii daripada R. exulans dan S. murinus. Indeks pinjal di pelabuhan Ujung Pandang dan sekitarnya 4 kali lebih besar daripada di Semarang. Hasil uji kerentanan pinjal menunjukkan bahwa pinjal di kedua daerah pelabuhan tersebut masih peka terhadap DDT 4%, malathion 0,5% dan fenitrothion 1%.

  9. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  10. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  11. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  12. Toxicity of some ricefield pesticides to the crayfish P. clarkii, under laboratory and field conditions in Lake Albufera (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Moliner, E S; Almar, M M; Legarra, I; Núñez, A

    1986-12-01

    Static toxicities in mature crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were determined, for eight insecticides, two herbicides and one fungicide which were frequently used in rice cultivation at Lake Albufera in Valencia (Spain). Three concentrations of each product were used: a) The concentration that was recommended by the dealer (in mg/L of active ingredient): Carbofuran 0.40, Carbaryl 0.80, Malathion 0.80, Trichlorfon 0.40, Endosulfan 0.56, Lindane 0.56, Fenitrothion 0.40, Cyfloxylate 0.02, Molinate-Thiobencarb 1.50, Copper Sulfate 0.42, b) Half of the recommended concentration. c) Double of the recommended concentration. In all three of the concentrations tested, only Fenitrothion and Cyfloxylate caused a considerable mortality. The other ones do not actually produce any important effects on P. clarkii in our conditions. Nevertheless, insecticides are more toxic than herbicides or fungicides, as the latter show a rather low toxicity.

  13. In vitro - in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of currently used pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hadrup, Niels; Boberg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Two pesticide mixtures were investigated for potential endocrine activity. Mix 3 consisted of bitertanol, propiconazole, and cypermethrin, and Mix 5 included malathion and terbuthylazine in addition to the three pesticides in Mix 3.All five single pesticides and the two mixtures were investigated...... for their ability to affect steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells. The pesticides alone and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis with both mixtures causing increase in progesterone and decrease in testosterone. For Mix 5 an increase in estradiol was seen as well, indicating increased aromatase activity.The two......, the hormonal responses in vitro were only partly reflected in vivo, probably due to some toxicokinetic issues, as the pesticide levels in the amniotic fluid also were found to be negatively affected by the number of compounds present in the mixtures. Nonetheless, the H295R assay gives hints on conceivable...

  14. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  15. Observations on the Domestic Ecology of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Triatominae

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    Abad-Franch F

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis infests peridomiciles and colonises houses in rural southern Ecuador. Six out of 84 dwellings (7% surveyed in a rural village were infested (78 bugs/infested domicile; 279 bugs were collected in a single dwelling. Precipitin tests revealed R. ecuadoriensis fed on birds (65%, rodents (31%, marsupials (8%, and humans (15% - mixed bloodmeals detected in 37.5% of individual samples. Trypanosoma cruzi from opossums and rodents may thus be introduced into the domestic cycle. Wasp parasitoidism was detected in 6.5% of 995 R. ecuadoriensis eggs (only in peridomestic habitats. Control strategies should integrate insecticide spraying (indoors and peridomestic, better management of poultry, and housing improvements. A possible inefficacy of Malathion is reported.

  16. Laboratory studies on insecticide resistance, alcohol tolerance and sex ratio distortion by meiotic drive in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Three approaches to developing a genetic sexing technique for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), are discussed. Laboratory studies in late third instar larvae of the medfly revealed a potential for dieldrin resistance. A programme of sib selection produced the DiR strain, more than 60x resistante to dieldrin with cross-resistance to other cyclodienes, HCH, malathion and permethrin. Adults were not resistant. Crosses showed dieldrin resistance to be monofactorial, subject to a modifying effect from the genetic background on the expression of the homozygote. The 'backcrossing with selection' technique was used to separate dieldrin and malathion resistance but, in the process, resistance to both insecticides was lost after four to eight generations. Attempts to induce male linkage of the R gene by X irradiation were unsuccessful. Further genetic studies on resistance are recommended. With a view to producing an ethanol sensitive strain homozygous for an ADH null mutation (Adh - /Adh - ), pentenol selection of late third instar larvae was carried out, combined with ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments of adults. This produced a maximum of 15x tolerance of pentenol but no associated change in ethanol tolerance. Electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that two major ADH systems were at their most active in late third instar larvae. A gene causing a male distorted sex ratio in the progeny of males carrying it was isolated after X irradiation. The expression of the gene, which appears to be an example of meiotic drive, was enhanced by reducing the ambient temperature of parent flies from 26 deg. C+-2.0 to 18 deg. C+-1.5 during days 2-5 of pupal development. Selection to increase the expression of the gene produced families with less than 20% females but sex ratio tended to revert towards normal in subsequent generations. A potential is seen for producing strains in which sex ratio can be regulated by temperature. (author). 30 refs, 5 figs, 2

  17. Exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to different classes of insecticides exhibit distinct molecular effect patterns at concentrations that mimic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds. Our targeted gene expression concept focused on several transcripts, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α 1 and α 2 (nAChRα1, nAChRα2) subunits, the multifunctional gene vitellogenin, immune system related genes of three immune system pathways, genes belonging to the detoxification system and ER stress genes. Our data indicate a dynamic pattern of expressional changes at different exposure times. All four insecticides induced strong alterations in the expression of immune system related genes suggesting negative implications for honey bee health, as well as cytochrome P450 enzyme transcripts suggesting an interference with metabolism. Exposure to neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, malathion and cypermethrin resulted in up-regulation of nAChRα1 and nAChRα2. Moreover, alterations in the expression of vitellogenin occurred, which suggests implications on foraging activity. Chlorantraniliprole induced ER stress which may be related to toxicity. The comparison of all transcriptional changes indicated that the expression pattern is rather compound-specific and related to its mode of action, but clusters of common transcriptional changes between different compounds occurred. As transcriptional alterations occurred at environmental concentrations our data provide a molecular basis for observed

  18. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

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    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  19. Polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel gene and susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to insecticides in three districts of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moytrey; Ballav, Sudeep; Maji, Ardhendu K; Basu, Nandita; Sarkar, Biplab Chandra; Saha, Pabitra

    2018-01-01

    The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion as per WHO protocols in the northern districts of West Bengal. Polymorphisms in the VGSC gene were studied by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Ae. albopictus larval population showed sensitive [Resistance Ratio (RR99)resistance (510) to temephos at different study sites. Adult bioassay results revealed that Ae. albopictus was highly resistant to DDT [Corrected Mortality (CM) 98%), except in Dhupguri where a low level of resistance to deltamethrin (CM = 96.25%) was recorded. None of the six important kdr mutations (S953P, I975M/V, L978, V980G, F1474C, D1703Y) were found in the VGSC of studied mosquitoes, but we identified 11 synonymous and 1 non-synonymous mutation in the VGSC gene. The higher susceptibility level to deltamethrin and malathion, along with the absence of important kdr mutations indicates that these two insecticides are still effective against Ae. albopictus in the study areas. The susceptibility status of temephos should be monitored closely as low to moderate levels of resistance were observed in few sites. A similar study is recommended for monitoring and early detection of insecticide resistance in other parts of the country.

  20. Current progress in the Medfly program Mexico-Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor, A.; Carrillo, J.; Zavala, J.; Stewart, J.; Lira, C.; Reyes, J.

    2000-01-01

    For twenty years, the Regional Medfly Program in southern Mexico and Guatemala, central America - which is financed by Mexico, Guatemala and USA - has successfully halted the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)) dispersion toward Mexico and USA. After the pest eradication in Chiapas, Mexico, in 1982 and some vain efforts to contain it in Guatemala, a strategy has been formed in the construction of a static barrier of containment. However, this has been criticised frequently by the border society which has suffered for a long time because detection and control action sometimes result in big emergency plans as the answer to strong explosions and pest dispersions which have in turn occurred from climatic phenomena, such as El Nino, in 1998. The Medfly eradication in Guatemala has not been accomplished because the suppression technology used before sterile insect technique (SIT) had been based on malathion aerial bait spray. The aerial bait spray has been prohibited in Guatemala since 1987, following strong complaints from ecological groups and the beekeeping sector, as well as because of financial constraints. The xanthene dye technology that replaced the use of malathion has given new hopes and possibilities to the old project of pest eradication in Guatemala and Central America. However, moving the barrier from north to south and from east to west is necessary to prevent re-infestations in Mexico and pest-free areas in Guatemala. The development of new detection and control tools has also strongly supported the project, with the use of more efficient traps, such as the OBDT trap, baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine (phase IV traps), trimedlure (TML)-laced yellow panel traps and TML-baited Jackson traps. The use of the improved chilled adult release system, the aerial bait sprays which are guided by the GPS and SATLOC navigation systems, the augmentative release of parasitoids and the artificial biological isolation of the infested areas all

  1. Determination of Twenty Organophosphorus Pesticides in Wheat Samples from Different Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaollah Shakoori *

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in agriculture, homes, gardens, and veterinary practices. Extensive application of pesticides in agriculture often results in residues of these compounds being absorbed into the foods, including wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residue levels of 20 organophosphorus pesticides in wheat samples collected from different regions of Iran. Methods: This research reports a rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS sample preparation method and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC–SIM–MS to evaluate 20 organophosphorus pesticides in wheat samples. Results: In the concentration range of 20-200 ng/g, the calibration curves for each analyte was linear with a determination coefficient (R2 of 0.993 to 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs were between 2.5-6.7 and 7.5-20 ng/g, respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for three fortification levels (25, 50 and 100 ng/g, five replicates each were 80-114% with a satisfactory precision (RSD<20%. 31.1% samples contained residues of one or more target compounds. Chlorpyrifos was the most common residue (17.8%, followed by pirimiphos-methyl (6.7%, diazinon (4.4%, chlorpyrifos-methyl (1.1% and malathion (1.1%. Conclusion: Among the detected pesticides, only diazinon and malathion are permitted pesticides for wheat production in Iran. However, their concentrations were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs established by the Iranian National Standard Organization (INSO.

  2. Seasonal and occupational trends of five organophosphate pesticides in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marissa N; Workman, Tomomi; McDonald, Katie M; Vredevoogd, Melinda A; Vigoren, Eric M; Griffith, William C; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria D; Barr, Dana; Faustman, Elaine M

    2017-07-01

    Since 1998, the University of Washington's Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research has followed a community-based participatory research strategy in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State to assess pesticide exposure among families of Hispanic farmworkers. As a part of this longitudinal study, house dust samples were collected from both farmworker and non-farmworker households, across three agricultural seasons (thinning, harvest and non-spray). The household dust samples were analyzed for five organophosphate pesticides: azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Organophosphate pesticide levels in house dust were generally reflective of annual use rates and varied by occupational status and agricultural season. Overall, organophosphate pesticide concentrations were higher in the thinning and harvest seasons than in the non-spray season. Azinphos-methyl was found in the highest concentrations across all seasons and occupations. Farmworker house dust had between 5- and 9-fold higher concentrations of azinphos-methyl than non-farmworker house dust. Phosmet was found in 5-7-fold higher concentrations in farmworker house dust relative to non-farmworker house dust. Malathion and chlorpyriphos concentrations in farmworker house dust ranged between 1.8- and 9.8-fold higher than non-farmworker house dust. Diazinon showed a defined seasonal pattern that peaked in the harvest season and did not significantly differ between farmworker and non-farmworker house dust. The observed occupational differences in four out of five of the pesticide residues measured provides evidence supporting an occupational take home pathway, in which workers may bring pesticides home on their skin or clothing. Further, these results demonstrate the ability of dust samples to inform the episodic nature of organophosphate pesticide exposures and the need to collect multiple samples for complete characterization of exposure potential.

  3. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  4. Building surface decontamination for chemical counter-terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S.; Thouin, G.; Kuang, W. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Volchek, K.; Fingas, M.; Li, K. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    A test method to compare and evaluate surface decontamination methods for buildings affected by chemical attacks was developed. Decontamination techniques generally depend on the nature and quantity of the weapon agent, the type of construction material and the location. Cleanup methods can be either physical, chemical or biological. This paper addressed chemical decontamination methods which use reactants to change the molecular structure of the contaminant. Peroxycarboxylic and peroxyacetic acids (PAA) are being used increasingly for both disinfection and environmental protection. In this study, 4 materials were chosen to represent common building materials. Samples were spiked with 10 mg of pesticides such as malathion and diazinon. Decontamination agents included the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD prepared in liquid form, a chemical preparation of PAA, and reagent grade peroxypropionic acid (PPA). The newly developed surface decontamination procedure can evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different chemical decontamination agents. The procedures were used on porous ceiling tile and carpet as well as on non-porous floor tile and painted steel surfaces. Rinse water was collected and analyzed in order to determine if decontamination was a result of chemical destruction or mechanical removal. The extraction efficiencies were found to be acceptable for all materials, with the exception of the highly porous ceiling tile. The extraction of diazinon from all surfaces was less efficient than the extraction of malathion. Results suggest that the performance of decontamination agents can be improved by repeated application of the decontamination agent, along with greater volumes and a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. It was also suggested that breakdown methods and wastewater treatment procedures should be developed because hazardous byproducts were detected in many samples. 18 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  5. Anopheles gambiae distribution and insecticide resistance in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Fossog, Billy Tene; Ndo, Cyrille; Djantio, Benjamin Menze; Togouet, Serge Zebaze; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Costantini, Carlo; Wondji, Charles S; Ranson, Hilary

    2011-06-08

    Urban malaria is becoming a major health priority across Africa. A study was undertaken to assess the importance of urban pollution and agriculture practice on the distribution and susceptibility to insecticide of malaria vectors in the two main cities in Cameroon. Anopheline larval breeding sites were surveyed and water samples analysed monthly from October 2009 to December 2010. Parameters analysed included turbidity, pH, temperature, conductivity, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, aluminium, alkalinity, iron, potassium, manganese, magnesium, magnesium hardness and total hardness. Characteristics of water bodies in urban areas were compared to rural areas and between urban sites. The level of susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion were compared between mosquitoes collected from polluted, non polluted and cultivated areas. A total of 1,546 breeding sites, 690 in Yaoundé and 856 in Douala, were sampled in the course of the study. Almost all measured parameters had a concentration of 2- to 100-fold higher in urban compare to rural breeding sites. No resistance to malathion was detected, but bendiocarb resistance was present in Yaounde. Very low mortality rates were observed following DDT or permethrin exposure, associated with high kdr frequencies. Mosquitoes collected in cultivated areas, exhibited the highest resistant levels. There was little difference in insecticide resistance or kdr allele frequency in mosquitoes collected from polluted versus non-polluted sites. The data confirm high selection pressure on mosquitoes originating from urban areas and suggest urban agriculture rather than pollution as the major factor driving resistance to insecticide.

  6. Rapid simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides in human serum and urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

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    Zlatković Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of organophosphosphorus compounds and their metabolites in a biological material includes the use of numerous methods, covering both preparation of samples for analysis and their identification that is considered to be very complex. Low concentrations monitoring requires implementation of highly sensitive analytical techniques. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an original and sensitive method for the detection and quantitation of organophosphorus pesticides (dimethoate, diazinon, malathion and malaoxon in human biological matrices (serum, urine. Methods. This method was based on a solid-phase extraction procedure, a chromatographic separation using an ACQUITY UPLC ® HSST3 column and mass spectrometric detection in the positve ion mode. Mobile phase: was consited of Solvent A (5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and Solvent B (0.1% acetic formate in methanol, in a linear gradient (constant flow-rate 0.3 mL/min. Results. The standard curve was linear in the range of 0.05-5.00 mg/L for malathion and malaoxon, 0.10-5.00 mg/L for dimethoate and 0.05-2.50 mg/L for diazinon. The correlation coefficient was r ≥ 0.99. Extraction recoveries were satisfactory and ranged between 90-99%. The limits of detection (LOD was between 0.007- 0.07 mg/L and the limits of quantitation (LOQ ranged between 0.022-0.085 mg/L. Intra- and interassay precision and accuracy were satisfactory for all of the pesticides analyzed. Conclusion. The method of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry is simple, accurate, and useful for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in both clinical and forensic toxicology.

  7. Computerized tomography-guided neurolytic splanchnic nerve block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquet, Franco; De Martini, Giuseppe; Roy, Maria Teresa; Pretrolesi, Fabio; Martinoli, Carlo; Cariati, Maurizio; Fiorentini, Franco.

    1997-01-01

    Computerized tomography-guided neurolytic splanchnic nerve block is a technique for relieving abdominal cancer pain; the goal is the alcoholic neurolytic interruption of the sensitive structures in retroperitoneal space. Computerized tomography yields accurate anatomical detailing and the course for needle placement and alcohol spread. January, 1993, to July, 1996, twenty-one bilateral splanchnic nerve blocks were performed through the posterior access. Forty-eight hours after alcoholism. 14 patients (66%) had complete pain regression; 52% of the patients needed no analgesics for 6 to 54 days and only 9 patients (42%) needed another low opioid therapy. Complications included hypotension and diarrhea in all cases. One had a cardiac arrest and diet 8 days after the procedure. There were no other complications. The whole procedure usually lasted 60 min (range: 45 to 90 min). Splanchnic nerve neurolysis is a useful treatment in the patients with severe chronic abdominal pain. It is used as a second line treatment when large lesions change celia anatomy and complicate the percutaneous block of the celiac plexus. Endosulfan, Malathion and Methyl parathion, on the metabolic rate of the estuarine clam, Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, have been investigated. The animals exposed to the lower sublethal concentrations of Endosulfan, Malthion and Methyl parathion consumed oxygen at the rate of 1.60, 1.98 and 2.09 ml. 0 2 g - 1 h -1 respectively, while at the higher concentrations of the pesticides, consumption of oxygen by the animal dropped to nearly half the control value. When compared to Malathion and Methyl parathion. Endosulfan induced animals recorded a greater reduction in her percentage deviation (from control) of oxygen consumption, possibly due to hypoxia induced by the pollutants

  8. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Kwok, Rosanna S; Zalom, Frank G; Chiu, Joanna C

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing

  9. Identifikasi Jenis Bahan Aktif dan Penggunaan Insektisida Antinyamuk serta Kerentanan Vektor DBD terhadap Organofosfat pada Tiga Kota Endemis DBD di Provinsi Banten

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    Joni Hendri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The increasing cases of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF in various places leads to increased efforts to control the Aedes aegypti mosquito populations using anti-mosquito insecticide. The use of insecticides continuously, the absence of insecticide rotation and errors in the application has been lead toinsecticide resistance of dengue vector. The purpose of this study is (1 to identify active ingredients of insecticide; (2 used of anti-mosquito insecticide that has been used by households and programs, (3 as well as knowing the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti to organophosphate insecticides (Malathion 0,8% and Temephos 0.02 ppm. Descriptive research with cross sectional approach conducted in three highest endemic cities in Banten province: Cilegon City, Serang City, and South Tangerang City. Identification of antimosquito insecticide has been done by interview, and identifying health centers and Health Service reports. The results showed that most respondents have been using anti-mosquito insecticide applied daily at night. Respondents prefer to use repellent which can be applied by swab. Based on the active ingredient, D-alethrin is a type of active ingredients which mentioned most often, followed by Pralethrin and Diethyltoluamide (DEET. Insecticides used by the program are Malathion and Pirimiphos-methyl, rotated by Cypermethrin. Susceptibility test results showed that Aedes aegypti is not susceptible to Malathion 0,8 % and Temephos 0.02 ppm.Keywords: insecticide, anti-mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, susceptibility, organophosphate.Abstrak. Meningkatnya kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD di berbagai tempat memacu peningkatan upaya pengendalian populasi nyamuk Aedes aegypti menggunakan insektisida antinyamuk. Penggunaan insektisida secara terus menerus tanpa adanya rotasi dan kesalahan dalam aplikasi akan menyebabkan resistensi terhadap nyamuk vektor DBD. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis bahan aktif (2

  10. Tratamentos focais e totais com inseticidas de ação residual para o controle de Triatoma brasiliensis e Triatoma pseudomaculata no Nordeste brasileiro Focal and total residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo M. Oliveira Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para controle eficiente dos triatomíneos Triatoma brasiliensis e Triatoma pseudomaculata, foi feito um ensaio de campo em Boa Viagem, Ceará, de modo a comparar a borrifação convencional versus tratamento focal com deltametrina 5% SC, dose 25 mg i.a./m² e o organofosforado malation lenta liberação 8.3% SR, dose 2g i.a./m². O ensaio incluiu aleatoriamente 1.541 casas, separadas em quatro grupos. Em dois deles foi aplicada borrifação focal ­ tratamento PT com deltametrina dentro das casas e no peridomicílio e PL que recebeu malation lenta liberação nas mesmas circunstâncias. Os outros dois tiveram tratamento convencional, isto é, aplicação total ­ PT com deltametrina no intra e peridomicílio e PL, tratado com deltametrina dentro das casas e malation lenta liberação no peridomicílio. As avaliações entomológicas aos 6 e 12 meses pós-tratamentos mostraram melhor resultado para o tratamento misto, grupo PL, provavelmente em decorrência da boa performance do piretróide dentro das casas e da formulação de lenta liberação nas condições hostis do peridomicílio. Os abrigos dos animais domésticos sofreram modificações ao longo do ano, colaborando com a redução da performance dos inseticidas no peridomicílio.To efficiently control the triatomines Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, a field trial was performed to compare conventional versus focal spraying of deltamethrin 5% SC at 25 mg a.i./m² and the slow-release organophosphate malathion 8.3% SR at 2g a.i./m². The assay took place in the county of Boa Viagem, Ceará State, with 1541 households, randomly separated into 4 groups. Two of them received focal spraying: PT, treated with deltamethrin indoors and in the peridomicile, and PL, which received slow-release malathion in the same circumstances. The other groups received conventional, i.e., total application: PT with deltamethrin in the intra- and peridomicile, and PL, which was treated with

  11. Spatial distribution of insecticide resistance in Caribbean populations of Aedes aegypti and its significance

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    Rawlins Samuel C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor resistance to insecticides, bioassays were performed on 102 strains of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L. from 16 countries ranging from Suriname in South America and through the chain of Caribbean Islands to the Bahamas, where the larvicide temephos and the adulticide malathion have been in use for 15 to 30 years. There was wide variation in the sensitivity to the larvicide in mosquito populations within and among countries. Mosquito strains in some countries such as Antigua, St. Lucia, and Tortola had consistently high resistance ratios (RR to temephos, ranging from 5.3 to 17.7. In another group of countries-e.g., Anguilla and Curaçao-mosquitoes had mixed levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 2.5-10.6, and in a third group of countries, including St. Kitts, Barbados, Jamaica, and Suriname, mosquitoes had consistently low levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 1- 4.6 (P < 0.05. On occasion significantly different levels of resistance were recorded from neighboring A. aegypti communities, which suggests there is little genetic exchange among populations. The impact of larval resistance expressed itself as reduced efficacy of temephos to kill mosquitoes when strains were treated in the laboratory or in the field in large container environments with recommended dosages. Although a sensitive strain continued to be completely controlled for up to 7 weeks, the most resistant strains had 24% survival after the first week. By week 6, 60% to 75% of all resistant strains of larvae were surviving the larval period. Responses to malathion in adult A. aegypti varied from a sensitive population in Suriname (RR = 1.3 to resistant strains in St. Vincent (RR = 4.4, Dominica (RR = 4.2, and Trinidad (RR = 4.0; however, resistance was generally not on the scale of that observed to temephos in the larval stages and had increased only slightly when compared to the levels that existed 3 to 4 years ago. Suggestions are made for a pesticide usage policy

  12. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  13. Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Eba; Asale, Abebe; Eba, Kasahun; Getahun, Kefelegn; Tushune, Kora; Bryon, Astrid; Morou, Evangelia; Vontas, John; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Duchateau, Luc; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2017-09-02

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids

  14. Susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti from Santiago Island, Cabo Verde, to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hélio Daniel Ribeiro; Paiva, Marcelo Henrique Santos; Silva, Norma Machado; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Camacho, Denise Dos Reis da Rosa de Azevedo; Moura, Aires Januário Fernandes da; Gómez, Lara Ferrero; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, Cabo Verde diagnosed the first dengue cases, with 21,137 cases reported and Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector. Since the outbreak, chemical insecticides and source reduction were used to control the mosquito population. This study aimed to assess the susceptibility of A. aegypti populations from Santiago, Cabo Verde to insecticides and identify the mechanisms of resistance. Samples of A. aegypti eggs were obtained at two different time periods (2012 and 2014), using ovitraps in different locations in Santiago Island to establish the parental population. F1 larvae were exposed to different concentrations of insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti), diflubenzuron and temephos) to estimate the lethal concentrations (LC90) and calculate the respective rate of resistance (RR90). Semi-field tests using temephos-ABATE(®) were performed to evaluate the persistence of the product. Bottle tests using female mosquitoes were carried out to determine the susceptibility to the adulticides malathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Biochemical and molecular tests were performed to investigate the presence of metabolic resistance mechanisms, associated with the enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), esterases and mixed-function oxidases (MFO) and to detect mutations or alterations in the sodium channel and acetylcholinesterase genes. A. aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago exhibited resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin (mortality<80%) and temephos (RR90=4.4) but susceptibility to malathion (mortality≥98%), Bti and diflubenzuron. The low level of resistance to temephos did not affect the effectiveness of Abate(®). The enzymatic analysis conducted in 2012 revealed slight changes in the activities of GST (25%), MFO (18%), α-esterase (19%) and β-esterase (17%), but no significant changes in 2014. Target site resistance mutations were not detected. Our results suggest that the A. aegypti population from Santiago is resistant to two major

  15. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  16. Persistence of organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environments. Coordinated programme on isotope-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, L.

    1982-08-01

    A radiometric enzymic assay method was developed for quick measuring of organophosphorous insecticides in water samples. All steps of the assay procedure were carried out in scintillation vials. 50 μl enzyme solution (acetylcholinesterase of electric eel) and 50 μl buffer pH 7 were pipetted into the vial followed by 100 μl of water sample or aqueous solution of the insecticide and the mixture was incubated for 60 minutes. 50 μl 3 H-acetylcholine were added to the vial and the enzymic reaction stopped after 10 minutes by adding 200 μl buffer solution pH 2.5. 10 ml scintillation cocktail were then added and after shaking and 30 minutes standing the radioactivity was determined in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Acetylcholine remained in the water phase while 3 H-acetic acid released in enzymic hydrolysis may be extracted by an organic solvent. By this method, not only the parent compound but also some of its degradation products, which possess some anticholinesteratic activity can be measured. The method is suitable for combination with thin-layer chromatography for identification purposes. Using this method, we studied the degradation of the organophosphorous insecticides malathion, parathion, DDVP and imidan. The degradation in distilled water and natural water was compared. For example, the half-time of malathion in distilled water at room temperature was 6 days while in natural water (Danube river) it was 4 hours. The degradation processes were also studied in model systems containing sediment and water. Degradation was faster in models containing solid particles than in filtered water. The radiometric enzymic method was tested as analytical procedure for residue monitoring. Since 1978 a residue monitoring programme was in progress in the Danube river near Budapest. Occasionally high residue levels were detected in spring and early summer. The radiometric enzymic method has proved to be a useful analytical method for anticholinesterase pesticides in

  17. Luminescence recognition of different organophosphorus pesticides by the luminescent Eu(III)–pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Hassan A.; Duerkop, Axel; Anwar, Z.M.; Hussein, Belal H.M.; Rizk, Moustafa A.; Amin, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Europium (III) luminescence quenching has been used for sensing organophosphorous pesticides. ► Four guest pesticides chlorfenvinphos, malathion, azinphos, and paraxon ethyl were used. ► A sensitive rapid, cheap direct method for the determination of the pesticides has been developed. ► The method was applied to the determination of the OPs in tap, river, mineral, and waste waters. - Abstract: Luminescence quenching of a novel long lived Eu(III)–pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe of 1:2 stoichiometric ratio has been studied in 0.10 volume fraction ethanol–water mixture at pH 7.5 (HEPES buffer) in the presence of the organophosphorus pesticides chlorfenvinphos (P1), malathion (P2), azinphos (P3), and paraxon ethyl (P4). The luminescence intensity of Eu(III)–(PDCA) 2 probe decreases as the concentration of the pesticide increases. It was observed that the quenching due to P3 and P4 proceeds via both diffusional and static quenching processes. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence quenching of Eu(III)–pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe in solution. The linear range for determination of the selected pesticides is 1.0–35.0 μM. The detection limits were 0.24–0.55 μM for P3, P4, and P1 and 2.5 μM for P2, respectively. The binding constants (K), and thermodynamic parameters of the OPs with Eu(III)–(PDCA) 2 were evaluated. Positive and negative values of entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) changes for Eu(III)–(PDCA) 2 –P1 ternary complex were calculated. As the waters in this study do not contain the above mentioned OPs over the limit detectable by the method, a recovery study was carried out after the addition of the adequate amounts of the organophosphorus pesticides under investigation.

  18. Luminescence recognition of different organophosphorus pesticides by the luminescent Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azab, Hassan A., E-mail: azab2@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Duerkop, Axel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo and Biosensors, Regensburg University, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Anwar, Z.M.; Hussein, Belal H.M.; Rizk, Moustafa A.; Amin, Tarek [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2013-01-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Europium (III) luminescence quenching has been used for sensing organophosphorous pesticides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four guest pesticides chlorfenvinphos, malathion, azinphos, and paraxon ethyl were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive rapid, cheap direct method for the determination of the pesticides has been developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied to the determination of the OPs in tap, river, mineral, and waste waters. - Abstract: Luminescence quenching of a novel long lived Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe of 1:2 stoichiometric ratio has been studied in 0.10 volume fraction ethanol-water mixture at pH 7.5 (HEPES buffer) in the presence of the organophosphorus pesticides chlorfenvinphos (P1), malathion (P2), azinphos (P3), and paraxon ethyl (P4). The luminescence intensity of Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2} probe decreases as the concentration of the pesticide increases. It was observed that the quenching due to P3 and P4 proceeds via both diffusional and static quenching processes. Direct methods for the determination of the pesticides under investigation have been developed using the luminescence quenching of Eu(III)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid probe in solution. The linear range for determination of the selected pesticides is 1.0-35.0 {mu}M. The detection limits were 0.24-0.55 {mu}M for P3, P4, and P1 and 2.5 {mu}M for P2, respectively. The binding constants (K), and thermodynamic parameters of the OPs with Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2} were evaluated. Positive and negative values of entropy ({Delta}S) and enthalpy ({Delta}H) changes for Eu(III)-(PDCA){sub 2}-P1 ternary complex were calculated. As the waters in this study do not contain the above mentioned OPs over the limit detectable by the method, a recovery study was carried out after the addition of the adequate amounts of the organophosphorus pesticides under investigation.

  19. Evidence of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olé Sangba, Marina Lidwine; Sidick, Aboubakar; Govoetchan, Renaud; Dide-Agossou, Christian; Ossè, Razaki A; Akogbeto, Martin; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane

    2017-01-13

    Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation's bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%), malathion (5%), fenitrothion (1%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) were performed on adult females. Species and molecular forms as well as the presence of L1014F kdr and Ace-1 R mutations were assessed by PCR. Additional tests were conducted to assess metabolic resistance status. After 1 h exposure, a significant difference of knockdown effect was observed between districts in all insecticides tested except deltamethrin and malathion. The mortality rate (MR) of pyrethroids group ranging from 27% (CI: 19-37.5) in Petevo to 86% (CI: 77.6-92.1) in Gbanikola; while for DDT, MR ranged from 5% (CI: 1.6-11.3) in Centre-ville to 39% (CI: 29.4-49.3) in Ouango. For the organophosphate group a MR of 100% was observed in all districts except Gbanikola where a MR of 96% (CI: 90-98.9) was recorded. The mortality induced by bendiocarb was very heterogeneous, ranging from 75% (CI: 62.8-82.8) in Yapele to 99% (CI: 84.5-100) in Centre-ville. A high level of kdr-w (L1014F) frequency was observed in all districts ranging from 93 to 100%; however, no kdr-e (L1014S) and Ace-1 R mutation were found in all tested mosquitoes. Data of biochemical analysis showed significant overexpression activities of cytochrome P450, GST and esterases in Gbanikola and Yapele (χ 2  = 31.85, df = 2, P resistance to DDT and pyrethroids as well as precocious emergence of resistance to carbamates were detected among A. gambiae mosquitoes from Bangui, including target-site mutations

  20. Validation of pestice multi residue analysis method on cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to validate the method of multi pesticide residue analysis on cucumber. Before real sample injection, system suitability test was performed in gas chromatography (GC). For this purpose, a sensitive pesticide mixture was used for GC-NPD and estimated the performance parameters such as number of effective theoretical plates, resolution factor, asymmetry, tailing and selectivity. It was detected that the system was suitable for calibration and sample injection. Samples were fortified at the level of 0.02, 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg with mixture of dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos pesticides. In the fortification step 1 4C-carbaryl was also added on homogenized analytical portions to make use of 1 4C labelled pesticides for the determining extraction efficiency. Then the basic analytical process, such as ethyl acetate extraction, filtration, evaporation and cleanup, were performed. The GPC calibration using 1 4C- carbaryl and fortification mixture (dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos) showed that pesticide fraction come through the column between the 8-23 ml fractions. The recovery of 1 4C-carbaryl after the extraction and cleanup step were 92.63-111.73 % and 74.83-102.22 %, respectively. The stability of pesticides during analysis is an important factor. In this study, stability test was performed including matrix effect. Our calculation and t test results showed that above mentioned pesticides were not stabile during sample processing in our laboratory conditions and it was found that sample comminution with dry ice may improve stability. In the other part of the study, 1 4C-chloropyrifos was used to determine homogeneity of analytical portions taken from laboratory samples. Use of 1 4C labelled pesticides allows us for quick quantification analyte, even with out clean-up. The analytical results show that after sample processing with waring blender, analytical portions were homogenous. Sample processing uncertainty depending on quantity of

  1. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  2. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  3. A novel amperometric biosensor based on covalently attached multilayer assemblies of gold nanoparticles, diazo-resins and acetylcholinesterase for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Dong, Pei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2018-06-01

    Using an ionic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and diazo-resins (DAR) were immobilised on the surface of a p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid-modified glassy carbon electrode to form a matrix composite membrane for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilisation. Photo-sensitive DAR was used as the assembly interlayer to convert the ionic bond into a covalent bond to improve the biosensor stability. These fabrication processes were followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to verify the membrane formation. Because of the introduction of AuNPs/DAR/AChE biofilms, the modified electrode exhibited excellent electron transfer mediation and electrical conductivity. In addition, it exhibited high sensitivity in the range of linear concentration from 1.0 × 10 -8 to 1.0 × 10 -12 g L -1 with the detection limit of 5.12 × 10 -13 and 5.85 × 10 -13 g L -1 for malathion and methyl parathion, respectively. More importantly, the presented biosensor considerably improved stability because the electrostatic interaction was converted into covalent bonds by UV irradiation. It is a simple, cheap and stable method for quantitative detection of organophosphorus pesticides, and this method may pave a way for the sensitive, simple detection of different analytes without the need of expensive instrumentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  5. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorous insecticides in bean samples by gas chromatography - flame photometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyller Bastos Borges

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs in crops may leave residues in food and may cause poisoning in the applicators. A method was developed for the determination of five OPPs in bean samples by Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection (GC-FPD. Validation parameters comprised linearity between 0.24 and 8.56 μg g-1 (r = 0.9985 for diazinon; 0.23 and 8.14 μg g-1 (r = 0.9959 for methyl parathion; 0.28 and 10.25 μg g-1 (r = 0.9987 for methyl pirimiphos; 0.52 and 18.87 μg g-1 (r = 0.9955 for malathion; 0.86 and 13.67 μg g-1 (r = 0.9919 for ethion. The limits of quantification (equal to those of detection were the lowest rates of ranges mentioned above for each compound. The extraction method showed approximately 95% recovery, with CV% < 15%. Although twenty-eight bean samples obtained in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais,Brazil, were analyzed, they failed to match any of the OPPs under analysis. The absence of OPPs in the samples could be due to the degradation that occurred between the use of OPPs and bean commercialization, levels below the detection /quantification limits and the non-use of OPPs in bean cultivation.

  6. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-07-06

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  7. Multifamily determination of pesticide residues in soya-based nutraceutical products by GC/MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 μg/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Susceptibility of nine organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk towards inoculated lactic acid bacteria and yogurt starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fresh milk might be polluted by some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). In this study the dissipation of nine OPPs, namely chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, phorate, pirimiphos-methyl and trichlorphon, in skimmed milk was investigated to clarify their susceptibility towards lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yogurt starters. Skimmed milk was spiked with nine OPPs, inoculated with five strains of LAB and two commercial yogurt starters at 42 °C for 24 and 5 h respectively and subjected to quantitative OPP analysis by gas chromatography. Degradation kinetic constants of these OPPs were calculated based on a first-order reaction model. OPP dissipation in the milk was enhanced by the inoculated strains and starters, resulting in OPP concentrations decreasing by 7.0-64.6 and 7.4-19.2% respectively. Totally, the nine OPPs were more susceptible to Lactobacillus bulgaricus, as it enhanced their degradation rate constants by 18.3-133.3%. Higher phosphatase production of the assayed stains was observed to bring about greater OPP degradation in the milk. Both LAB and yogurt starters could enhance OPP dissipation in skimmed milk, with the nine OPPs studied having different susceptibilities towards them. Phosphatase was a key factor governing OPP dissipation. The LAB of higher phosphatase production have more potential to decrease OPPs in fermented foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Bionomics and vectorial capacity of Anopheles annularis with special reference to India: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Haq, S; Kumar, Gaurav; Dhiman, R C

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. An. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. In India, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Assam, West Bengal and U.P. In Odisha and some neighbouring countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal and Myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. This is a species complex of two sibling species A and B but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. An. annularis is resistant to DDT and dieldrin/HCH and susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethorides in most of the parts of India. In view of rapid change in ecological conditions, further studies are required on the bionomics of An. annularis and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country. Considering the importance of An. annularis as a malaria vector, the bionomics and its role in malaria transmission has been reviewed in this paper. In this communication, an attempt has been made to review its bionomics and its role as malaria vector. An. annularis is a competent vector of malaria, thus, due attention should be paid for its control under the vector control programmes specially in border states where it is playing a primary role in malaria transmission.

  10. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-05-01

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or ''botanicokinetic,'' models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model

  11. Aquatic risk assessment of the new rice herbicide profoxydim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta De La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Kubitza, Johanna [BASF-AG, Agricultural Center Limburgerhof, P.O. Box 120, D-67114 Limburgerhof (Germany); Peter Dohmen, G. [BASF-AG, Agricultural Center Limburgerhof, P.O. Box 120, D-67114 Limburgerhof (Germany); Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta De La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    A tiered protocol for assessing ecological risks has been applied to the rice pesticide profoxydim. The initial assessment (Tier I) was based on toxicity exposure ratio (TER) calculations based on laboratory data using a worst-case rice scenario. The first refinement (Tier II) was based on direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of water samples collected during a field-mesocosm study. Finally, a higher-tier assessment on the in situ assessment of paddy community responses (field-mesocosm-Tier III) was performed. A successive application of three pesticides, the herbicides azimsulfuron, propanil and the insecticide malathion, was used as reference controls. The refined assessments indicated a lower risk than that predicted from TER estimations. DTA-based Tier II showed toxicity effects only for concentrations above the recommended dose of profoxydim. Effects for reference controls were observed in DTA which were not expected from Tier I. The field-mesocosm study confirmed these effects but also showed that they were transient and of low relevance. - Risk refinement assessment of rice pesticides starting with DTA and moving to community studies is a cost-effective approach, only if required.

  12. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theingi Nwe; Khin Maung Saing

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  13. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  14. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  15. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05%, malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1% were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50 and 90% mortality (LC90 of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

  16. Non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in a Sagittaria trifolia L. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bochui; Fu, Danni; Yu, Yang; Huang, Chengtian; Yan, Kecheng; Li, Pingsheng; Shafi, Jamil; Zhu, He; Wei, Songhong; Ji, Mingshan

    2017-08-01

    Sagittaria trifolia L. is one of the most competitive weeds in rice fields in northeastern China. The continuous use of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors has led to the evolution of herbicide resistant S. trifolia. A subpopulation BC1, which was derived from the L1 population, was analyzed using DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme activity assays and levels of resistance to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides was determined. DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme assays revealed no amino acid substitutions and no significant differences in enzyme sensitivity between susceptible and resistant populations. Whole-plant dose-response experiments showed that the BC1 population exhibited different levels of resistance (resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 51.53) to five ALS herbicides, and the addition of malathion (P450 inhibitor) to bensulfuron-methyl, penoxsulam and bispyribac-sodium strongly reduced the dry weight accumulation of the BC1 population compared with the effects of the three herbicides alone. The results of the present study demonstrated that the BC1 population has evolved non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  18. Kinerja Biosensor Konduktometri Berbasis (Screen Printed Carbon Electrode SPCE––Kitosan untuk Deteksi Diazinon, Malation, Klorpirifos dan Profenofos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzulul Kurniawan Isvani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of biosensor is based on the hydrolysis reaction of organophosphorus compounds catalyzed by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH, produce H+ and the other ionic species that increase conductance on the surface of electrode. In this research, OPH was immobilized by crosslinking on chitosan–glutaraldehyde membrane on the (Screen Printed Carbon Electrode SPCE surface. Measurements were carried out at the range concentration 0 to 3.0 ppm of organophosphate, the range of pH 7.0 to 9.0 and 5–25 mL of enzyme. The result showed that optimum performances were obtained at 25 mL of OPH, pH 8.5, with the sensitivity for dizinon, malathion, chlorpirifos and profenofos is 1.353 mS/ppm, 1.270 mS/ppm, 1.230 mS/ppm dan 1.77 mS/ppm respectively and 0.97; 1.03; 0.98; 0.97 of LOD. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3156.

  19. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  20. A collection of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes involved in modification and detoxification of herbicide atrazine in rice (Oryza sativa) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong Tan, Li; Chen Lu, Yi; Jing Zhang, Jing; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases constitute one of the largest families of protein genes involved in plant growth, development and acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, whether these genes respond to organic toxic compounds and their biological functions for detoxifying toxic compounds such as herbicides in rice are poorly understood. The present study identified 201 genes encoding cytochrome P450s from an atrazine-exposed rice transcriptome through high-throughput sequencing. Of these, 69 cytochrome P450 genes were validated by microarray and some of them were confirmed by real time PCR. Activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (PNOD) related to toxicity were determined and significantly induced by atrazine exposure. To dissect the mechanism underlying atrazine modification and detoxification by P450, metabolites (or derivatives) of atrazine in plants were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). Major metabolites comprised desmethylatrazine (DMA), desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), hydroxyatrazine (HA), hydroxyethylatrazine (HEA) and hydroxyisopropylatrazine (HIA). All of them were chemically modified by P450s. Furthermore, two specific inhibitors of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and malathion (MAL) were used to assess the correlation between the P450s activity and rice responses including accumulation of atrazine in tissues, shoot and root growth and detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

  2. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Using Surface-Engineered C18 Functionalized Silica-Coated Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles-Based Extraction Coupled with GC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Kumari, Supriya; Nair, Kishore; Alam, Samsul; Raza, Syed K

    2017-05-01

    The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value ≥0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 μg/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

  3. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Functional classification of esterases from leaves of Aspidosperma polyneuron M. Arg. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Vanda Marilza de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system (PAGE and inhibition tests for biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases were used to obtain a functional classification of esterases fromAspidosperma polyneuron. The characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases from young leaves of A. polyneuron by the PAGE system showed fourteen esterase isozymes. The differential staining pattern showed that Est-2 isozyme hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate; Est-6, Est-7 and Est-8 isozymes hydrolyze alpha-naphthyl acetate, and Est-1, Est-3, Est-4, Est-5, Est-9, Est-10, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, and Est-14 isozymes hydrolyze both alpha- and b-naphthyl acetate. Inhibition pattern of a- and beta-esterases showed that Folidol is a more potent inhibitor that Malathion, while Thiamethoxan (an insecticide with organophosphorus-like action acts as an Est-4 and Est-6 inhibitor and induces the appearance of Est-5 and Est-7 isozymes as more intensely stained bands. Inhibition tests showed that OPC insecticides inhibit or activate plant esterases. Thus, plant esterases may be used as bioindicators to detect the presence and toxicity of residues of topically applied insecticides in agriculture and may be valuable for monitoring pollutants in the environment.

  5. A Method for Fast Assessment of OP/CB Exposure in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica Using Combined Esterases Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers

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    Kasim Sakran Abass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of different esterase activities in plasma and liver for Japanese quail and to combine determination of both carboxylesterase and cholinesterase as biochemical biomarker in order to identify the effects of carbamate and organophosphate compounds exposure. Carboxylesterase exhibits larger sensitivity to carbamate and organophosphate compounds than to cholinesterase and is present at higher levels. This permitted nature and distribution of carboxylesterase or cholinesterase to be measured. One predominant toxicological form of enzyme level constant in its patterns of motivation and inhibition with cholinesterase was identified in plasma with an apparent Michaelis constant for butyrylthiocholine iodide of 0.394 mM. Carboxylesterase activity in liver was considered by its preferential hydrolysis of the S-phenyl thioacetate. A concentration dependent decrease of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase has demonstrated during in vitro incubation of malathion, parathion, and trichlorfon in the range 0.125–2 mM, while with methomyl was in the range 0.25–4 mM. When quail (n=15 was exposed orally for 48 h to concentrations of carbamate or organophosphate compounds of 3–200 mg/kg, the percentage inhibition of cholinesterase was in each case larger than that of carboxylesterase and reached statistical significance (P<0.05 at lower concentrations.

  6. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Harbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  7. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  8. Réduction des doses efficaces d'insecticides contre les larves de criquet pèlerin (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål, 1775 : Orthoptera, Acrididae par utilisation de quantités réduites de phénylacétonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocar Bal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of effective doses of insecticide against desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål, 1775: Orthoptera, Acrididae nymphs using phenylacetonitrile. In order to reduce the amount of insecticides used during a locust upsurge, phenylacetonitrile (PAN was tested in 2007 and 2008, in the Niamey area (Niger. PAN was used, on the one hand, in topical applications on third stage nymphs (L3 of the desert locust, alone or in combination with reduced amounts of various insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin, malathion, chlorpyrifos-ethyl. In addition, experiments were carried out in semi-natural conditions, in field enclosures, and also on third stage nymphs of the desert locust. Insecticides were each applied at the recommended dose and at half of that dose with the addition or not of phenylacetonitrile. All topical applications of insecticides led to the total mortality of the nymphs within 1 to 24 h; the use of PAN alone caused a mortality rate of no higher than 18% within 120 h. In the field enclosures, mortality rates for the desert locust nymphs were the same both with the recommended doses and with half of the dose with the addition of 10 ml of PAN·ha-1. Results indicate that the addition of small quantities of phenylacetonitrile could make it possible to decrease by half the quantities of insecticides used in the control of desert locust nymphs, while preserving the same effectiveness.

  9. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  10. Development of a method for the determination of 9 currently used cotton pesticides by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping; Venne, Louise; Dunnum, Suzy; McMurry, Scott T; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2008-05-30

    A reliable, sensitive, and reproducible method was developed for quantitative determination of nine new generation pesticides currently used in cotton agriculture. Injector temperature significantly affected analyte response as indicated by electron capture detector (ECD) chromatograms. A majority of the analytes had an enhanced response at injector temperatures between 240 and 260 degrees C, especially analytes such as acephate that overall had a poor response on the ECD. The method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.13, 0.05, 0.29, 0.35, 0.08, 0.10, 0.32, 0.05, and 0.59 ng/mL for acephate, trifuralin, malathion, thiamethozam, pendimethalin, DEF6, acetamiprid, brifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. This study provides a precision (0.17-13.1%), accuracy (recoveries=88-107%) and good reproducible method for the analytes of interest. At relatively high concentrations, only lambda-cyhalothrin was unstable at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) and 4 degrees C over 10 days. At relatively low concentrations, acephate and acetamiprid were also unstable regardless of temperature. After 10 days storage at room temperature, 30-40% degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was observed. It is recommended that acephate, acetamiprid, and lambda-cyhalothrin be stored at -20 degrees C or analyzed immediately after extraction.

  11. A probabilistic risk assessment for deployed military personnel after the implementation of the "Leishmaniasis Control Program" at Tallil Air Base, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J; Davis, Ryan S; Barber, Loren M; Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-05-01

    Leishmaniasis has been of concern to the U.S. military and has re-emerged in importance because of recent deployments to the Middle East. We conducted a retrospective probabilistic risk assessment for military personnel potentially exposed to insecticides during the "Leishmaniasis Control Plan" (LCP) undertaken in 2003 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. We estimated acute and subchronic risks from resmethrin, malathion, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and pyrethrins applied using a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) sprayer and lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin used for residual sprays. We used the risk quotient (RQ) method for our risk assessment (estimated environmental exposure/toxic endpoint) and set the RQ level of concern (LOC) at 1.0. Acute RQs for truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00007 to 33.3 at the 95th percentile. Acute exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos exceeded the RQ LOC. Subchronic RQs for truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00008 to 32.8 at the 95th percentile. Subchronic exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos exceeded the LOC. However, estimated exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos did not exceed their respective no observed adverse effect levels.

  12. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphorus pesticides for developmental neurotoxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm that can assess the effects of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of developmental neurotoxicants on zebrafish (Danio rerio). This in vivo assay quantifies the locomotor response to light stimuli under tandem light and dark conditions in a 96-well plate using a video tracking system on 6 day post fertilization zebrafish larvae. Each of twenty-seven organophosphorus pesticides was tested for their developmental neurotoxic potential by exposing zebrafish embryos/larvae to the pesticide at several concentrations (≤ 100 μM nominal concentration) during the first five days of development, followed by 24 hours of depuration and then behavioral testing. Approximately 22% of the chemicals (Acephate, Dichlorvos, Diazoxon, Bensulide,Tribufos, Tebupirimfos) did not produce any behavioral changes after developmental exposure, while many (Malaoxon Fosthiazate, Dimethoate, Dicrotophos, Ethoprop, Malathion, Naled, Diazinon, Methamidophos, Terbufos, Trichlorfon, Phorate, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Z-Tetrachlorvinphos, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Phosmet, Omethoate) produced changes in swi

  13. Temporo-spatial distribution of insecticide-resistance in Indian malaria vectors in the last quarter-century: Need for regular resistance monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Verma, Vaishali; Elamathi, Natarajan; Barik, Tapan Kumar; Bhatt, Rajendra Mohan; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The Indian vector control programme similar to other programmes in the world is still reliant on chemical insecticides. Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector out of six primary malaria vectors in India and alone contributes about 2/3 malaria cases annually; and per se its control is actually control of malaria in India. For effective management of vectors, current information on their susceptibility status to different insecticides is essential. In this review, an attempt was made to compile and present the available data on the susceptibility status of different malaria vector species in India from the last 2.5 decades. Literature search was conducted by different means mainly web and library search; susceptibility data was collated from 62 sources for the nine malaria vector species from 145 districts in 21 states and two union territories between 1991 and 2016. Interpretation of the susceptibility/resistance status was made on basis of the recent WHO criteria. Comprehensive analysis of the data indicated that An. culicifacies, a major vector species was resistant to at least one insecticide in 70% (101/145) of the districts. It was reported mostly resistant to DDT and malathion whereas, its resistant status against deltamethrin varied across the districts. The major threat for the malaria control programmes is multiple-insecticide-resistance in An. culicifacies which needs immediate attention for resistance management in order to sustain the gains achieved so far, as the programmes have targeted malaria elimination by 2030.

  14. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  15. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Geography: Sudan is the largest country in Africa with a total area of 2.6M km 2 and malaria endemicity increases from north to south as the isohytes increase. Malaria Situation: Malaria is hypoendemic in the north, meso-endemic in the central regions and some holoendemic transmission in the south where transmission is perennial. Epidemiology: P. falciparum is the main parasitic species and malaria prevalence was 12.75 in 1998. There are 31 species of Anopheles identified in Sudan, 18 of which are malaria infectious. An. arabiensis is the principal vector and is distributed thoughout the country. An. funestus and An. gambiae are vectors in the south. An. arabiensis is highly endophilic except in the east and is strongly anthropophilic. The species is well adapted to dry conditions and in the seasonal breeding areas the vector density can be virtually zero. It is not clear how these areas become re-infested in the rainy season. There is little inversion polymorphism in Sudanese populations of An. arabiensis. Malaria Control: Mosquito control activities focus mainly on residual house spraying but with some fogging activities in irrigated areas. Malathion house spraying is used in Khartoum but the use of impregnated bed nets is not popular. There is also some aerial spraying.

  16. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife. At the present time, current USEPA risk assessments do not include population-level endpoints. In this paper, we present a new mechanistic model, which allows risk assessors to estimate the effects of insecticide exposure on the survival and seasonal productivity of birds known to use agricultural fields during their breeding season. The new model was created from two existing USEPA avian risk assessment models, the Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM v.3.0) and the Markov Chain Nest Productivity model (MCnest). The integrated TIM/MCnest model has been applied to assess the relative risk of 12 insecticides used to control corn pests on a suite of 31 avian species known to use cornfields in midwestern agroecosystems. The 12 insecticides that were assessed in this study are all used to treat major pests of corn (corn root worm borer, cutworm, and armyworm). After running the integrated TIM/MCnest model, we found extensive differences in risk to birds among insecticides, with chlorpyrifos and malathion (organophosphates) generally posing the greatest risk, and bifenthrin and ë-cyhalothrin (

  17. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r 2 ) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg -1 and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg -1 . Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg -1 to 0.20mg·kg -1 . To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticides in Beverages: Implications for Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Radford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since urinary insecticide metabolites are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure, it is important that we quantify whether insecticides degrade in food and beverages in order to better perform risk assessment. This study was designed to quantify degradation of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, orange juice, and red wine were fortified with 500 ng/mL diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, and aliquots were extracted several times over a 15-day storage period at 2.5 °C. Overall, statistically significant loss of at least one insecticide was observed in each matrix, and at least five out of seven insecticides demonstrated a statistically significant loss in all matrices except orange juice. An investigation of an alternative mechanism of insecticide loss—adsorption onto the glass surface of the storage jars—was carried out, which indicated that this mechanism of loss is insignificant. Results of this work suggest that insecticides degrade in these beverages, and this degradation may lead to pre-existing insecticide degradates in the beverages, suggesting that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk.

  19. Breaking the Take Home Pesticide Exposure Pathway for Agricultural Families: Workplace Predictors of Residential Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Negrete, Maria; Galvin, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Background Pesticides used in agriculture can be taken into worker homes and pose a potential risk for children and other family members. This study focused on identification of potential intervention points at the workplace. Methods Workers (N = 46) recruited from two tree fruit orchards in Washington State were administered a 63-item pesticide safety questionnaire. Dust was collected from commuter vehicles and worker homes and analyzed for four organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (azinphosmethyl, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, malathion). Results Geometric mean azinphosmethyl concentrations in dust for three worker groups (16 pesticide handlers, 15 green fruit thinners, 15 organic orchard workers) ranged from 0.027–1.5 μg/g, with levels in vehicle dust higher than in house dust, and levels in house dust from handlers’ homes higher than levels from tree fruit thinners’ homes. Vehicle and house dust concentrations of azinphosmethyl were highly associated (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001). Significant differences were found across worker groups for availability of laundry facilities, work boot storage, frequency of hand washing, commuter vehicle use, parking location, and safety training. Conclusions These findings support a focus on intervention activities to reduce take home pesticide exposure closer to the source of contamination; specifically, the workplace and vehicles used to travel to the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1063–1071, 2013. PMID:23853121

  20. Uso de nuevas herramientas para el control de triatominos en diferentes situaciones entomológicas en el continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Filho Alfredo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se relatan los resultados obtenidos en el terreno seis meses y dos años post-tratamiento con las nuevas herramientas para el control de triatominos desarrolladas con apoyo de la OMS/TDR, o sea, a pinturas insecticidas, una suspensión emulsionable de lenta liberación conteniendo el 8,3% de malathion, aplicada por rociamiento; b potes fumígenos que, después de encendidos, echan humos que contienen cypermetrina y DDVP; c cajas sensoras para detección de triatominos. Los ensayos en el terreno fueron realizados en Chile, Honduras y Paraguay contra tres especies principales de vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas - Triatoma infestans, T. dimidiata y Rhodnius prolixus, según el protocolo elaborado por un comité de expertos de la OMS. Los resultados indican que las pinturas insecticidas constituyen un eficaz medio de control de estos vectores en cualquiera de las condiciones estudiadas, sea en el domicilio, sea en el peridomicilio, manteniendo los porcentajes de infestación muy próximos a cero. Comparaciones preliminares de la técnica de cajas sensoras para detección de casas infestadas por triatominos, con la búsqueda hecha por personal entrenado (hora/hombre indican esta última como la mas apropiada.

  1. Gamma radiation-a possible tool to provide quarantine security against Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium everts (Coleoptera: dermestidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, R.D.; Garg, A.K.; Viji, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium everts is apparently native to India. Current quarantine regulations for the US recognize 25 countries as harboring endemic populations of khapra beetle: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. The beetle has developed resistance to many insecticides particularly to phosphine alone and malathion. Fumigation with methyl bromide provides good control in a variety of commodities, however, its production and importation has been restricted since it is an ozone depleting substance. Further, for effective treatment of storage facilities and ships require use of high concentrations, which has raised concerns among the public. Potential alternatives to the use of methyl bromide may need to be tested for effectiveness against this beetle prior to implementation. In view of this, studies were undertaken to record the effectiveness of different doses of gamma radiation (40-100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Gy) for the control of this important pest in grain storage. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Environmental Risks in the Use of Insecticide in Hashtgerd Area using EIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyae jala yadollahi Nooshabadi

    2018-02-01

    into account. Information on types of pesticides through questionnaires and interviews with farmers of all crops and gardens in the area (120 questionnaires in four cities in the study area were collected. Information on pesticides and their effects from data bases IUPAC and the Pesticide Manual, 1997and Crop Protection, 2003 were collected. Results and Discussion Because EIQ index for imidacloprid, diazinon, malathion and phosalone pesticides has been most affected by the ecological effects, It can be concluded that in the land area that these insecticides were used, biotic intensity are at highest risk. In a study that examined environmental hazards of cotton production in Turkey, the role of ecological effects of pesticides on EIQ was more than consumer parts and farm workers. In examining of the pesticides registered in the United States, toxicity of farm workers, consumers and ecological were 37, 8 and 84/4 respectively and the final average EIQ for insecticides registered was 43/1. According to this another factor considered is the farm environmental impact of pesticides. Malathion insecticide in Hashtgerd region with farm environmental impact 42/18 as the most dangerous environmental toxins known and then insecticide diazinon that had the highest consumption in frequency of use, with farm environmental impact 41/76 was next in rank. Although Imidaclopride compared to other pesticides had a higher EIQ index so the potential toxicity was more but because of active ingredient and low dosage in terms of farm environmental impact was in third place. Therefore, with the expansion of the ecosystem-based approach to manage pests and method of integrated pest management, it can be greatly reduced environmental hazards arising from the use of insecticides. Among the major insecticides used in the Hashtgerd region potential toxicity of imidaclopride and farm environmental impact of malathion was more. The highest risk in all three components of farm workers, consumers and

  3. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k was 0.0125 min−1. The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe2+ dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions.

  4. Development and validation of a simple GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides in blood--clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Mendonis, Marcela; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos; Maravelias, Constantinos; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-05-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used, and as a result they are involved in numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was the development, optimization, and validation of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides (aldicarb, azinphos methyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dialifos, diazinon, malathion, methamidophos, methidathion, methomyl, and terbufos) in blood. Only 500 μL of blood was used, and the recoveries after liquid-liquid extraction (toluene/chloroform, 4:1, v/v) were more than 65.6%. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.996). Limit of detections and limit of quantifications were found to be between 1.00-10.0 and 3.00-30.0 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy expressed as the %E(r) was found to be between -11.0 and 7.8%. Precision expressed as the percent relative standard deviation was found to be forensic and clinical cases of accidental or suicidal poisoning with these pesticides. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbi, A.; Abbes, K.; Sabater-Muñoz, B.; Beitia, F.; Chermiti, B.

    2017-07-01

    Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  6. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  7. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  8. Latex Rubber Gloves as a Sampling Dosimeter Using a Novel Surrogate Sampling Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Gayatri; Lopez, Terry; Ries, Steve; Ross, John; Vega, Helen; Eastmond, David A; Krieger, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during harvesting of crops occurs primarily to the workers' hands. When harvesters wear latex rubber gloves for personal safety and hygiene harvesting reasons, gloves accumulate pesticide residues. Hence, characterization of the gloves' properties may be useful for pesticide exposure assessments. Controlled field studies were conducted using latex rubber gloves to define the factors that influence the transfer of pesticides to the glove and that would affect their use as a residue monitoring device. A novel sampling device called the Brinkman Contact Transfer Unit (BCTU) was constructed to study the glove characteristics and residue transfer and accumulation under controlled conditions on turf. The effectiveness of latex rubber gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated by measuring the transferable pesticide residues as a function of time. The validation of latex rubber gloves as a residue sampling dosimeter was performed by comparing pesticide transfer and dissipation from the gloves, with the turf transferable residues sampled using the validated California (CA) Roller, a standard measure of residue transfer. The observed correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient R(2)) between the two methods was .84 for malathion and .96 for fenpropathrin, indicating that the BCTU is a useful, reliable surrogate tool for studying available residue transfer to latex rubber gloves under experimental conditions. Perhaps more importantly, these data demonstrate that latex gloves worn by workers may be useful quantifiable matrices for measuring pesticide exposure.

  9. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO₂-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-06

    TiO₂ photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO₂@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO₂@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO₂@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO₄(3-) in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO₄(3-) and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO₂@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L(-1) to 2.30 μmol P L(-1). This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.

  10. Barley husk carbon as the fiber coating for the solid-phase microextraction of twelve pesticides in vegetables prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Dong, Wenhuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2017-03-31

    In this work, a barley husk biomaterial was successfully carbonized by hydrothermal method. The carbon had a high specific surface area and good stability. It was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique to prepare a solid-phase microextraction fiber for the extraction of trace levels of twelve pesticides (tsumacide, fenobucarb, indoxacarb, diethofencarb, thimet, terbufos, malathion, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, buprofezin, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam) from vegetable samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection. The main experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity was observed in the range of 0.2-75.0μgkg -1 for tomato samples, and 0.3-60.0μgkg -1 for cucumber samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9983. The limits of detection of the method were 0.01-0.05μgkg -1 for tomato samples, and 0.03-0.10μgkg -1 for cucumber samples. The recoveries of the analytes for the method from spiked samples were in the range of 76%-104%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 12%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Pesticides Usage in the Soil Quality Degradation Potential in Wanasari Subdistrict, Brebes, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled application of pesticides can contaminate soil and may kill other nontarget organisms. This study aims to determine the usage pattern of pesticides by farmers in Wanasari Subdistrict and study the soil quality degradation potential. This study was a quantitative and qualitative research. Sources of data were collected from observation, questionnaire, and in-depth interview methods. The respondents were shallot farmers who planted shallot during 2013–2016 (n=60. In-depth interview was done with three respondents from the local agricultural extension center (BPP. This study found that there were some different types of insecticides and fungicides that were used in every planting season. The farmers applied pesticides in large amount once every three or four days. They mixed minimally three insecticides and fungicides types about 30–40 ml for each type. Organophosphate residues that were found in soil samples were methidathion residue about 0.014 mg/kg, malathion residue ranging around 0.1370–0.3630 mg/kg, and chlorpyrifos residue in the range of 0.0110–0.0630 mg/kg. The excessive application of pesticides showed the land degradation potential. Soil quality laboratory testing is recommended to ensure the agricultural land condition. Routine assessment of soil quality and pesticide usage control is recommended to keep sustainable ecosystem.

  14. Active insecticides for Diaphania hyalinata selective for the natural enemy Solenopsis saevissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alex R; Alvarenga, Elson S; Lopes, Mayara C; Santos, Izailda B Dos; Galdino, Tarcisio V; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the nine synthetic dienamides against the insect pest Diaphania hyalinata (melonworm) and the selectivity of these substances for the predator Solenopsis saevissima (fire ant). Four bioassays were conducted. To begin with, the dienamides that caused high mortality of D. hyalinata have been selected. In the second bioassay the dose-mortality curves of the selected dienamides have been constructed. In the third bioassay, the survival curves for D. hyalinata and the elapsed time to kill 50% of their population have been determined. In the fourth biological test, the selectivity of the substances to the predator S. saevissima has been evaluated. The most active (2E,4E)-N-butylhexa-2,4-dienamide 3d has killed 95% of the melonworm, D. hyalinata, and less than 10% of the natural enemy S. saevissima. The results presented by this compound are superior to the outcome displayed by the commercial insecticide Malathion®. Three of the dienamides prepared in this manuscript have proven to be selective in killing the pest, but not the beneficial insect.

  15. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouri, Rabeh; Le Goff, Gaelle; Hemden, Hiethem; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; M'saad, Mariem; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda-cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (6-14-fold), achieving LC50 values (129-287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory-selected resistant strain W-1Kλ (205-fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13-18-fold) in the resistant strain. The W-1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross-resistance to etofenprox (240-fold) and deltamethrin (150-fold). Field-evolved resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W-1Kλ. The levels of cross-resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty-two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems. © 2017 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  18. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light.

  19. Aquatic risk assessment of the new rice herbicide profoxydim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Paloma; Kubitza, Johanna; Peter Dohmen, G.; Tarazona, Jose V.

    2006-01-01

    A tiered protocol for assessing ecological risks has been applied to the rice pesticide profoxydim. The initial assessment (Tier I) was based on toxicity exposure ratio (TER) calculations based on laboratory data using a worst-case rice scenario. The first refinement (Tier II) was based on direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of water samples collected during a field-mesocosm study. Finally, a higher-tier assessment on the in situ assessment of paddy community responses (field-mesocosm-Tier III) was performed. A successive application of three pesticides, the herbicides azimsulfuron, propanil and the insecticide malathion, was used as reference controls. The refined assessments indicated a lower risk than that predicted from TER estimations. DTA-based Tier II showed toxicity effects only for concentrations above the recommended dose of profoxydim. Effects for reference controls were observed in DTA which were not expected from Tier I. The field-mesocosm study confirmed these effects but also showed that they were transient and of low relevance. - Risk refinement assessment of rice pesticides starting with DTA and moving to community studies is a cost-effective approach, only if required

  20. Multivessel supercritical fluid extraction of food items in Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, M L; King, J W; Johnson, J H; Serino, A A; Butler, R J

    1995-01-01

    An off-line, large capacity, multivessel supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) was designed and constructed for extraction of large samples. The extractor can simultaneously process 1-6 samples (15-25 g) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), which is relatively nontoxic and nonflammable, as the solvent extraction medium. Lipid recoveries for the SFE system were comparable to those obtained by blending or Soxhlet extraction procedures. Extractions at 10,000 psi, 80 degrees C, expanded gaseous CO2 flow rates of 4-5 L/min (35 degrees C), and 1-3 h extraction times gave reproducible lipid recoveries for pork sausage (relative standard deviation [RSD], 1.32%), corn chips (RSD, 0.46%), cheddar cheese (RSD, 1.14%), and peanut butter (RSD, 0.44%). In addition, this SFE system gave reproducible recoveries (> 93%) for butter fortified with cis-chlordane and malathion at the 100 ppm and 0.1 ppm levels. Six portions each of cheddar cheese, saltine crackers, sandwich cookies, and ground hamburger also were simultaneously extracted with SC-CO2 and analyzed for incurred pesticide residues. Results obtained with this SFE system were reproducible and comparable with results from organic-solvent extraction procedures currently used in the Total Diet Study; therefore, use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents can be eliminated.

  1. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  2. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  3. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint effects of pesticides and ultraviolet-B radiation on amphibian larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shuangying; Wages, Mike; Willming, Morgan; Cobb, George P.; Maul, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of multiple stressors may be linked to global amphibian declines. Of these, pesticides and UVB radiation co-exposures were examined on the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to provide information that may be useful for amphibian conservation. The independent action model and inferential statistics were used to examine interactions between pesticides (malathion, endosulfan, α-cypermethrin, or chlorothalonil) and environmentally relevant UVB exposures. UVB radiation alone caused 35–68% mortality and nearly 100% of malformations. Pesticides and UVB had additive effects on larval mortality; however, several non-additive effects (antagonistic and synergistic interactions) were observed for total body length. Insecticides mainly affected axial development, whereas UVB radiation caused high incidence of edema, gut malformations, and abnormal tail tips. These results suggest that sublethal developmental endpoints were more sensitive for detecting joint effects. This work has implications for amphibian risk assessments for ecosystems where pesticides and high UVB radiation may co-occur. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • UVB radiation alone caused 35–68% mortality and nearly 100% of malformations. • Pesticides and UVB had additive effects on larval mortality. • Several non-additive effects were observed for total body length. • Amphibian risk assessments should consider UVB radiation exposure as a co-stressor. - Possible interactions between pesticides and UVB radiation support the idea that amphibian risk assessments should consider these co-stressors when high UVB radiation exposure is high.

  5. Age-related Decline of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Young Drosophila melanogaster Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David

    2016-12-01

    Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Contamination of Dining Tables with Pesticides in Kibirigwi Irrigation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimani, V.W; McDermont, J.J

    1999-01-01

    Kibirigwi irrigation scheme is a small holder area in Central Kenya, where the main activity is production of horticultural crops. Pesticides are widely misused. This study investigated the extent of house hold pesticide exposure in 40 randomly selected farms in JUly-August, 1995. Exposure measures collected included pesticide levels on dining table swabs. Fifty coytton clothes measuring 30 cm *30cm were prepared in the laboratory by soaking overnight in methanol. In each of the selected homesteads, the table used for meals was swabbed with the piece of cloth. In the laboratory, the residues chemicals extracted from these swabs using conventional residual analysis procedures and the extracts were analysed by gas liquid chromatography. Information on which pesticide (s) were recently handled in the home and when, were also recorded. Cypermethrin (9/40), malathion (9/40), Diazinon (5/40), dimethoate (4/40), chloropyrifos (4/40) and fenitrothion (1/40) were detected in these samples. The range of individual organophosphate pesticides detected was 0.01-8.7ug/cm 2 of table area and for cypermethrin the range was 0.0024 ng-5.8 ng/cm 2 . It was concluded that farmers and their family members are likely to be contaminated with pesticides from tables either dermally or through contamination of food placed on such tables

  7. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Leaf Composition of American Bur-Reed (Sparganium americanum Nutt.) to Determine Pesticide Mitigation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharekh, Anfal; Swatzell, Lucinda J; Moore, Matthew T

    2018-04-01

    American bur-reed (Sparganium americanum Nutt.), a common aquatic plant in the middle and eastern United States and Canada, is often located in water-retaining drainage areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaf composition of S. americanum, paying attention to the cuticular waxes and the epidermis, and its ability to sorb pesticides. S. americanum leaves (n = 100) were collected in both early (June) and late (August) summer. Transverse sections of S. americanum were stained and studied with brightfield and fluorescence microscopy to estimate the structural and chemical nature of the leaf tissues cross sections. Mean total lipid content in early summer leaf samples (1.47 ± 0.83 mg mL -1 ) was significantly greater (alpha 0.05) than late summer leaves (0.15 ± 0.36 mg mL -1 ). In vitro analysis of epidermal peel permeability exposed to atrazine and malathion determined little to no sorption by the plant. Therefore, the structure of S. americanum leaves suggest this species does not have the capacity of sorbing these pesticides from runoff water.

  9. Fatores que afetam a germinação do grão de pólen do maracujá: meios de cultura e tipos de agrotóxicos Factors affecting the grain pollen germination of yellow passion fruit: culture medium and agrotoxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairon Moura da Silva

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos estudos para seleção de temperatura, meio de cultura e tempo de incubação ideais para germinação de grãos de pólen do maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, com a finalidade de adequar o método de avaliação da interferência de agrotóxicos. A temperatura de 28 + 0,5ºC e o meio com 50 g/L de sacarose; 0,2 g/L de ácido bórico e 1,0 g/L de nitrato de cálcio forneceram as melhores condições para germinação dos grãos de pólen do maracujazeiro. Não detectou-se efeito significativo do tempo de incubação (17 e 48 horas na germinação dos grãos de pólen. A percentagem de germinação dos grãos de pólen não foi prejudicada pelo acaricida Dicofol + Tetradifon e pelos inseticidas Cartap, Fenpropathrin e Abamectin. Os demais agrotóxicos afetaram a germinação dos grãos de pólen. Os inseticidas Malathion, Fenthion, Trichlorfon, Vamidothion, Deltamethrine, Parathion Methyl e o espalhante adesivo N-dodecil benzeno de sulfato de sódio reduziram moderadamente a germinação, enquanto o Ethion e o Lambdacyhalothrin interferiram severamente na germinação dos grãos de pólen.Temperature, culture medium, incubation period and pH for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa pollen germination, as well the effect of agrotoxics were studied. Temperature of 28 ± 0.5°C, culture medium with 50 g/L of sacarose, 0.2 g/L of boric acid and 1.0 g/L of calcium nitrate showed better germination of P. edulis f. flavicarpa pollen. No effect of the incubation period (17 and 48 hours was registered for pollen germination of this plant. Percentage of pollen germination of P. edulis f. flavicarpa was not affected by the acaricid Dicofol + Tetradifon and by the insecticides Cartap, Fenpropathrin, and Abamectin. There was a small reduction in pollen germination in the presence of insecticides Malathion, Fenthion, Thrichorfon, Vamidothion, Deltamethrin, Methyl Parathion and the spreader-sticker N

  10. Impact of environmental temperatures on resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Aedes aegypti from Trinidad Repercusión de las temperaturas ambientales sobre la resistencia de Aedes aegypti a los insecticidas organofosforados en Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Polson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of increasing larval rearing temperatures on the resistance status of Trinidadian populations of Aedes aegypti to organophosphate (OP insecticides. METHODS: In 2007-2008, bioassays and biochemical assays were conducted on A. aegypti larvae collected in 2006 from eight geographically distinct areas in Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago. Larval populations were reared at four temperatures (28 ± 2ºC, 32ºC, 34ºC, and 36ºC prior to bioassays with OP insecticides (fenthion, malathion, and temephos and biochemical assays for esterase enzymes. RESULTS: Most larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC were susceptible to fenthion (>98% mortality but resistant to malathion and temephos (OBJETIVO: Examinar los efectos del aumento de las temperaturas de desarrollo larvario sobre el estado de resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados de las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti en Trinidad. MÉTODOS: En 2007 y 2008 se llevaron a cabo ensayos biológicos y bioquímicos en larvas de A. aegypti recogidas en el 2006 de ocho áreas geográficamente separadas en Trinidad (Trinidad y Tabago. Las poblaciones larvarias se desarrollaron en cuatro temperaturas (28 ± 2 ºC, 32 ºC, 34 ºC y 36 ºC antes de los ensayos biológicos con insecticidas organofosforados (fentión, malatión y temefós y los análisis bioquímicos para las enzimas de esterasa. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC fueron susceptibles al fentión (mortalidad > 98% pero resistentes al malatión y al temefós (mortalidad < 80%. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados y la mayor actividad de αy β-esterasas en las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC. Aunque las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a temperaturas mayores mostraron variaciones en la resistencia a los organofosforados, hubo un aumento general de la sensibilidad. Sin embargo

  11. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  12. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-07-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS / MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  13. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  14. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  15. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  16. The effect of metal pollution on the life history and insecticide resistance phenotype of the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Metal exposure is one of the commonest anthropogenic pollutants mosquito larvae are exposed to, both in agricultural and urban settings. As members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which contains several major malaria vector species including An. arabiensis, are increasingly adapting to polluted environments, this study examined the effects of larval metal exposure on various life history traits of epidemiological importance. Two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis, SENN (insecticide susceptible and SENN DDT (insecticide resistant, were reared in maximum acceptable toxicity concentrations, (MATC-the highest legally accepted concentration of cadmium chloride, lead nitrate and copper nitrate. Following these exposures, time to pupation, adult size and longevity were determined. Larvae reared in double the MATC were assessed for changes in malathion and deltamethrin tolerance, measured by lethal time bottle bioassay, as well as changes in detoxification enzyme activity. As defence against oxidative stress has previously been demonstrated to affect the expression of insecticide resistance, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assessed. The relative metal toxicity to metal naïve larvae was also assessed. SENN DDT larvae were more tolerant of metal pollution than SENN larvae. Pupation in SENN larvae was significantly reduced by metal exposure, while adult longevity was not affected. SENN DDT showed decreased adult size after larval metal exposure. Adult insecticide tolerance was increased after larval metal exposure, and this effect appeared to be mediated by increased β-esterase, cytochrome P450 and superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest an enzyme-mediated positive link between tolerance to metal pollutants and insecticide resistance in adult mosquitoes. Furthermore, exposure of larvae to metal pollutants may have operational consequences under an insecticide-based vector control scenario by increasing

  17. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  18. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha F. A. Jallow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  19. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  20. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  1. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kyle E.; Thomas, Sheeba M.; Bodour, Adria A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, βE2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  2. Control of grasshoppers by combined application of Paranosema locustae and an insect growth regulator (IGR) (cascade) in rangelands in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; An, Zhao; Shi, Wangpeng

    2012-12-01

    The relatively low direct mortality caused by Paranosema locustae (Canning) has limited its application for controlling grasshopper when densities are high, and this study sought to determine if the simultaneous use of this pathogen and the IGR, Flufenoxuron (Cascade) could provide effective control. Nine treatments were tested: 45% Malathion EC at 1500 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 150 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 37.5 ml/ha, P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, combinations of 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha and P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, applied in different rations (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) in the same plot, the untreated control. P. locustae was applied on nonoverlapping plots with the IGR. The different in-plot combinations of P. locustae and Cascade in different ratios provided significantly better overall control of grasshoppers (all species) than the treatment of 5% Cascade of 150 ml/ha after 5d, but combinations were not significantly different from the other concentrations of Cascade after 12 and 31 d. When results were examined separately for specific species of grasshoppers, reduction of Dasyhippus harbipes (Fischer-Waldheim), was higher than that of Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubovsky). While combinations showed significant differences in the infection of different grasshopper species at 5 and 12 d posttreatment, no significant differences in rate of infection among the primary species (M. palpalis, D. harbipes, and Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko) were detected 31 d posttreatment. Our study found that P. locustae by itself could control grasshopper populations at medium densities but the combined application of P. locustae and Cascade at a ratio of 1:2 was more effective against high-density grasshopper populations.

  3. Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in a complex sediment matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Concepción, Victor; Cram, Silke; Gibson, Richard; Ponce de León, Claudia; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The Xochimilco area in the southeastern part of Mexico City has a variety of socioeconomic activities, such as periurban agriculture, which is of great importance in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Pesticides are used extensively, some being legal, mostly chlorpyrifos and malathion, and some illegal, mostly DDT. Sediments are a common sink for pesticides in aquatic systems near agricultural areas, and Xochimilco sediments have a complex composition with high contents of organic matter and clay that are ideal adsorption sites for organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. Therefore, it is important to have a quick, affordable, and reliable method to determine these pesticides. Conventional methods for the determination of OC and OP pesticides are long, laborious, and costly owing to the high volume of solvents and adsorbents. The present study developed and validated a method for determining 18 OC and five OP pesticides in sediments with high organic and clay contents. In contrast with other methods described in the literature, this method allows isolation of the 23 pesticides with a 12 min microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and one-step cleanup of pesticides. The method developed is a simpler, time-saving procedure that uses only 3.5 g of dry sediment. The use of MAE eliminates excessive handling and the possible loss of analytes. It was shown that the use of LC-Si cartridges with hexane-ethyl acetate (75+25, v/v) in the cleanup procedure recovered all pesticides with rates between 70 and 120%. The validation parameters demonstrated good performance of the method, with intermediate precision ranging from 7.3 to 17.0%, HorRat indexes all below 0.5, and tests of accuracy with the 23 pesticides at three concentration levels demonstrating recoveries ranging from 74 to 114% and RSDs from 3.3 to 12.7%.

  4. Foetal and adult human CYP3A isoforms in the bioactivation of organophosphorothionate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Franca M; Leoni, Claudia; Testai, Emanuela

    2006-12-15

    In humans organophosphorothionate pesticides (OPT) prenatal exposure has been demonstrated. Since OPT-induced neurodevelopmental effects may be due to in situ bioactivation by foetal enzymes, the catalytic activity of the foetal CYP3A7 toward chlorpyrifos (CPF), parathion (PAR), malathion (MAL) and fenthion (FEN) has been assessed by using recombinant enzymes. A comparison with the adult isoforms CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has been also carried out. CYP3A7 was able to produce significant levels of oxon or sulfoxide from the four OPTs in the range of tested concentrations (0.05-200 microM). When the efficiencies of CYP3A isoforms were compared, the ranking, expressed as CLi values, were: CPF=3A4>3A5>3A7; PAR=3A4>3A7>3A5; MAL=3A4>3A7>3A5; FEN (sulfoxide formation)=3A4>3A5>3A7. The CYP3A5 efficiency appeared to be more dependent on the single insecticide than its related isozyme CYP3A4. Our results indicate that the levels of toxic metabolite formed in situ by CYP3A7 from CPF, MAL and PAR but not from FEN have the chance to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, following prenatal exposure to OPTs. However, due to the smaller weight of foetal liver, the contribution to total OPT biotransformation is relatively low. On the other hand, our results clearly indicate that at low CPF concentrations, the formation of the non-toxic metabolites is highly favoured in the foetus.

  5. An Engineered Version of Human PON2 Opens the Way to Understand the Role of Its Post-Translational Modifications in Modulating Catalytic Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mandrich

    Full Text Available The human paraoxonase 2 (PON2 has been described as a highly specific lactonase hydrolysing the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL and having secondary esterase but not phosphotriesterase activity, in contrast with the related enzymes PON1 and PON3. It has been suggested that PON2 enzyme activity is dependent on glycosylation and its N-terminal region has been recently demonstrated to be a transmembrane domain mediating association to membranes. In the present study we describe a mutated form of PON2, lacking the above N-terminal region, which has been further stabilized by the insertion of six amino acidic substitutions. The engineered version, hence forth called rPON2, has been over-expressed in E.coli, refolded from inclusion bodies and purified, yielding an enzyme with the same characteristics as the full length enzyme. Therefore the first conclusion of this work was that the catalytic activity is independent from the N-terminus and protein glycosylation. The kinetic characterization confirmed the primary activity on 3OC12-HSL; accordingly, in vitro experiments of inhibition of the biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 have demonstrated that rPON2 is more effective than PON1. In addition, we observed small but significant activity against organophosphorothiotes pesticides, m-parathion, coumaphos and malathion.The availability of fair amount of active protein allowed to pinpoint, by mass-spectrometry, ubiquitination of Lys 168 induced in rPON2 by HeLa extract and to correlate such post-translational modification to the modulation of catalytic activity. A mutational analysis of the modified residue confirmed the result.

  6. Application of the key characteristics of carcinogens in cancer hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Corpet, Denis E; van den Berg, Martin; Ross, Matthew K; Christiani, David C; Beland, Frederick A; Smith, Martyn T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as ‘is genotoxic,’ ‘is immunosuppressive’ or ‘modulates receptor-mediated effects,’ and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings. A systematic search, screening and evaluation procedure identified a broad literature encompassing multiple KCs for most (12/16) IARC Group 1 or 2A carcinogens identified in these meetings. Five carcinogens are genotoxic and induce oxidative stress, of which pentachlorophenol, hydrazine and malathion also showed additional KCs. Four others, including welding fumes, are immunosuppressive. The overall evaluation was upgraded to Group 2A based on mechanistic data for only two agents, tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachloroazobenzene. Both carcinogens modulate receptor-mediated effects in combination with other KCs. Fewer studies were identified for Group 2B or 3 agents, with the vast majority (17/18) showing only one or no KCs. Thus, an objective approach to identify and evaluate mechanistic studies pertinent to cancer revealed strong evidence for multiple KCs for most Group 1 or 2A carcinogens but also identified opportunities for improvement. Further development and mapping of toxicological and biomarker endpoints and pathways relevant to the KCs can advance the systematic search and evaluation of mechanistic data in carcinogen hazard identification. PMID:29562322

  7. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823-1829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP186.

  8. Biochemical abnormalities induced by abamectin in sixth instar larvae of the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2014-01-01

    The sub lethal effects of abamectin (Sure 1.8 EC) were studied on malathion-resistant (PAK) and organophosphate susceptible (FSS-II) strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20/levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain larvae, the TE activity was inhibited with depletion of total protein contents and elevation of FAA contents. In FSS-II larvae, the effect of abamectin on levels of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, AkP, total protein and soluble protein remained non-significant. The activities of TE and AcP were reduced at both doses, while activities/levels of CE reduced at LC and FAA increased 10 at LC . It is concluded that abamectin affected the overall body 20 functioning of PAK strain more as compared to FSS-II strain considering disturbances caused in the levels/activities of biochemical components. (author)

  9. Gas-phase copper and silver complexes with phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adetayo M; Pasilis, Sofie P

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve agricultural productivity have led to a growing dependency on organophosphorus pesticides. Phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides are organophosphorus pesticide subclasses with widespread application for the control of insects feeding on vegetables and fruits. However, even low doses of these pesticides can cause neurological problems in humans; thus, their determination and monitoring in agricultural foodstuffs is important for human health. Phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides may be poorly ionized during electrospray, adversely affecting limits of detection. These pesticides can form complexes with Cu(2+) and Ag(+) , however, potentially improving ionization. In the present work, we used electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) to study fenitrothion, parathion, diazinon, and malathion coordination complexes with silver and copper ions. Stable 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 metal/pesticide complexes were detected. Mass spectra acquired from pesticide solutions containing Ag(+) or Cu(2+) showed a significant increase in signal-to-background ratio over those acquired from solutions containing only the pesticides, with Ag(+) improving detection more effectively than Cu(2+). Addition of Ag(+) to a pesticide solution improved the limit of detection by ten times. The relative affinity of each pesticide for Ag(+) was related to complex stability, following the order diazinon > malathion > fenitrothion > parathion. The formation of Ag(+)-pesticide complexes can significantly improve the detection of phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides using ESI/MS. The technique could potentially be used in reactive desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry to detect phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides on fruit and vegetable skins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  11. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of agrochemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Jackson, Ayanna U; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in situ, direct qualitative and quantitative (ultra)trace analysis of agrochemicals in foodstuffs. To evaluate the potential of DESI mass spectrometry (MS) in toxic residue testing in food, 16 representative multiclass agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) were selected (namely, ametryn, amitraz, azoxystrobin, bitertanol, buprofezin, imazalil, imazalil metabolite, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, nitenpyram, prochloraz, spinosad, terbuthylazine, thiabendazole, and thiacloprid). The DESI-MS experiments were performed using 3 microL of solution spotted onto conventional smooth poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces, with examination by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Optimization of the spray solvent led to the use of acetonitrile/water (80:20) (v/v), with 1% formic acid. Most of the compounds tested showed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, approaching that attainable with conventional direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach in real samples, different experiments were performed including the direct DESI-MS/MS analysis of fruit peels and also of fruit/vegetable extracts. The results proved that DESI allows the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased samples. In addition, MS/MS confirmation of selected pesticides in spiked vegetable extracts was obtained at absolute levels as low as 1 pg for ametryn. Quantitation of imazalil residues was also undertaken using an isotopically labeled standard. The data obtained were in agreement with those from the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reference method, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values consistently below 15%. The results obtained demonstrate the sensitivity of DESI as they meet the stringent European Union pesticide regulation

  12. Test of Direct and Indirect Effects of Agrochemicals on the Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R.; Rohr, Jason R.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff. PMID:22003017

  13. Investigating molecular basis of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Konate, Lassana; Irving, Helen; Riveron, Jacob M; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-08-12

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa, notably in Senegal. The highly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviours of this mosquito make it a good target for vector control operations through the use of insecticide treated nets, long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. However, little is known about patterns of resistance to insecticides and the underlying resistance mechanisms in field populations of this vector in Senegal. Here, we assessed the susceptibility status of An. funestus populations from Gankette Balla, located in northern Senegal and investigated the potential resistance mechanisms. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus is resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 % (74.64 % mortality), DDT 4 % (83.36 % mortality) and deltamethrin 0.05 % (88.53 % mortality). Suspected resistance was observed to permethrin 0.75 % (91.19 % mortality), bendiocarb 0.1 % (94.13 % mortality) and dieldrin 4 % (96.41 % mortality). However, this population is fully susceptible to malathion 5 % (100 % mortality) and fenitrothion 1 % (100 % mortality). The microarray and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Gankette Balla is conferred by metabolic resistance mechanisms under the probable control of cytochrome P450 genes among which CYP6M7 is the most overexpressed. The absence of overexpression of the P450 gene, CYP6P9a, indicates that the resistance mechanism in Senegal is different to that observed in southern Africa. This study represents the first report of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in An. funestus from Senegal and shows that resistance to insecticides is not only confined to An. gambiae as previously thought. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to manage the resistance in this species to ensure the continued effectiveness of malaria control.

  14. Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2): Inhibitor studies using S2-hOCT2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Shoetsu; Ikawa, Toru; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Kanno, Sanae; Nagai, Tomonori; Takada, Meri; Mukai, Toshiji; Wempe, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Highly expressed in kidney and located on the basolateral membrane, human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) can transport various compounds (i.e. drugs and toxins) into the proximal tubular cell. Using cultured proximal tubule cells stably expressing hOCT2 (i.e. S2-hOCT2 cells), we sought to probe different compound classes (e.g. analgesics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, disinfectant, herbicides, insecticides, local anesthetic, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, sedatives, steroid hormone, stimulants and toxins) for their ability to inhibit 14 C-TEA uptake, a prototypical OCT2 substrate. Aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, diazepam, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, malathion, mianserin, nicotine and triazolam significantly inhibited 14 C-TEA uptake; IC 50 values were 59.2, 2.4, 2.0, 20.7, 32.3, 13.2, 32.5, 104.6, 71.1, 17.7, 52.8 and 65.5 μM, respectively. In addition, aconitine, amitriptyline, atropine, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, haloperidol, lidocaine, and nicotine displayed competitive inhibition with K i values of 145.6, 2.5, 2.4, 24.8, 16.9, 51.6, 86.8 and 57.7 μM, respectively. These in vitro data support the notion that compounds pertaining to a wide variety of different drug classes have the potential to decrease renal clearance of drugs transported via hOCT2. Consequently, these data warrant additional studies to probe hOCT2 and its role to influence drug pharmacokinetics

  15. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  16. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  17. A review on environmental monitoring of water organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João C G; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barbosa, Marta O; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-02-15

    The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with

  18. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  19. In vitro - in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of currently used pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxvig, Camilla, E-mail: camta@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, Niels; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Bossi, Rossana [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Public Health, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Vinggaard, Anne Marie [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

    2013-11-01

    Two pesticide mixtures were investigated for potential endocrine activity. Mix 3 consisted of bitertanol, propiconazole, and cypermethrin, and Mix 5 included malathion and terbuthylazine in addition to the three pesticides in Mix 3. All five single pesticides and the two mixtures were investigated for their ability to affect steroidogenesis in vitro in H295R cells. The pesticides alone and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis with both mixtures causing increase in progesterone and decrease in testosterone. For Mix 5 an increase in estradiol was seen as well, indicating increased aromatase activity. The two mixtures were also investigated in pregnant rats dosed from gestational day 7 to 21, followed by examination of dams and fetuses. Decreased estradiol and reduced placental testosterone were seen in dams exposed to Mix 5. Also a significant increase in aromatase mRNA-levels in female adrenal glands was found for Mix5. However, either of the two mixtures showed any effects on fetal hormone levels in plasma or testis, or on anogenital distance. Overall, potential aromatase induction was found for Mix 5 both in vitro and in vivo, but not for Mix 3, an effect likely owed to terbuthylazine in Mix 5. However, the hormonal responses in vitro were only partly reflected in vivo, probably due to some toxicokinetic issues, as the pesticide levels in the amniotic fluid also were found to be negatively affected by the number of compounds present in the mixtures. Nonetheless, the H295R assay gives hints on conceivable interference with steroidogenesis, thus generating hypotheses on in vivo effects. - Highlights: • The study examines the endocrine disrupting potential of mixtures of pesticides. • All single pesticides and both mixtures affected steroidogenesis in vitro. • Potential aromatase induction was found for Mix 5 both in vitro and in vivo. • The hormonal responses in vitro were only partly reflected in vivo.

  20. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Thirumalaiandi; Paramasivam, Mariappan

    2016-06-01

    A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Limits of quantification of the method varied between 0.007 and 0.01 μg/g. Ethyl acetate based extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup with primary secondary amine yielded internationally acceptable recoveries of acephate, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, monocrotophos, malathion, malaoxon, phorate, phorate-sulfoxide, phorate-oxon, phorate-sulfone, and quinalphos from selected matrices. The recoveries of target analytes from cane juice were 75.55 ± 0.5-102.57 ± 4.2, 77.45 ± 4.7-103.33 ± 3.3, and 80.55 ± 6.6-105.82 ± 9.8% at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification, respectively. The recoveries from cane sugar were 73.24 ± 3.5-104.47 ± 1.9, 75.23 ± 1.5-116.10 ± 3.7, and 70.75 ± 5.7-110.15 ± 2.7%, respectively at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification. Matrix effect and measurement uncertainty were within the permissible limit (less than 20%) as prescribed for pesticide residue analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pesticide residues analysis in water samples of Nagarpur and Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Nabi, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides used to protect the crops from pest attack in the agricultural fields pose harmful effect to the non-target organisms such as human and many other aquatic and terrestrial organisms either directly or indirectly through food chain. The present study was conducted to monitor a total of seven pesticide residues under organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in three different sources of pond water, paddy field water and tube-well water from Nagarpur Upazila and paddy field water in the company of Dhaleshwari and Gazikhali river water from Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh. A total of 40 water samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon was detected in eight water samples at a concentration ranging from 4.11 to 257.91 μg/l whereas, malathion was detected only in one water sample at a concentration of 84.64 μg/l and chlorpyrifos pesticide was also detected only in one water sample and the concentration was 37.3 μg/l. Trace amount of carbaryl was identified but it was below the detection limit. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with DDT or its metabolites (DDE and DDD). The water samples contaminated with the suspected pesticides were above the acceptable limit except for the fish pond samples of Sahabatpur and Dubaria union. To control the misuse of pesticides and to reduce the possible health risk, appropriate control systems of pests such as integrated pest management system should be implemented immediately by the authorities of the country.

  2. If you see one, have you seen them all?: Community-wide effects of insecticide cross-resistance in zooplankton populations near and far from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide use of pesticides has led to increases in agricultural yields by reducing crop losses. However, increased pesticide use has resulted in pesticide-resistant pest species and recent studies have discovered pesticide-resistance in non-target species living close to farms. Such increased tolerance not only affects the species, but can alter the entire food web. Given that some species can evolve not only resistance to a single pesticide, but also cross-resistance to other pesticides that share the same mode of action, one would predict that cross-resistance to pesticides would also have effects on the entire community and affect community stability. To address this hypothesis, we conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment comprised of 200 identical aquatic communities with phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles. To these communities, we added one of four Daphnia pulex populations that we previously discovered were either resistant or sensitive to the insecticide of chlorpyrifos as a result of living close to or far from agriculture, respectively. We then exposed the communities to either no insecticide or three different concentrations of AChE-inhibiting insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion or carbaryl) or sodium channel-inhibiting insecticides (permethrin or cypermethrin). We discovered that communities containing sensitive Daphnia pulex experienced phytoplankton blooms and subsequent cascades through all trophic groups including amphibians at moderate to high concentrations of all five insecticides. However, communities containing resistant D. pulex were buffered from these effects at low to moderate concentrations of all AChE-inhibiting insecticides, but were not buffered against the pyrethroid insecticides. These data suggest that a simple change in the population-level resistance of zooplankton to a single insecticide can have widespread consequences for community stability and that the effects can be extrapolated

  3. Sterile insect technique for the management of the oriental fruit fly in Guimaras iasland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golez, H.; Manoto, E.

    1996-01-01

    Mango is an important fruit crop in the country as shown by increasing demand for the fruit both in local and domestic markets. In particular, the island of Guimaras is now being developed as the mango province of the country since the soil and climate are highly suitable for its growth and development. Today, there are more than 250,000 trees grown in the island and the local government plans to plant more than 1 million trees by the year 2000. The production of quality fruits is however, hampered by the presence of fruit flies. A new strategy in fruit fly control is the sterile insect technique which will be implemented in the island of Guimaras. SIT involves mass rearing, sterilization and release of sterile fruit flies in target areas to stop native flies from reproducing. Preparatory phase of the project include campaigns launched to inform growers, government officials and private sectors on the objectives and mechanics of SIT through press releases, workshops and meetings. Basic ecological studies which involved determination of host fruits, degree of fruit infestation, population dynamics and fruit fly dispersal are presented. Estimates of fruit fly population showed that more insects were present in natural vegetation as compared to mix plantation and low population was recorded in pure orchards. Preliminary results of male annihilation technique using a bait consisting of methyl eugenol and malathion placed in fiber boards also revealed that male populations were reduced to low levels, provided that wide area approach is considered. Otherwise, reinfestation of limited areas by flies will occur. Continuous monitoring of flies in the whole island is now being undertaken. Sterile insect technique was demonstrated in the small islet of Naoay, south west of the main island of Guimaras. Results of several releases showed that no unmarked flies were captured from monitoring traps, indicating that sterile flies suppressed the population of wild flies in the area

  4. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanouar, Sara; Combès, Audrey; Mezzache, Sakina; Pichon, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture causes environmental issues and possible serious health risks to humans and animals. Their determination at trace concentrations in vegetable oils constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Therefore, their analysis often requires both an extraction and a purification step prior to separation with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. This work aimed at developing sorbents that are able to selectively extract from vegetable oil samples several organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides presenting a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Therefore, different conditions were screened to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by a non-covalent approach. The selectivity of the resulting polymers was evaluated by studying the OPs retention in pure media on both MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) used as control. The most promising MIP sorbent was obtained using monocrotophos (MCP) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker with a molar ratio of 1/4/20 respectively. The repeatability of the extraction procedure and of the synthesis procedure was demonstrated in pure media. The capacity of this MIP was 1mg/g for malathion. This MIP was also able to selectively extract three OPs from almond oil by applying the optimized SPE procedure. Recoveries were between 73 and 99% with SD values between 4 and 6% in this oil sample. The calculated LOQs (between 0.3 and 2μg/kg) in almond seeds with a SD between 0.1 and 0.4μg/kg were lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established for the corresponding compounds in almond seed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to Multiple Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men from Six Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, Karin; Harris, Shelley A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Spinelli, John J.; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A.; Demers, Paul A.; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been linked to several agricultural exposures, including some commonly used pesticides. Although there is a significant body of literature examining the effects of exposure to individual pesticides on NHL, the impact of exposure to multiple pesticides or specific pesticide combinations has not been explored in depth. Data from a six-province Canadian case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 were analyzed to investigate the relationship between NHL, the total number of pesticides used and some common pesticide combinations. Cases (n = 513) were identified through hospital records and provincial cancer registries and controls (n = 1,506), frequency matched to cases by age and province of residence, were obtained through provincial health records, telephone listings, or voter lists. In multiple logistic regression analyses, risk of NHL increased with the number of pesticides used. Similar results were obtained in analyses restricted to herbicides, insecticides and several pesticide classes. Odds ratios increased further when only ‘potentially carcinogenic’ pesticides were considered (OR[one pesticide] = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.90–1.88; OR[two to four] = 1.54, CI = 1.11–2.12; OR[five or more] = 1.94, CI = 1.17–3.23). Elevated risks were also found among those reporting use of malathion in combination with several other pesticides. These analyses support and extend previous findings that the risk of NHL increases with the number of pesticides used and some pesticide combinations. PMID:21776232

  6. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots as a novel magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction sorbent for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in real water and fruit juice samples prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzade, Samaneh; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Ghorbani, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    A selective and sensitive magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction (MDSPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (Sevin, Fenitrothion, Malathion, Parathion, and Diazinon) in fruit juice and real water samples. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs@ Fe) as a new and effective sorbent were prepared and applied for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides using MDSPME method. In order to study the performance of this new sorbent, the ability of rGOQDs@ Fe was compared with graphene oxide and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite by recovery experiments of the organophosphorus pesticides. Several affecting parameters in the microextraction procedure, including pH of donor phase, donor phase volume, stirring rate, extraction time, and desorption conditions such as the type and volume of solvents and desorption time were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method showed a wide linear dynamic range with R-square between 0.9959 and 0.9991. The limit of detections, the intraday and interday relative standard deviations (n = 5) were less than 0.07 ngmL -1 , 4.7, and 8.6%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides in real water samples (well, river and tap water) and fruit juice samples (apple and grape juice). The obtained relative recoveries were in the range of 82.9%-113.2% with RSD percentages of less than 5.8% for all the real samples.

  7. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  8. Rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in Salvia miltiorrhizae after ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun

    2017-11-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction materials for the gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus pesticides in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Angel Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    In the present work, a GC method with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues (i.e., ethoprofos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, fenamiphos, and buprofezin) in water samples. Preconcentration of the water samples was carried out using an SPE procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of 10-15 nm od, 2-6 nm id, and 0.1-10 microm length as stationary phase. Extraction parameters, such as the amount of MWCNTs, sample volume, pH, and type and amount of the eluent were optimized. The most favorable conditions were as follows: 40 mg MWCNTs, 800 mL water, pH 6.0, and 20 mL dichloromethane, respectively. The MWCNTs-SPE-GC-NPD method was applied to the determination of these pesticides in real water samples: mineral and ground water as well as run-off water from an agricultural area collected shortly before opening out onto the sea. A recovery study was developed with five consecutive extractions of the three types of water spiked at three concentration levels (n = 15). Mean recovery values were in the range of 75-116% for mineral water (RSD water (RSD waters (RSDs waters, RSDs waters). The proposed method was also applied to the analysis of six water samples (two of each type: mineral, ground, and run-off waters) in which no residues of the selected pesticides were found. Results show that the MWCNTs used in this work have a high adsorbability of the pesticides under study. The main advantage of the use of these MWCNTs is their low cost when compared with those MWCNTs previously used in the literature and with conventional SPE cartridges.

  10. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural watersheds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Majewski, M.S.; Capel, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall samples were collected during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at four agricultural locales across the USA in Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, and California. The samples were analyzed for 21 insecticides, 18 herbicides, three fungicides, and 40 pesticide degradates. Data from all sites combined show that 7 of the 10 most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides, with atrazine (70%) and metolachlor (83%) detected at every site. Dacthal, acetochlor, simazine, alachlor, and pendimethalin were detected in more than 50% of the samples. Chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon were the only insecticides among the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Of the remaining pesticide parent compounds, 18 were detected in fewer than 30% of the samples, and 13 were not detected. The most frequently detected degradates were deethylatrazine; the oxygen analogs (OAs) of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion; and 1-napthol (degradate of carbaryl). Deethylatrazine was detected in nearly 70% of the samples collected in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska but was detected only once in California. The OAs of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected primarily in California. Degradates of the acetanilide herbicides were rarely detected in rain, indicating that they are not formed in the atmosphere or readily volatilized from soils. Herbicides accounted for 91 to 98% of the total pesticide mass deposited by rain except in California, where insecticides accounted for 61% in 2004. The mass of pesticides deposited by rainfall was estimated to be less than 2% of the total applied in these agricultural areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Organophosphorus pollutants (OPP) in aquatic environment at Damietta Governorate, Egypt: implications for monitoring and biomarker responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, K Y; Salama, A K; El-Khateeb, E N; Bakry, N M

    2006-06-01

    The study was carried out from spring 1999 to spring 2001 to monitor the residue levels of organophosphorus pollutants (OPP) in aquatic environment of the drainage canal surrounding a pesticide factory at Damietta Governorate. Water, sediment, and fish samples were collected at six different seasonal periods. OPPs were analyzed by GLC and confirmed using GC-MS. Chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl and profenofos were detected in most samples. Chlorpyrifos was dominant in all water and sediment samples. It was ranged from 24.5 to 303.8 and 0.9 to 303.8 ppb in water and sediment samples, respectively. Diazinon level was slightly similar to chlorpyrifos in fish samples. Data based on the grand total concentration of OPP showed that the most polluted samples were collected either at spring 1999 or autumn 2000. They were 675.5 and 303.8 ppb in water samples and 43.0 and 52.2 ppb in fish collected at spring 1999 and autumn 2000, respectively. The obtained results are in parallel to that found in case of cholinesterase activity where the activity of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was declined at these seasonal period. The activity levels of AChE and BuChE were found to be 77.18% and 59.67% of control at spring 1999 and 78.62% and 85.80% of control, at autumn 2000, respectively. Thus, AChE and BuChE could be used as biomarkers for tracing and biomonitoring OPP pollution.

  12. UJI BIOKIMIA UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI MEKANISME RESISTENSI GANDA VEKTOR MALARIA TERHADAP INSEKTISIDA DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance is inherited and has proved to be the biggest single barrier to successful chemical control of insect vectors. The continuity of along time period insecticide usage can produce mosquitoes resistance. Resistance to insecticide as a results from three main mechanism : 1 insecticide penetration is reduce, 2 the insecticides is more efficiently metabolized by esterases, mixed function oxidases, or glutathione transferase enzyme and, 3 the target of the insecticide is modified (insensitive acetylcholinesterase. The objectives of this study was to determine the potency of malaria vector from East Java Province to be resistant to organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. The research methods used were biochemical assays (microplate assays for elevated esterase and insensitive acetylcholinesterase. The esterase activity and insensitive acetylcholinesterase were measured at 450 nm and 405 nm with a Dytech Elisa plate reader. Biochemical assays indicated that susceptibility (resistant or tolerance, of the malaria vector collected from East Java Province natural population against insecticide were mostly decreased, although there were different level and mechanism occurs. Microplate enzymatic assay on individual Anopheles sundaicus collected from Banyuwangi, Pacitan, Jember, Malang Regency revealed that 31,25 %, 12,5 %, 45,2 % and 15,25 % population were resistant respectively due to elevated esterase activity mechanism. Base on the susceptibility test which was held using WHO method (as a cross-check An. sundaicus from Teleng village, Pacitan Regency was proven to have a double resistance agains Malathion 0,5 % (cause mortality 28 % and Bendiocarb 0,1 % (cause mortality 66 %. The percentage resistance of Anopheles aconitus population collected from Pacitan and Trenggalek Regency were 35,42 % and 29,17 % population respectively due to elevated esterase activity mechanism. There was no evidence of an altered acetylcholinesterase

  13. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, E.; Sanchez, P.; Munoz, A.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An efficient method for the determination of sixteen pesticides in atmospheric samples. → XAD-4 is an interesting support for collecting gas-phase pesticides, with similar performances than the conventional XAD-2. → The ultrasonic extraction is cheaper, less aggressive and time-consuming with excellent analytical parameters. → The method has been successfully tested by using high volume atmospheric simulation chamber and field campaigns. - Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5 ± 1%, a reproducibility of 13

  14. Evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents of pesticides from agricultural, ornamental and forestal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, M; Hernández-Borges, J; Borges-Miquel, T M; Rodríguez-Delgado, M A

    2009-08-11

    A new, simple and cost-effective method based on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as solid-phase extraction stationary phases is proposed for the determination of a group of seven organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos and phosmet) and one thiadiazine (buprofezin) in different kinds of soil samples (forestal, ornamental and agricultural) using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Soils were first ultrasound extracted with 10 mL 1:1 methanol/acetonitrile (v/v) and the evaporated extract redissolved in 20 mL water (pH 6.0) was passed through 100 mg of MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 microm length. Elution was carried out with 20 mL dichloromethane. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, recovery, accuracy and selectivity. Matrix-matched calibration was carried out for each type of soil since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed in pure solvent and in the reconstituted soil extract were found for most of the pesticides under study. Recovery values of spiked samples ranged between 54 and 91% for the three types of soils (limits of detection (LODs) between 2.97 and 9.49 ngg(-1)), except for chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and buprofezin which ranged between 12 and 54% (LODs between 3.14 and 72.4 ngg(-1)), which are the pesticides with the highest soil organic carbon sorption coefficient (K(OC)) values. Using a one-sample test (Student's t-test) with fortified samples at two concentration levels in each type of soil, no significant differences were observed between the real and the experimental values (accuracy percentages ranged between 87 and 117%). It is the first time that the adsorptive potential of MWCNTs for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from soils is investigated.

  15. Cross-resistance of bisultap resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens and its biochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Runjie

    2011-02-01

    The resistant (R) strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) selected for bisultap resistance displayed 7.7-fold resistance to bisultap and also had cross-resistance to nereistoxin (monosultap, thiocyclam, and cartap), chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion but no cross-resistance to buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to bisultap, biochemical assay was done. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) activity in R strain was 2.71-fold that in susceptible strain (S strain), in which the changed activity for general esterase (EST) was 1.91 and for glutathione S-transferases only 1.32. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could significantly inhibit P450 activity (percentage of inhibition [PI]: 37.31%) in the R strain, with ESTs PI = 16.04% by triphenyl phosphate (TPP). The results also demonstrated that diethyl maleate had no synergism with bisultap. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in three different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.42, Lab strain, 2.24 and R strain, 3.23). TPP also showed synergism for three strains, especially in R strain (synergistic ratio = 2.47). An in vitro biochemical study and in vivo synergistic study indicated that P450 might be play important role in the biochemical mechanism of bisultap resistance and that esterase might be the important factor of bisultap resistance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity play important role in bisultap resistance. We suggest that buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil could be used in resistance management programs for N. lugens via alternation and rotation with bisultap.

  16. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, E; Sánchez, P; Muñoz, A; Tortajada-Genaro, L A

    2011-08-05

    A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5±1%, a reproducibility of 13±3% and detection limits of 0.05-0.18 pg m(-3) for the particulate phase and 26-88 pg m(-3) for the gaseous phase. Finally, the methodology was successfully applied to rural and agricultural samples in the Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. VALIDACIÓN DE UN MÉTODO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE RESIDUALIDAD DE PLAGUICIDAS EN GULUPA (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Juliana Olivo-Taborda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa perteneciente a la familia Passifloraceae, es nativa del trópico americano, y se caracteriza por su exótico y distintivo aroma, cualidad que la hace atractiva para el mercado europeo, para lo cual debe de cumplir estándares de inocuidad sanitaria. Para ello, se evaluó un método para el análisis simultáneo de residualidad de parathion-methyl, malathion, deltamethrina y chlorothalonil en esta matriz. Se aplicó la técnica de QuEChERS, siguiendo una modificación del protocolo EN 15662, formado por tres etapas, la primera, consiste en una extracción con acetonitrilo (MeCN que incluye un proceso de precipitación salina de la muestra en medio acuoso. En el segundo paso, se realiza una limpieza utilizando diversos sorbentes para remover la mayoría de componentes coextraídos con los analitos, y por último se realiza el análisis instrumental empleando la cromatografía gaseosa. En el análisis de linealidad se obtuvieron correlaciones de 0,9991; 0,9998 y 0,9992 para parathion-methyl, malatihon y deltametrina respectivamente; que cumplieron las pruebas de significancia, pues chlorothalonil no cumplió con los parámetros requeridos para la validación. Se lograron límites de cuantificación de 0,035 mg/kg para parathion-methyl y 0,02 mg/kg para los otros dos compuestos validados con estimaciones de incertidumbre menores al 50%. Se cumplieron los criterios de precisión y exactitud establecidos en SANCO 12571, 2013, logrando una validación exitosa

  18. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  19. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  20. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  1. Leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex niger Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera; Formicidae) used as bioindicators of agrotoxics residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liriana Belizi; Rio Cantagalli; Denise Alves Lopes; Ana Liscia Paz Barateiro Stuchi; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the condition of leaf-cutting ant pests in agroecosystems, it is undeniable the benefits they can bring in certain situations or environments. The leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex attack mainly leaves of vegetables and fruit trees exposing not only to the agrochemicals used for their control as well as to those used for the control of other pests. Due to the bioindicator potential of environmental quality of the ants and their frequent exposure to agrochemicals such as organophosphates, neonicotinoids and growth regulators insecticide used for pest control, it is necessary to study the sublethal effects that these pesticides may cause. The electrophoresis technique was used to study the activity of esterase isozymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics of A. niger, combined with changes in the expression of isozymes after contamination by pesticides. A. niger showed eight regions of esterase activity, which were called EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 and EST-8 according to the electrophoretic mobility. As the specificity to α and β - naphthyl acetate substrates, the EST-7 and EST-8 may be classified as α esterase and the others as ± b esterases. EST-5 is considered an enzyme of the type cholinesterase ii and the others are of the type carboxylesterase. The electrophoretic analysis showed partial inhibition to all esterases subjected to the contact with Malathion organophosforate at the concentrations 1 x 10-3 % and 5 x 10-3 %, which may be considered as a biomarker for the presence of residues of this insecticide in the environment. The regression analysis for sublethal effects of the tested pesticides demonstrated correlation between dose and mortality only for Thiametoxam neonicotinoid pesticide.

  2. Homology modelling of Drosophila cytochrome P450 enzymes associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Bakker, Saskia E; Stone, Deborah; Shuttleworth, Sally N; Boundy, Sam; McCart, Caroline; Daborn, Phillip J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2010-10-01

    Overexpression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 confers resistance against DDT and a broad range of other insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster Meig. In the absence of crystal structures of CYP6G1 or complexes with its substrates, structural studies rely on homology modelling and ligand docking to understand P450-substrate interactions. Homology models are presented for CYP6G1, a P450 associated with resistance to DDT and neonicotinoids, and two other enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in D. melanogaster, CYP12D1 and CYP6A2. The models are based on a template of the X-ray structure of the phylogenetically related human CYP3A4, which is known for its broad substrate specificity. The model of CYP6G1 has a much smaller active site cavity than the template. The cavity is also 'V'-shaped and is lined with hydrophobic residues, showing high shape and chemical complementarity with the molecular characteristics of DDT. Comparison of the DDT-CYP6G1 complex and a non-resistant CYP6A2 homology model implies that tight-fit recognition of this insecticide is important in CYP6G1. The active site can accommodate differently shaped substrates ranging from imidacloprid to malathion but not the pyrethroids permethrin and cyfluthrin. The CYP6G1, CYP12D1 and CYP6A2 homology models can provide a structural insight into insecticide resistance in flies overexpressing P450 enzymes with broad substrate specificities.

  3. Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Quiñones, Martha L; Lenhart, Audrey; Brogdon, William G

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Colombia, and as part of the National Network of Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, 12 mosquito populations were assessed for resistance to pyrethroids, organophosphates and DDT. Bioassays were performed using WHO and CDC methodologies. The underlying resistance mechanisms were investigated through biochemical assays and RT-PCR. All mosquito populations were susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin, and highly resistant to DDT and etofenprox. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and fenitrothion ranged from moderate to high in some populations from Chocó and Putumayo states. In Antioquia state, the Santa Fe population was resistant to fenitrothion. Biochemical assays showed high levels of both cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) and non-specific esterases (NSE) in some of the fenitrothion- and pyrethroid-resistant populations. All populations showed high levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. GSTe2 gene was found overexpressed in DDT-resistant populations compared with Rockefeller susceptible strain. Differences in insecticide resistance status were observed between insecticides and localities. Although the biochemical assay results suggest that CYP and NSE could play an important role in the pyrethroid and fenitrothion resistance detected, other mechanisms remain to be investigated, including knockdown resistance. Resistance to DDT was high in all populations, and GST activity is probably the main enzymatic mechanism associated with this resistance. The results of this study provide baseline data on insecticide resistance in Colombian A. aegypti populations, and will allow comparison of changes in susceptibility status in this vector over time. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Watershed-Scale Simulations of In-Stream Pesticide Concentrations from Off-Target Spray Drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Pai, Naresh; Brayden, Benjamin H; Stone, Chris; Whatling, Paul; Hanzas, John P; Stryker, Jody J

    2018-01-01

    The estimation of pesticide concentrations in surface water bodies is a critical component of the environmental risk assessment process required by regulatory agencies in North America, the European Union, and elsewhere. Pesticide transport to surface waters via deposition from off-field spray drift can be an important route of potential contamination. The spatial orientation of treated fields relative to receiving water bodies make prediction of off-target pesticide spray drift deposition and resulting aquatic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) challenging at the watershed scale. The variability in wind conditions further complicates the simulation of the environmental processes leading to pesticide spray drift contributions to surface water. This study investigates the use of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting concentrations of malathion (O,O-deimethyl thiophosphate of diethyl mercaptosuccinate) in a flowing water body when exposure is a result of off-target spray drift, and assesses the model's performance using a parameterization typical of a screening-level regulatory assessment. Six SWAT parameterizations, each including incrementally more site-specific data, are then evaluated to quantify changes in model performance. Results indicate that the SWAT model is an appropriate tool for simulating watershed scale concentrations of pesticides resulting from off-target spray drift deposition. The model predictions are significantly more accurate when the inputs and assumptions accurately reflect application practices and environmental conditions. Inclusion of detailed wind data had the most significant impact on improving model-predicted EECs in comparison to observed concentrations. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Characterization of pesticide exposure in a sample of pregnant women in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J.; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Methods Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 non-agricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites (ethylene thiourea [ETU] and propylene thiourea [PTU]), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy], malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). Results We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, though the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. Conclusions The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  7. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Degradation of pesticides with RSDL® (reactive skin decontamination lotion kit) lotion: LC-MS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentabil, Messele; Gebremedhin, Mulu; Purdon, J Garfield; Cochrane, Laura; Goldman, Virginia Streusand

    2018-09-01

    This study examined the degradation of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides using RSDL ® (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit) lotion. Degradation occurs from a nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction between an ingredient in the RSDL lotion, potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO), with susceptible sites in the pesticides. Evaluation at several molar ratios of KBDO:test articles using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques was performed. The OP test articles, parathion, paraoxon, parathion-methyl, paraoxon-methyl and chlorpyrifos were effectively degraded at molar ratios of four and above in less than 6min contact time. Malathion and malaoxon were similarly converted to inactive by-products at molar ratios as low as two in less than 4min. A minimum molar ratio of nine was found to be effective against the carbamate pesticide carbofuran. In the case of aldicarb, complete destruction was achieved at a molar ratio of fifteen and a reaction time of one hour. It is important to note that these studies are based on a direct liquid phase RSDL lotion reaction with the toxic chemicals without the added physical removal decontamination efficacy component provided by the sponge component of the RSDL kit. The RSDL kit is intended to be used to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents (CWA) and T-2 toxin from the skin. In actual use, the majority of the CWA decontamination occurs through the combined action of the sponge in both removing the chemical from the skin, and in rapidly mixing the chemicals at a high molar ratio of KBDO:CWA within the pores of the sponge to enhance rapid neutralization of the chemical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  10. Cytotoxic effects of commonly used nanomaterials and microplastics on cerebral and epithelial human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Gabriella F; Pérez-Pomeda, Ignacio; Sanchís, Josep; Rossini, Cesare; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-11-01

    Plastic wastes are among the major inputs of detritus into aquatic ecosystems. Also, during recent years the increasing use of new materials such as nanomaterials (NMs) in industrial and household applications has contributed to the complexity of waste mixtures in aquatic systems. The current effects and the synergism and antagonisms of mixtures of microplastics (MPLs), NMs and organic compounds on the environment and in human health have, to date, not been well understood but instead they are a cause for general concern. The aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the cytotoxicity of NMs and microplastics/nanoplastics (MPLs/NPLs), at cell level in terms of oxidative stress (evaluating Reactive Oxygen Species effect) and cell viability. Firstly, the individual cytotoxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNPs and AuNPs), of metal oxide NPs (ZrO 2 NPs, CeO 2 NPs, TiO 2 NPs, and Al 2 O 3 NPs), carbon nanomaterials (C 60 fullerene, graphene), and MPLs of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) has been evaluated in vitro. Two different cellular lines T98G and HeLa, cerebral and epithelial human cells, respectively, were employed. The cells were exposed during 24-48h to different levels of contaminants, from 10ng/mL to 10µg/mL, under the same conditions. Secondly, the synergistic and antagonistic relationships between fullerenes and other organic contaminants, including an organophosphate insecticide (malathion), a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) and a plasticiser (diethyl phthalate) were assessed. The obtained results confirm that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity at cell level, as has been observed for both cell lines and contributes to the current knowledge of the effects of NMs and MPLs-NPLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura M.N.; Dörr, Natália C.; Ribeiro, Ana Paula A.; de Salles, Silvia M.; de Oliveira, Jaime V.; Menezes, Valmir G.; Fiuza, Lidia M.

    2012-01-01

    The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. PMID:24031872

  12. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk.

  13. Age dependence of organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxicity in the postnatal rat: extrapolation to the human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidair, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    One important aspect of risk assessment for the organophosphate and carbamate pesticides is to determine whether their neurotoxicity occurs at lower dose levels in human infants compared to adults. Because these compounds probably exert their neurotoxic effects through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the above question can be narrowed to whether the cholinesterase inhibition and neurotoxicity they produce is age-dependent, both in terms of the effects produced and potency. The rat is the animal model system most commonly used to address these issues. This paper first discusses the adequacy of the postnatal rat to serve as a model for neurodevelopment in the postnatal human, concluding that the two species share numerous pathways of postnatal neurodevelopment, and that the rat in the third postnatal week is the neurodevelopmental equivalent of the newborn human. Then, studies are discussed in which young and adult rats were dosed by identical routes with organophosphates or carbamates. Four pesticides were tested in rat pups in their third postnatal week: aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and methamidophos. The first three, but not methamidophos, caused neurotoxicity at dose levels that ranged from 1.8- to 5.1-fold lower (mean 2.6-fold lower) in the 2- to 3-week-old rat compared to the adult. This estimate in the rat, based on a limited data set of three organophosphates and a single carbamate, probably represents the minimum difference in the neurotoxicity of an untested cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide that should be expected between the human neonate and adult. For the organophosphates, the greater sensitivity of postnatal rats, and, by analogy, that expected for human neonates, is correlated with generally lower levels of the enzymes involved in organophosphate deactivation

  14. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility status and major detoxifying enzymes' activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse), vector of dengue and chikungunya in Northern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Minu; Saha, Dhiraj

    2017-06-01

    Mosquitoes belonging to Aedes genus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit many globally important arboviruses including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV). Vector control with the use of insecticide remains the suitable method of choice to stop the transmission of these diseases. However, vector control throughout the world is failing to achieve its target results because of the worldwide development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. To assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus from northern part of West Bengal, the susceptibility of eight different Aedes albopictus populations were tested against a commonly used larvicide (temephos) and some adulticides (malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin) along with the major insecticide detoxifying enzymes' activity in them. Through this study, it was revealed that most of the populations were found susceptible to temephos except Nagrakata (NGK) and Siliguri (SLG), which showed both a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ) and a lower susceptibility, thereby reflecting the development of resistance against temephos in them. However, all tested adulticides caused 100% mortality in all the population implying their potency in control of this mosquito in this region of India. Through the study of carboxylesterase activity, it was revealed that the NGK population showed a 9.6 fold higher level of activity than susceptible population. The same population also showed a lower level of susceptibility and a higher resistance ratio (RR 99 ), indicating a clear correlation between susceptibility to temephos and carboxylesterase enzymes' activity in this population. This preliminary data reflects that the NGK population is showing a trend towards resistance development and with time, there is possibility that this resistance phenomenon will spread to other populations. With the recurrence of dengue and chikungunya, this data on insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus could help the

  16. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  18. Accurate determination of selected pesticides in soya beans by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Pérez, J F; Sejerøe-Olsen, B; Fernández Alba, A R; Schimmel, H; Dabrio, M

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive, accurate and simple liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method for the determination of 10 selected pesticides in soya beans has been developed and validated. The method is intended for use during the characterization of selected pesticides in a reference material. In this process, high accuracy and appropriate uncertainty levels associated to the analytical measurements are of utmost importance. The analytical procedure is based on sample extraction by the use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction and subsequent clean-up of the extract with C18, PSA and Florisil. Analytes were separated on a C18 column using gradient elution with water-methanol/2.5 mM ammonium acetate mobile phase, and finally identified and quantified by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Reliable and accurate quantification of the analytes was achieved by means of stable isotope-labelled analogues employed as internal standards (IS) and calibration with pure substance solutions containing both, the isotopically labelled and native compounds. Exceptions were made for thiodicarb and malaoxon where the isotopically labelled congeners were not commercially available at the time of analysis. For the quantification of those compounds methomyl-(13)C2(15)N and malathion-D10 were used respectively. The method was validated according to the general principles covered by DG SANCO guidelines. However, validation criteria were set more stringently. Mean recoveries were in the range of 86-103% with RSDs lower than 8.1%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were in the range of 3.9-7.6% and 1.9-8.7% respectively. LODs were theoretically estimated and experimentally confirmed to be in the range 0.001-0.005 mg kg(-1) in the matrix, while LOQs established as the lowest spiking mass fractionation level were in the range 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1). The method reliably identifies and quantifies the

  19. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, E.; Sanchez, P.; Munoz, A. [Instituto Universitario Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo CEAM-UMH (Fundacion CEAM-UMH), 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Tortajada-Genaro, L.A., E-mail: luitorge@qim.upv.es [Instituto IDM, Departamento de Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} An efficient method for the determination of sixteen pesticides in atmospheric samples. {yields} XAD-4 is an interesting support for collecting gas-phase pesticides, with similar performances than the conventional XAD-2. {yields} The ultrasonic extraction is cheaper, less aggressive and time-consuming with excellent analytical parameters. {yields} The method has been successfully tested by using high volume atmospheric simulation chamber and field campaigns. - Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5 {+-} 1%, a

  20. Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKone Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total. We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin, one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl, one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione, and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide. Results More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in

  1. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

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    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  2. Controle biológico do ácaro rajado com ácaros predadores fitoseídeos (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae em culturas de pepino e morango Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae in cucumber and strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Watanabe

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é considerado uma das principais pragas de hortaliças e várias outras culturas no Brasil, em áreas onde um considerável volume de acaricidas é anualmente empregado no seu controle. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade técnica do emprego dos fitoseídeos Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma e Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, comum ente encontrados no Brasil, no controle de T. urticae em pepino e morangueiro em Jaguaríúna,SP. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 4 tratamentos (T1-T4 para o pepino e 5 tratamentos para o morangueiro (T1-T5: T1, testemunha; T2, pulverizações semanais de Malation para a exclusão de predadores nativos; T3, liberações periódicas de A.idaeus; T4, liberações periódicas de P.macropilis; T5, pulverizações semanais de avermectina para a exclusão de ácaros fitófagos e predadores nativos. Apenas A.idaeus se estabeleceu na cultura de pepino, reduzindo significativamente a população de T. urticae. Ambas espécies de predadores se estabeleceram na cultura do morango e reduziram significativamente a população de T.urticae.The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is considered one of the main pests of horticultural and other crops in Brazil, in areas where a considerable volume of acaricides is annually used for its control. The objective of this work was to test the technical viability of using phytoseiids Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma and Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, commonly found in Brazil, to control T .urticae in cucumber and strawberry crops in Jaguaríúna,SP. A randomized complete block design was used, with 4 replicates and 4 treatments for cucumber (T1-T4 and 5 treatments for strawberry crops (T1-T5: T1, control; T2, weekly sprays of malathion for exclusion of native predators; T3, periodical releases of A.idaeus; T4, periodical releases of P. macropilis; T5, weekly sprays of

  3. Efikasi Ekstrak Daun dan Bunga Kecombrang (Etlingera elatior terhadap Larva Aedes aegypti

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    Meiske Elisabeth Koraag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Three widely known dengue vector control programs in Indonesia are chemical, biological, and environmental modification control where chemical control with organophosphate insecticide (malathion and temephos is the most common. The long term use of chemical insecticide will result in the vector beingtolerant and eventually resistant to insecticide. One of the alternative solutions is to use biological larvacide from the plant. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal concentration of the extract of Kecombrang (Etlingera elatior leaves and flowers against Aedes aegypti larvae. This was an experimentalstudy where the sample size was determined by using the Federer formula. The study used six different concentrations and four repetitions. Two controls group, Bacillus thuringiensis and water used as positive and negative control. The results showed that the LC50 and LC90 of Kecombrang leave extract were 1.20% and 2.05% respectively whereas for Kecombrang flowers extract were 0,05% and 0.09% respectively. Extract of Kecombrang leaves and flowers is effective to kill Ae. aegypti larvae where the flowers extract is more effective than the leaves extract in killing Ae. aegypti larvae.Keywords: dengue, Ae. aegypti, larvae, Etlingera elatiorAbstrak. Pengendalian vektor penular demam berdarah dengue (DBD yang selama ini dikenal yaitu pengendalian secara kimia, biologi dan modifikasi lingkungan. Pengendalian vektor DBD di Indonesia masih banyak dilakukan dengan menggunakan insektisida dari golongan organofosfat (malation dan temefos. Penggunaan insektisida kimia dalam jangka waktu lama akan memberi efek menekan dan menyeleksi serangga vektor sasaran untuk menjadi toleran sampai resisten. Salah satu solusi alternatif yaitu menggunakan larvasida yang berasal dari tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan daya bunuh ekstrak daun dan bunga kecombrang (Etlingera elatior terhadap larva nyamuk Ae. aegypti. Jenis penelitian yang

  4. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

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    John C Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved.A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG.This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread than previously assumed and therefore this should be taken

  5. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti from Brazil and the Swiss-Italian border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias; Crespo, Mônica Maria; de Oliveira, Mariana Francelino; de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; Araújo, Ana Paula; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Müller, Pie; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-09-19

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern. As part of a Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme we set out to assess whether there are any signs of existing or incipient insecticide resistance primarily against the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti), but also against currently applied and potentially alternative insecticides in our areas, Recife (Brazil) and the Swiss-Italian border region. Following World Health Organization guidelines, dose-response curves for a range of insecticides were established for both colonized and field caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicides included Bti, two of its toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Vectomax CG®, a formulated combination of Bti and L. sphaericus, and diflubenzuron. In addition to the larvicides, the Swiss-Italian Ae. albopictus populations were also tested against five adulticides (bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, malathion, permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin). Showing a similar dose-response, all mosquito populations were fully susceptible to the larvicides tested and, in particular, to Bti which is currently used both in Brazil and Switzerland. In addition, there were no signs of incipient resistance against Bti as larvae were equally susceptible to the individual toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba. The field-caught Swiss-Italian populations were susceptible to the adulticides tested but DDT mortality rates showed signs of reduced susceptibility. The insecticides currently used for

  6. Corythaica cyathicollis (Costa, 1864, aspectos sistemáticos, biológicos e econômicos (Hemiptera, Tingidae

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    Marcos Kogan

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the systematic, biological and economic problems related to Corythaica cyathicollis (Costa, 1864 (Hemip., Tingidae. In the first part are presented the generic characteristics of Corythaica and is discussed the status of the specific name. The validity of C. cyathicollis, as stated by DRAKE and his collaborators, was denied by MONTE in his last works, he considered the species as C. passiflorae. Even in the modern literature no agreement has been achieved and three names are still used (cyathicollis, passiflorae and planaris to designate the same insect. In order to resolve definitively this problem, a Neotype is designed to fill the place of the missing type of C. cyathicollis. Also in the first parte is discussed the taxonomic value of both male and female genitalia. The whole male copulator apparatus is studied and are illustrated the genital capsules of 8 species of this genus. Special mention is made of the shape of the basal plates and the proportions of the segmental membrana. The female genitalia is studied based upon the work of FELDMAN & BAILEY (1952. In the second part the biological cycle of C. cyathicollis is carefully studied. Descriptions of the egg are done and the ways of oviposition. The number of eggs laid by the female was observed to be about 350, during a period of more than 45 days. The eclosion of the neanide I is illustrated in some of its phases and the 5 larval instars are described and illustrated. Ending this part are included the lists of parasites and predators observed as well as the plant hosts. The actual geographical distribution is presented, based chiefly on HURD (1945. The economic problems concerning this species are reported in the third part of the work, and the ways of control are discussed. An experiment was carried out involving 4 insecticides: Malathion and Parathion, commonly used against this "lace bug"; Toxaphene and Dimethoate (American Cyanamid 12.880, the last one is

  7. The effect of multiple blood-feeding on the longevity and insecticide resistant phenotype in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2014-08-23

    Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO bioassay four hours post blood-feeding. The biochemical basis of the phenotypic response was assessed by examining the effect of blood on detoxification enzyme activity and the effect of blood-meals on detoxification enzyme activity in ageing mosquitoes. Control cohorts that were not offered any blood meals showed steadily decreasing levels of insecticide tolerance/resistance with age, whereas a single blood meal significantly increased tolerance/resistance primarily at the age of three days. The expression of resistance/tolerance in those cohorts fed multiple blood meals generally showed the least variation with age. These results were consistent following exposure to DDT and pyrethroids but not to malathion. Multiple blood-meals also maintained the DDT and permethrin resistant phenotype, even after treatment females had stopped taking blood-meals. Biochemical analysis suggests that this phenotypic effect in resistant females may be mediated by the maintenance of

  8. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in integrated and conventional peach production was evaluated on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen,1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae under bioassays in laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±1ºC, relative humidity 70±10% and 14 hours photophase, using the "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC methodology. The pesticides (% active ingredient azoxystrobin (0.016, captan (0.192, dodine (0.126, pholpet (0.200, mancozeb (0.256, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride (0.140 + 0.096, tebuconazole (0.320, abamectin (0.002, mineral oil 1 (2.420, mineral oil 2 (1.920, paraquat dichloride (0.300 and gliphosate (1.440 were harmless; deltametrin (0.002 was slightly harmful and dimetoate (0.160, phosmet (0.160 and malathion (0.240, were harmful to C. externa adults.

  9. Influence of the agrochemicals used for rice and vegetable cultivation on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in southern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou S; Fodjo, Behi K; Fokou, Gilbert; Allassane, Ouattara F; Koudou, Benjamin G; David, Jean-Philippe; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ranson, Hilary; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2016-08-24

    Vector control can contribute to the development of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors. As the swamps and wetlands used for some agricultural activities constitute productive breeding sites for many mosquito species, agricultural pest control may increase the selection pressure for insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Understanding the use of agrochemicals by farmers is important to plan and initiate effective integrated pest and vector management interventions. A knowledge-attitude-practice study, using questionnaires, was undertaken with 102 rice farmers in Tiassalé and 106 vegetable farmers in Dabou (South Côte d'Ivoire) in order to generate information on pesticide usage. In addition, insecticide susceptibility bioassays were conducted using adult mosquitoes obtained from larvae collected within farms, and the persistence of agricultural pesticides in the farming environment, including sediment and mosquito breeding site water, was investigated by HPLC. Herbicides and insecticides appeared to be the most frequently used pesticides for both crops. Amino phosphonates (mostly glyphosate) represented the most used herbicides (45 % for rice up to 89 % for vegetables). Pyrethroids appeared to be the most used insecticides (accounting for 90 % of all the insecticide use reported). Approximately 75 % of respondents had not been to school and do not understand product labels. Only about 45 % of farmers respect the recommended pesticide dosage and about 10-15 % of pesticides used for rice and vegetable, respectively, are not recommended for these crops. As per WHO criteria, the mosquito local populations from the two localities were resistant to three of the four insecticides tested, as mortalities were less than 35 % for deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. Higher susceptibility was observed for malathion, although the population was considered resistant in Dabou (80 % mortality) and susceptible in Tiassalé (98 % mortality). With the exception of

  10. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates in baby food samples by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-IT/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, Ivan; Salimei, Elisabetta; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2018-05-01

    chlorpyrifos-methyl, 9 pirimiphos-methyl, 10 malathion, 11 chlorpyrifos, 12 parathion-ethyl, 13 pirimiphos-ethyl, 14 bromophos, 15 chlorfenvinphos, 16 bromophos-ethyl, 17 stirophos, 18 diethion, 19 coumaphos, A dimethyl phthalate, B diethyl phthalate, C dibutyl phthalate, D butyl cyclohexyl phthalate, E benzyl butyl phthalate, F bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, IS internal standard.

  11. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  12. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  13. Occurrence of fungicides and other pesticides in surface water, groundwater, and sediment from three targeted-use areas in the United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Boehlke, Adam; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Surface-water, groundwater, and suspended- and bedsediment samples were collected in three targeted-use areas in the United States where potatoes were grown during 2009 and analyzed for an extensive suite of fungicides and other pesticides by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Fungicides were detected in all environmental matrices sampled during the study. The most frequently detected fungicides were azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin. Other pesticides that were detected frequently included amino phosphonic acid (AMPA), atrazine, metolaclor, and the organochlorine insecticide p,p’-DDT and its degradates p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE. A greater number of pesticides were detected in surface water relative to the other environmental matrices sampled, and at least one pesticide was detected in 62 of the 63 surfacewater samples. The greatest numbers of pesticides and the maximum observed concentrations for most pesticides were measured in surface-water samples from Idaho. In eight surface- water samples (six from Idaho and two from Wisconsin), concentrations of bifenthrin, metolachlor, or malathion exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater aquatic-life benchmarks for chronic toxicity to invertebrates. Thirteen pesticides, including seven fungicides, were detected in groundwater samples. Shallow groundwater samples collected beneath recently harvested potato fields contained more pesticides and had higher concentrations of pesticides than samples collected from other groundwater sources sampled during the study. Generally, pesticide concentrations were lower in groundwater samples than in surfacewater or sediment samples, with the exception of the fungicide boscalid, which was found to have its highest concentration in a shallow groundwater sample collected in Wisconsin. Thirteen pesticides, including four fungicides, were detected in suspended-sediment samples. The most

  14. Retention efficiencies of halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons in selected wetland ecosystem in Lake Victoria Basin

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    Shadrack Mule

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of retention efficiencies of halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbon in selected wetland ecosystems in Lake Victoria basin was carried out. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the presence of residual hydrocarbons in Kigwal/Kimondi, Nyando and Nzoia wetland ecosystems using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS instrument indicated the presence of residual organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroid hydrocarbons in water, sediment and plant materials. In order to compare the retention efficiencies of the wetlands, the wetland ecosystems were divided into three different sections, namely: inlet, mid and outlet. Calculations of mass balances of residual halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons at the respective sections was done taking into account the partition of the studied compounds in samples of water, sediments and papyrus reed plant materials and analyzed using validated Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS method. From the analysis, several residual hydrocarbons namely: bendiocarb, benzene hexachloride (BHC, carbaryl, cypermethrin, decis, deltamethrin, diazinon, dieldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, malathion, propoxur, sumithion, 5-phenylrhodanine, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, 1-(2-phenoxybenzylhydrazine were detected and quantified. The levels of the selected residual hydrocarbons in water samples were used to calculate the retention efficiencies of a specific hydrocarbon and the values recorded. Generally, River Nyando wetland recorded mean percentage retention efficiencies of 76 and 94% for dry and rainy seasons respectively; Kigwal/Kimondi wetland had seasonal mean percentage retention efficiencies of 63 to 78%. River Nzoia also had calculated seasonal mean percentage retention efficiencies of between 56 to 88%. Dry season had lower mean percentages retention efficiencies as compared to rainy season in the three wetlands of interest during the period of study. The study

  15. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

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    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  16. Insecticides resistance in the Culex quinquefasciatus populations from northern Thailand and possible resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Chamnanya, Saowanee; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be resistant to insecticides worldwide, including Thailand. This study was the first investigation of the insecticide resistance mechanisms, involving metabolic detoxification and target site insensitivity in C. quinquefasciatus from Thailand. Adult females reared from field-caught larvae from six provinces of northern Thailand were determined for resistant status by exposing to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 5% malathion papers using the standard WHO susceptibility test. The overall mortality rates were 45.8%, 11.4% and 80.2%, respectively. A fragment of voltage-gated sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify the knock down resistance (kdr) mutation. The ace-1 gene mutation was determined by using PCR-RFLP. The L1014F kdr mutation was observed in all populations, but the homozygous mutant F/F1014 genotype was found only in two of the six provinces where the kdr mutation was significantly correlated with deltamethrin resistance. However, none of mosquitoes had the G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene. A laboratory deltamethrin resistant strain, Cq_CM_R, has been established showing a highly resistant level after selection for a few generations. The mutant F1014 allele frequency was significantly increased after one generation of selection. A synergist assay was performed to assess the metabolic detoxifying enzymes. Addition of bis(4-nitrophenyl)-phosphate (BNPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM), inhibitors of esterases and glutathione S-transferases (GST), respectively, into the larval bioassay of the Cq_CM strain with deltamethrin showed no significant reduction. By contrast, addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, showed a 9-fold reduction of resistance. Resistance to pyrethroids in C. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed in northern Thailand. This study reports for the first time for the detection of the L1014F kdr mutation in wild populations

  17. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, R Graham; Nhamahanga, Eduardo; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

    2011-02-09

    The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS) programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475) of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167), 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53) and of those identified (n = 33) 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality), less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality) and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%). Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo), strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166). One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of bendiocarb within the estate for seven years and the

  18. LEAF-CUTTING ANTS Acromyrmex niger SMITH, 1858 (HYMENOPTERA; FORMICIDAE USED AS BIOINDICATORS OF AGROTOXICS RESIDUES

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2014-05-01

    A pesar de la condición de plaga de las hormigas cortadoras en agroecosistemas, no se pueden negar los beneficios que ellas pueden traer en determinadas situaciones o en determinados ambientes. Las hormigas cortadoras del género Acromyrmex atacan principalmente las hojas de hortalizas y hojas de plantas fructíferas, exponiéndose no solo a los agroquímicos utilizados para su control sino también a aquellos utilizados en el control de otras plagas. Debido al potencial bioindicador de la calidad ambiental de las hormigas y su frecuente exposición a los agrotóxicos como organofosforados, neonicotinoides y reguladores de crecimiento, utilizados en el control de plagas, es necesario el estudio de los efectos subletales que estos agrotóxicos pueden causar. La técnica de electroforesis fue utilizada para evaluar la actividad de las isoenzimas esterasas involucradas en el metabolismo de xenobióticos de  A. niger, asociada a las alteraciones en la expresión de las isoenzimas después de la contaminación con pesticidas.  Acromyrmex niger demostró ocho regiones de actividad esterasa, las cuales fueron denominadas EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 e EST-8 de acuerdo con la movilidad electroforética. En cuanto a la especificación de los substratos α y β-nafitl acetato, las EST-7 e EST-8 son clasificadas como α- esterasa y las demás αβ esterasas. EST-5 es considerada una enzima del tipo colinesterasa II y las demás son carboxilesterasas. El análisis electroforético presentó inhibición parcial para todas las esterasas sometidas al contacto con malathion en las concentraciones 1x10-3 % e 5x10-3 %, que puede ser considerado un biomarcador para la presencia de residuos de este insecticida en el ambiente. El análisis de regresión para el efecto subletal de los pesticidas evaluados demostró correlación entre la dosis y la causa de muerte solo para el pesticida neonicotinoide thiametoxam.

  19. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

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    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  20. BEBERAPA ASPEK ENTOMOLOGI PENDUKUNG MENINGKATNYA KASUS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI DAERAH ENDEMIS DI JAWA TENGAH

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    Widiarti Widiarti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus, type 1 to 4 belonging to the flavivirus family. Dengue viruses are transmitted principally by Aedes aegypti that breeds in water containers. This diseases are endemic and cause periodic or annual outbreaks in Indonesia. The occurrence of DHF outbreaks is linked to a number of factor including the density of mosquito vectors. Another entomological aspect such as vector resistance and trans-ovarian transmission phenomenon will be discused in this manuscript. This entomological survey was base on previous and concurrent with dengue vector resistance studies in endemic area in Central Java Province. The aim of this study were to explore the entomology data such as larval-free index, Containers Index, House Index, and Breteau Index. The entomological data was collected using resting mosquito colection technique in the morning and larval survey according to WHO guideline. The study was conducted in 8 endemic areas  in Central Java i.e : Jepara District, Blora District, Semarang City, Surakarta City, Tegal City, Magelang City, PurwokertoCity and Salatiga City. The study revealed that the larval-free index in eighth areas ranged between 24,13% to 88,52%, lower than the national standard of 95%. The result of Container Index, House Index and Breteau Index ranged from 11,84 % to 75,16% ; 11,48 % to 75,86 %  and  14,73% to 100 % respectively. The population of Ae. aegypti collected from 8 endemic area in Central Java eleven municipalities, regencies/cities in Central Java Province were resistant to Malathion 0,8 %, Bendiocarb 0,1 %, Lambdasihalotrin 0,05 % and Permethrin 0,75 %, including Deltamethrin 0,05 % and Etofenprox 0,5 %. However, in several location of this study were found the population of Ae. aegypti remain susceptible to Cypermethrin 0,05 % and Bendiocarb 0,1 %. The population of Ae. aegypti from Salatiga and endemic area from Central Java

  1. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    phosphorothioates and phosphorodithioates (e.g., parathion and azinphosmethyl, respectively) to the more toxic oxons (P = O(S to O)). In some cases, P-450 isozymes catalyze the oxidative cleavage of P-O-aryl bonds (e.g., parathion, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, and diazinon) to form inactive water-soluble alkyl phosphates and aryl leaving groups that are readily conjugated with glucuronic or sulfuric acids and excreted. In addition to the P-450 isozymes, mammalian tissues contain ('A' and 'B') esterases capable of reacting with OPs to produce hydrolysis products or phosphorylated enzymes. 'A'-esterases hydrolyze OPs (i.e., oxons), while 'B'-esterases with serine at the active center are inhibited by OPs. OPs possessing carboxylesters, such as malathion and isofenphos, are hydrolyzed by the direct action of 'B'-esterases (i.e., carboxylesterase, CaE). Metabolic pathways shown for isofenphos, parathion, and malathion define the order in which these reactions occur, while Michaelis-Menten kinetics define reaction parameters (Vmax, K(m)) for the enzymes and substrates involved, and rates of inhibition of 'B'-esterases (kis, bimolecular rate constants) by OPs and their oxons. OPs exert their insecticidal action by their ability to inhibit AChE at the cholinergic synapse, resulting in the accumulation of acetylcholine. The extent to which AChE or other 'B'-esterases are inhibited in workers is dependent upon the rate the OP pesticide is activated (i.e., oxon formation), metabolized to nontoxic products by tissue enzymes, its affinity for AChE and other 'B'-esterases, and esterase concentrations in tissues. Rapid recovery of OP BChE inhibition may be related to reactivation of inhibited forms. AChE, BChE, and CaE appear to function in vivo as scavengers, protecting workers against the inhibition of AChE at synapses. Species sensitivity to OPs varies widely and results in part from binding affinities (Ka) and rates of phosphorylation (kp) rather than rates of activation and detoxif

  2. EFECTO DE AGROQUÍMICOS PELETIZADOS EN SEMILLAS DE ALGODÓN SOBRE EL BIOFERTILIZANTE MONIBAC® CON BASE EN Azotobacter chroococcum EFEITO DE AGROQUÍMICOS PELETIZADOS EM SEMENTES DE ALGODÃO SOBRE 0 BIOLFERTILIZANTE MONIBAC® CONTENDO Azotobacter chroococcum EFFECT OF AGROCHEMICALS IN COTTON SEED PELLETS ON MONIBAC® BIOFERTILISER BASED ON Azotobacter chroococcum

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    DIEGO RIVERA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación, se analizó la influencia in vitro de los plaguicidas peletizados simultáneamente con el fungicida (principios activos: carboxin: 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3 carboxamide y tiram: tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide y un insecticida (principio activo: malatión: S-1,2-Bis(ethoxycarbonylethyl-0,0 imethylthiophosphate en las semillas de algodón sobre la viabilidad del biofertilizante Monibac®-Corpoica con base en Azotobacter chroococcum AC1, cuando fueron aplicados conjuntamente en bandejas experimentales. Se analizó la práctica de recubrir las semillas con los agroquímicos como posible causa de descenso poblacional de la bacteria bajo este modelo de aplicación. Los resultados obtenidos por el Test de Duncan (pNo presente trabalho foi analisado a influencia in vitro dos plaguicidas peletizados simultáneamente com os fungicidas carboxin (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-Z carboxamide e tiram (tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide alem do inseticida malation (S-1,2 Bis(ethoxycarbonylethyl-0,0 imethylthiophosphate nas sementes de algodÃo sobre a viabilidade do biofertilizante Monibac - Corpoica contendo Azotobacter chroococcum, estirpe AC1, quando foram aplicados conjuntamente em bandejas experimentais. Foi analisado a pratica de recobrimento das sementes com os agroquímicos como possível causa da diminuição populacional das bacterias submetidas a este modelo de aplicação. Os resultados obtidos pelo teste Duncan (pIn this study, we analyzed the influence of pesticides in vitro pellet simultaneously with the fungicide (active ingredient: carboxin: 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-Z carboxamide and tiram: tetramethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide and an insecticide (active ingredient: Malathion: S-1,2-Bis (ethoxycarbonyl ethyl-0, O-dimethylthiophosphate in cotton seeds on the viability of biofertiliser Monibac® -based Corpoica Azotobacter chroococcum ACT, when

  3. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Karen L.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    year were simulated by the model. Different combinations of ground-water supply and wastewater-disposal plans were simulated to assess their effects on the stream-aquifer system. Six of the simulations represent an increase in population of 14,283 and water use of 1.07 million gallons per day. One simulation represents an increase in population of 28,566 and water use of 2.14 million gallons per day. Reduction of average base flow is greatest for development plans with wastewater removed from the basin through sewers and is proportional to the amount of water removed from the basin. The development plan that had the least effect on water levels and base flow included on-lot wells and on-lot septic systems. Five organochlorine insecticides--lindane, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, and methoxychlor--were detected in ground water. Four organophosphorus insecticides--malathion, parathion, diazinon, and phorate--were detected in ground water. Four volatile organic compounds--benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene--were detected in ground water. Phenol was detected at concentrations up to 8 micrograms per liter in water from 50 percent of 14 wells sampled. The concentration of dissolved nitrate in water from 18 percent of wells sampled exceeded 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; concentration of nitrate were as high as 19 milligrams per liter. PCB was detected in the bottom material of West Branch Red Clay Creek at Kennet Square at concentrations up to 5,600 micrograms per kilogram.

  4. [What's new in dermatological treatments?].

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    Martin, L

    2010-12-01

    demonstrating significant efficacy on the main criterion, but it did show a tendency to reduce the score used. This trial suffered from a weakness both in methodology and statistical power, thus precluding any conclusion. The rarity of therapeutic trials on drug eruptions warrants their mention. A French phase II study gives a glimpse of a trend toward efficacy in terms of survival in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis with cyclosporine. As for infectious dermatosis and sexually transmitted infections, a French multicenter study has shown significantly higher efficacy with ivermectin than with malathion in treating pediculosis without increasing the side effects. Today, however, this systemic treatment cannot be a first-line treatment outside of certain specific situations. A large cohort study (somewhat unsatisfactory in its methodology) has not demonstrated the teratogenicity of antiherpes treatments in 830,000 infants. In prevention of HIV transmission, no microbicidal gel had shown efficacy to date. This has now been accomplished in South Africa with a 1% tenofovir gel. The results of a preliminary trial on therapeutic vaccination against HPV16 proposed to women who are carriers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia opens the way for wide vaccine therapy of cutaneous virus-induced neoplasia. In conclusion, several articles analyzing the dermatology literature provide an opportunity to reflect on the quality of such articles, Boutron's being absolutely in-dis-pen-sa-ble! Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  6. Occurrence and distribution of dissolved pesticides in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panshin, Sandra Yvonne; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pesticide application, hydrology, and chemical and physical properties on the occurrence of pesticides in surface water in the San Joaquin River Basin, California, were examined. The study of pesticide occurrence in the highly agricultural San Joaquin?Tulare Basins is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. One hundred forty-three water samples were collected throughout 1993 from sites on the San Joaquin River and three of its tributaries: Orestimba Creek, Salt Slough, and the Merced River. Of the 83 pesticides selected for analysis in this study, 49 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites and ranged in concentration from less than the detection limit to 20 micrograms per liter. All but one sample contained at least one pesticide, and more than 50 percent of the samples contained seven or more pesticides. Six compounds were detected in more than 50 percent of the samples: four herbicides (dacthal, EPTC, metolachlor, and simazine) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon). None of the measured concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water criteria, and many of the measured concentrations were very low. The concentrations of seven pesticides exceeded criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life: azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron, malathion, and trifluralin. Overall, some criteria for protection of aquatic life were exceeded in a total of 97 samples. Factors affecting the spatial patterns of occurrence of the pesticides in the different subbasins included the pattern of application and hydrology. Seventy percent of pesticides with known application were detected. Overall, 40 different pesticides were detected in Orestimba Creek, 33 in Salt Slough, and 26 in the Merced River. Samples from the Merced River had a relatively low number of detections, despite the high number (35) of pesticides applied, owing to the

  7. ANALISIS SPASIAL DISTRIBUSI KASUS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD KOTA BONTANG, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vector control programs of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF have been conducted by Bontang Health Office, unfortunately DHF cases were still occurred in the years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the distribution of DHF cases using spatial analysis, in relation to positive larvae of breeding habitat distributions. The study was done in Belimbing village, West Bontang Subdistrict and Gunung Elai village, Nort Bontang Subdistrict. The aim  of the study was to determine the specific vector control strategy based on the breeding habitats, larvae free index (LFI, insecticide susceptible status of dengue vector Ae. aegypti and cases distribution (GIS mapping and distance index analyses.  The study revealed that the average LFI in the study areas were 31.9-67.5% and lower the national standar of 95%.  Dengue vector in the study areas were found to be resistant to both insecticides. The average mortality of Malathion was 15.0-65% and 5.0-7.50% on Lambdacyhalothrin. The application dosage of Temefos were effective against the larvae. Dengue cases distribution in the study areas were found in  clusters/gregorious. Distance index analysis revealed that 35.62% of dengue cases in Bontang city were distributed in the radius of 360 meters. This result reflected that the transmission was dominant due to human mobility. The health community empowerment is needed to encourage the people to participate on the vector control program especially regular household sanitation or clean-up campaigns ( to dry of, cover and bury /the vector habitats cleaning and larvicide applications in an effort to sustain the vector control programs. Key Words: DHF, Spatial distribution, Cases Distance Index, Bontang City Abstrak. Berbagai program pengendalian nyamuk vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD telah dilakukan oleh Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bontang, beberapa tahun sebelum 2008. Walaupun demikian, kasus DBD masih dijumpai setiap tahun. Penelitian komprehensif

  8. Implementação da técnica de extração de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida ("MSPD" para determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em laranjas Implementation of MSPD technique to determination of pesticides residues in oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena W. M. Cardoso

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método de extração de multiresíduos baseado na técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida ("MSPD", foi otimizado e validado para a extração e análise cromatográfica de 27 agrotóxicos (isômeros a, b, g, d do hexaclorociclohexano (HCH, dieldrin, endrin, heptacloro e seu epóxido (HE, a e b-endosulfan, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, dicofol, metoxicloro, mirex, hexaclorobenzeno (HCB, clorotalonil, parationa metílica, fenitrotiona, malationa, folpete, diazinona, cis e trans-permetrina em laranjas. A amostra macerada é inicialmente homogeneizada com C18, o homogeneizado é transferido para uma coluna de vidro contendo sílica gel onde se adiciona 10mL de acetato de etila como solvente de eluição. O eluente é concentrado, diluído em isooctano e 1mL deste é injetado no cromatógrafo a gás. Para a separação e quantificação dos 27 agrotóxicos, foi utilizado um CG/DCE. A confirmação dos mesmos foi feita por espectrometria de massas. Para a quantificação dos 27 agrotóxicos utilizou-se a padronização externa. As recuperações dos mesmos variaram de 70 a 120%, considerando-se os níveis de adição agrotóxicos/amostra de 0,02 e 2,0mg/kg. Os limites de quantificação variaram de 0,01 a 0,5mg/kg.A multiresidue method of extraction based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique was optimized and validated for chromatographic analyses of twenty seven pesticides residues [hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH isomers (a, b, g, d, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and its epoxide (HE, a and b-endosulfan, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT p,p'-DDT, dicofol, methoxychlor, mirex, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, chlorotalonil, parathion methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, folpet, diazinon, permethrin (cis and trans in oranges. The sample was blended with C18 and then the homogenized sample was introduced onto a glass column containing silica. Ten mL of ethyl acetate was added to the column as elution

  9. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.

    2013-05-01

    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  10. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment samples were collected at eight sites on the Alamo and New Rivers in the Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin of California and analyzed for both current-use and organochlorine pesticides by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, corresponding to the seasons of greatest pesticide use in the basin. Large-volume water samples (up to 650 liters) were collected at each site and processed using a flow-through centrifuge to isolate suspended sediments. One-liter water samples were collected from the effluent of the centrifuge for the analysis of dissolved pesticides. Additional samples were collected for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and for suspended-sediment concentrations. Water samples were analyzed for a suite of 61 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 25 pesticides were detected in the water samples, with seven pesticides detected in more than half of the samples. Dissolved concentrations of pesticides observed in this study ranged from below their respective method detection limits to 8,940 nanograms per liter (EPTC). The most frequently detected compounds in the water samples were chlorpyrifos, DCPA, EPTC, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 75 percent of the samples. The maximum concentrations of most pesticides were detected in samples from the Alamo River. Maximum dissolved concentrations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion exceeded aquatic life benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for these pesticides. Suspended sediments were analyzed for 87 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using microwave-assisted extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and either carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges or deactivated Florisil for removal of matrix interferences. Twenty current-use pesticides were detected in the suspended

  11. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Toxicity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-01-01

    humidity of 70±10% and 14h photophase. The tests were carried out by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates and assessed for the number of eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum adult female. Reduction in capacity of parasitism of T. pretiosum female compared with the control (treated with water was used to measure the effect of the chemical. Pesticides were then classified into four categories, according to the reduction in parasitization (IOBC/WPRS: 1, harmless (99%. The fungicides (g of the active ingredient/100L of water calcium + copper (40+100, dodine (79, folpet (125, iprodion (75, mancozeb (160, mancozeb + copper oxichloride (88+60 and triforine (24 and the insecticide teflubenzuron (3.75 were considered harmless (class 1; the fungicide tebuconazol (20 and the mineral oil (800 were slightly harmful (class 2; the fungicide-acaricide sulphur (480 and the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (200 were moderately harmful (class 3; the insecticides fenitrothion (75, malathion (200, phosmet (100 and spinosad (6 were harmful (class 4 to T. pretiosum.

  12. Factores que modifican los índices larvarios de Aedes aegypti en Colima, México Factors that modify the larval indices of Aedes aegypti in Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinoza Gómez

    2001-07-01

    were inspected to determine the house index (HI and the number of positive containers per house (C+/H, during the rainy season and the dry season. The following were recorded as independent variables: the air temperature, the season, the use of ultra low volume (ULV spraying of malathion, the Premise Condition Index (PCI, and the score on a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP. Results. Both the multivariate logistic regression and the multivariate lineal regression showed a reduction of HI and C+/H due to the effect of the dry season. Paradoxically, the temperature seemed to have a negative correlation with the larval indices, and this effect was more pronounced during the dry season. The PCI showed the most significant correlation with HI and C+/H, independently of the other variables. The ULV sprayings showed a small negative effect on the indices, while the KAP score did not indicate any association at all. Conclusions. Some conclusions that can be drawn from this study are as follows: higher temperatures can reduce the larval indices during the dry season, the PCI can be an adequate estimator of the Ae. aegypti infestation rate, ULV spraying reduces the number of larval breeding sites, and the KAP score has little association with the larval indices.

  13. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  14. Investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ann K.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2002-01-01

    concentrations of nitrite and ammonia increased in a downstream direction. In Valley Creek, median concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen, suspended phosphorus, and orthophosphate decreased in a downstream direction. Median concentrations of Escherichia coli and fecal coliform bacteria were highest at the most upstream site of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion in 80 percent of the samples; concentrations of Escherichia coli exceeded the criterion in 56 percent of the samples. Concentrations of bacteria at the downstream sites on Village and Valley Creeks were elevated during high flow rather than low flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Surface-water samples were analyzed for chemical compounds that are commonly found in wastewater and urban runoff. The median number of wastewater indicators was highest at the most upstream site on Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of total recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in surface water exceeded acute and chronic aquatic life criteria in up to 24 percent of the samples that were analyzed for trace and major elements. High concentrations of trace and major elements in the water column were detected most frequently during high flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Of the 24 pesticides detected in surface water, 17 were herbicides and 7 were insecticides. Atrazine, simazine, and prometon were the most commonly detected herbicides; diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and carbaryl were the most commonly detected insecticides. Concentrations of atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion periodically exceeded criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Trace-element priority pollutants, pesticides, and other organic compounds were detected in higher concentrations in bed sediment at the Village and Valley Creek sites t

  15. STUDI BIO-EPIDEMIOLOGI DAN ANALISIS SPASIAL KASUS MALARIA DAERAH LINTAS BATAS INDONESIA – MALAYSIA (PULAU SEBATIK KABUPATEN NUNUKAN, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria remains to be a public health problem in Nunukan District (especially Sebatik island, East Kalimantan Province. Vector control programs using  long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs, have been conducted by the Health Office. Yet malaria cases were still occurred on the previous years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the specific vector control strategies based on the vectors bionomic, spatial distributions of malaria cases and breeding habitats (GIS mapping and distance index analyses and susceptible status of malaria  vectors against insecticides. The study revealed that three mosquito species were remain as potential malaria vectors such as: An. balabacensis and An. maculatus, the breeding habitats were fresh water wells/ponds and streams. In the coastal areas brackish water ponds and  lagoon were found as the breeding habitats of An. sundaicus  was recognized as malaria vector. Both malaria vectors (An. balabacensis and An. maculatus, were found resistant to insecticides Permethrin and  Lambdacyhalothrin and tolerance against Malathion. Alternative insecticide should be considered as a replacement. Spatial analysis found that malaria cases were distributed on clumped/cluster, buffer zones against breeding habitat (<400 meters, indicate local transmission (indigenous due to vector behaviour. Integrated vector management by using  indoors treatment and breeding habitats application by using bio-larvicides such as bacillus or insect growth regulator/IGR, is recommended. In an effort to maintain sustainability of the malaria programs, community participation should be developed. Key Words:  Malaria, Spatial distribition, Cases Distance Index, Sebatik Island Abstrak. Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan utama di kabupaten Nunukan (khususnya Pulau sebatik, provinsi Kalimantan Timur.  Program pengendalian vektor menggunakan kelabu berinsektisida /Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN, telah dilakukan oleh

  16. Fundamental and applied measurements in ICP MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Julian Robert

    2002-01-01

    contribute to the analytical signal under certain instrumental operating conditions. The feasibility of liquid sample introduction into a LP-ICP-MS system designed for gaseous sample introduction was investigated using a particle beam separator. The low signal was attributed to the low gas kinetic temperature of the plasma which was confirmed by the fact that the signal increased rapidly with increasing temperature of the transfer line between the particle beam separator and the LP-ICP torch. This was also supported by the fact that more volatile compounds gave mass spectra whereas less volatile compounds did not. A limit of detection of 30 mg 1 -1 for chlorobenzene was achieved. Finally, silicon and phosphorus speciation was performed by HPLC coupled to sector-field ICP-MS. Silicones ranging in molecular weight from 162 g mol -1 - 16500 g mol -1 were extracted from spiked human plasma and separated by size exclusion chromatography. Limits of detection ranged from 12 ng ml -1 Si + for the 162 gmol -1 silicone to 30 ng ml -1 Si + for the 16500 g mol -1 silicone. Organophosphate pesticides were extracted from spiked plasma and separated by reversed phase chromatography. Recoveries were between 55-81%. Limits of detection were 0.9 ng ml -1 P + , 1.8 ng ml -1 P + , 1.6 ng ml -1 P + and 3.0 ng ml -1 P + for dichlorvos, methyl parathion, malathion and quinolphos respectively. Phosphates were extracted from various food products and separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Limits of detection were 1.0 ng ml -1 P + , 2.3 ng ml -1 P + , and 39 ng ml -1 P + for PO 4 3- , P 2 O 7 4- and P 3 O 10 5- respectively. (author)

  17. Fundamental and applied measurements in ICP MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Julian Robert

    2002-07-01

    sampled from the plasma, which was found to be 9.5 eV. The low kinetic energy of the ions deposited on the skimmer cone means they will only contribute to the analytical signal under certain instrumental operating conditions. The feasibility of liquid sample introduction into a LP-ICP-MS system designed for gaseous sample introduction was investigated using a particle beam separator. The low signal was attributed to the low gas kinetic temperature of the plasma which was confirmed by the fact that the signal increased rapidly with increasing temperature of the transfer line between the particle beam separator and the LP-ICP torch. This was also supported by the fact that more volatile compounds gave mass spectra whereas less volatile compounds did not. A limit of detection of 30 mg 1{sup -1} for chlorobenzene was achieved. Finally, silicon and phosphorus speciation was performed by HPLC coupled to sector-field ICP-MS. Silicones ranging in molecular weight from 162 g mol{sup -1} - 16500 g mol{sup -1} were extracted from spiked human plasma and separated by size exclusion chromatography. Limits of detection ranged from 12 ng ml{sup -1} Si{sup +} for the 162 gmol{sup -1} silicone to 30 ng ml{sup -1} Si{sup +} for the 16500 g mol{sup -1} silicone. Organophosphate pesticides were extracted from spiked plasma and separated by reversed phase chromatography. Recoveries were between 55-81%. Limits of detection were 0.9 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +}, 1.8 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +}, 1.6 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +} and 3.0 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +} for dichlorvos, methyl parathion, malathion and quinolphos respectively. Phosphates were extracted from various food products and separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Limits of detection were 1.0 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +}, 2.3 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +}, and 39 ng ml{sup -1} P{sup +} for PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} and P{sub 3}O{sub 10}{sup 5-} respectively. (author)

  18. Impact Of anthropogenic activities on the water quality of Songor Lagoon, Ada, Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackey, Justice

    2014-06-01

    waters. The hydrogen sulphide like smell of the sediment in the lagoon may be due to the levels of the sulphate levels (65.8 to 190mg/L). The concentration (in ranges, mg/L) of trace metals in water samples were: Cd (<0.001 to 0.09 mg/L); Pb (< 0.001 to 0.42 mg/L); Ni (<0.001 to 0.18 mg/L); Cr (<0.001 to 0.03 mg/L ); Mn (<0.001 to 0.14 mg/L). The concentration (in ranges, mg/Kg) of trace metals in sediment samples were: Cd (<0.001 to 0.44 mg/Kg); Pb (<0.001 to 3.83 mg/Kg); Ni (<0.001 to 1.60 mg/ Kg ); Cu (<0.001 to to 0.21 mg/ Kg ); Cr (<0.001 to 0.17 mg/Kg); Mn (<0.001 to 0.14 mg/L); Zn (<0.001 to 1.19 mg/Kg); Fe (134 to 1429 mg/Kg). The following elemental associations were obtained from Principal Component and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (PC A and HCA): Mg-Mn-As-Pb, Cd-Ni and K. This could be linked to usage of agrochemicals by farmers and dumping of domestic waste. Cd and Ni occur as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoon. Enrichment Factor indicated high enrichment of the metals (especially Cd and Pb). Six (6) different types of organochlorine pesticide residues and metabolites (β -HCH, γ -HCH, σ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin and β-endosulfan) were detected in the sediment (0.001-0.101 μg/g). 12 different types of organophosphorous [0.004 and 7.494 μg/g] (diazinon, fonofos, dimethoate, pirimiphos, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, profenofos, phorate, ethoprophos) were identified in the sediment. Six (6) synthetic pyrethroids residues and metabolites (cypermethrin, bifenthrin, permethrin, fenvalerate, deltametrin, cyfluthrin and alethrin) were detected in the sediment [0.001- 0.014 μg/g ]. The Principal Component Analysis, supported by Custer Analysis identified anthropogenic and natural/geogenic sources as responsible for controlling the variability of pollutants in surface water and sediment. (au)

  19. Relation of Land Use to Streamflow and Water Quality at Selected Sites in the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1993-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Jerad D.; Weaver, J. Curtis; Robinson, Jerald B.

    1999-01-01

    were several times greater than median concentrations in small Piedmont streams but almost an order of magnitude less than total phosphorus concentrations in Charlotte streams during the late 1970's.Bacteria concentrations are not correlated to streamflow. The highest bacteria levels were found in 'first-flush' samples. Higher fecal coliform concentrations were associated with residential land use.Chromium, copper, lead, and zinc occurred at all sites in concentrations that exceeded the North Carolina ambient water-quality standards. The median chromium concentration in the developing basin was more than double the median concentration at any other site. As with chromium, the maximum copper concentration in the developing basin was almost an order of magnitude greater than maximum concentrations at other sites. The highest zinc concentration also occurred in the developing basin. Samples were analyzed for 121 organic compounds and 57 volatile organic compounds. Forty-five organic compounds and seven volatile organic compounds were detected. At least five compounds were detected at all sites, and 15 or more compounds were detected at all sites except two mixed land-use basins. Atrazine, carbaryl, and metolachlor were detected at eight sites, and 90 percent of all samples had measurable amounts of atrazine. About 60 percent of the samples had detectable levels of carbaryl and metolachlor. Diazinon and malathion were measured in samples from seven sites, and methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, alachlor, and 2,4-D were detected at four or more sites. The fewest compounds were detected in the larger, mixed land-use basins. Residential basins and the developing basin had the greatest number of detections of organic compounds.The pH of wet atmospheric deposition in three Charlotte basins was more variable than the pH measured at a National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)site in Rowan County. Summer pH values were significantly lower than pH measured during the remainder of