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Sample records for malassezia

  1. Malassezia spp. beyond The Mycobiota

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    Celis Ramirez, A.M.; Wösten, HAB; Triana, Sergio; Restrepo, Silvia; de Cock, J.J.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia species are part of the normal mycobiota of skin of animals and humans but they can cause skin and blood stream infections as well. These yeasts are all lipid dependent explained by the absence of fatty acid synthase genes in their genome. At the same time, metabolic reconstruction

  2. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

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    Gulin Rodoplu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility

  3. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

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    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  4. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

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    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  5. Granulomatous dermatitis due to Malassezia sympodialis.

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    Desai, Harsha B; Perkins, Philip L; Procop, Gary W

    2011-09-01

    A 67-year-old man, with multiple skin lesions that appeared over 2 years, had biopsies that disclosed granulomatous dermatitis with associated small yeasts. The urinary antigen test results were negative for Histoplasma infection; cultures from the biopsies did not grow any fungi or other potential pathogens. The chest roentgenogram results were normal. Morphologic examination revealed features of a Malassezia species. Broad-range fungal polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing disclosed that the infecting fungus was Malassezia sympodialis , a lipid-dependent yeast. This report supports one other case report that Malassezia species may cause granulomatous dermatitis; in the previous case, the etiologic agent was Malassezia pachydermatis , a nonlipid-dependent species. We recommend the use of lipid-supplemented culture media for specimens from patients with granulomatous dermatitis because several Malassezia species are dependent on lipid; the absence of lipid supplementation in routine cultures likely explains the negative culture results for this patient. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of granulomatous dermatitis caused by M sympodialis.

  6. The genus Malassezia and human disease

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    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  8. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

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    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin infections like dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis but also bloodstream infections. Understanding the lipid metabolism in Malassezia is essential to understand its life style as skin commensal and p...

  9. Malassezia pachydermatis keratomycosis in a dog

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    Eric C. Ledbetter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female Lhasa Apso was presented for blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia of the right eye. Ophthalmic examination revealed an anterior stromal ulcer associated with a raised yellow corneal plaque. In vivo confocal microscopy and cytology of the cornea identified neutrophilic inflammation and yeast cells. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from a corneal scraping. Treatment with topical voriconazole ophthalmic solution resolved the keratitis.

  10. Malassezia pachydermatis fungemia in an adult with multibacillary leprosy

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    Jorge Roman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis is a relatively rare agent of bloodstream infections. We describe an unusual case of Malassezia fungemia in an adult patient hospitalized for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was also found to have multibacillary leprosy. Treatment of the patient required extensive medical management but resulted in a good outcome.

  11. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  12. Highly efficient transformation system for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, A.M.; Vos, Aurin; Triana, S.; Medina, C.A.; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Restrepo, S.; Wosten, Han; de Cock, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are part of the normal human and animal mycobiota but are also associated with a variety of dermatological diseases. The absence of a transformation system hampered studies to reveal mechanisms underlying the switch from the non-pathogenic to pathogenic life style. Here we describe,

  13. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

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    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (Pessential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs with suspected Malassezia dermatitis or otitis in Slovakia

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    Eva Čonková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of yeast Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs from Slovakia in relation to different predisposition factors (sex, age, body localisation, hair type, and season. Samples of ear swabs (58 and dermal swabs (131 from 147 dogs with clinical symptoms of suspected yeast dermatitis and/or otitis, were examined between June 2005 to June 2007. Relatively higher prevalence of M. pachydermatis was found in samples taken from males (45.2% than in females (35.2%, and in geriatric dogs (63.6% than in young (42.5% or adult (38.5% dogs. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated more often from ear swabs (44.8% than from skin swabs (38.9%. Prevalence of M. pachydermatis was significantly higher (p Malassezia pachydermatis is one of the most frequent yeasts isolated in dogs. Knowledge of factors predisposing to development of infection is valuable attribute of the correct diagnostic approach and case management.

  15. FREQUENCY OF MALASSEZIA SPP. IN DOGS PRESENTING EXTERNAL OTITIS

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    N. R. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The external otitis is defined as an inflammation of the dog external ear canal and it is considered a common disease in dogs. It is a disease of multifactorial etiology, where one of the main microrganisms associated to the illness is the Malassezia ssp. Therefore, this work aimed to determine the frequency of Malassezia spp. by auricular cytology in dogs that present clinical signs of external otitis. Were used 23 dogs attended in a veterinary clinic located in Sinop-MT. The material was collected using a dry swab, where each extremity was inserted in one of the auditory canal (right and left, which was rotated, removed from the ear and rolled on the glass slide. First the glass slide was microscopically observed (objective 4X, for viewing mites, and then, the sample was fixed by heat and stained with Panoptic. Once stained, the glass slide was examined (objective 40X and 100X. Among the 23 dogs evaluated, 60.9% were positive for Malassezia spp., 8.7% were positive for the Otodectes cynotis mite, and also 30,4% of the animals showed mixed infection with Malassezia ssp. and bacteria. With this study, it can be concluded that Malassezia ssp. was found more frequently in at the auditory canal of dogs with that presents external otitis, associated or acting alone, indicating the importance of this yeast in cases of otitis.

  16. Malassezia spp. dan Peranannya sebagai Penyebab Dermatitis pada Hewan Peliharaan (MALASSEZIA SPP AND ITS ROLE AS THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DERMATITIS IN PET ANIMALS

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    Pradipta Nuri Adiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia is dimorphic yeast found normally in the animal healthy skin. Malassezia can causehealth problem in pet animals, such as dogs, cats, and other domestic animals. Varies according itsvirulence, Malassezia can cause skin changes characterized by severe pruritus, yellowish erythema andscab, greasy skin, bad odor with hyperpigmentation and lichenification in the face, paws, and neck bottom,as well as belly. Laboratory diagnosis can be performed either by microscopic examination of nativepreparations, or molecular biology. Treatment of Malassezia’s infection can still be made using someantifungals currently available. Malassezia pachydermatitis infection has been known as zoonoticpotential.

  17. Molecular characterization of Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia furfur from cattle with and without otitis Caracterização molecular de isolados de Malassezia sympodialis e Malassezia furfur provenientes de bovinos com e sem otite externa

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    E.R. Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study of Malassezia strains isolated from cattle with or without otitis was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. DNA was extracted and purified from nine strains of Malassezia sympodialis and fourteen of Malassezia furfur. These microorganisms were collected from eight different bovine herds in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The RAPD analysis and phenograms did not show the formation of genetically distinct groups among the strain isolated from cattle with or without otitis raised in the same herds. Genetic heterogeneity was observed among Malassezia strains from different geographic origins. These data suggest that genetically similar M. sympodialis and M. furfur strains found as members of the normal ear microbiota could become opportunistically active in the inflammatory process in cattle.A caracterização molecular de amostras de Malassezia spp., isoladas de bovinos com e sem otite, foi realizada por meio da técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. DNAs de nove amostras de Malassezia sympodialis e quatorze de M. furfur foram extraídos e purificados. Essas amostras foram provenientes de oito diferentes rebanhos bovinos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A análise de RAPD e os fenogramas não revelaram a formação de grupos geneticamente distintos entre amostras isoladas de bovinos, criados no mesmo rebanho, com ou sem otite. Heterogeneidade genética foi observada entre amostras de diferentes origens geográficas. Os dados sugerem que isolados geneticamente semelhantes e membros da microbiota normal do ouvido podem participar, como oportunistas, no processo inflamatório do conduto auditivo externo de bovinos.

  18. Efficient identification of Malassezia yeasts by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

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    Kolecka, A; Khayhan, K; Arabatzis, M; Velegraki, A; Kostrzewa, M; Andersson, A; Scheynius, A; Cafarchia, C; Iatta, R; Montagna, M T; Youngchim, S; Cabañes, F J; Hoopman, P; Kraak, B; Groenewald, M; Boekhout, T

    BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Malassezia yeasts are most likely underdiagnosed, because fatty acid supplementation is needed for growth. Rapid identification of Malassezia species is essential for appropriate treatment of Malassezia-related skin infections, fungaemia and nosocomial outbreaks in

  19. Malassezia: Estado del conocimiento y perspectivas en su estudio Malassezia: Current knowledge and study perspectives

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    Gustavo E. Giusiano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del género Malassezia se mantuvo postergado durante años debido a sus estrictos requerimientos nutricionales y su variabilidad morfológica. La posibilidad de su aislamiento y la aplicación de métodos moleculares condujeron a la revisión taxonómica del género y a la renovación en el interés por su importancia clínica. Actualmente se conocen 11 especies, 10 lipofílicas, y dado que muchas de ellas tienen características morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas similares, las técnicas convencionales no resultan satisfactorias para diferenciarlas. Actualmente, los métodos moleculares prometen una mejor diferenciación y permiten avanzar en el conocimiento de la ecología y epidemiología de este género. Se han observado notables variaciones en la sensibilidad antifúngica de algunas especies, aunque no existe un método estandarizado para evaluar la relevancia clínica. Si bien poco se conoce sobre la bioquímica de estas levaduras, se ha observado que las enzimas que producen favorecen la invasión de los tejidos del hospedador, por lo que serían un importante factor de virulencia. Malassezia ha sido reconocido como comensal de piel humana y animal, pero su implicancia en procesos patológicos, que incluyen desde afecciones cutáneas hasta infecciones sistémicas, ha centrado la atención de recientes investigaciones en determinar el verdadero rol patogénico de estas levaduras.The study of Malassezia has been postponed for many years due to its nutritional requirements and its morphological variability. Molecular biology methods led to a taxonomic revision of this genus and to a new interest for its clinical importance. Nowadays, 11 Malassezia species are known, 10 are lipophilic, having similar morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, therefore, conventional techniques are not useful to differentiating them. Molecular methods are an accurate tool in the identification and they lead to a better

  20. Malassezia-Can it be ignored?

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    Ambujavalli Balakrishnan Thayikkannu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Malassezia comprises of 14 species of "yeast like fungi," 13 of which are lipophilic and 1 is nonlipophilic. They are known commensals and in predisposed individuals they commonly cause a spectrum of chronic recurrent infections. They rarely also cause serious illnesses like catheter-related blood stream infections, CAPD associated peritonitis etc., Though these fungi have been known to man for over 150 years, their fastidious nature and cumbersome culture and speciation techniques have restricted research. Since the last taxonomic revision, seven new species have been added to this genus. Their ability to evade the host immune system and virulence has increased the spectrum of the diseases caused by them. These agents have been implicated as causal agents in common diseases like atopic dermatitis recently. Though culture-based research is difficult, the new molecular analysis techniques and facilities have increased research in this field such that we can devote more attention to this genus to study in detail, their characteristics and their growing implications implications in the clinical scenario.

  1. Proximal onychomycosis due to Malassezia furfur: a case report

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    Zareei M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiologic role of Malassezia furfur in onychomycosis, because of its controversial keratinolytic ability, has not been proven. The most reported cases are distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO. In our knowledge no cases of proximal onychomycosis (PO has been reported. For the first time we report proximal onychomycosis. This case report describes the isolation of Malassezia furfur from fingernails. Case presentation: An Iranian 56- year- old women had been referred to mycology lab with hyperkeratosis in proximal regions of right hand nails and clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis without paronychia in May 2012. She used several medicines for her cardiac disease, mental illness, severe stress and blood glucose fluctuation diseases. Scraping and sampling from nail lesions were done, budding yeast cells with broadband connections were observed in 15% KOH wet mounts. Also, other differentiation tests, consist of staining with methylen blue, cultures and biochemical tests were done. In order to rejecting the probable etiologic role of any dermatophytic or non-dermatophytic fungi in this case, samples were collected from other parts of the body by scotch tape and scraping with scalpel blade too, but the results of direct microscopy and culture were negative. Finally, Malassezia furfur was identified as the causative agent of onychomycosis.Conclusion: Despite failure to prove Malassezia furfur keratinolytic ability, it can be the etiologic agent of proximal onychomycosis that shows the aggressive properties of this species. Its clinical importance is the easier transmission to hospitalized patients and other people.

  2. Gentamycin inhibits the growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in culture

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    Aspiroz, C.; Gilaberte, Y.; Rezusta, A.; Boekhout, T.; Rubio, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast of importance in both veterinary and human medicine. Aims: To know if M. pachydermatis grow on micological media with high concentrations of gentamycin. Methods: Twenty M. pachydermatis strains were streaked on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates with

  3. Elevated levels of IgG and IgG4 to Malassezia allergens in atopic eczema patients with IgE reactivity to Malassezia

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    Johansson, Catharina; Tengvall Linder, Maria; Aalberse, Rob C.; Scheynius, Annika

    2004-01-01

    The opportunistic yeast Malassezia is considered to be one of the factors that can contribute to atopic eczema (AE). Elevated serum IgE levels, T-cell proliferation and positive skin prick test (SPT) and atopy patch test (APT) reactions to Malassezia are found among AE patients. Sera from 127 AE

  4. Malassezia Yeast and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Jain, Charu; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V G; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S N; Dar, Sajad

    2017-03-01

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent chronic condition associated with microorganism and their interaction with the susceptible host. Malassezia yeast is a known commensal which is thought to provoke the recurrent episodes of symptoms in atopic dermatitis patients. Malassezia immunomodulatory properties along with defective skin barrier in such host, results in disease manifestation. Here, we studied Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in IL10 and IFN γ genes of the host and its relation with susceptibility to Malassezia infection. To isolate Malassezia yeast from AD patients and compare the genetic susceptibility of the host by correlating the cytokine gene polymorphism with the control subjects. Study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. It was a prospective observational study done in Department of Microbiology and Department of Dermatology and Venereology in University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi. Sample size comprised of 38 cases each of AD. Skin scrapings were used for fungal culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Modified Dixon Agar (MDA) and isolated were identified as per conventional phenotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from all study subjects. Cytokine genotyping was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutations System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) with sequence specific primers. Three SNPs (IL10-1082A/G; IL10-819/592C/T; IFN-γ+874A/T) in two cytokine genes were assessed in all the patients and healthy controls. Chi-Square Test or Fisher's-Exact Test and Bonferroni's correction. In AD group, Malassezia yeasts were cultured in 24 out of 38 samples and thus the identification rate was 63.1 percent as compared to healthy group, 52.6 percent (20/38). Significant difference in allele, or genotype distribution were observed in IL10-819/592C/T and IFN-γ+874A/T gene polymorphism in AD group. Higher isolation rate in cases as compared to control group highlights the

  5. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are

  6. Dandruff-associated Malassezia genomes reveal convergent and divergent virulence traits shared with plant and human fungal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Saunders, C.; Hu, P.; Grant, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Kuramae, E.E.; Kronstad, J.W.; DeAngelis, Y.M.; Reeder, N.L.; Johnstone, K.R.; Leland, M.; Fieno, A.M.; Begley, W.M.; Sun, Y.; Lacey, M.P.; Chaudhary, T.; Keough, T.; Chu, L.; Sears, R.; Yuan, B.; Dawson Jr., T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Malassezia are ubiquitous skin residents of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Malassezia are involved in disorders including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis, which together affect >50% of humans. Despite the importance of Malassezia in common skin diseases, remarkably

  7. Dandruff-associated Malassezia genomes reveal convergent and divergent virulence traits shared with plant and human fungal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.; Hu, Ping; Grant, Raymond A.; Boekhout, Teun; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Kronstad, James W.; DeAngelis, Yvonne M.; Reeder, Nancy L.; Johnstone, Kevin R.; Leland, Meredith; Fieno, Angela M.; Begley, William M.; Sun, Yiping; Lacey, Martin P.; Chaudhary, Tanuja; Keough, Thomas; Chu, Lien; Sears, Russell; Yuan, Bo; Dawson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Malassezia are ubiquitous skin residents of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Malassezia are involved in disorders including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis, which together affect > 50% of humans. Despite the importance of Malassezia in common skin diseases, remarkably

  8. Fabrication of ketoconazole nanoparticles and their activity against Malassezia furfur

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    PRITI PARALIKAR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Paralikar P. 2015. Fabrication of ketoconazole nanoparticles and their activity against Malassezia furfur. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 43-47. In the present study, ketoconazole nanoparticles were synthesized from commercially available ketoconazole powder. Sonication is the physical method used to fabricate ketoconazole nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, NTA analysis and TEM analysis reveals the formation of polydispersed ketoconazole nanoparticles with 51nm particle size. The antifungal study demonstrates that synthesized ketoconazole nanoparticles exhibit significant activity against Malassezia furfur as compared with commercially available ketoconazole powder. Further, nanogel was prepared using ketoconazole nanoparticles which showed significant antimalassezial activity.After systematic trial, the ketoconazole nanoparticles containing gel can be used as antidandruff gel.

  9. Blood culture procedures and diagnosis of Malassezia furfur bloodstream infections : Strength and weakness

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    Iatta, Roberta; Battista, Michela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Boekhout, Teun; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of Malassezia spp. bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit was evaluated by using pediatric Isolator, BacT/Alert systems and central venous catheter (CVC) culture. The efficacy of BacT/Alert system in detecting Malassezia was assessed by conventional procedures,

  10. Malassezia vespertilionis sp. nov.: a new cold-tolerant species of yeast isolated from bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorch, J.M.; Palmer, J.M.; Vanderwolf, K.J.; Schmidt, K.Z.; Verant, M.L.; Weller, T.J.; Blehert, D.S.

    2018-01-01

    Malassezia is a genus of medically-important, lipid-dependent yeasts that live on the skin of warmblooded animals. The 17 described species have been documented primarily on humans and domestic animals, but few studies have examined Malassezia species associated with more diverse host groups such as

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  12. Pitiríase versicolor circinada: isolamento de Malassezia sympodialis - Relato de caso Pityriasis versicolor circinata: isolation of Malassezia sympodialis - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem caso de pitiríase versicolor circinada, cujo agente etiológico isolado foi Malassezia sympodialis em uma mulher de 34 anos. O isolamento e identificação da Malassezia sympodialis foi em ágar Dixon modificado e o método molecular para confirmação da espécie foi PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The authors report a case of pityriasis versicolor circinata whose isolated etiologic agent was Malassezia sympodialis in a 34-year-old woman. The isolation and identification of Malassezia sympodialis were accomplished with modified Dixon's agar, and the molecular method used to confirm the species was polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP.

  13. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia-related skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Marianne; Arendrup, Maiken C; Svejgaard, Else L

    2015-01-01

    Internationally approved guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Malassezia-related skin diseases are lacking. Therefore, a panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and a microbiologist under the auspices of the Danish Society of Dermatology undertook a data review and compiled...... guidelines for the diagnostic procedures and management of pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis and Malassezia folliculitis. Main recommendations in most cases of pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis include topical treatment which has been shown to be sufficient. As first choice....... Maintenance therapy is often necessary to prevent relapses. In the treatment of Malassezia folliculitis systemic antifungal treatment is probably more effective than topical treatment but a combination may be favourable....

  14. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Lipid Metabolic Versatility in Malassezia spp. Yeasts Studied through Metabolic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triana, Sergio; de Cock, Hans; Ohm, Robin A; Danies, Giovanna; Wösten, Han A B; Restrepo, Silvia; González Barrios, Andrés F; Celis Ramirez, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic

  16. Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J

    2015-12-01

    Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic value of nested-PCR for identification of Malassezia species in dandruff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, N. K.; Nasution, T. A.; Ullyana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Dandruff or pityriasis simplex is a condition of abnormal occurrence of formation of yellowish white scales from the scalp. Many factors play a role in the pathogenesis of dandruff, i.e.colonization of Malassezia species. Examination of Malassezia species previously done by culture as the gold standard. However, there are various difficulties in doing the culture. Identification method with anested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) is expected to provide quickly and easily detected. This study aimedto determine the diagnostic value of nested-PCR in the identification of Malassezia species in dandruff. From 21 subjects, scales from the scalp were taken and sent to the laboratory for nested-PCR identification. Statistical analysis of diagnostic test carried out to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The results showed nested-PCR detected 10 sample (47.6%) positive for Malassezia species consist of M. sympodialis (23.8%); M. slooffiae (9.5%); M. furfur (4.8%); M. globosa and M. furfur (4.8%); and M. restricta and M. sympodialis (4.8%). Detection of Malassezia species by nested-PCR has 100% in sensitivity whereas the specificity was 55%. Nested-PCR test has high sensitivity. Therefore nested-PCR may be considered for a faster and simpler alternative examination in identification for Malassezia species in dandruff.

  18. The Effect of Detergents on the Morphology and Immunomodulatory Activity of Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kwon, Kyung-Sool; Oh, Chang-Keun

    2009-05-01

    Several workers have found that Malassezia are capable of suppressing cytokine release and downregulating the phagocytic function of monocytes. But lipid-depleted Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) extracts have also been shown to induce increased production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta in monocytes. We thought that the detergents in shampoos or soaps could change the composition of the lipid in the M. furfur cell wall. We studied whether detergents affect the morphology of M. furfur and if the inflammatory cytokine profiles change in the monocytes treated with detergent-treated M. furfur. Commonly used detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate and tween-80 were respectively added to the modified Leeming-Notman's media. M. furfur was cultivated in each media (detergent-added or untreated). Thereafter, the surface morphology of the yeast was evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The cytokine profiles of monocytes, which were treated by M. furfur with or without detergents, were also evaluated. The detergent-treated M. furfur were similar to the lipid-extracted form of M. furfur on the electron microscopic study, with a recessed, withered surface and with thinner and rather electron transparent cell walls than the detergent-untreated M. furfur. The levels of TNF-alpha were higher in monocytes treated with detergent-treated Malassezia than that in the monocytes treated with the detergent-untreated Malassezia (pdetergents in shampoos or soaps affect the lipid layers of the Malassezia cell wall and these lipid-extracted Malassezia induce or aggravate some inflammatory conditions. But to correlate the relationship between detergents and Malassezia-associated diseases, in vivo experiments that will focus on short-term contact with detergents in real life conditions should be done.

  19. The first case of isolation of malassezia globosa in our country

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today is known that genus Malassezia includes seven species: M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. obtusa, M. globosa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae and M. pachydermatis, but role of each of the species in the pathogenesis of desease has not been eluciated yet, so futher laboratory isolation and identification are necessary. We report the first case of isolation of Malassezia globosa in Serbia (Belgrade, in a patient suffering from Pityriasis versicolor. Identification of M. globosa was based on macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Isolation was done on Leeming and Notman medium and on mDixona agar, at 350C, during 7 days in aerobic conditions. Also the yeast's biochemical phenotype was determined as catalase (+, lipase (+, esculin degradation (-, Tween (20,40, 60 and 80 asimilation (-. M. globosa is a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia and the common member of the skin flora. In concordance with some predis-poning factors M. globosa is implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases (pityriasis versicolor, malassezia foliculitis sebor-rheic dermatitis and some forms of atopic dermatitis. In immuno-compromised patients and neonates this yeast can even cause fatal systemic infections. Because the role of Malassezia spp. in pathogenesis of skin desease is not still determined, we suggest laboratory diagnosis and identification of these species as a routine diagnostic procedure.

  20. AVALIAÇÕES CITOLÓGICAS EM OTITES CANINAS POR MALASSEZIA SPP.: ESTUDO RETROSPECTIVO

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    Alessandra Melchert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Otitis externa is a condition frequently observed in dogs at the small animal clinics. Malassezia spp. is the most frequently isolated microorganism in the ears of dogs, which is one of the major etiologic agents of ear infections. Identification of this agent may be based on fungal culture or cytology, and the first method is longer and more expensive. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective study of the incidence of Malassezia spp. in cases of canine otitis by cytology, in a period of five years. Ear cytology samples from 249 dogs with suspected otitis were evaluated, and were observed positive samples for Malassezia spp. in 44 cases (17.67%, among these 35 dogs (79.5% with positive cytology in both ears, and 9 dogs (20.5% were positive for Malassezia in only one ear. In conclusion, dogs with suspected otitis present high incidence of positive Malassezia spp. cytology counts. Cytology revealed to be a useful tool for diagnosis of canine ear infections involving this pathogen, representing diagnostic alternative in cases where the culture is not feasible. However, one must consider that there is no national standard cytological counting yeast cells/field set for cases of canine otitis, which may represent possible misdiagnosis.

  1. Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach

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    Anand Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae, a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region, has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV and seborrheic dermatitis (SD in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals.

  2. Identification and speciation of Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having pityriasis versicolor

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    Avani Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood′s lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71% in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81% who were students (30.21% by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%, followed by M. furfur (34.28%. Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood′s lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.

  3. In vitro activity of kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction against Malassezia species isolated from seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, M A; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti- Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta , respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia .

  4. Malassezia vespertilionis sp. nov.: A new cold-tolerant species of yeast isolated from bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Vanderwolf, Karen J.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Verant, Michelle L.; Weller, Theodore J.; Blehert, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Malassezia is a genus of medically-important, lipid-dependent yeasts that live on the skin of warm-blooded animals. The 17 described species have been documented primarily on humans and domestic animals, but few studies have examined Malassezia species associated with more diverse host groups such as wildlife. While investigating the skin mycobiota of healthy bats, we isolated a Malassezia sp. that exhibited only up to 92 % identity with other known species in the genus for the portion of the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region that could be confidently aligned. The Malassezia sp. was cultured from the skin of nine species of bats in the subfamily Myotinae; isolates originated from bats sampled in both the eastern and western United States. Physiological features and molecular characterisation at seven additional loci (D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, 18S rDNA, chitin synthase, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, β-tubulin, translation elongation factor EF-1α, and minichromosome maintenance complex component 7) indicated that all of the bat Malasseziaisolates likely represented a single species distinct from other named taxa. Of particular note was the ability of the Malassezia sp. to grow over a broad range of temperatures (7–40 °C), with optimal growth occurring at 24 °C. These thermal growth ranges, unique among the described Malassezia, may be an adaptation by the fungus to survive on bats during both the host's hibernation and active seasons. The combination of genetic and physiological differences provided compelling evidence that this lipid-dependent yeast represents a novel species described herein as Malassezia vespertilionis sp. nov. Whole genome sequencing placed the new species as a basal member of the clade containing the species M. furfur, M. japonica, M. obtusa, and M. yamatoensis. The genetic and physiological uniqueness of Malassezia vespertilionis among its closest relatives may make it

  5. Pitiríase versicolor: isolamento e identificação das principais espécies de Malassezia Pityriasis versicolor: isolation and identification of the main species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Malassezia isoladas foram: Malassezia sympodialis (16,66%, Malassezia furfur (12,50%, Malassezia globosa (11,45% e Malassezia slooffiae (2,10%. A Malassezia sympodialis foi a espécie que predominou em nosso estudo. As espécies de Malassezia identificadas não mostraram correlação com as variantes clínicas e com a distribuição das lesões de pitiríase versicolor quanto às regiões do corpo.Species of the genus Malassezia isolated were: Malassezia sympodialis (16.66%, Malassezia furfur (12.50%, Malassezia globosa (11.45%, and Malassezia slooffiae (2.10%. Malassezia sympodialis predominated in the study. The species of Malassezia identified did not show correlation with clinical variants and with the distribution of pityriasis versicolor lesions in relation to areas of the body.

  6. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  7. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64 with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741 were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of Malassezia species on skin and external ear canal of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The role of L-DOPA on melanization and mycelial production in Malassezia furfur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirida Youngchim

    Full Text Available Melanins are synthesized by organisms of all biological kingdoms and comprise a heterogeneous class of natural pigments. Certain of these polymers have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human fungal pathogens. This study investigated whether the fungal skin pathogen Malassezia furfur produces melanin or melanin-like compounds. A melanin-binding monoclonal antibody (MAb labelled in vitro cultivated yeast cells of M. furfur. In addition, melanization of Malassezia yeasts and hyphae was detected by anti-melanin MAb in scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Treatment of Malassezia yeasts with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and concentrated hot acid yielded dark particles and electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that these particles contained a stable free radical compound, consistent with their identification as melanins. Malassezia yeasts required phenolic compounds, such as L-DOPA, in order to synthesize melanin. L-DOPA also triggered hyphal formation in vitro when combined with kojic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, L-DOPA is thought to be an essential substance that is linked to both melanization and yeast-mycelial transformation in M. furfur. In summary, M. furfur can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and in vivo, and the DOPA melanin pathway is involved in cell wall melanization.

  10. Bloodstream infections by Malassezia and Candida species in critical care patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iatta, R.; Cafarchia, C.; Cuna, T.; Montagna, M.T.; Laforgia, N.; Gentile, O.; Rizzo, A.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being considered an emerging yeast related to immunocompromised individuals, severe infections by Malassezia furfur have not been evaluated. During a one-year survey on yeasts fungemia, 290 neonatal and 17 pediatric patients with intravascular catheters, lipid parenteral nutrition, prolonged

  11. Concordance between otic cytology and culture in diagnosis of external otitis canine by Malassezia spp

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    Adriana Pulido-Villamarín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the correlation between microbiological culture and otic cytology for diagnoses of external otitis by Malassezia in dogs. Materials and methods. 158 ear swabs of dogs with clinical diagnosis of external otitis were analyzed by cytology, mycological culture and metabolic tests. Results. Were obtained a positive results by cytology of 62% and 75.3% by culture. The 31.1% of isolates were identified as M. pachydermatis, 12.6% as M. furfur and 56.3% were classified as Malassezia spp., because was not possible to define the species. We found a positive concordance between cytology and culture for Malassezia spp., of 0.76 with a kappa index of 0.448 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.60 which represents a moderate strength of concordance between the two techniques, without regard the identified species. Conclusions. The use of a diagnostic test is not enough to establish the participation of Malassezia spp., as a causal disease agent.

  12. The Role of L-DOPA on Melanization and Mycelial Production in Malassezia Furfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchim, Sirida; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Kajiwara, Susumu; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are synthesized by organisms of all biological kingdoms and comprise a heterogeneous class of natural pigments. Certain of these polymers have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human fungal pathogens. This study investigated whether the fungal skin pathogen Malassezia furfur produces melanin or melanin-like compounds. A melanin-binding monoclonal antibody (MAb) labelled in vitro cultivated yeast cells of M. furfur. In addition, melanization of Malassezia yeasts and hyphae was detected by anti-melanin MAb in scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Treatment of Malassezia yeasts with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and concentrated hot acid yielded dark particles and electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that these particles contained a stable free radical compound, consistent with their identification as melanins. Malassezia yeasts required phenolic compounds, such as L-DOPA, in order to synthesize melanin. L-DOPA also triggered hyphal formation in vitro when combined with kojic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, L-DOPA is thought to be an essential substance that is linked to both melanization and yeast-mycelial transformation in M. furfur. In summary, M. furfur can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and in vivo, and the DOPA melanin pathway is involved in cell wall melanization. PMID:23762233

  13. Especies de Malassezia aisladas de pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas

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    Sandra Rincón

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las levaduras del género Malassezia forman parte de la flora normal de la piel y se asocian con varios tipos de lesiones dermatológicas. Desde 1996, la descripción de nuevas especies dentro de este género planteó numerosos interrogantes sobre su epidemiología y patogenicidad. Objetivo. El fin de este trabajo fue encontrar la frecuencia de las diferentes especies de Malassezia en individuos con pitiriasis versicolor, dermatitis atópica, dermatitis seborreica, dermatitis seborreica en pacientes positivos para VIH, y en individuos sin lesiones a partir de tres zonas corporales (cabeza, tórax, extremidades inferiores y superiores. Materiales y métodos. Se identificaron 154 aislamientos de especies de Malassezia de 112 individuos: 39 con dermatitis seborreica de los cuales 20 eran positivos para VIH, 18 con pitiriasis versicolor, 18 con dermatitis atópica y 37 individuos sin lesión dermatológica (controles. Las escamas de piel de los pacientes se observaron microscópicamente y las muestras de pacientes y controles se cultivaron en agar Dixon modificado. Posteriormente, se observaron las colonias y se identificaron según sus características macroscópicas, microscópicas y fisiológicas. Resultados. Las especies más frecuentemente aisladas en el total de los grupos estudiados fueron: Malassezia globosa (37,5%, M. sympodialis (31,3% y M. furfur (31,3%. M. globosa predominó en los aislamientos de pacientes con pitiriasis versicolor (67% y en pacientes positivos para VIH con dermatitis seborreica (85%. En pacientes con dermatitis atópica y dermatitis seborreica sin diagnóstico de VIH, se aislaron M. furfur y M. restricta en el 72% y el 26% de los casos, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Las diferentes especies de Malassezia pueden aislarse de pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas o sin ellas. Además, la frecuencia de especies en la población muestreada difiere de lo reportado en otras zonas geográficas. Se destaca la

  14. Malassezia pachydermatis fungemia in a preterm neonate resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine

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    Noura Al-Sweih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of Malassezia pachydermatis fungemia in a preterm neonate is described. The isolate was identified by rDNA sequencing and was resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine. Since M. pachydermatis does not require lipid supplementation for growth, it can be misidentified as a Candida species. The report highlights M. pachydermatis as a cause of late onset sepsis in preterm neonates and emphasizes the need for prior antifungal susceptibility testing.

  15. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India

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    Chaudhary Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Aim: Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests. Results: In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon′s agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5% were M. globosa, 15 (17.2% were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0% were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9% each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4% isolates were M. restricta. Conclusion: M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  16. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India.

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    Chaudhary, Rahul; Singh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Tuhina; Tilak, Ragini

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests). In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon's agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5%) were M. globosa, 15 (17.2%) were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0%) were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9%) each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4%) isolates were M. restricta. M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  17. ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTIVATED ZINC PYRITHIONE IN RELATION TO MALASSEZIA IN PATIENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

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    E.V. Golysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of a study whose purpose was to determine the antimycotic action of activated zinc pyrithione (AZP against Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. 30 patients diagnosed with AD and aged 3 to 18 years were studied. A mycological study that aimed to identify Malassezia was done by the scraping method and skin surface collection using a cotton ball on a 1 cm2 area, with further yeast maintenance procedure in a selective environment. The activated zinc pyrithione in the form of cream was applied on children’s skin of the left shoulder and forearm twice a day. Nothing but a moisturizing cream was applied to the skin on the right shoulder and forearm. The samples for mycobiota were taken on both sides three times: before AZP treatment, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. As a result of treatment, a two-fold reduction in skin colonization with Malassezia just in a week’s time (up to 102–105 КОЕ/cm2. The significant dynamics was observed in the modification of species diversity which got more sparse in skin areas where activated zinc pyrithione cream was applied. The follow-up results confirm that AZP has a moderate antimycotic effect. Key words: atopic dermatitis, treatment, activated zinc pyrithione, antimycotic action, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:58-62

  18. Comparative efficacies of oral ketoconazole and terbinafine for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of Basset Hounds.

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    Guillot, Jacques; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Jankowski, François; Seewald, Wolfgang; Chermette, René; Steffan, Jean

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral ketoconazole and terbinafine for reducing population sizes of Malassezia yeasts on canine skin. Twenty-one Basset Hounds were randomised in three groups of seven according to Malassezia populations. Dogs in the first group were treated by oral administration of ketoconazole (Ketofungol) 200 mg, Janssen-Cilag) at 10 mg x kg-1, every 24 h with food, for 3 weeks. Dogs in the second group were treated by oral administration of terbinafine (Lamisil) 250 mg, Novartis) at 30 mg x kg-1, every 24 h with food, for 3 weeks. The seven remaining dogs were used as controls. Malassezia population sizes were assessed by use of contact plates on four cutaneous sites at days 7, 14 and 21. Both ketoconazole and terbinafine were effective in reducing the baseline levels of Malassezia organisms with no significant difference between the two drugs. In further studies, oral terbinafine should be evaluated for the management of canine cases of Malassezia dermatitis.

  19. FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Calcineurin Mediates Immunosuppressive Antifungal Drug Action in Malassezia.

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    Ianiri, Giuseppe; Applen Clancey, Shelly; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph

    2017-10-24

    The genus Malassezia includes yeasts that are commonly found on the skin or hair of animals and humans as commensals and are associated with a number of skin disorders. We have previously developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system effective for both targeted gene deletion and insertional mutagenesis in Malassezia furfur and M. sympodialis In the present study, these molecular resources were applied to characterize the immunophilin FKBP12 as the target of tacrolimus (FK506), ascomycin, and pimecrolimus, which are calcineurin inhibitors that are used as alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders such as those associated with Malassezia species. While M. furfur and M. sympodialis showed in vitro sensitivity to these agents, fkb1 Δ mutants displayed full resistance to all three of them, confirming that FKBP12 is the target of these calcineurin inhibitors and is essential for their activity. We found that calcineurin inhibitors act additively with fluconazole through an FKBP12-dependent mechanism. Spontaneous M. sympodialis isolates resistant to calcineurin inhibitors had mutations in the gene encoding FKBP12 in regions predicted to affect the interactions between FKBP12 and FK506 based on structural modeling. Due to the presence of homopolymer nucleotide repeats in the gene encoding FKBP12, an msh2 Δ hypermutator of M. sympodialis was engineered and exhibited an increase of more than 20-fold in the rate of emergence of resistance to FK506 compared to that of the wild-type strain, with the majority of the mutations found in these repeats. IMPORTANCE Malassezia species are the most abundant fungal components of the mammalian and human skin microbiome. Although they belong to the natural skin commensal flora of humans, they are also associated with a variety of clinical skin disorders. The standard treatment for Malassezia -associated inflammatory skin infections is topical corticosteroids, although their use

  20. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

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    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  1. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

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    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  2. FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Calcineurin Mediates Immunosuppressive Antifungal Drug Action in Malassezia

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    Giuseppe Ianiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Malassezia includes yeasts that are commonly found on the skin or hair of animals and humans as commensals and are associated with a number of skin disorders. We have previously developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system effective for both targeted gene deletion and insertional mutagenesis in Malassezia furfur and M. sympodialis. In the present study, these molecular resources were applied to characterize the immunophilin FKBP12 as the target of tacrolimus (FK506, ascomycin, and pimecrolimus, which are calcineurin inhibitors that are used as alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders such as those associated with Malassezia species. While M. furfur and M. sympodialis showed in vitro sensitivity to these agents, fkb1Δ mutants displayed full resistance to all three of them, confirming that FKBP12 is the target of these calcineurin inhibitors and is essential for their activity. We found that calcineurin inhibitors act additively with fluconazole through an FKBP12-dependent mechanism. Spontaneous M. sympodialis isolates resistant to calcineurin inhibitors had mutations in the gene encoding FKBP12 in regions predicted to affect the interactions between FKBP12 and FK506 based on structural modeling. Due to the presence of homopolymer nucleotide repeats in the gene encoding FKBP12, an msh2Δ hypermutator of M. sympodialis was engineered and exhibited an increase of more than 20-fold in the rate of emergence of resistance to FK506 compared to that of the wild-type strain, with the majority of the mutations found in these repeats.

  3. Identificación de especies de Malassezia aisladas de piel sana en pobladores de Lima, Perú

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    Vilma Bejar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar las especies de Malassezia en zonas seborreicas de piel sana en población limeña. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Lugar: Instituto de Medicina Tropical ‘Daniel Alcides Carrión’, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Pobladores asintomáticos. Intervenciones: Empleando la técnica de Mariat y Adan-Campos, se recolectó muestras de piel de 129 pobladores asintomáticos de diversos distritos de la ciudad de Lima. El aislamiento de Malassezia se realizó en medio Dixon modificado e incubado a 32ºC por 7 días, la identificación de las colonias por sus características macro y micromorfológicas, y la tipificación mediante el estudio de las propiedades bioquímicas y fisiológicas según la técnica de Guillot y col. Principales medidas de resultados: Especie de Malassezia, sexo, edad y región anatómica. Resultados: Se aisló Malassezia spp en 43,4% de los pobladores, obteniéndose 49,2% en varones y 37,5% en mujeres. De las diferentes regiones corporales, 68 cultivos fueron positivos: cuero cabelludo 31 (45,6%, espalda 36 (52,9% y región frontal 1 (1,5%. El grupo etario con mayor frecuencia de aislamientos (47,2% fue el de 14 a 25 años (adolescentes jóvenes. M. slooffiae fue encontrado en 83,8% y M. obtusa en 16,2% de los casos. Conclusiones: Se encontró Malassezia spp. en la piel humana sana. M. slooffiae fue la especie predominante de los casos positivos (83,8% seguido de M. obtusa (16,2%.

  4. The Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Teucrium polium on Candida Albicans and Two Species of Malassezia

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    Maryam Nadimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teucrium polium L. is a medicinal plant, which due to its antimicrobial, antispasmodic and anti-tumor properties has been used in traditional medicine for over 2000 years. The aim of this research was to study the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L. against three strains of Candida albicans (ATCC 62061, ATCC 1677, and NCPF 3153, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa using pour plate method. Materials and Methods: Teucrium polium L. was collected from Broojen area during the spring. The plant was dried and powdered. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from the fine powder. Different concentrations of extracts (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml were made in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and modified Leeming-Notman Agar (MLNA medium for Candida albicans, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa. 1.5×106 cfu/ml of yeasts, were cultured on media and incubated at 37ºC and 32ºC respectively. Pour plate method was used to assess the antifungal activity of these extracts.Results: The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. on the three strains of Candida albicans was depended on concentration level of extracts in media. Aqueous extract had inhibitory effect on Candida albicans (NCPF 3153 only, and with increasing of the extract concentration, the number of colonies was decreased, so that in concentration of 8 mg/ml, no growth was seen. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts had no inhibitory effect on Malassezia species. Conclusion: Teucrium polium L. extracts have considerable inhibitory effect on different strains of Candida albicans. Further investigations are needed to detect the effectiveness of this plant in treatment of Candida infections.

  5. Distribution of Malassezia species on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and healthy volunteers assessed by conventional and molecular identification methods.

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    Jagielski, Tomasz; Rup, Elżbieta; Ziółkowska, Aleksandra; Roeske, Katarzyna; Macura, Anna B; Bielecki, Jacek

    2014-03-07

    The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P < 0.03). Whether this mirrors any predilection of particular Malassezia species for certain clinical conditions needs to be further evaluated. The overall concordance between phenotypic and molecular methods was quite high (65%), with the discordant results being rather due to the presence of multiple species in a single culture (co-colonization) than true misidentification. All Malassezia isolates were susceptible to cyclopiroxolamine and azole drugs, with M. furfur isolates being somewhat more drug tolerant than other Malassezia species

  6. Polimorfismos genéticos de aislamientos del género Malassezia obtenidos en Colombia de pacientes con lesión dermatológica y sin ella.

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    Adriana M. Celis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las especies del género Malassezia se consideran levaduras oportunistas emergentes de gran importancia. Han sido asociadas a diferentes patologías dermatológicas y sistémicas de las cuales se aislan una o más especies de este género. El papel de estas levaduras en las enfermedades dermatológicas no se ha aclarado completamente, ya que la Malassezia spp. pertenece a la flora normal de la piel. Objetivo. Buscar marcadores genéticos en los aislamientos de Malassezia spp. que permitan correlacionar las lesiones dermatológicas con las especies aisladas. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron 103 aislamientos de Malassezia spp. a partir de muestras de pacientes con pitiriasis versicolor, dermatitis seborreica, dermatitis seborreica en pacientes positivos para VIH, dermatitis atópica, y de individuos sanos. Para los controles se usaron ocho cepas del Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS, Holanda. El perfil genético se realizó utilizando la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado aleatorio (RAPD con tres iniciadores (OPA2, OPA4, OPA13. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con los programas Diversity Database y SYN-TAX-PC. Resultados. Se observó heterogeneidad genética intraespecífica en Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia restricta, Malassezia slooffiae y Malassezia obtusa, mientras que Malassezia sympodialis mostró mayor homogeneidad. Conclusión. No se determinó ningún patrón genético específico mediante la técnica de RAPD para las especies de Malassezia que se pudiera relacionar con la entidad dermatológica implicada.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

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    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution

  8. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

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    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  9. Detection of Malassezia Species Isolated From Patients With Pityriasis Versicolor and Seborrheic Dermatitis Using Nested-PCR

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    Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The species of the genus Malassezia are lipophilic and dimorphic yeasts that are regarded as part of the normal flora of the skin of humans and warm-blooded animals. These organisms are the cause of superficial mycosis in humans and other animals, and are common in pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of common Malassezia species in patients affected by pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis using of the nested PCR method, in the city of Ahvaz. Patients and Methods In the present study, 85 samples from patients with pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were analyzed by the nested-PCR method. During the first stage, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region from the ribosomal DNA was reproduced using primers ITS4-R and ITS1F-N. During the second stage, the product of the first step was used as DNA and using three special primer pairs, including Mf-F, 5.8SR and M.gl-F, 5.8SR and M.rt-F and M.rt-R, the inner part of the first phase was detected. Results The most common isolate was Malassezia furfur (51.3% followed by M. globosa (35.2% and M. restricta (13.5%. Amongst the 30 patients with seborrheic dermatitis, in 15 cases (65.2% M. restricta, in six cases (26.1% M. globosa and in two cases (8.7% M. furfur was detected and in seven patients no isolate was detected. Conclusions The nested-PCR is a rapid and repeatable method for identification of important Malassezia species and this method is recommended for use on more patients. In addition the most common agents of pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were M. furfur and M. restricta, respectively.

  10. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran

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    Zeraati Hojjat

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%, followed by M. furfur (25.3%, M. sympodialis(9.3%, M. obtusa (8.1% and M. slooffiae (4.0%. The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

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    Vilhelmsson, Monica, E-mail: monica.vilhelmsson@medks.ki.se [Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, B. Martin [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika [Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Achour, Adnane [Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  12. Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Chotipatoomwan, Ployphand; Panyadee, Sasikan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2011-03-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) has been used in cooking and in many traditional medicines; the essential oil contains citral as a major constituent. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil against Malassezia furfur, an opportunistic yeast associated with dandruff, by using a broth dilution assay. From the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) obtained, the oil was then incorporated at different percentages into shampoo formulations. The formulated shampoos were kept at room temperature (28 degrees-30 degrees C) and under accelerated condition (45 degrees C). At the end of the first and sixth weeks, after preparation, all formulations were tested again and the appearance was recorded. Selection of an appropriate formula was based on antifungal activity against M. furfur, the physical appearance, the chemical properties and stability of the formula. Two percent lemongrass oil shampoo provided the required qualities necessary for commercial use. After being kept for 6 weeks at 28 degrees-30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, this formulated shampoo gave MFCs against M. furfur of 75 microl/ml and 18.75 microl/ml, respectively.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  14. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  15. Molecular heterogeneity of Malassezia pachydermatis through RAPD-PCR = Heterogeneidade molecular da Malassezia pachydermatis através de RAPD-PCR

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    Patrícia da Silva Nascente

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies in molecular biology have been used in theinvestigation of Malassezia pachydermatis and its differentiation into subtypes. Recent molecular research of this species includes the use of samples isolated from canine otitis externa and dermatitis, as well as from healthy animals, having in view an epidemiologicalstudy of the yeast. The aim of this study was to identify molecular differences in M. pachydermatis samples isolated from dogs with otitis externa. The M. pachydermatis strains were analyzed by means of the Random Amplification Primer DNA - Polimerase Chain Reaction (RAPD–PCR for molecular heterogeneity research. DNA extraction was carried out with phenol-chloroform and the RAPD technique using the AGAATCCGCC primer. A variation was observed in the number and arrangement of the bands among the 49 studied isolates, grouped into nine patterns. Isolate groupings were not found to be related to animal breed, age or sex. It was concluded that M. pachydermatis has differences in its molecular profile, as shown by the molecular technique (RAPD – PCR, which allows isolates to be classified into nine subtypes.Várias metodologias em biologia molecular têm sido aplicadas para estudar a M. pachydermatis diferenciando-a em subgrupos. Recentemente utiliza-se a investigação molecular desta espécie isolada de otite externa e dermatite, e também de isolados da mesma de animais hígidos, para um estudo epidemiológico da levedura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar diferenças moleculares entre isolados de M. pachydermatis obtidos de casos de otite externa canina. Para isto, amostras da levedura provenientes de cães com esta enfermidade foram estudadas através da técnica de Polimorfismo de DNA Amplificado aoAcaso - Reação da Polimerase em Cadeia (RAPD–PCR para pesquisa de heterogeneidade molecular. A extração de DNA foi realizada no processo fenol-cloroformio e a técnica de RAPD foi estudada com o primer

  16. RAPD-based genotyping of Malassezia pachydermatis from Domestic and wild animals

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    Franciele Cristina Kagueyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis is a fungus of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Although a part of the normal microbiota, it can sometimes be present in its pathogenic form, particularly causing otitis and dermatitis in animals. Among human beings, it mainly affects immune compromised patients and newborns, causing simple pustulosis, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor or fungemia. This study aimed to analyze the genomic polymorphism in M. pachydermatis samples isolated from Canis familiaris (domestic dog, Felis catus (domestic cat, and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater. Two hundred and fourteen samples were collected and cultured in Sabouraud agar with chloranphenicol (100mg L-1 and incubated at 37 °C for a period of 7 to 10 days. One hundred and sixty six samples that appeared morphologically comparable to yeast cultures were processed for DNA extraction and PCR was performed for a specific region in the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS of M. pachydermatis. Among these, seven (4.21% were negative and 159 (95.79% were positive. Of the 159 positive samples, 102 (64.15% were from animals with clinical signs and 57 (35.85% without clinical signs. Fifty-seven samples were selected at random for RAPD-PCR based genotyping and distributed into four genetic groups. Types I and II were more frequent in animals with clinical signs while type III was frequent in healthy animals. Type IV occurred evenly across animals with or without clinical signs. These results indicate differences in pathogenicity of the fungus based on the genotype.

  17. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tertiary Care Hospital, Punjab

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    M Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia species. Our aim was to identify Malassezia species from PV patients and healthy individuals in Punjab. Materials and Methods: Modified Dixon agar was used as isolation culture medium. Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. The biochemical evaluation consisted of culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase reaction, Tween assimilation, Cremophor EL assimilation, splitting of esculin and growth at 38 0 C. Results: Out of 58 microscopically diagnosed cases of PV, growth was obtained from 54 (93.10% cases. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. furfur which made up 51.79%, 31.42% and 18.51% of the isolated etiological agents respectively. However, the major isolate from the back of healthy individuals was M. sympodialis (47.61%, followed by M.obtusa (19.04%, M. globosa (14.20%, M. furfur (9.52%, M. pachydermatis (4.76% and M. slooffiae (4.76%. Conclusions: M. globosa in its mycelial phase was the main etiological agent, but as normal flora from the back of healthy subjects, it was found in significantly less number (P = 0.01, suggesting that the higher pathogenicity of M. globosa in terms of enzymatic endowment, might be the cause of its predominance in PV lesions.

  18. In vitro anti-Malassezia activity and potential use in anti-dandruff formulation of Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, C; Khanthawong, S; Waranuch, N; Ingkaninan, K

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia species are frequently associated with dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The study was conducted to evaluate anti-fungal activities of the extracts obtained from the roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd against Malassezia furfur and M. globosa. Asparagus racemosus roots were successively extracted with the series of solvents, that is, hexane, ethanol and water, and also a saponin-enriched fraction was prepared. The amounts of saponin (equivalent to shatavarin IV) in the extracts were determined using ELISA. The extracts were tested for anti-fungal activity by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. By disc diffusion, only the ethanolic and saponin-enriched extracts demonstrated anti-fungal activity against M. furfur and M. globosa at the concentration of 1 mg per disc whereas the extracts with other solvents were ineffective. Multiple concentrations using the broth microdilution method against M. furfur and M. globosa yielded minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25 mg mL(-1) for the ethanolic extract but much higher potency for the saponin-enriched extract: MICs to 0.20 and 0.40 mg mL(-1) for M. furfur and M. globosa, respectively. These extracts showed no antagonist effect with the anti-fungal agents, ketoconazole and zinc pyrithione. These studies revealed the antifungal activity of A. racemosus roots extracts. Because A. racemosus is also anti-inflammatory agent, it has the potential use as an active ingredient in an anti-dandruff formulation. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. In vitro and in vivo activity of a killer peptide against Malassezia pachydermatis causing otitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Paola, Giancarlo Di; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    In order to overcome the limitations inherent in current pharmacological treatments for Malassezia pachydermatis, the cause of otitis externa in dogs, the efficacy of a killer decapeptide (KP) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen dogs with naturally occurring M. pachydermatis otitis externa were enrolled, and the in vitro fungicidal activity of KP was evaluated using yeasts recovered from these animals. The therapeutic activity was evaluated in four groups of four animals each. The dogs were topically treated with KP (150 μl, 2 mg/ml) three times per week (group A) or every day (group B), treated with a scramble peptide every day (group C), or left untreated (group D). Assessment of clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, and lichenification and/or hyperpigmentation), expressed as mean of the total clinical index score (mTCIS), the population size of M. pachydermatis at the cytological examination (mean number of yeast cells at 40× magnification [mYC]), and culture testing (mean number of log10 CFU/swab [mCFU]), were conducted daily from the first day of treatment (T0) until two consecutive negative cultures (mCFU ≤ 2). KP showed an in vitro fungicidal effect against M. pachydermatis isolates, with an MFC90 value of 1 μg/ml. The mTCIS, mYC and mCFU were negative only in animals in group B after T8. Daily administration of KP for 8 days was safe and effective in controlling both clinical signs and the population size of M. pachydermatis causing otitis externa, thus offering an alternative to the currently available therapeutic or prophylactic protocols for recurrent cases of Malassezia otitis in dogs.

  20. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comparison of once-daily versus twice-weekly terbinafine administration for the treatment of canine Malassezia dermatitis - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Darren J; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Stone, Richard T

    2012-10-01

    Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal, is used in pulsatile dose regimens for superficial mycoses in human medicine. To compare the clinical efficacy of twice-weekly versus once-daily terbinafine administration to determine whether preliminary proof-of-concept evidence exists for pulsatile administration of terbinafine in the treatment of canine Malassezia dermatitis and to determine whether twice-weekly treatment results in fewer clinical and owner-perceived adverse events. Twenty client-owned dogs with Malassezia dermatitis. In this randomized, single-blinded clinical trial, dogs were randomly assigned to receive terbinafine (30 mg/kg) either once daily for 21 days (n = 10) or once daily on two consecutive days per week for six doses (n = 10). On day 0 and day 21, a mean yeast count was calculated from eight anatomical locations via adhesive tape-strip cytology, clinical lesion scores were assigned to the same locations, and owners assessed pruritus using a visual analog scale. There was no significant difference between treatment groups with respect to the reduction in mean yeast count (P = 0.343) and clinical lesion scores (P = 0.887). Pruritus measured by visual analog scale was significantly decreased in the twice-weekly treatment group compared with the daily treatment group (P = 0.047). Seven of 20 dogs had a clinically measurable or owner-reported adverse event during treatment that included gastrointestinal disturbances, excessive panting and elevated hepatic enzymes, with no significant difference noted between treatment groups. This pilot study indicates that twice-weekly terbinafine administration may be an effective alternative treatment for canine Malassezia dermatitis and merits further investigation. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Temporal changes in the skin Malassezia microbiota of members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE): A case study in Antarctica as a pseudo-space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yamada, Shin; Takeoka, Hajime; Cho, Otomi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Ohno, Giichiro; Watanabe, Kentaro; Makimura, Koichi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki

    2015-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is located approximately 400 km above the Earth. Astronauts staying at the ISS are under microgravity and are thus unable to bathe or shower; instead, they wash their bodies using wet tissues. For astronauts, skin hygiene management is important to maintain the quality of life during long-term stays on the ISS. In Antarctica, members of a Japanese geological investigation team negotiate their way over land using snowmobiles. During their 3-month stay, they are subject to a "pseudo-space" environment similar to that experienced by ISS astronauts, including the inability to bathe or shower. In this study, temporal changes in the colonization levels of skin lipophilic fungi, Malassezia were investigated in 16 team members. Compared to the levels before their trip to Antarctica, the fold changes in Malassezia colonization levels during the researchers' stay in Antarctica were in the range of 3.0 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 7.5 in cheek samples, 8.9 ± 10.6 to 22.2 ± 40.0 in anterior chest samples, 6.2 ± 5.4 to 16.9 ± 25.5 in behind-the-ear samples, and 1.7 ± 0.9 to 17.4 ± 33.4 in sole-of-the-foot samples. On the scalp, the level of Malassezia colonization increased dramatically, by 96.7 ± 113.8 to 916.9 ± 1251.5 fold. During their stay in Antarctica, the team members experienced itchy scalps and produced a large number of scales. The relative proportions of Malassezia globosa and M. restricta shifted to seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff types. These results provide useful information for the development of skin hygiene management plans for astronauts staying at the ISS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identification and pathogenicity of Malassezia species isolated from human healthy skin and with macules Identificação e patogenicidade de espécies de Malassezia isoladas de pele humana saudável e com mácula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Pereira Neves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ocurrence of Malassezia species in clinically healthy students and with macules with a slight fawn discoloration and characterized the isolates as to the pathogenicity factors such as growth at 37ºC, lipase, phospholipase and protease detection. Clinical samples were collected from different body sites of one hundred students of different ages and both sexes. The samples, obtained by scrapping the skin surface and the scalp, were treated with potassa and cultured. Cultures were obtained in Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar medium added of olive oil, incubated at room temperature and at 37ºC. Culture identifications were based in their morphological and physiological properties. Lipase, phospholipase and protease detection was performed in specific media on Petri dishes for formation of a zone. Globose, spherical yeast cells and hypha were investigated by direct microscopy of clinical materials. Malassezia furfur was detected in seven samples and M. sympodialis in four. All Malassezia cultures presented lipase activity, but none was phospholipase positive. Protease activity was observed in two M. furfur and two M. simpodialis isolates.A ocorrência de espécies Malassezia em estudantes clinicamente sadios e com máculas com leve descoloração foi investigada e os isolados caracterizados quanto a fatores de patogenicidade como crescimento a 37ºC, detecção de lípase, fosfolipase e protease. Amostras clínicas de 100 estudantes de ambos os sexos, diferentes idades e sítios corpóreos foram obtidas por escarificação da superfície da pele e do couro cabeludo e examinadas com hidróxido de potássio e submetidas à cultura. As culturas foram obtidas em meio ágar Sabouraud adicionado de óleo de oliva, em placa de Petri, incubadas a temperatura ambiente e a 37ºC. A identificação foi realizada através das propriedades morfológicas e fisiológicas. A detecção de lipase, fosfolipase e protease foi

  4. Evaluation of Malassezia pachydermatis antifungal susceptibility using two different methods Avaliação da sensibilidade da Malassezia pachydermatis frente a antifúngicos através de duas técnicas

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    Patrícia da Silva Nascente

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized as a normal inhabitant and an opportunistic pathogen of the external ear canal and skin of dogs and cats. In especial clinical conditions, and mainly in the cases of therapeutic failure related to external otitis and dermatitis complicated by this yeast, it is recommended test susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of 44 isolates of M. pachydermatis from the external ear canal and skin of dogs and cats using two different in vitro antifungal susceptibility methods: the Etest® and the broth microdilution method. Thirty-five samples were tested using the Etest®, twenty-four samples were tested using the broth microdilution method and fifteen samples were tested using both tests. The antifungal agents used were ketoconazole (KTZ, fluconazole (FLZ and itraconazole (ITZ. In the broth microdilution method the yeast was less susceptible to ITZ while KTZ had the strongest activity. On the other hand, the Etest® showed that M. pachydermatis was more susceptible to ITZ while the less active drug was FLZ. The simultaneous evaluation using both methods identified FLZ as the antifungal drug with the highest activity (64.3%, followed by KTZ (57.1% and ITZ (28.6%. These results showed that there is an urgent need to standardize of the values considered as parameters for growth inhibition of this yeast so a simple and efficient method can be used routinely in the laboratory practice.Malassezia pachydermatis é considerada um habitante normal e patógeno oportunista do meato acústico externo e tegumento cutâneo de cães e gatos. Em condições clínicas especiais e nos casos de fracasso terapêutico, comum em casos de otite externa ou dermatite complicadas por esta levedura, é recomendado testar a sensibilidade aos antifúngicos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de 44 isolados de M. pachydermatis do meato acústico externo e do tegumento cut

  5. Malassezia pachydermatis e outros agentes infecciosos nas otites externas e dermatites em cães Malassezia pachydermatis and other infectious agents in external otitis and dermatitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nobre

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis (Pityrosporum canis faz parte da microbiota da pele e quando ocorrem alterações no microambiente local como aumento da umidade, da temperatura e do substrato, determinando uma elevação do número de células, ocorre a transição da forma comensal para o parasitismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a prevalência da infeçâo por M. pachydermatis e outros agentes infecciosos nas otites externas e dermatites de cães. Foram analisadas 78 amostras de cães com otite, 36 amostras de cães com o conduto auditivo normal e 24 com dermatite. Todas as amostras foram submetidas ao exame direto. cultivo em ágar sangue e em ágar Sabouraud dextrose, acrescido de cloranfenicol e cicloheximida. Ao exame direto, 50% das amostras de otite e 16,6% das amostras de dermatite apresentaram numerosas células semelhante a M. pachydermatis, enquanto 83,3% das amostras de ouvidos saudáveis apresentaram ausência de células com esta morfologia. M. pachydermatis foi isolada em 25% das amostras do conduto auditivo normal, em 80,7% das amostras de otite e em 37,5% das amostras de dermatite. Foram também isolados das amostras de otite Staphylococcus intermédias, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Actinomyces sp, Streptococcus sp e Otodectes cynotis e das de dermatite Staphylococcus intermédias, S. áureas, S. epidermidis Microsporum canis, M. gypseum,. Trychophyton sp e Demodex canis. M. pachydermatis foi o agente com maior prevalência nas otites externas e dermatites, sendo um agente oportunista que causa otite e dermatite quando há uma alteração do microambiente.The Malassezia pachydermatis ( Pityrosporum canis is found in the whole skin microflora. It seems to occur as a consequence of changes in the local microenvironment, such as moist increase, temperature or substrate enhancement, generating a raising on cell quantity, which brings the transition from commensal form to parasitism. The

  6. ESTUDO DA FREQUÊNCIA DE Malassezia pachydermatis EM CÃES COM OTITE EXTERNA NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Patrícia da Silva Nascente

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available External otitis is a common auditory meatus infirmity diagnosed in dogs and cats sent to veterinarian clinics. The etiology varies according to combinations of predisposing, primary and perpetuating factors, responsible for the disease. Malassezia pachydermatis is considered a normal inhabitant of the skin and can occasionally become an opportunistic pathogen of the external canal of dogs and cats. This study aimed to investigate the presence of M. pachydermatis in canine external otitis. The presence of yeast in external otitis of dogs sent to 168 veterinary hospitals in the Federal Universities of Rio Grande do Sul and Pelotas, as well as to clinics and private kennels was investigated. The sampling was performed with a sterile swab moistened with saline solution, rubbing it in the ear canal. Direct examination was performed from swabs of the collected material, stained by Gram method and examined under optical microscopy (1000X. It was seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 32°C for up to ten days when the yeasts were identified. From the 168 cases of external otitis, M. pachydermatis was isolated in 139 (82.7% cases. In this study, there was no difference regarding gender and age of the animals. The frequency of isolation in samples with positive scores on direct examination was significantly higher (p <0.05 than in samples with negative score. It was verified that there is a seven times-higher probability of isolating M. pachydermatis from samples with positive direct examination. It was concluded that M. pachydermatis is commonly isolated in canine external otitis cases, without significant difference in relation to sex and age. Animals with ear shifts (eg. English Cocker Spaniel are more affected by external otitis; however, there is no difference in proportion of the number of isolation of M. pachydermatis among the races.

  7. Reclassificação taxonômica de espécies do gênero Malassezia: revisão da literatura sobre as implicações clinicolaboratoriais Reclassification of Malassezia species: a review of its clinical and laboratory significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio dos Santos Schlottfeldt

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Malassezia compreende leveduras lipofílicas e lipodependentes que recentemente sofreram mudanças em sua classificação taxonômica, com a introdução de quatro novas espécies: M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae e M. restricta, além das espécies M. furfur, M. pachydermatis e M. sympodialis, já descritas. Estas leveduras estão associadas a vários quadros patológicos que incluem infecções como a pitiríase versicolor ou dermatoses, como dermatite seborréica e dermatite atópica, entre outros. Estes quadros eram, até pouco tempo atrás, considerados devidos exclusivamente à espécie M. furfur. Estas mudanças na classificação taxonômica de Malassezia levaram a uma reavaliação dos procedimentos laboratoriais que eram utilizados para a identificação do agente etiológico. Entre eles podemos citar o estudo e a caracterização morfológica das espécies, sua tolerância térmica, suas necessidades nutricionais para determinados tipos de ácidos graxos, bem como a composição e as características do DNA de cada uma delas.The genus Malassezia comprises lipophylic and lipodependent yeast species that recently suffered a change in their taxonomic classification, with the description of four new species: M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae and M. restricta besides the already described species M. furfur, M. pachydermatis and M. sympodialis. These yeasts are associated to pathologies that include tinea versicolor, seborrheic and atopic dermatitis, among others. These diseases were previously thought to be exclusively due to the species M. furfur. The taxonomical changes observed for species of Malassezia genus has led to a reassessment of the laboratory methodologies that were formerly used for the identification of the etiologic agent. Morphologic and physiologic variations for each species, termo-tolerance, their requirements for certain long-chain fatty acid sources, as well the composition and characteristics of their

  8. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Animals Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Methods Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Results Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Conclusions and clinical importance Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. Résumé Contexte Des lingettes contenant de la chlorhexidine et des dérivésazolés ont été recommandés en médicine vétérinaire. Aucune étude n'a été publiée sur leur activité contre Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothèses/Objectifs Evaluer l'activité in vivo et in vitro de lingettes imprégnées d'une solution de chlorhexidine, climbazole et Tris

  9. Genotyping and antifungal susceptibility testing of multiple Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from otitis and dermatitis cases in pets: is it really worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Blanco, José L

    2016-01-01

    A total of 216 colonies of Malassezia pachydermatis from 28 cases of fungal otitis or dermatitis in pets were genotyped by M13 fingerprinting and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A huge genetic diversity was found (157 M13 types in total), with all animals having a polyclonal pattern of infection (5.4 ± 1.5 genotypes/sample). Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most genetic diversity (44%) was found at the within sample level. In contrast, variability in antifungal susceptibility among isolates from the same sample was less important, with different M13 types displaying in most cases identical or very similar MIC results. Most isolates displayed high in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, terbinafine and all azoles tested except fluconazole, for which MIC values were always ≥4 μg/ml and a 26.9% of isolates displayed values ≥32 μg/ml. We conclude that although characterization of multiple yeast isolates results in a considerable increase in laboratory workload and expenses, it may help to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of M. pachydermatis in a given patient population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nanovesicles from Malassezia sympodialis and host exosomes induce cytokine responses--novel mechanisms for host-microbe interactions in atopic eczema.

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    Ulf Gehrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercellular communication can occur via the release of membrane vesicles. Exosomes are nanovesicles released from the endosomal compartment of cells. Depending on their cell of origin and their cargo they can exert different immunoregulatory functions. Recently, fungi were found to produce extracellular vesicles that can influence host-microbe interactions. The yeast Malassezia sympodialis which belongs to our normal cutaneous microbial flora elicits specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in approximately 50% of adult patients with atopic eczema (AE. Whether exosomes or other vesicles contribute to the inflammation has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if M. sympodialis can release nanovesicles and whether they or endogenous exosomes can activate PBMC from AE patients sensitized to M. sympodialis. METHODS: Extracellular nanovesicles isolated from M. sympodialis, co-cultures of M. sympodialis and dendritic cells, and from plasma of patients with AE and healthy controls (HC were characterised using flow cytometry, sucrose gradient centrifugation, Western blot and electron microscopy. Their ability to stimulate IL-4 and TNF-alpha responses in autologous CD14, CD34 depleted PBMC was determined using ELISPOT and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: We show for the first time that M. sympodialis releases extracellular vesicles carrying allergen. These vesicles can induce IL-4 and TNF-α responses with a significantly higher IL-4 production in patients compared to HC. Exosomes from dendritic cell and M. sympodialis co-cultures induced IL-4 and TNF-α responses in autologous CD14, CD34 depleted PBMC of AE patients and HC while plasma exosomes induced TNF-α but not IL-4 in undepleted PBMC. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular vesicles from M. sympodialis, dendritic cells and plasma can contribute to cytokine responses in CD14, CD34 depleted and undepleted PBMC of AE patients and HC. These novel observations have implications for

  11. OCCURRENCY OF MALASSEZIA PACHYDERMATIS AND OTHER INFECTIOUS AGENTS AS CAUSE OF EXTERNAL OTITIS IN DOGS FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL (1996/1997 Ocorrência de Malassezia pachydermatis e de outros agentes etiológicos de otite externa em cães no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, BR (1996-1997

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    Márcia de Oliveira Nobre

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the frequency of Malassezia pachydermatis infection and other infectious agents in dogs with external otitis and with healthy auditory tubes. Clinical manifestations of external otitis were evaluated. Samples from the auditory tube of 102 dogs with otitis and from 32 healthy dogs were submitted to direct microscopic examination and cultured in blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Direct examination showed more than ten cells of M. pachydermatis in 52.0% of the samples from dogs with otitis, but in only 21.8% of the healthy auditory tube samples. M. pachydermatis was isolated in 37.5% of the samples from dogs with healthy auditory tube and 76.5% (p0.05. Infection by M. pachydermatis was prevalent in the following breeds: Cocker Spainel, German Shepherd and Brazilian Fila. No differences were found in frequency of the infection in relation to age, sex and ear anatomy of the dogs. Otomycosis were predominantly ceruminous and erythematous. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent agent in external otitis.Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a ocorrência da Malassezia pachydermatis e de outros agentes etiológicos em cães com otite externa e com conduto auditivo externo hígido; caracterizar a otomicose por M. pachydermatis. Foram analisadas 32 amostras de cães com o conduto auditivo hígido e 102 de otite externa. Todas as amostras foram submetidas ao exame direto, cultivo em ágar sangue e em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol e cicloheximida. Ao exame direto 52.0% das amostras de otite apresentaram mais de dez células de M. pachydermatis. Somente 21.8% das amostras de orelhas hígidas apresentaram no exame direto células com esta morfologia (uma a dez células. M. pachydermatis foi isolada em 37.5% das amostras do conduto auditivo hígido e em 76.5% das amostras de otite (p0.05. A infecção por M. pachydermatis foi prevalente em cães da ra

  12. Dermatite de localização atípica por Malassezia pachydermatis em um cão apresentando redução nos níveis séricos de zinco. (Relato de Caso.

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    M. B. Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Um animal da espécie canina, sexo feminino, raça Akita, de três anos de idade foi avaliado clinicamente, devido a dermatite e otite pruriginosas persistentes, com um ano de duração. O exame físico revelou seborréia gordurosa generalizada, crostas aderentes, alopecia focal, eritema, pápulas, liquenificação e hiperpigmentação, evidentes no dorso, cuja localização foi considerada atípica, além do ventre e da pele interdigital do membro pélvico direito, associada a otite externa bilateral com alterações similares. Foi feito o diagnóstico de malassezíase cutânea e otológica, por meio de microscopia em amostras obtidas com fita adesiva. Foi também evidenciada uma significativa redução nos níveis de zinco, através de dosagem sérica. Esse animal, que vinha sendo tratado sem sucesso com drogas fungicidas, respondeu com melhora evidente do quadro após quatro semanas de tratamento com um fármaco fungicida sistêmico, associado a suplementação dietética com um composto polivitamínico e mineral contendo alta concentração de zinco. Os resultados sugeriram que os baixos níveis de zinco tiveram um papel importante no estabelecimento da doença cutânea produzida pela Malassezia. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Malassezia., dematite, cão SUMARY: 3-year-old female Akita was clinically evaluated because of persistent pruritic dermatitis and otitis of one year’ duration. Physical examination revealed generalized waxy scale; adherent crusting; patchy alopecia; erythema; lichenification; and hyperpigmentation. The body regions most severely afected included the back, which was considered uncommon, the ventral region of the abdomen and the interdigital skin of the right pelvic limb. There was also bilateral otitis externa with similar lesions. The diagnostic of Malassezia-associated dermatitis and otitis was made by microscopic examination of skin

  13. Immunoglobulin G responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; Lloyd, D H

    2002-04-20

    Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses of healthy dogs and dogs with Malasseziapachydermatis dermatitis were compared by Western immunoblotting. M pachydermatis CBS 1879 was disrupted mechanically and its proteins were separated and blotted on to nitrocellulose membranes before being incubated with sera from eight healthy beagles, eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 15 healthy basset hounds, and 30 dogs with Mpachydermatis-associated dermatitis, 20 of which were basset hounds. The mean (se) numbers of bands of immunoreactivity observed in the seborrhoeic basset hounds (10.7 [0.4]) and affected mixed-breed dogs (9.4 [0.9]) were significantly greater than in the beagles (3-0 [1.0]), Irish setters (5.5 [1.1]) and healthy basset hounds (5.6 [0.7]). The number of bands identified was correlated (r(s) = 0.76, P dogs were immunoreactive towards the 132, 66 and 50 to 54 kDa proteins and the affected dogs were also usually reactive towards the 219, 110, 71 and 42 kDa proteins.

  14. Malassezia species infection of the synovium after total knee arthroplasty surgery

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    Leylabadlo, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a serious complication after implantation of total knee-prostheses. However, fungal infection is rarely found in periprosthetic joints, and in most reports, the infecting organism is a species. This is a case report of infection after left knee total arthroplasty caused by species. The patient is still undergoing antifungal therapy with voriconazole and is still being followed-up. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the first report of species in a patient after total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Seborrheic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandruff; Seborrheic eczema; Cradle cap ... The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. It may be due to a combination of factors: Oil gland activity Yeasts, called malassezia, which live on the ...

  16. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  17. Diagnóstico clínico-microbiológico de otitis externa en caninos de Bogotá – Colombia

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    Adriana Pulido V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar clínica y microbiológicamente la implicación de Malassezia sp como agente etiológico de otitis externas en caninos. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron 166 muestras de hisopados óticos de caninos con sintomatología y hallazgos clínicos compatibles con otitis externa durante el periodo comprendido entre julio – diciembre 2008. A partir de las muestras se realizaron cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos e identificación de género mediante perfiles bioquímicos para cada unos de los microorganismos aislados. Los datos clínicos asociados a la patología fueron consignados en una base de datos y posteriormente analizados en el programa estadístico SPSS 17 Resultados. A partir de la 166 muestras obtenidas, 59% (98 de ellas fueron positivas para el cultivo bacteriológico con predominio de Staphylococcus sp 37% (61 y 73% (121 positivas para Malassezia. De las 121 levaduras aisladas 32.2% fue Malassezia pachydermatis. El análisis estadístico no evidenció diferencias significativas con respecto a las relaciones entre variables (género, edad, raza, tipo de oreja y respuesta inflamatoria por citología y el aislamiento de Malassezia sp. El nivel de significancia establecido para la prueba fue de 0.05%. Conclusiones. No se observaron asociaciones estadísticas entre las variables género, edad, raza frente a la otitis externa por Malassezia sp. Malassezia sp fue aislada en un 73% de los casos con otitis externa, con participación de diferentes agentes bacterianos especialmente Staphylococcus sp.

  18. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Crude Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter Leaf Extracts

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    Wafa Rhimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small amount of data regarding the antifungal activity of Dittrichia viscosa (L. Greuter against dermatophytes, Malassezia spp. and Aspergillus spp., associated with the few comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and butanolic extracts underpins the study herein presented. The total condensed tannin (TCT, phenol (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, and caffeoylquinic acid (CQC content of methanol, butanol, and ethanol (80% and 100% extracts of D. viscosa were assessed and their bactericidal and fungicidal activities were evaluated. The antibacterial, anti-Candida and anti-Malassezia activities were evaluated by using the disk diffusion method, whereas the anti-Microsporum canis and anti-Aspergillus fumigatus activities were assessed by studying the toxicity effect of the extracts on vegetative growth, sporulation and germination. The methanolic extract contained the highest TPC and CQC content. It contains several phytochemicals mainly caffeoylquinic acid derivatives as determined by liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection (LC/PDA/ESI-MS analysis. All extracts showed an excellent inhibitory effect against bacteria and Candida spp., whereas methanolic extract exhibited the highest antifungal activities against Malassezia spp., M. canis and A. fumigatus strains. The results clearly showed that all extracts, in particular the methanolic extract, might be excellent antimicrobial drugs for treating infections that are life threatening (i.e., Malassezia or infections that require mandatory treatments (i.e., M. canis or A. fumigatus.

  19. A Comprehensive Pathophysiology of Dandruff and Seborrheic Dermatitis - Towards a More Precise Definition of Scalp Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, James R; Messenger, Andrew G; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing knowledge of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD), the pathophysiological understanding is still incomplete but suggests a role of Malassezia yeasts in triggering inflammatory and hyper-proliferative epidermal responses. The objective of this report is to review publish...

  20. Isolation of llama antibody fragments for prevention of dandruff by phage display in shampoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.; Vaart, M. van der; Lutje Hulsik, D.; Vriend, G.; Haard, H. de; Spinelli, S.; Cambillau, C.; Frenken, L.; Verrips, T.

    As part of research exploring the feasibility of using antibody fragments to inhibit the growth of organisms implicated in dandruff, we isolated antibody fragments that bind to a cell surface protein of Malassezia furfur in the presence of shampoo. We found that phage display of llama

  1. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C

    2015-01-01

    allergic rhinitis and hand eczema. A close association was also found with allergic contact dermatitis and increased specific IgE to Malassezia furfur, but not with filaggrin gene defect. CONCLUSION: Persistence of atopic dermatitis in adulthood is common and affects quality of life. Persistent atopic...

  2. MALLASEZIA FOLLICULITIS ON THE NECK

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    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Folliculitis caused by Malassezia spp. classified as yeasts in our climate (Poland is fairly rare disease . MF is most commonly found on the chest, back, upper arms, and less frequently on the face. Permanent symptom is persistent itching. The favorable external conditions, which are largely due to high temperature and humidity, and endogenous factors, such as immunosuppression, there is a lipophilic yeast multiplication in the hair follicles. The aim of this article is presentation of the patient with Malassezia Folliculitis on the neck. Patient age 33 with 1- to 2-mm monomorphic papules and pustules on chest. Skin lesions accompanied by itching. In the treatment used topical: ketoconazole containing shampoo, 1% clindamycin cream, 0,5% hydrocortisonum cream, fluconazole 400 mg once p.o.

  3. Tryptophanabhängige Synthese von indolhaltigen Pigmenten bei verschiedenen humanpathogenen Asco- und Basidiomyceten

    OpenAIRE

    Nies, Silke Marie

    2006-01-01

    Der Begriff "Pigment" beschreibt in erster Linie farbige Substanzen. Pigmente sind aber darüber hinaus für wichtige metabolische oder physiologische Prozesse verantwortlich. Im Reich der Pilze gibt es eine Vielzahl von Pigmenten. Zu ihnen zählen die Melanine, die Carotenoide, die Naphthoquinone, die Phenoxazine, die Flavonoide sowie indolhaltige Pigmente. Gewisse Indolderivate wurden von einer Arbeitsgruppe um Prof. Mayser 1998 erstmals bei der Hefe Malassezia furfur beschrieben, bei der ...

  4. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...

  5. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajanta; Rabha, Debajit; Choraria, Saveta; Hazarika, Debeeka; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the distribution of Malassezia species associated with pityriasis versicolor (PV) has led to the necessity of studying epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV. To study the epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV in a tertiary care hospital. The study was carried out with a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and sixty-two consecutive PV patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and investigations. Skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopy and culture. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of Malassezia species with clinical and epidemiological characteristics was studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical software. Maximum number of PV cases (33.9%) belonged to the age group of 21-30 years with a male preponderance. 61.4% of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle, 70.2% showed the gradual onset of the disease, 51.1% presented with pruritus and in 66.4% of the patients symptoms were continuous. Most commonly involved body site was neck (27.8%), 77.09% of the lesions were bilaterally asymmetrical, 87.4% were macular, and 89.3% were hypopigmented. Malassezia furfur (77.3%) was the predominant species. Sedentary lifestyle (61.4%) and increased sweating (48%) were the most commonly associated predisposing factors. PV is more common in males. Distribution of Malassezia species varies significantly from those reported in other parts of India. M. furfur was the most common species responsible for PV in our region. Hence, further studies are required to evaluate the exact cause of this variation.

  6. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam

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    Ajanta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographical variation in the distribution of Malassezia species associated with pityriasis versicolor (PV has led to the necessity of studying epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV. Aims: To study the epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV in a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: The study was carried out with a cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty-two consecutive PV patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and investigations. Skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopy and culture. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of Malassezia species with clinical and epidemiological characteristics was studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical software. Results: Maximum number of PV cases (33.9% belonged to the age group of 21–30 years with a male preponderance. 61.4% of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle, 70.2% showed the gradual onset of the disease, 51.1% presented with pruritus and in 66.4% of the patients symptoms were continuous. Most commonly involved body site was neck (27.8%, 77.09% of the lesions were bilaterally asymmetrical, 87.4% were macular, and 89.3% were hypopigmented. Malassezia furfur (77.3% was the predominant species. Sedentary lifestyle (61.4% and increased sweating (48% were the most commonly associated predisposing factors. Conclusion: PV is more common in males. Distribution of Malassezia species varies significantly from those reported in other parts of India. M. furfur was the most common species responsible for PV in our region. Hence, further studies are required to evaluate the exact cause of this variation.

  7. Sarcoptic mange and other ectoparasitic infections in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes population from central Italy

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    S. Perrucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the district of Pisa (central Italy were examined for ectoparasites. Sarcoptic mange was diagnosed on the presence of clearly visible skin lesions with confirmatory demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei at parasitological and histopathological analysis. Ticks and fleas were collected directly from the carcases during post mortem examination, fixed and identified by morphological examination. For the detection of ear Malassezia and mite infections, cytological and parasitological examinations of ear wax samples were performed. All data were statistically analysed using a χ2 test with the Yates correction. An overall prevalence of 84% for ectoparasitic infections was found in examined subjects. In regard to isolated ectoparasites, 38%, 8%, 82%, 6% and 8% of foxes resulted positive for S. scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Malassezia spp., fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei, Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis and ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. Malassezia ear infection was significantly more prevalent in animals older than 1 year (P < 0.01. Prevalence (38%, severity of lesions and poor body conditions observed in most Sarcoptes-infected animals indicate that sarcoptic mange should be considered the most important ectoparasitic infection of red foxes in the examined area.

  8. Dysbiotic bacterial and fungal communities not restricted to clinically affected skin sites in dandruff

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    Renan Cardoso Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dandruff is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin condition of the scalp that has been associated with Malassezia yeasts. However, the microbial role has not been elucidated yet, and the etiology of the disorder remains poorly understood. Using high-throughput 16S rDNA and ITS1 sequencing, we characterized cutaneous bacterial and fungal microbiotas from healthy and dandruff subjects, comparing scalp and forehead (lesional and non-lesional skin sites. Bacterial and fungal communities from dandruff analyzed at genus level differed in comparison with healthy ones, presenting higher diversity and greater intragroup variation. The microbial shift was observed also in non-lesional sites from dandruff subjects, suggesting that dandruff is related to a systemic process that is not restricted to the site exhibiting clinical symptoms. In contrast, Malassezia microbiota analyzed at species level did not differ according to health status. A 2-step OTU assignment using combined databases substantially increased fungal assigned sequences, and revealed the presence of highly prevalent uncharacterized Malassezia organisms (>37% of the reads. Although clinical symptoms of dandruff manifest locally, microbial dysbiosis beyond clinically affected skin sites suggests that subjects undergo systemic alterations, which could be considered for redefining therapeutic approaches.

  9. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate

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    João Jaime Giffoni Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-¹, from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes do abacate, a fim de determinar sua toxicidade em Artemia salina, avaliar a atividade larvicida frente ao Aedes aegypti, bem como verificar o potencial antifúngico in vitro contra cepas de Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, através da técnica de microdiluição. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes de abacate apresentaram no teste de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina, valores de LC50 2,37 e 24,13mg L-1, respectivamente; contra as larvas do Aedes aegypti os resultados obtidos foram LC50 16,7mg L-1 para o extrato hexânico e 8,87mg

  11. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of VB-001, a leave-on formulation, for the treatment of moderate adherent dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anamika; Jain, Nilu; Prasad, Sudhanand; Jain, Shilpi; Yadav, Vishal; Ghosh, Shamik; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2017-05-03

    Dandruff is a common scalp condition characterized by excessive scaling and itch. Aberrant colonization of the scalp by commensal Malassezia spp. is a major contributor in the multifactorial etiology of dandruff. Literature based understanding of Malassezia linked pathophysiology of dandruff allowed us to comprehend a strategy to potentiate the efficacy of a known antifungal agent used in dandruff therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and skin safety of VB-001 antidandruff leave-on formulation in comparison with marketed antidandruff ZPTO shampoo in patients with moderate adherent dandruff of the scalp. Healthy males or females aged ≥ 15 years and ≤ 65 with a clinical diagnosis of moderate adherent dandruff of the scalp were recruited for the study to monitor the effects of topical VB-001 versus those of marketed antidandruff ZPTO shampoo. 168 subjects were randomized to the treatment (VB-001, n = 84) and control (ZPTO shampoo, n = 84) groups. The efficacy of each product was evaluated by comparing proportion of subjects who have shown reduction in flaking by ASFS (adherent scalp flaking score) and pruritus by IGA (investigator global assessment) score. VB-001 imparted consistently better reduction in ASFS and enabled early reduction of pruritus in comparison to marketed ZPTO shampoo. VB-001, a leave-on formulation with ingredients chosen to selectively disturb the Malassezia niche on dandruff scalp by denying extra nutritional benefits to the microbe, provides unique advantages over existing best in class ZPTO shampoo therapy. It has the potential to emerge as an attractive novel treatment for moderate adherent dandruff. CTRI Registration number: CTRI/2013/01/003283 . Registered on: 02/01/2013.

  12. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  13. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.

  14. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

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    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  15. Acral pityriasis versicolor – A rare clinical presentation

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    Tasleem Arif

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by the yeast of the genus Malassezia and presents as hypo or hyper pigmented scaly macules. The most commonly affected sites include upper trunk, upper arms, neck and the abdomen. Lesions confined to the acral parts like hands and feet have rarely been reported. In this article the author reports a 40 year old male who presented with multiple hypo pigmented scaly macules confined to the acral parts (hands and wrist. The acral variant of pityriasis versicolor is considered to be a very rare clinical entity which prompted the author to report this case.

  16. Mycology of Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Ambajogai: a Rural Area

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    A S Damle

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eithteen cases of fungal skin infections were studied. Tinea cruris was most common (34.4%, followed by tinea corporis (23.8% znd tinea pedis (21.6%. Tinea versicolor (8.7% tinea manum (4.6% tinea ungaium (3.7% and tinea capitis (3.2% were also seen. The male: female ratio was 4:1. The total isolates were 117. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (35%. closely followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (31.6%. Trichphyton mentagrophytes (17.9%, Malassezia furfur (13.7% and Microsporum audouini (1.7% were the only other isolates.

  17. Fluconazole and itraconazole in pityriasis versicolor

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    Jaswal Ritu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. It has a high incidence and prevalence in tropical climates. Although it responds well to treatment, relapses and recurrences are frequent. In the present study the therapeutic response of single dose fluconazole (400 mg with itraconazole (100mg twice daily ? 7 days was compared in sixty patients of pityriasis versicolor. No significant statistical difference (p>0.05% was observed between efficacy of two drugs. Therapy with fluconazole is preferable in view of single dose administration and lesser cost as compared to itraconazole.

  18. Dermatophytes and other fungi associated with skin mycoses in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabib, M S; Khalifa, Z; Kavanagh, K

    2002-04-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of skin infections and their causative agents in the Libyan population. Samples were collected from 2224 patients attending the Dermatology Clinics of the Tripoli Medical Centre (TMC) between August 1997 and December 1999 and were submitted to a mycology laboratory for analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination in 1180 cases (53.1%) and the causative agent was isolated and cultured in 1160 cases (52.2%). Dermatophytes, Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans were the most common etiological agents isolated. Tinea corporis accounted for 45.9% of cases (85% of cases occurred in children below 15 years of age). The frequency of the other clinical types in descending order was pityriasis versicolor 27.8% (322 cases), candidiosis 13.4% (156 cases), tinea pedis 8.1% (94 cases), tinea manuum 2.6% (30 cases) and tinea barbae 2.2% (26 cases). Trichophyton violaceum was the most common etiological agent, responsible for 44% (300 cases) of dermatophyte infections. Malassezia furfur was ranked the second most frequent causative agent being found in 27.8% of cases, followed by Trichophyton rubrum 13.8% (160 cases) and Candida albicans 10% (116 cases). Other species isolated included Microsporum canis 8.1% (94 cases), Epidermophyton floccosum 6.6% (76 cases) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 3.1% (36 cases).

  19. Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Atopic Patients Exposed to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, N.K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that arises most commonly during early infancy, and is characterized by severe pruritus, age-dependant skin manifestations, and a fluctuating clinical course. Hereditary, environmental and immunological factors are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of AD. Also the differentiation of helper T- cells, local cytokine profile, IgE, infectious agents and superantigens are factors identified as being involved in the pathogenesis of AD. One hundred patients with AD were selected from the outpatient clinic of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology in Cairo, Egypt. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 included radiation workers in the Hall of gamma irradiation unit and group 2 included workers outside controlled area and not exposed to radiation with comparable age and sex. The severity of the disease was evaluated according to the grade of atopic dermatitis. Total and specific serum IgE was measured and Complete Blood Count was also carried out. Four Malassezia species were isolated from AD patients M. globosa, M. furfur, M. sympodialis and M. obtusa. The clinical isolates consisted of two bacterial strains, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The significant increase of AD severity seems to be more closely related to the prevalence of S. aureus and Malassezia on the skin of radiation workers. This was proved by the presence of high IgE and eosinophils in radiation workers. So, the interactions of low gamma radiation and skin seems to further complicate the risk of assessments of atopic dermatitis

  20. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  1. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis.

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pityriasis versicolor in primary school children in Medan Labuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriyanti; Paramita, DA; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Personal hygiene is an activity in which done by someone, directly and indirectly, to keep healthy to prevent the risk of diseases. Personal hygiene is also a factor that plays a role in the occurrence of skin diseases and one of them is Pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia furfur which is a saprophytic organism in the skin. Activation of M. furfur into a pathogenic form due to changes in the normal flora of the skin that caused by several factors and one of them is poor personal hygiene. A cross-sectional study consist of 115 eligible students is done to determine the relationship between personal hygiene with the occurrence of Pityriasis versicolor among students in primary school in Medan Labuhan district. The result showed that 59.8% of the subject with poor personal hygiene and there is a significant association between personal hygiene with Pityriasis versicolor (p<0.05).

  4. Micoses superficiais na cidade de Manaus, AM, entre março e novembro/2003 Superficial mycoses in the City of Manaus/AM between March and November/2003

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    José Augusto Almendros de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Micoses superficiais estritas são infecções fúngicas que se localizam nas camadas superficiais da pele e seus anexos. As micoses superficiais cutâneas representadas pelas dermatofitoses e candidíases podem ultrapassar a camada córnea da pele. Na região amazônica possuem incidência elevada. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as micoses superficiais, estritas e cutâneas, diagnosticadas sob o ponto de vista epidemiológico e micológico. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Pacientes com suspeita clínica de micoses superficiais submetidos a exame micológico no período de março a novembro de 2003 no Laboratório de Micologia Médica/CPCS/INPA. RESULTADOS: Foram realizados 394 exames, tendo 256 apresentado diagnóstico positivo. As micoses mais incidentes foram onicomicoses (135 e pitiríase versicolor (98. Malassezia spp. (77 e Candida spp. (72 foram os agentes fúngicos mais isolados. Tinea capitis apresentou maior ocorrência nos pré-escolares (3, e onicomicoses em adultos (94. O sexo feminino foi o mais acometido (91. Todas as classes sociais foram infectadas, com predominância da C (37. CONCLUSÃO: Onicomicoses e pitiríase versicolor acometeram sobretudo adultos. A Tinea capitis ocorre principalmente, em crianças. As micoses superficiais apresentaram mais incidentes nas mulheres. Malassezia spp. e Candida spp. foram os agentes mais isolados.BACKGROUND - Restricted superficial mycoses are fungal infections that appear on the skin superficial layers and their adnexa. However skin superficial mycoses represented by dermatophytoses and candidiasis can invade the corneal layer. This type of mycosis has a high incidence in the Amazon region. OBJECTIVES - To study the restricted superficial mycoses under the epidemiological and mycological point of view. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Patients presenting clinical suspicion of superficial mycoses submitted to mycological examination from March to November 2003 at the Clinical Mycology Laboratory

  5. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

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    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  6. Pityriasis versicolor in the pediatric age group

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    Jena Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Although it is primarily seen in adults, children are often affected in the tropics . METHODS: Over a period of 2 years, children (up to the age of 14 years who were clinically and mycologically diagnosed as PV were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological pattern in different age groups was noted. RESULTS: PV in this age group formed about 31% of the total cases of PV; 4.8% cases presented in infancy. The commonest site of involvement was the face in 39.9% of the cases. Most of the cases presented in summer months. CONCLUSIONS: PV is not an uncommon disease among children in the tropics. There is a sudden resurgence of cases in the hot monsoons and even infants are not spared.

  7. Novos aspectos na evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor New aspects in the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor

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    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A pitiríase versicolor é uma doença infecciosa causada por várias espécies de Malassezia com uma tendência a se tornar recidivante ou crônica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho foi conduzido na tentativa de conhecer a evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor em relação ao número de recidivas após um tratamento adequado no período de 12 meses e correlacionar o número de recidivas com as espécies de Malassezia isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cento e dois pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de pitiríase versicolor foram acompanhados por um período de 12 meses para observarmos o número de recidivas da doença. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor, após um tratamento adequado, apresentou três tipos de evolução clínica num período de 12 meses: pitiríase versicolor sem nenhum episódio de recidiva (32,35%; pitiríase versicolor recidivante, com um a quatro episódios de recidiva (52,94% devidos a fatores de predisposição relacionados; e pitiríase versicolor crônica, com mais de quatro episódios de recidiva (14,70% sem nenhuma relação com fatores de predisposição. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor apresentou uma evolução clínica de acordo com o número de episódios de recidiva da doença analisados durante um período de 12 meses que pode ser considerada da seguinte maneira: pitiríase versicolor com cura clínica e micológica, pitiríase versicolor recidivante e pitiríase versicolor crônica.BACKGROUND: Pytiriasis versicolor is an infectious disease caused by several Malassezia species which has a tendency to become relapsing or chronic. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor with regard to the number of relapses after a 12-month therapy and correlate this number with isolates of Malassezia species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 102 patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor were monitored for 12

  8. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

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    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  9. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

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    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  10. Oral itraconazole for the treatment of severe seborrhoeic dermatitis

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    Jayasri Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Seborrheic dermatitis (SD is an inflammatory skin disorder in which colonies of Malassezia furfur have been found in affected areas. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of itraconazole in the treatment of severe SD. Materials and Methods: Itraconazole was given to 30 patients of SD in a dose of 100 mg twice daily for 1 week followed by 200 mg/day for first 2 days of the following 2 months. The response was noted on day 15, 30, 60, and 90. The clinical response was graded as markedly effective, effective, or ineffective. Results: Clinical improvement (evaluated as markedly effective or effective was observed in 83.3% cases. Conclusion : The anti-inflammatory activity of oral itraconazole suggests that it should be the first-line therapy in severe SD.

  11. Frequency of fungi in dogs with mycoses in a veterinary clinic from Callao, Peru

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    Luján-Roca, D.Á.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoses affecting dogs are widely distributed worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungi isolated from dogs. A retrospective study was performed to determine the main mycoses that affected dogs at a private veterinary clinic in Callao, Peru. Isolates were collected from skin and ear from 2003 to 2012. Fungi species were identified by standard microbiological techniques. A total of 54 fungi were isolated from 124 mycological studies; the most prevalent fungal species were Malassezia pachydermatis (51.86 % and Microsporum canis (27.78 %. The principal breeds affected were mongrel (31.52 %, boxer (11.1% and shih tzu (11.1 %. M. pachydermatis represented 58.8 % and 43.2 % of isolates in mongrel breed and in skin samples respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent fungus getting >50 % of all isolates. Microsporum canis and Aspergillus spp. had >40 % presence.

  12. Insights into the phylogeny or arylamine N-acetyltransferases in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Dairou, Julien; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Silar, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that Eumycetes fungi can acylate arylamine thanks to arylamine N-acetyltransferases, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes also found in animals and bacteria. In this article, we present the results of mining 96 available fungal genome sequences for arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes and propose their phylogeny. The filamentous Pezizomycotina are shown to possess many putative N-acetyltransferases, whilst these are often lacking in other fungal groups. The evolution of the N-acetyltransferases is best explained by the presence of at least one gene in the opisthokont ancestor of the fungi and animal kingdoms, followed by recurrent gene losses and gene duplications. A possible horizontal gene transfer event may have occurred from bacteria to the basidiomycetous yeast Malassezia globosa.

  13. Superficial Mycoses In Pregnant Women Consulting At University Hospital Center Of Yaounde

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    Petmy Lohoue J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women may contaminate new borns and babies with vaginal candidiasis and ringworms, thus the choice of this group for our study. Cases were recruited at the UHC Yaounde from June 2001 to September 2002. Four hundred and thirty (29.3% out of 1467 examined presented at least one mycosis. The principal lesions were vaginal thrush 44% and athlete’s foot 22%. The causal fungi were essentially yeasts with the predominance of candida albicans (72% and for the dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum (71.84%. The other species were Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei, Candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon sp., Trichophyton soundanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Thrichophyton mentagrophytes and scytalidium dimidiatum. Because these infections affect up to 30% of pregnant women, they should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.

  14. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  15. Microbiomes associated with infective stages of root-knot and lesion nematodes in soil.

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    Ahmed Elhady

    Full Text Available Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp. and lesion (Pratylenchus spp. nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils. Nematodes were incubated in suspensions of five organically and two integrated horticultural production soils, recovered by sieving and analyzed for attached bacteria and fungi after washing off loosely adhering microbes. Significant effects of the soil type and nematode species on nematode-associated fungi and bacteria were revealed as analyzed by community profiling using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Attached microbes represented a small specific subset of the soil microbiome. Two organic soils had very similar bacterial and fungal community profiles, but one of them was strongly suppressive towards root-knot nematodes. They were selected for deep amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS. Significant differences among the microbiomes associated with the two species in both soils suggested specific surface epitopes. Among the 28 detected bacterial classes, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were the most abundant. The most frequently detected fungal genera were Malassezia, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. Attached microbiomes did not statistically differ between these two soils. However, Malassezia globosa and four fungal species of the family Plectosphaerellaceae, and the bacterium Neorhizobium galegae were strongly enriched on M. incognita in the suppressive soil. In conclusion, the highly specific attachment of microbes to infective stages of

  16. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

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    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  17. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

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    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  18. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

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    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  19. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of Abuad moringa soap with conventional medicated soaps

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    Pius Abimbola Okiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of 'ABUAD moringa soap', a herbal soap produced with Moringa oleifera leaf by 'ABUAD Farm', Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of  ABUAD moringa soap on some selected bacteria and fungi were evaluated and compared with those of some conventional medicated and herbal soaps commonly used in Nigeria, such as Dettol,  Tetmosol, Tura, Septol, Delta and Dudu Osun (herbal, as well as Lux, which serves as a control soap. The results of the physicochemical analyses revealed that all the soaps fall within the pH range of 8.83 and 9.83. All the soaps possess low values of free caustic alkali and detectable free fatty acid, as well as moderate values of total fatty matter. In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the soaps were investigated against microbial agents commonly found in association with skin infections, using the well-agar diffusion technique. The bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 12453, as well as four clinical isolates namely, Escherichia coli, Leutococcus sanguinis, Corynebacterium accolens and Burkholderia cepacia. The fungi were Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349, and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. All the soaps, with exeption of lux, produced varied degrees of antibacterial activities, but ABUAD Moringa soap and Dudu Osun indicated superior effectiveness against the bacteria tested. Antifugal activities were produced by ABUAD moringa and Dudu Osun soaps only, on the fungi tested.  ABUAD Moringa produced significantly higher antifungal activities on Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 than Dudu Osun, but no significant difference was observed between the two soaps on their activities against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. The study showed that ABUAD Moringa soap

  20. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

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    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  1. The gut mycobiome of the Human Microbiome Project healthy cohort.

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    Nash, Andrea K; Auchtung, Thomas A; Wong, Matthew C; Smith, Daniel P; Gesell, Jonathan R; Ross, Matthew C; Stewart, Christopher J; Metcalf, Ginger A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2017-11-25

    Most studies describing the human gut microbiome in healthy and diseased states have emphasized the bacterial component, but the fungal microbiome (i.e., the mycobiome) is beginning to gain recognition as a fundamental part of our microbiome. To date, human gut mycobiome studies have primarily been disease centric or in small cohorts of healthy individuals. To contribute to existing knowledge of the human mycobiome, we investigated the gut mycobiome of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) cohort by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region as well as the 18S rRNA gene. Three hundred seventeen HMP stool samples were analyzed by ITS2 sequencing. Fecal fungal diversity was significantly lower in comparison to bacterial diversity. Yeast dominated the samples, comprising eight of the top 15 most abundant genera. Specifically, fungal communities were characterized by a high prevalence of Saccharomyces, Malassezia, and Candida, with S. cerevisiae, M. restricta, and C. albicans operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in 96.8, 88.3, and 80.8% of samples, respectively. There was a high degree of inter- and intra-volunteer variability in fungal communities. However, S. cerevisiae, M. restricta, and C. albicans OTUs were found in 92.2, 78.3, and 63.6% of volunteers, respectively, in all samples donated over an approximately 1-year period. Metagenomic and 18S rRNA gene sequencing data agreed with ITS2 results; however, ITS2 sequencing provided greater resolution of the relatively low abundance mycobiome constituents. Compared to bacterial communities, the human gut mycobiome is low in diversity and dominated by yeast including Saccharomyces, Malassezia, and Candida. Both inter- and intra-volunteer variability in the HMP cohort were high, revealing that unlike bacterial communities, an individual's mycobiome is no more similar to itself over time than to another person's. Nonetheless, several fungal species persisted across a majority of samples, evidence that

  2. Size- and shape-dependent clinical and mycological efficacy of silver nanoparticles on dandruff

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    Anwar MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad F Anwar,1 Deepak Yadav,2 Swati Jain,3 Sumeet Kapoor,4 Shweta Rastogi,5 Indu Arora,6 Mohammed Samim1 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, 3Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 4Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 5Department of Chemistry, Hans Raj College, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Dandruff is a prominent scalp problem caused by the growth of fungus Malassezia furfur, potentially cascading into dermal inflammation, itching, and tissue damage. The present work outlines a detailed analysis of the treatment of scalp infection using silver nanomaterials (Ag NMs, and focuses on biocidal activity owing to manipulation of size, shape, and structure. Monodisperse silver spherical nanoparticles (NPs and nanorods (NRs were synthesized by chemical routes that were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Ag NMs demonstrated enhanced biocidal tendencies compared to market available drugs, itracanozole and ketoconazole, showing greater zones of inhibition. The obtained 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs and 50 nm NRs showed concentration-, size-, and shape-dependent antifungal activity, with 20 nm spherical-shaped NPs exhibiting excellent potency. Minimum inhibitory concentration for 20 nm was lowest at 0.2 mg/mL in comparison to 0.3 mg/mL for NRs. Primary irritation index was 0.33 and 0.16 for 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs, respectively, while 50 nm rod-shaped NMs exhibited negligible redness. An in vivo model for M. furfur infection was generated by passing fungi subcutaneously in rats’ skin. Again, 20 nm particles showed best normalization of skin after 10 days on regular dosing, in comparison with bigger and rod-shaped particles. The statistical clinical score was

  3. Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Deverra tortuosa (Desf.)DC.: a desert aromatic shrub widespread in Northern Region of Saudi Arabia.

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    Guetat, Arbi; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2018-04-16

    The present study describes the chemical composition of the essential oil of different plant parts of Devrra tortuosa; in vivo and in vitro biological activities of plant extract and essential oils. Apiol was found to be the major component of the oil (between 65.73% and 74.41%). The best antioxidant activities were observed for the oil of flowers (IC50 = 175 μg/ml). The samples of stems and roots exhibit lower antioxidant activity (IC50 = 201 μg/ml and 182 μg/ml, respectively). The values of IC50 showed that the extracts of methanol exhibit the highest antioxidants activities (IC50 = 64.8 102 μg/ml). EOs showed excellent antifungal activity against yeasts with low azole susceptibilities (i.e. Malassezia spp. and Candida krusei). The MIC values of oils varied between 2.85 mg/mL and 27 mg/mL. The obtained results also showed that the plant extracts inhibited the germination and the shoot and root growth of Triticum æstivum seedlings.

  4. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog's oral cavity

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    Rosema Santin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis.

  5. Dermatomicosis en población de Manizales

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    G. E. Buitrago

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Se informa sobre el estudio micológico realizado en una población de 1.175 pacientes adultos remitidos por el servicio médico de la ciudad de Manizales. Fue posible establecer diagnóstico positivo en 779 pacientes (66,3%, con 72 (6,1% casos de pitiriasis versicolor, 1 (0,1% por Tineanigrapalmaris, 291 (24,8% micosiscutáneaspordermatofitos y 184 (15,7% casos de candidiasis. La distribución de frecuencia agrupó a 15 Microsporum, 101 Epidermophyton y 257 Trichophyton. Fueron 357 (95,7% antropofílicos, 10 (2,7% geofílicos y 6 (1,6% zoofílicos. Las especies aisladas fueron: M. canis, M. gypseum, E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. verrucosum, Cladosporium werneckii, Malassezia furtur y otros. En el estudio de las onicopatías se encontraron: 82 (7,0% casos por dermatofitos 103 (8,8% casos por Candida albicans; en 46 (3,9% casos se aislaron hongos no dermatofitos incriminados como agentes patógenos oportunistas, por algunos autores. No hubo diagnóstico micológico en 10 (0,8% casos por obtenerse en los cultivos Mycelia sterilla, y fueron negativos 386 (32,8%. Se indican los procedimientos paraanálisis micológico y se mencionan consideraciones generales sobre la patología de la dermatofitos.

  6. Isolation, screening and partial purification of antimicrobial antibiotics from soil Streptomyces sp. SCA 7

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    P. Saravana Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven actinomycetes strains were isolated from soil samples collected from an agriculture field in Vengodu, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India (latitude: 12° 54′ 0033″, North; longitude: 79° 78′ 5216″, East; elevation: 228.6/70.0 ft/m. The isolates were assessed for antagonistic activity against five Gram-positive bacteria, seven Gram-negative bacteria, and two pathogenic fungi. During the initial screening, 43% of the strains showed weak activity, 16% showed moderate activity, 5% showed good activity, and 35% showed no antagonistic activity. Among the strains tested, SCA 7 showed strong antimicrobial activity. Maximum biological activity was obtained on modified nutrient glucose agar (MNGA medium. The mycelia of SCA 7 were extracted with methanol and tested against microbial pathogens using the disc diffusion method. The crude extract was purified partially using column chromatography and assessed for antimicrobial activity. Fraction 10 showed good activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.25 μg/mL and Malassezia pachydermatis (500 μg/mL and the active principle (fraction 10 was identified as 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl phenol. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, cultural, and molecular characteristics (16S rDNA sequencing, this strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. SCA 7. It could be used in the development of new substances for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  7. EFEITO AUXILIAR DO CERUMINOLÍTICO NA TERAPIA TÓPICA DE CÃES (Canis lupus familiaris COM OTITE EXTERNA CERUMINOSA

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    Eduardo Negri Mueller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the help effect of ceruminolytic in ceruminous external otitis in dog’s ears. Dogs with bilateral ceruminous external otitis, whose ears were evaluated by palpation, inspection, otoscopy and fungal and bacterial culture were studied. For the treatment, carried out twice a day during 15 days, the animals were divided into two groups, A and B. The animals in group A were treated with ceruminolytic and otological solution, containing, respectively, salicylic acid and aminoglycoside, while the animals in group B were treated only with otological solution. Clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed on 0 and 15 days of treatment. Twenty dogs (n=40 ears, with at least erythema in the otoscopy and moderate to intense ceruminous exsudate. Besides these, we observed more erythema (n=16 in both groups and exsudate in the acoustic conch (n=14 and n=11, respectively, groups A and B and itch (n=13 and n=11, respectively, groups A and B. On the 15th day, we observed reduction of all clinical signals, except stenosis, which did not change in any of the groups, and pain, which increased in group A. The microorganisms Malassezia pachydermatis e Staphylococcus sp. reduced in treatment B with statistical significance. Bacteria were more sensitive to gentamicin. The use of ceruminolytic associated to otological solution reduced the external ottis clinical signals, mainly exsudate and smell in the acoustic conch and the quantity of cerumen in the otoscopy, without interfering in the microorganisms reduction.

  8. Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens controlled with a combination therapy: Systemic antibiosis (Metronidazole Plus Clindamycin, dermatosurgical approach, and high-dose isotretinoin

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    Georgi Tchernev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is a suppurative process that involves the scalp, eventually resulting in extensive scarring and irreversible alopecia. The condition is also known as ′acne necrotica miliaris′ or ′Proprionibacterium′ folliculitis. Most often the disease affects men of African-American or African-Caribbean descent between 20 and 40 years of age. The clinical picture is determined by fluctuating painful fistule-forming conglomerates of abscesses in the region of the occipital scalp. The cause of scalp folliculitis is not well understood. It is generally considered to be an inflammatory reaction to components of the hair follicle, particularly the micro-organisms. These include: bacteria (especially Propionibacterium acnes, but in severe cases, also Staphylococcus aureus, Yeasts (Malassezia species and mites (Demodex folliculorum. The initial histopathologic finding is an exclusively neutrophilic infiltration followed by a granulomatous infiltrate. The treatment of the disease is usually difficult and often disappointing. Successful treatment with isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass could be achieved only after regular systematic administration in the course of 3-4 months. Here we describe a patient with eruptive purulent form of the disease, which has been controlled with combination therapy: systemic antibiosis with metronidazole and clindamycin, dermatosurgical removal of single nodular formations, and isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass for 3-5 months.

  9. Occurrence and identification of yeasts in dogs external ear canal with and without otitis

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    Elidiana de Bona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the presence of yeast in the external ear canal of 116 dogs with and without a diagnosis of otitis from veterinary clinic in the Chapecó city, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to examine the secretion of the proteinase in isolates. Materials and methods. Were collected cerumen of conduct hearing of dogs of 16 different races 71% with pendular ear type, 5% of semi-pendular and 24% of the erect type. All dogs were previously evaluated by otoscopy and grouped in dogs with and without otitis. Results. Yeasts were isolated in 44 samples (approximately 36%, where Malassezia pachydermatis was identified in 95% of samples where were observed growth of yeasts. On 20 samples the proteinase enzyme showed strong activity in 31% isolates, were 21% of the dogs with otitis tested showed high proteolytic activity. Conclusions. We observed a variation of strains of M. pachydermatis-producing enzymes. The variation in production of these enzymes is probably more associated with different response to the action of the immune system of the animal in the tissue injury.

  10. Fungal Diversity in a Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystem (DOVE on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

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    Hubert Staudigel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumarolic Ice caves on Antarctica’s Mt. Erebus contain a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem (DOVE and represent a deep biosphere habitat that can provide insight into microbial communities that utilize energy sources other than photosynthesis. The community assembly and role of fungi in these environments remains largely unknown. However, these habitats could be relatively easily contaminated during human visits. Sixty-one species of fungi were identified from soil clone libraries originating from Warren Cave, a DOVE on Mt. Erebus. The species diversity was greater than has been found in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys oligotrophic soil. A relatively large proportion of the clones represented Malassezia species (37% of Basidomycota identified. These fungi are associated with skin surfaces of animals and require high lipid content for growth, indicating that contamination may have occurred through the few and episodic human visits in this particular cave. These findings highlight the importance of fungi to DOVE environments as well as their potential use for identifying contamination by humans. The latter offers compelling evidence suggesting more strict management of these valuable research areas.

  11. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  12. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp

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    sanaz Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic, recurrent and often asymptomatic infection of stratum corneum, Which is caused by lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia. Human to human transmission through direct contact is possible. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp was perfumed. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study,115 students in the dormitories of the university of medical sciences were studied with the three methods:skin scraping, using  scotch tape and wood’s lamp. Results: Among 115 patients, 66.94% were female and 33.05% were male. The mean age was 21.38 years.25% of boys and 11.1% of girls were affected.The prevalence of  Pityriasis versicolor by  the three methods was determined 15.7%. In this study, the  most common site of infection was shoulder and neck. Conclusion: The recent study showed a high prevalence of Pityriasis versicolor in Lorestan University of  Medical Sciences students . The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor had a statistically significant difference between males and females, and was more common in females .  The pairwise comparison results obtained  from the three methods using the Kappa coefficient, scotch tape method  was the most consistent results than the other two methods.

  13. Flavonoid Composition and Biological Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm., a Native Plant from Caatinga Biome

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    Daniela Ribeiro Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar coriaceum fruits, found in Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga, are commonly used as food and in folk medicine, as anti-inflammatory, bactericide, fungicide, leishmanicide, and nematicide. Due to the biological potential of this plant, this study focuses on the evaluation of antifungal and antileishmanial activities, including anticholinesterase and antioxidant tests, correlating with total phenols and flavonoids content. Peel extracts contain higher yield of phenols and flavonoids as analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. HPLC analysis of flavonoids revealed that isoquercitrin is the main flavonoid in both parts of the fruit, and peel extract showed the best antioxidant activity. In the inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase assay, both extracts demonstrate action comparable to physostigmine. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated against strains of Malassezia sp. and Microsporum canis, using the broth microdilution technique, in which the extracts showed similar MIC and MFC. The extracts present antileishmanial activity and low toxicity on murine macrophages and erythrocytes. Therefore, these results suggest a potential for the application of C. coriaceum fruit’s ethanol extracts in the treatment against dermatophyte fungi and leishmaniasis, probably due to the presence of active flavonoids. Further in vivo studies are recommended aiming at the development of possible new pharmaceutical compounds.

  14. Dermatomycosis: Conditions that contribute to the disease development

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    Stojanov Igor M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions caused by dermatophytes are classified depending on the infected skin structure: surface layer of cutis, fur layer, clutches or nails. Surface mycoses are caused by dermatophytes: Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton species (also important are Malassezia spp., Candida spp., and Trichosporon. Skin is the target tissue for fungal infections if the epithelial layer is damaged and immune system cannot cope with the infection, or if the conditions are favorable for dermatophytes, which spread in the cutis due to the enzyme activities. Dermatophytes can be found on skin surface if they contaminate or colonize epidermis or hair follicles. However, clinical symptoms of lesion on the skin are sometimes absent. According to the literature data 6-9% of skin lesions are caused by dermatophyte in human medicine. Similar situation is in veterinary medicine. Fungus that cause dermatomycosis are widespread in the nature and could be divided into: zoophilic, geophilic and anthrophilic. The goal of this paper is to present the latest knowledge in pathogenesis on dermatomycosis, predisposing factors important for the outcome of the disease, and immunological reaction of organism to the fungal infection. Our intention is to summarize the subject and present the facts related to specific problems in dermatomycosis.

  15. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-12-01

    Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  16. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

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    Giampaolo Ricci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL. The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases.

  17. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

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    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  18. Atypical pityriasis versicolor case report

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    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by mycelial form of Malassezia spp, which is confined to stratum corneum. It usually present in the trunk as either hypo or hyperpigmented, aymptomatic, round to oval macules of varying sizes, which may merged to form geographic shape. Diagnosis is usually done clinically, or KOH examination which shows typical spagetti and meat balls appearances, or even by wood’s lamp which shows orange to yellow fluorescence. The case series had been recording in between 2012 to 2013. Within that period, we had recorded 32 cases. All the patients which we had recorded presented with multiple, asymptomatic macules of small sizes varying from 1-2 cm in diameter to 3-4mm in diameter, usually round to oval, hypopigmented, non scaly lesions. 26 patients had lesions on forearms, 3 patients had lesions on dorsa of hands bilaterally, 3 patients had similar kind of lesions on thigh. Besnier’s test was positive in 14 (43.75% patients. KOH examinations showed fungal hyphae in 14 (33.33% patients with typical spagetti and meat balls appearances in 9 (8.13% patients. All of them were given and all of them got response and healed within 2-4 months.

  19. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

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    Josiara Furtado Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

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    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis.

  1. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

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    Dongjuan Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1 from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1, Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL, and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL. Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  2. Aspectos clínicos de pacientes com pitiríase versicolor atendidos em um centro de referência em dermatologia tropical na cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Clinical aspects of patients with pityriasis versicolor seen at a referral center for tropical dermatology in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Patrícia Motta de Morais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor (tinha versicolor é uma micose superficial crônica, causada por leveduras do gênero Malassezia spp. comensais das camadas queratinizadas da pele e que, sob determinadas condições ainda não esclarecidas, se torna patogênica, determinando as manifestações clínicas da doença. É uma dermatose recidivante e, mesmo após tratamento, pode deixar hipopigmentação persistente, causando problemas sociais aos indivíduos acometidos. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor atendidos em uma unidade de referência em Dermatologia (Fundação Alfredo da Matta. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos em que foram detalhadas as manifestações cutâneas e as características epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos na Fundação Alfredo da Matta com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor. RESULTADOS: Cento e dezesseis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo no período de janeiro a agosto de 2008. A maioria dos indivíduos é do sexo masculino, de cor parda, da faixa etária jovem e formada por estudantes, que apresentavam fatores predisponentes ao surgimento das manchas. Também a maioria apresentava lesões extensas e história passada da doença. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou alta proporção de indivíduos com quadros extensos e de longa duração da doença.BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor is a chronic superficial mycosis caused by yeasts of the Malassezia spp. genus commensal of the keratinized layers of the skin. Under conditions not yet understood, it becomes pathogenic determining the clinical manifestations of the disease. It is a recurrent skin condition and persistent hypopigmentation may remain after treatment, causing social problems to those affected. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at a referral center for dermatology (Alfredo da

  3. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA , Brazil Pitiríase versicolor: caracterização clínico-epidemiológica em pacientes da área urbana de Buerarema-BA, Brasil

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    Juliano Oliveira Santana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5% were positive; 72 (68.6% were female and 33 (31.4% were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é um distúrbio de pigmentação cutânea causada pela levedura lipofílica do gênero Malassezia sp. É uma micose superficial caracterizada por produzir lesões delimitadas, com descamação fina e de cor variável. No Brasil, o relato do número de casos e de estudos é restrito. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a incidência, as características das lesões, a eficácia do Sinal de Zileri e o perfil epidemiológico da pitiríase versicolor na área urbana do município de Buerarema-BA. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras biológicas no período de julho a setembro de 2010, em dias pré-establecidos, nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde. O Método de Porto foi utilizado como diagnóstico laboratorial. RESULTADOS: Dos 158 pacientes cadastrados com suspeita de pitiríase versicolor, 105 (66,5% mostraram-se positivos, sendo 72 (68,6% do sexo feminino e 33 (31,4% do sexo oposto. Ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre sexo e localização das lesões (p<0,05. A região com maior

  4. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - therapeutic pilot study Tratamento de pitiríase versicolor com aplicação tópica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - estudo terapêutico piloto

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    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS: Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS: No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83% volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07% using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p FUNDAMENTOS: Pitiríase versicolor é uma micose causada pela Malassezia spp., e que apresenta frequentes recidivas. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudos clínicos de fase I e II, para essa patologia, com óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus. MÉTODOS: Na fase I, participaram vinte voluntários para averiguar a segurança das formulações. Na fase II, 47 voluntários receberam as formulações do óleo essencial a 1,25 μL/mL, as quais deveriam ser utilizadas por quarenta dias, sendo o xampu três vezes por semana e o creme duas vezes ao dia. Um grupo controle na fase II, constituído por 29 voluntários recebeu as mesmas formulações, com cetoconazol a 2%. RESULTADOS: Verificada a segurança das formulações com a finalização da fase I, onde nenhuma reação adversa significativa foi

  5. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

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    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  6. Presence and distribution of yeasts in the reproductive tract in healthy female horses.

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    Azarvandi, A; Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Gharahgouzlou, F; Vahedi, G; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-09-01

    Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, and on the skin and other mucosa in mammals. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify yeast flora in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. Longitudinal study. A total of 453 samples were collected using double-guarded swabs from the vestibule, clitoral fossa and vagina in 151 horses. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar and incubated at 35°C for 7-10 days. Isolates were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profiles. Yeast colonies were isolated from 60 (39.7%) of the 151 horses. The isolated yeasts belonged to nine genera, and included Candida spp. (53.2%), Cryptococcus spp. (12.2%), Saccharomyces spp. (10.5%), Geotrichum spp. (8.0%), Rhodotorula spp. (7.1%), Malassezia spp. (3.7%), Trichosporon spp. (2.6%), Kluyveromyces spp. (2.6%) and Sporothrix spp. (0.2%). Candida krusei (43.1%) was the most frequent Candida species isolated. There was a significant difference in prevalence between C. krusei and other Candida species (Pyeast isolates (48.0%) than the vagina (18.3%). The isolation of yeast colonies from multiparous females (76.8%) was significantly higher than from maiden mares (P<0.05). The study was limited by the difficulty of distinguishing between normal flora and potential pathogens. Candida spp., in particular C. krusei, represent important flora resident in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. This is particularly important in contexts that require the initiation of empirical treatment prior to the completion of culture results. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

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    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  8. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis: clinical and histopathological study of 10 cases from Lebanon.

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    Tamraz, H; Raffoul, M; Kurban, M; Kibbi, A-G; Abbas, O

    2013-01-01

    Confluent and reticulate papillomatosis (CRP) is a rare disorder that has mostly been described in case reports and limited case series. Studies on this condition from our region are lacking. To describe the clinical and histopathological findings, as well as response to treatment of all patients diagnosed with CRP at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC) between 1999 and 2009, and to compare our findings with those published in the literature. Confluent and reticulate papillomatosis was diagnosed in 10 patients (five men, five women). Mean age at diagnosis was 19 years. Duration of lesions ranged from few months to several years. Skin lesions mainly consisted of reticulated, pigmented macules, patches and plaques. The most common area of involvement was the chest in five cases. The rash was asymptomatic in eight patients. Skin biopsy specimens from all patients revealed hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis and variable acanthosis. Whereas follicular plugging was observed in nine cases, anastomosis of the rete ridges was noted in three. Periodic acid Schiff stains highlighted yeast forms in six cases. The clinical and histopathological features of the CRP patients in our study are generally comparable to those published in the literature, with minor differences. Clinically, one case had an atypical clinical presentation, and microscopically follicular plugging was seen in the majority of cases. Yeast-like spores were seen in six cases further supporting a role of Malassezia furfur in the pathogenesis of CRP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Pitiríase versicolor e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA

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    Roza Marlon Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é uma infecção crônica recorrente da camada córnea causada pela Malassezia furfur, geralmente assintomática, podendo ser causa de fungemia. A síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida caracteriza-se por uma importante depressão celular, o que propicia a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas. OBJETIVOS: Dados a imunodepressão causada pelo HIV e o risco da presença de M. furfur em sua forma patogênica no imunocomprometido, realizou-se este trabalho comparativo buscando as reais diferenças da pitiríase versicolor no imunocompetente e no imunodeprimido pelo HIV. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, no período de julho de 1998 a junho de 1999, 50 pacientes HIV positivos do Hospital Universitário da UFJF. Como grupo controle, foram examinados de forma aleatória 50 pacientes soronegativos para HIV. Para cada paciente foi preenchido um protocolo constando de identificação e exames clínicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor foi diagnosticada clinicamente no grupo HIV positivo em sete (14% pacientes, resultado coincidente no grupo controle. Quanto ao passado para a pitiríase versicolor, 12 (24% pacientes já haviam apresentado tal doença no grupo HIV positivo, e igual incidência ocorreu no grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor não se mostrou mais freqüente e nem mais agressiva na população imunodeprimida pelo HIV em relação ao grupo controle, enquanto a dermatite seborréica apresentou-se mais freqüente no grupo infectado pelo HIV.

  10. Investigations of seborrheic dermatitis. Part I. The role of selected cytokines in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis 

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    Ewa Trznadel-Grodzka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The etiology of seborrheic dermatitis is not fully understood. It has been observed that a number of anascogenic yeasts of Malassezia spp. is related to the intensity of the symptoms. The aim of the study is to measure the concentration of selected inflammatory factors IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the serum by an immunoenzymatic method, as well as to confirm the relationship between the studied factors and the clinical condition of the patients (sex, the intensity of skin lesions according to the Scaparro scale and, finally, to compare the results with the control group.Material/Methods:The total number of subjects who participated in the study was 66. The control group (C consisted of 30 volunteers (23 females and 7 males, with no clinical disorders, aged 24–65 (37.41±6.08 years. Thirty-six patients with seborrheic dermatitis (16 females and 20 males, aged 19–76 (38.61±13.77, made up the study group. The determination of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α was performed by ELISA using a Human High Sensitivity kit (Diaclone, France. Clinically, the intensity of the disease process was evaluated on the Scaparro et al. scale, as modified by Kaszuba.Results:We observed statistically significantly higher levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in patients with seborrheic dermatitis compared to the control group.Conclusions:We conclude that seborrheic dermatitis is a dermatosis characterized by a cell type immune response with an important role of IFN-γ and IL-2. 

  11. Novel Naja atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1 derived antimicrobial peptides with broad spectrum activity.

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    Andrea Sala

    Full Text Available Naja atra subsp. atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1, produced by Chinese cobra snakes, belonging to Elapidae family, is included in the three-finger toxin family and exerts high cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity too. Using as template mainly the tip and the subsequent β-strand of the first "finger" of this toxin, different sequences of 20 amino acids linear peptides have been designed in order to avoid toxic effects but to maintain or even strengthen the partial antimicrobial activity already seen for the complete toxin. As a result, the sequence NCP-0 (Naja Cardiotoxin Peptide-0 was designed as ancestor and subsequently 4 other variant sequences of NCP-0 were developed. These synthesized variant sequences have shown microbicidal activity towards a panel of reference and field strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The sequence named NCP-3, and its variants NCP-3a and NCP-3b, have shown the best antimicrobial activity, together with low cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and low hemolytic activity. Bactericidal activity has been demonstrated by minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assay at values below 10 μg/ml for most of the tested bacterial strains. This potent antimicrobial activity was confirmed even for unicellular fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Malassezia pachydermatis (MBC 50-6.3 μg/ml, and against the fast-growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Moreover, NCP-3 has shown virucidal activity on Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1 belonging to Herpesviridae family. The bactericidal activity is maintained even in a high salt concentration medium (125 and 250 mM NaCl and phosphate buffer with 20% Mueller Hinton (MH medium against E. coli, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strains. Considering these in vitro obtained data, the search for active sequences within proteins presenting an intrinsic microbicidal activity could provide a

  12. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome in Children with Hirschsprung Disease with and without a History of Enterocolitis: A Multicenter Study.

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    Philip K Frykman

    Full Text Available Development of potentially life-threatening enterocolitis is the most frequent complication in children with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, even after definitive corrective surgery. Intestinal microbiota likely contribute to the etiology of enterocolitis, so the aim of this study was to compare the fecal bacterial and fungal communities of children who developed Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC with HSCR patients who had never had enterocolitis. Eighteen Hirschsprung patients who had completed definitive surgery were enrolled: 9 had a history of HAEC and 9 did not. Fecal DNA was isolated and 16S and ITS-1 regions sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing and data analysis for species identification. The HAEC group bacterial composition showed a modest reduction in Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia with increased Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria compared with the HSCR group. In contrast, the fecal fungi composition of the HAEC group showed marked reduction in diversity with increased Candida sp., and reduced Malassezia and Saccharomyces sp. compared with the HSCR group. The most striking finding within the HAEC group is that the Candida genus segregated into "high burden" patients with 97.8% C. albicans and 2.2% C. tropicalis compared with "low burden" patients 26.8% C. albicans and 73% C. tropicalis. Interestingly even the low burden HAEC group had altered Candida community structure with just two species compared to more diverse Candida populations in the HSCR patients. This is the first study to identify Candida sp. as potentially playing a role in HAEC either as expanded commensal species as a consequence of enterocolitis (or treatment, or possibly as pathobioants contributing to the pathogenesis of HAEC. These findings suggest a dysbiosis in the gut microbial ecosystem of HAEC patients, such that there may be dominance of fungi and bacteria predisposing patients to development of HAEC.

  13. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Irene Mittermann

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors.To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens.Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53 and moderate AD (n = 126. As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins.IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1 and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10, to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD.We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD.

  14. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

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    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  15. COMPARISON OF POTENCY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS AND DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

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    Naga Padma P, Anuradha K, Divya K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dandruff a very common scalp disorder with high prevalence in population is caused by numerous host factors in conjunction with Malassezia furfur. Most of the commercially available anti-dandruff hair shampoos contain some form of antifungal agent(s that appear to reduce the incidence of the disease. There are no good scientific studies done to prove the antifungal activity of commercially available hair shampoos. Aim: In this study commercially available shampoos were assessed for antifungal activity against a human dandruff isolate of M. furfur. The shampoos were Head & Shoulders, Clinic All Clear, and Pantene etc. The results demonstrated that all six of the assayed hair shampoos have some antifungal effect on growth of M. furfur. These products have poor efficacies, more side effects and give scope for recurrence of symptoms. Methods and Materials: Therefore different plant extracts that possess various active compounds which have antifungal activity could help to overcome the incidence of the disease and also avoid the emergence of resistance in the pathogen. The plant extracts were tested in different concentrations like 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and they were hibiscus, neem, soap nut, etc. The inhibitory action was studied using agar well assay and disc diffusion method and the results indicated in percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The study was significant as not only efficient known plant products with anti-dandruff activity could be compared with commercially available shampoos but also their better efficacies at minimum concentrations could be identified. This can help make a polyherbal mixture that could be incorporated in hair oil or shampoos for better anti-dandruff activity.

  16. Enhancement of the Knowledge on Fungal Communities in Directly Brined Aloreña de Málaga Green Olive Fermentations by Metabarcoding Analysis.

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    Francisco Noé Arroyo-López

    Full Text Available Nowadays, our knowledge of the fungal biodiversity in fermented vegetables is limited although these microorganisms could have a great influence on the quality and safety of this kind of food. This work uses a metagenetic approach to obtain basic knowledge of the fungal community ecology during the course of fermentation of natural Aloreña de Málaga table olives, from reception of raw material to edible fruits. For this purpose, samples of brines and fruits were collected from two industries in Guadalhorce Valley (Málaga, Spain at different moments of fermentation (0, 7, 30 and 120 days. The physicochemical and microbial counts performed during fermentation showed the typical evolution of this type of processes, mainly dominated by yeasts in apparent absence of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae. High-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region showed a low biodiversity of the fungal community, with the presence at 97% identity of 29 different fungal genera included in 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The most important genera in the raw material at the moment of reception in the industry were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Malassezia, and Candida, whilst after 4 months of fermentation in brines Zygotorulaspora and Pichia were predominant, whereas in fruits were Candida, Penicillium, Debaryomyces and Saccharomyces. The fungal genera Penicillium, Pichia, and Zygotorulaspora were shared among the three types of substrates during all the course of fermentation, representing the core fungal population for this table olive specialty. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences allowed a more accurate assignment of diverse OTUs to Pichia manshurica, Candida parapsilosis/C. tropicalis, Candida diddensiae, and Citeromyces nyonensis clades. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium in olive fermentations including phytopathogenic, saprofitic, spoilage and fermentative genera. Insights into the

  17. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globulus

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    P.Selvakumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of the essential oil of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as potential antidandruff agent. Methods: Fresh leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected leaves were washed thoroughly and shade dried for 7-10 days. The essential oils from both the dried plant leaves were obtained by hydro distillation procedure. The chemical compositions of hydro distilled essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The pure essential oils and the essential oils diluted with coconut oil of the two plants were used to check antidandruff activity against the dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur by agar well diffusion assay. Results: The average yield of essential oil from Coleus amboinicus (0.89% and Eucalyptus globules (0.77%. The results of GC-MS revealed that the presence of eight compounds from Coleus amboinicus essential oil and five constituents from Eucalyptus globules representing 90.45% and 96.32% of the total oil respectively. The major component was identified as Thymol (phenolic rich compocnd (41.3% in Coleus amboinicus and in Eucalyptus globules the major constituents was 1-8, Cineol (91.61%. In the antidandruff activity the broad range of inhibitory zone was observed in Eucalyptus globules (37mm oil compare to Coleus amboinicus (31mm. Ketaconazole based shampoo used as a standard. Conclusion: This study would direct to the establishment of a natural compound from Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as an antidandruff agent which can be used for the production of potential antifungal drug and novel pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical leads.

  18. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole.

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    Turner, G A; Matheson, J R; Li, G-Z; Fei, X-Q; Zhu, D; Baines, F L

    2013-02-01

    Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oil and treatment of fungal infections.

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    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2017-05-01

    A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Mittermann, Irene; Wikberg, Gustav; Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD.

  1. Feline atopic dermatitis: a retrospective study of 45 cases (2001-2012).

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    Ravens, Philippa A; Xu, Bei J; Vogelnest, Linda J

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is recognized as a common cause of pruritus in cats, but it remains incompletely characterized. The aim of the study was to evaluate cases of confirmed feline AD. Fourty-five cats from a dermatology referral practice (2001-2012). A retrospective case record review was carried out using strict diagnostic criteria, including exclusion of flea-bite hypersensitivity and adverse food reaction. Disease prevalence was 12.5%, with domestic mixed (n = 24), Abyssinian (n = 6) and Devon rex (n = 3) cat breeds predisposed. Median age of onset was 2 years (62% 7 years; range 3 months to 12 years). Common presentations were severe (82%), nonseasonal (82%), waxing/waning (36%) pruritus, with alopecia/crusting/excoriations and/or erosions/ulceration (73%). Miliary dermatitis (20%) and eosinophilic granuloma complex lesions (27%) occurred. The face/head (71%), ventral abdomen (51%), neck (51%), limbs (38%), pinnae (31%), dorsum/rump (31%) and feet (16%) were frequently affected sites; lesions were restricted to the head/neck in only five cats (11%). Concurrent otitis externa (16%), superficial bacterial pyoderma (49%), Malassezia dermatitis (7%), flea-bite hypersensitivity (24%) and adverse food reaction (13%) occurred. Strong reactions on intradermal allergen testing were common (68%; 19 of 30), most frequently to pollens (61%) and/or insects (46%). Good response to ciclosporin (100%; 10 of 10), systemic glucocorticoids (55%; 22 of 40) and allergen-specific immunotherapy (57%; 13 of 23) and good/partial response to antihistamines (67%; 22 of 33) were reported. The prevalence of feline AD was higher than previously suggested, and breed predispositions were confirmed. Severe nonseasonal pruritus was most common, with a varied spectrum of lesions affecting a range of body areas. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

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    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  3. The use of recombinant omega interferon therapy in canine atopic dermatitis: a double-blind controlled study.

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    Carlotti, Didier Noël; Boulet, Marc; Ducret, Joël; Machicote, Gustavo; Jasmin, Pierre; Rème, Christophe A; Albouy, Maxime

    2009-10-01

    This double-blind controlled study assessed whether reduced doses of omega interferon (rFeIFN-omega) (Virbagen Omega) could improve the clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) over a 6-month period, in comparison with cyclosporin. Thirty-one dogs diagnosed with CAD were entered in the study. Complicating infections were treated prior to entry. Dogs received 10 injections of rFeIFN-omega (1-5 million units according to bodyweight) or placebo over 6 months, and placebo capsules or cyclosporin (5 mg/kg) once daily for 2 months and then twice weekly for 4 months in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Flea control, non-medicated shampooing and ear cleansing were performed regularly. If a bacterial infection or Malassezia overgrowth developed, it was treated with oral cephalexin or with 3% chlorhexidine shampoo respectively. Oral prednisolone was used before day 90 to relieve pruritus when required for humane reasons (1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days). The CADESI-03 and a pruritus index were evaluated on day (D) 0, D14, D35, D56, D90, D120 and D180. No significant difference was detected between the groups for the time courses of lesions or pruritus over 6 months. On D90, the proportions of dogs with > or =50% improvement of pruritus and lesion scores were 56% and 72% respectively with interferon, 75% and 75% respectively with cyclosporin. Five dogs from group 1 and two dogs from group 2 were withdrawn from the study for treatment failure. Both products were well tolerated. Treatment with rfeIFN-omega at low doses may help for the long-term management of CAD.

  4. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

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    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  5. Investigations of kanuka and manuka essential oils for in vitro treatment of disease and cellular inflammation caused by infectious microorganisms.

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    Chen, Chien-Chia; Yan, Sui-Hing; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Pei-Fang; Liao, Wei-Ting; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David Wang, Hui-Min

    2016-02-01

    Diseases caused by infectious and inflammatory microorganisms are among the most common and most severe nosocomial diseases worldwide. Therefore, developing effective agents for treating these illnesses is critical. In this study, essential oils from two tea tree species, kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), were evaluated for use in treating diseases and inflammation caused by microorganism infection. Isolates of clinically common bacteria and fungi were obtained from American Type Culture Collection and from Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Trichosporon mucoides, Malassezia furfur, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis were determined by the broth microdilution method with Sabouraud dextrose broth. The antibacterial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mutans, and Escherichia coli were determined by the broth microdilution method. A human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was cultured to test the effects of the essential oils on the release of the two inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. Multiple analyses of microorganism growth confirmed that both essential oils significantly inhibited four fungi and the four bacteria. The potent fungicidal properties of the oils were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.78% to 3.13%. The oils also showed excellent bactericidal qualities with 100% inhibition of the examined bacteria. In THP-1 cells, both oils lowered tumor necrosis factor-α released after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Finally, the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of the oils were obtained without adversely affecting the immune system. These results indicate that the potent antimicroorganism and anti-inflammation properties of kanuka and manuka essential oils make them strong candidates for use in treating infections and immune-related disease. The data confirm the potential

  6. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

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    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  7. Classification of Cryptococcus neoformans and yeast-like fungus isolates from pigeon droppings by colony phenotyping and ITS genotyping and their seasonal variations in Korea.

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    Chae, H S; Jang, G E; Kim, N H; Son, H R; Lee, J H; Kim, S H; Park, G N; Jo, H J; Kim, J T; Chang, K S

    2012-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans (C neoformans) is a frequent cause of invasive fungal disease in immunocompromised human hosts. Ninety-eight samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the pigeon shelters in Seoul, and cultured on birdseed agar (BSA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). One hundred yeast-like colonies were selected and identified via phenotype characteristics, such as colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. This was then followed with genotyping via sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The colonies were classified into four kinds of colony color types: brown type (BrT), beige type (BeT), pink type (PT), and white type (WT). Numbers of isolated BrT, BeT, PT, and WT colonies were 22 (22%), 30 (30%), 19 (19%), and 39 (39%), respectively. All BrT colonies were identified as C neoformans. BeT were identified as 19 isolates of Cryptococcus laurentii, 10 isolates of Malassezia furfur, and 1 isolate of Cryptococcus uniguttulatus. PT was divided into two colony color types: light-PT (l-PT) and deep-PT (d-PT). Eighteen of l-PT and one of d-PT were identified as Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, respectively. WT were identified as 34 isolates of Cryptococcus guilliermondii, 3 isolates of Cryptococcus zeylanoides, 1 isolate of Cryptococcus sake, and 1 isolate of Stephanoascus ciferrii. Most strains were classified identically with the use of either phenotype or genotyping techniques, but C uniguttulatus and C sake classified by phenotyping were Pseudozyma aphidis and Cryptococcus famata by genotyping. This rapid screening technique of pathogenic yeast-like fungi by only colony characteristics is also expected to be very useful for primary yeast screening. Additionally, we investigated the seasonal variations of C neoformans and other yeast-like fungi from 379 pigeon-dropping samples that were collected from February 2011 to March 2011. We isolated 685 yeast-like fungi from the samples. Almost all C neoformans and

  8. Epidemiology of superficial and cutaneous mycosis in 5500 suspected patients in Tehran

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    Ayatollah Nasrollahi Omran

    2010-04-01

    onychomycosis and Candida albicans was the most common etiological agent. The common sites of involvement of tinea versicolor were neck and trunk and Malassezia globosa was most common etiologic agent."n"nConclusion: This study highlights a common problem (Antropophilic species in Tehran and suggests that further measures regarding public health and especially personal hygiene should be undertaken to reduce the risk of superficial and cutaneous mycoses.

  9. [Epidemiological transition of mycosis diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: from surface to depth].

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    Chandenier, J; Desoubeaux, G

    2015-02-01

    Fungi are schematically responsible for three distinct kinds of infections: superficial mycoses, subcutaneous and deep ones. The current socio-epidemiological transition observed in sub-Saharan Africa does not actually lead to similar consequences regarding these three categories of fungal entities. For instance, it has long been known that superficial mycoses are very prevalent in tropical areas, since they are partly due to the warm climate and the promiscuity. They are mostly caused by dermatophytic fungi or Malassezia sp. (Pityriasis versicolor). Subcutaneous mycoses are rarer, and usually due to dimorphic fungi which are accidentally inoculated into the body after a skin injury or a trauma. Sometimes very spectacular, the clinical outcome is then described as chronic. Thus, chromoblastomycosis, rhinoentomophtoromycosis or mycetoma are some examples of subcutaneous mycoses which remain well-known by practitioners of endemic countries. Deep mycoses (or invasive / systemic mycoses) are defined by fungal infections of deep anatomical sites that should be normally sterile. By contrast with the other entities mentioned above, the outcome may be rapidly fatal for the patient. One of the most outstanding examples was the great increasing of cryptococcal meningitis during the HIV outbreak in the 80'. A few other similar mycoses may be feared in a near future, since they usually occur in contexts of important immunosuppression which are about to be definitely experienced in Africa: overall increase of chronic diseases like diabetes, lengthening life expectancy and its associated diseases, widespread medical practices which were only seen in advanced intensive care units, onco-haematology departments or graft centers so far. Thus, the deep mycoses will inevitably increase in Africa, as they did in all developed countries over the last two decades. The consequences will not only be limited to the clinical management as described above: the diagnostic approach is also

  10. Virulência in vitro por leveduras isoladas da região cérvico-vaginal de cadelas

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    Denise S. N. Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar as espécies de leveduras da mucosa cérvico-vaginal de cadelas e a virulência “in vitro” dos isolados por ensaios de produção de protease e fosfolipase. Utilizou-se 40 fêmeas caninas, divididas em  não ovariectomizadas e cadelas gestantes. As coletas ocorreram por lavado cérvico-vaginal, com tampão salina estéril, seguindo-se isolamento em meio Ágar Infuso Cérebro e Coração, sucedido de provas bioquímicas para identificação das leveduras. A avaliação da produção de protease e de fosfolipase foi realizada “in vitro”, com meios específicos. Das 40 cadelas, em 82,5% obteve-se o crescimento fúngico. Foram obtidos 60 isolados, sendo 21 (35,0% identificados como Candida spp, 19 (31.66% Malassezia spp, 13 (21,66% Rhodotorula spp e 7 (11,66% Trichosporon spp. Das 60 cepas testadas para produção de protease 36,66% foram negativas, 33,33% positivas e 30,0% forte positivas. Para produção de fosfolipase, 45,0% foram negativas, 38,33% forte positivas e 16,66% positivas. A maioria dos isolados apresentou algum grau de virulência se considerarmos a capacidade de produção destas enzimas. O isolamento de cepas que são possíveis agentes de distúrbios reprodutivos, a determinação das espécies e a avaliação dos fatores de virulência representam talvez a solução de inúmeros distúrbios ainda pouco explicados e controlados na medicina veterinária.

  11. Metabarcoding analysis of eukaryotic microbiota in the gut of HIV-infected patients.

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    Ibrahim Hamad

    Full Text Available Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples. Our results revealed that recovering eukaryotic components from fecal samples differs significantly among DNA extraction methods. Subsequently, the composition of the intestinal eukaryotic microbiota was evaluated in HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers through clone sequencing, high-throughput sequencing of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1 and 2 (ITS2 amplicons and real-time PCRs. Our results revealed that not only richness (Chao-1 index and alpha diversity (Shannon diversity differ between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, depending on the molecular strategy used, but also the global eukaryotic community composition, with little overlapping taxa found between techniques. Moreover, our results based on cloning libraries and ITS1/ITS2 metabarcoding sequencing showed significant differences in fungal composition between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, but without distinct clusters separating the two groups. Malassezia restricta was significantly more prevalent in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients, according to cloning libraries, whereas operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were significantly more abundant in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients compared to healthy subjects in both ITS subregions. Finally, real-time PCR showed the presence of Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis

  12. Microbiologia de swabs retais e otológicos em carnívoros silvestres do zoológico do Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, Pernambuco

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    Débora Costa Viegas de Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo epidemiológico de patógenos em populações selvagens no ambiente in situ e ex situ é fundamental para implementação de programas de prevenção, controle e monitoramento de enfermidades e para elaboração de políticas públicas de saúde pública e animal. O estudo foi realizado no zoológico do Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos no período de janeiro a julho de 2011 onde foram coletados swabs anais e otológicos referentes a 29 carnívoros silvestres cativos do zoológico. Dos swabs otológicos analisados, 1/29 (3,4% foi positivo para Malassezia pachy dermatis no exame direto. No exame microbiológico dos swabs otológicos, observou-se maior freqüência para bactérias do gênero Bacillus 16/29 (55,2%, seguida de Sta phylococcus 15/29 (51,7%, Escherichia coli 7/29 (24,1%, Streptobacillus 1/29 (3,4%, Micrococcus 1/29 (3,4% e Klebsiella 1/29 (3,4%. Com relação ao exame presuntivo para o gênero Salmonella a partir das amostras de swab retal, observou-se positividade para seis raposas (Cerdocyon thous e um guaxinim (Procyon cancrivorus. O isolamento de Salmonella spp. em C. thous e em P. cancrivorus indica um risco à saúde pública, principalmente para os profissionais do zoológico que trabalham diretamente com esses animais. Essa pesquisa reforça a importância da criação de estratégias de vigilância epidemiológica voltadas para a prevenção, controle e monitoramento de potenciais reservatórios de agentes etiológicos de doenças infecciosas e parasitárias no ambiente dos zoológicos.

  13. Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

    2010-01-01

    Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears

  14. Prevalência das dermatopatias não-tumorais em cães do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (2005-2008 Prevalence of non-tumorous canine dermatopathies in dogs from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2005-2008

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    Tatiana M. Souza

    2009-02-01

    prevalence of non-tumorous canine dermatopathies affecting dogs from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From March 2005 to June de 2008, the authors followed-up canine dermatological cases from two sources: those referred to the Dermatology Sector of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria and those from a private practice. During this period 480 dogs with dermatological problems were examined; in 393 (81.9% it was possible to establish a definitive diagnosis and in 87 (18.1% the diagnosis was inconclusive. Four hundred and twenty four primary diagnosis and 78 secondary diagnosis were performed in the 393 dogs with conclusive diagnosis, totaling 502 diagnosis. The distribution of the diagnosis according to the categories of diagnosed dermatopathies was as follows: Allergic (190/502 [37.8%], bacterial (103/502 [20.5%], parasitic (97/502 [19.3%], environmental (28/502 [5,6%], mycotic (20/502 [4.0%], endocrine (13/502 [2.6%], keratinization disturbances (11/502 [2.2%], psychogenic (9/502 [1.8%], acquired alopecias (6/502 [1.2%], autoimmune (6/502 [1.2%], inherited (6/502 [1.2%], pigmentary disturbances (1/502 [0.2%], nutritional (1/502 [0.2%], and sundry conditions (11/502 [2.2%]. In general, the ten most frequently diagnosed non-tumorous dermatopathies in decreasing order of frequency were: Atopy, flea bite allergic dermatitis, bacterial folliculitis, demodectic mange, deep bacterial folliculitis/furunculosis, sarcoptic mange, myiasis, food allergy, traumatic pyoderma, and Malassezia dermatitis. These 10 conditions together made up approximately for three quarters of all canine skin diseases diagnosed in the current study.