WorldWideScience

Sample records for malaria south-west ethiopia

  1. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Assessing Control of Asthma in Jush, Jimma, South West Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite international guidelines, asthma control is short of the goal in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to assess control of asthma in patients older than 14 years at the Chest Clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital/JUSH, South West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional ...

  3. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  4. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, this disease has devastating impact on socio-economic development, as it perpetuates poverty and enhances underdevelopment. Globally, about 550 million people are at risk of contracting malaria with an annual total of between 250-450 million clinical cases reported, and an estimate of over one ...

  5. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  6. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  7. Factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Dabaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly communicable diseases which claim the lives of millions in the world. Early case detection and prompt treatment cures the patients, breaks the transmission and improves the control program. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, south west Ethiopia. Method: Facility based cross sectional study design was employed in four directly observed treatment short course service providing public health centers. Three hundred eighty four patient folders were reviewed. In-depth interviews was conducted with 18 health care workers including heads of health centers, tuberculosis focal persons, clinicians, laboratory technicians, tuberculosis program coordinator and head of health office. Result: Significant number, 135(35.2% of tuberculosis suspects were not requested for microscopic examination of sputum smear, the laboratory results 21(8.4% of requested patients were not recorded in both patient folders and laboratory registers. Only 10 (4.4% of those examined and recorded were smearing positive. Participants described that the shortage and irregular supply of acid fast bacilli reagents and consumable, inadequate infrastructures, frequent electricity interruption, shortage of trained care providers, negligence of care providers, weakness of laboratory quality assurance system and poor health information use culture were major factors for low case identification. Conclusion: The resource shortage, electricity interruption, low commitment of care providers, weak quality assurance practice and poor health information use culture were major factors for low tuberculosis case identification and should be considered. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Case detection, Factors

  8. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-04

    Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities in the Zone. Our study found that only three basic and two comprehensive EmOC service qualifying facilities serve this large

  9. Violence and the crisis of conciliation : Suri, Dizi and the State in south-west Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® against Plasmodium falciparum in Kersa, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animut Abebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guidelines. Outcomes were classified as early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. Results 90 patients were enrolled and completed the 28 day follow-up period after treatment with artemether/lumefantrine. Cure rate was very high, 96.3%, with 95% CI of 0.897-0.992 (PCR uncorrected. Age-stratified data showed adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR to be 100% for children under 5 and 97.4% and 87.3% for children aged 5-14, and adults, respectively. There was no early treatment failure (ETF in all age groups. Fever was significantly cleared on day 3 (P 0.05. No major side effect was observed in the study except the occurrence of mouth ulcers in 7% of the patients. Conclusions The current study proved the excellent therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine in the study area and the value of using it. However, the proper dispensing and absorption of the drug need to be emphasized in order to utilize the drug for a longer period of time. This study recommends further study on the toxicity of the drug with particular emphasis on the development of oral ulcers in children.

  11. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  12. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  13. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggins William B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.

  14. Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Ayo MJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

  15. Factors Associated with Use of Guideline in Home Management of Malaria among Children in Rural South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Akerele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dosage regimen for artemether-lumefantrine which is the standard of care for malaria in most of Sub-Saharan countries requires use of treatment guidelines and instructions to enhance caregivers' performance in the treatment of malaria. As part of a larger study evaluating its effectiveness in a rural local government area in southwestern Nigeria, 552 caregivers whose children had fever two weeks preceeding the survey were recruited. Information was collected with interviewer administered questionnaire. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted using the gllamm approach in Stata to determine the factors associated with use of guideline. Age and educational background of caregiver were significantly associated with guideline use. Caregivers aged 26–30 years were 4 times more likely to use guideline than those aged >40 years. Caregivers with primary education were 4 times more likely to use guideline compared with caregivers with no formal education. Between-village variance was 0.00092 ± 0.3084. Guideline use reduced with increasing age and lower education.

  16. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Methods Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia...

  17. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  18. Plasmodium vivax associated severe malaria complications among children in some malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2013-07-08

    Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two study sites, namely Kersa and Halaba Kulito districts, located in southwest and southern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Children, aged ≤ 10 years, who visited the two health centers during the study period, were recruited to the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, temperature, diarrhea, persistent vomiting, confusion, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and epitaxis were assessed for a total of 139 children diagnosed to have P. vivax mono-infection. Parasitological data were collected following standard procedures. Hemoglobin and glucose level were measured using portable hemocue instrument. Median age of children was 4.25 ± 2.95 years. Geometric mean parasite count and mean hemoglobin level were 4254.89 parasite/μl and 11.55 g/dl, respectively. Higher prevalence rate of malaria and severe malaria complications were observed among children enrolled in Halaba district (P infection (OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.34), while female had higher risk to anemia (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.08 - 3.34). The observed number of anemic children was 43%, of which most of them were found in age range from 0-3 years. Furthermore, P. vivax malaria was a risk factor for incidence of anemia (P lower than those reported from other countries. However, incidence of severe malaria complications in one of the sites, Halaba district, where there is highest treatment failure to first line drug, could have

  19. Skilled delivery service utilization and its association with the establishment of Women’s Health Development Army in Yeky district, South West Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Negero, Melese Girmaye; Mitike, Yifru Berhan; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Abota, Tafesse Lamaro

    2018-01-01

    Background Because of the unacceptably high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, the government of Ethiopia has established health extension program with a community-based network involving health extension workers (HEWs) and a community level women organization which is known as “Women’s Health Development Army” (WHDA). Currently, the HEWs and WHDA network is the approach preferred by the government to register pregnant women and encourage them to link in the healthcare system. Ho...

  20. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitsum Bekele

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L. donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities.A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite.The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna

  2. Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toru, Milkiyas; Beyene, Getnet; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gizachew, Zeleke; Howe, Rawleigh; Yeshitila, Biruk

    2018-05-08

    This study was done to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of Enterococci species was 5.5% (22/403). Five (22.7%) of Enterococci species were vancomycin resistant. Haemolysin, gelatinase and biofilm production was seen among 45.5, 68.2 and 77.3% of isolates respectively. The overall rate of antibiotic resistance was 95.5% (21/22). High resistance was observed against norfloxacin (87.5%), and tetracycline (77.3%). Whereas, low resistance (36.5%) was observed against ciprofloxacin and eighteen (80.8%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant.

  3. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  4. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome among HIV positive individuals on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral treatment in Jimma, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Tsegay; Yami, Alemishet; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Yemane, Tilahun; Hamza, Leja; Kassim, Mehedi; Deribe, Kebede

    2012-01-01

    Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates. However, these agents had also given rise to the metabolic and morphologic abnormalities which are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Evidences elsewhere indicate growing in prevalence of these problems but studies are lacking in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on a sample of 313 patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jimma University specialized hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities. Checklists were used for reviewing charts about clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities and immunologic profile of patients. Data was cleaned, entered in and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 21.1% and HIV-lipodystrophy was detected 12.1% of patients. The factors found to be independently associated with metabolic syndrome were taking the antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months (AOR=4.2; 95% CI=1.24-14.23) and female sex (AOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.0-5.27) and the factor found to be independently associated with HIV-lipodystrophy was taking the antiretroviral therapy (AOR=3.59; 95% CI=1.03-12.54) for more than 12 months. Metabolic abnormalities were relatively common in the study population. The problems were higher among those who took anti-retroviral treatment for longer duration. Therefore, regular screening for and taking action against the metabolic abnormalities is mandatory.

  5. Perceived Nurse-Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu Balcha Hailu

    Full Text Available Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims.The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care.Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse

  6. Spatial synchrony of malaria outbreaks in a highland region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Midekisa, Alemayehu; Semuniguse, Paulos; Teka, Hiwot; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Senay, Gabriel B

    2012-10-01

    To understand the drivers and consequences of malaria in epidemic-prone regions, it is important to know whether epidemics emerge independently in different areas as a consequence of local contingencies, or whether they are synchronised across larger regions as a result of climatic fluctuations and other broad-scale drivers. To address this question, we collected historical malaria surveillance data for the Amhara region of Ethiopia and analysed them to assess the consistency of various indicators of malaria risk and determine the dominant spatial and temporal patterns of malaria within the region. We collected data from a total of 49 districts from 1999-2010. Data availability was better for more recent years and more data were available for clinically diagnosed outpatient malaria cases than confirmed malaria cases. Temporal patterns of outpatient malaria case counts were correlated with the proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria and confirmed malaria case counts. The proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria was spatially clustered, and these cluster locations were generally consistent from year to year. Outpatient malaria cases exhibited spatial synchrony at distances up to 300 km, supporting the hypothesis that regional climatic variability is an important driver of epidemics. Our results suggest that decomposing malaria risk into separate spatial and temporal components may be an effective strategy for modelling and forecasting malaria risk across large areas. They also emphasise both the value and limitations of working with historical surveillance datasets and highlight the importance of enhancing existing surveillance efforts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Skilled delivery service utilization and its association with the establishment of Women's Health Development Army in Yeky district, South West Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negero, Melese Girmaye; Mitike, Yifru Berhan; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Abota, Tafesse Lamaro

    2018-01-30

    Because of the unacceptably high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, the government of Ethiopia has established health extension program with a community-based network involving health extension workers (HEWs) and a community level women organization which is known as "Women's Health Development Army" (WHDA). Currently, the HEWs and WHDA network is the approach preferred by the government to register pregnant women and encourage them to link in the healthcare system. However, its association with skilled delivery service utilization is not well known. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2015. Within 380 clusters of WHDA, a total of 748 reproductive-age women who gave birth in 1 year preceding the study, were included using multistage sampling technique. The data were entered into EPI info version 7 statistical software and exported to STATA version 11 for analysis. Multilevel analysis technique was applied to check for an association of selected variables with a utilization of skilled delivery service. About 45% of women have received skilled delivery care. A significant heterogeneity was observed between "Women's Health Development Teams (clusters)" for skilled delivery care service utilization which explains about 62% of the total variation. Individual-level predictors including urban residence [AOR (95% CI) 35.10 (4.62, 266.52)], previous exposure of complications [AOR (95% CI) 3.81 (1.60, 9.08)], at least four ANC visits [AOR (95% CI) 7.44 (1.48, 37.42)] and preference of skilled personnel [AOR (95% CI) 8.11 (2.61, 25.15)] were significantly associated with skilled delivery service use. Among cluster level variables, the distance of clusters within 2 km radius from the nearest health facility was significantly associated [AOR (95% CI) 6.03 (1.92, 18.93)] with skilled delivery service utilization. In this study, significant variation among clusters of WHDA was observed. Both individual and cluster level

  8. The effect of screening doors and windows on indoor density of Anopheles arabiensis in south-west Ethiopia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-09-12

    Screening of houses might have impact on density of indoor host-seeking Anopheles mosquitoes. A randomized trial of screening windows and doors with metal mesh, and closing openings on eves and walls by mud was conducted to assess if reduce indoor densities of biting mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected in forty houses using Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps biweekly in March and April 2011. A randomization of houses into control and intervention groups was done based on the baseline data. Windows and doors of 20 houses were screened by metal mesh, and openings on the walls and eves closed by mud and the rest 20 houses were used as control group. Mosquitoes were collected biweekly in October and November 2011 from both control and intervention houses. A Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with a negative binomial error distribution was used to account for over dispersion of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine counts and repeated catches made in the same house. Screening doors and windows, and closing openings on eves and wall by mud reduced the overall indoor densities of An. arabiensis by 40%. The effect of screenings pronounced on unfed An. arabiensis by resulting 42% reduction in houses with interventions. The total costs for screening windows and doors, and to close openings on the eves and walls by mud was 7.34 USD per house. Screening houses reduced indoor density of An. arabiensis, and it was cheap and can easily incorporated into malaria vector strategies by local communities, but improving doors and windows fitness for screening should be considered during house construction to increase the efficacy of screenings.

  9. Anemia and risk factors in HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons in south west Ethiopia: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lealem Gedefaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and its treatment cause a range of hematological abnormalities. Anemia is one of the commonly observed hematologic manifestations in HIV positive persons and it has multifactorial origin. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons. METHODS: A facility-based comparative cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 1 to March 30, 2012. A total of 234 HIV positive persons, 117 HAART naïve and 117 HAART experienced, were enrolled in this study. Blood and stool specimens were collected from each participant. Blood specimens were examined for complete blood count, CD4 count and blood film for malaria hemoparasite; whereas stool specimens were checked for ova of intestinal parasites. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical data of the participants were collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the data (Chi-square, student's t-test, logistic regression was done using SPSS V-16. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 23.1%. The prevalence of anemia in HAART naïve and HAART experienced persons was 29.9% and 16.2%, respectively (P = 0.014. Presence of opportunistic infections (P = 0.004, 95% CI = 1.69-15.46, CD4 count <200 cells/µl (P = 0.001, 95% CI = 2.57-36.89 and rural residence (P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.12-10.39 were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART naïve participants. On the other hand, HAART regimen (ZDV/3TC/NVP (P = 0.019, 95% CI = 0.01-1.24 and the duration of HAART (P = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.003-0.40.24 were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART experienced groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in HAART naïve persons was higher than HAART experienced persons. Risk factors for anemia in HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons were different. Hence

  10. Prevalence of malaria infection in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyessa Adugna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, the Ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. The programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. Global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. However, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. The objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland areas of south-central Ethiopia, designated as the Butajira area. Methods Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 750 households were selected. All consenting family members were examined for malaria parasites in thick and thin blood smears. The assessment was repeated six times for two years (October 2008 to June 2010. Results In total, 19,207 persons were examined in the six surveys. From those tested, 178 slides were positive for malaria, of which 154 (86.5% were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 22 (12.4% for Plasmodium falciparum; the remaining two (1.1% showed mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The incidence of malaria was higher after the main rainy season, both in lower lying and in highland areas. The incidence in the highlands was low and similar for all age groups, whereas in the lowlands, malaria occurred mostly in those of one to nine years of age. Conclusion This study documented a low prevalence of malaria that varied with season and altitudinal zone in a highland-fringe area of Ethiopia. Most of the malaria infections were attributable to Plasmodium vivax.

  11. Remote sensing-based time series models for malaria early warning in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midekisa Alemayehu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger malaria epidemics. Remotely sensed environmental indicators were used to examine the influences of climatic and environmental variability on temporal patterns of malaria cases in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods In this study seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were used to quantify the relationship between malaria cases and remotely sensed environmental variables, including rainfall, land-surface temperature (LST, vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI, and actual evapotranspiration (ETa with lags ranging from one to three months. Predictions from the best model with environmental variables were compared to the actual observations from the last 12 months of the time series. Results Malaria cases exhibited positive associations with LST at a lag of one month and positive associations with indicators of moisture (rainfall, EVI and ETa at lags from one to three months. SARIMA models that included these environmental covariates had better fits and more accurate predictions, as evidenced by lower AIC and RMSE values, than models without environmental covariates. Conclusions Malaria risk indicators such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, LST, EVI, and ETa exhibited significant lagged associations with malaria cases in the Amhara region and improved model fit and prediction accuracy. These variables can be monitored frequently and extensively across large geographic areas using data from earth-observing sensors to support public

  12. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  13. Treatment of malaria and related symptoms using traditional herbal medicine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Sultan; Beyene Tufa, Takele; Kebebe, Dereje; Belew, Sileshi; Mekonnen, Yimer; Gashe, Fanta; Mussa, Seid; Wynendaele, Evelien; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants have always been an integral part of different cultures in Ethiopia in the treatment of different illnesses including malaria and related symptoms. However, due to lack of proper documentation, urbanization, drought, acculturation and deforestation, there is an increased risk of losing this traditional knowledge. Hence, the use of the indigenous knowledge should be well documented and validated for potential future use. To gather and document information on medicinal plants which are used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Ethiopia. First, an ethnomedicinal survey of plants was conducted in 17 districts of Jimma zone, the Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia. Jimma zone is malarious and rich in natural flora. A total of 115 traditional healers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire containing personal data of the respondents, and information on medicinal plants used to treat malaria and related symptoms. In addition, a literature search using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and HINARI was conducted on the indigenous use, in-vitro/in-vivo anti-malarial activity reports, and the chemical characterization of medicinal plants of Ethiopia used against malaria. From ethnomedicinal survey, a total of 28 species of plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Jimma Zone were collected, identified and documented. In addition, the literature search revealed that 124 medicinal plant species were reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. From both ethnomedicinal survey and the literature search, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most represented families and Allium sativum L., Carica papaya L., Vernonia amygdalina Del., Lepidium sativum L. and Croton macrostachyus Del. were the most frequently reported plant species for their anti-malarial use. The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves. About 54% of the

  14. Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtj?rn, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria transmission is complex and is believed to be associated with local climate changes. However, simple attempts to extrapolate malaria incidence rates from averaged regional meteorological conditions have proven unsuccessful. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if variations in specific meteorological factors are able to consistently predict P. falciparum malaria incidence at different locations in south Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective data from 4...

  15. External quality assessment of malaria microscopy diagnosis in selected health facilities in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Getachew; Zewdie, Olifan; Tadele, Geletta; Samuel, Abdi

    2018-06-18

    Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment are one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria disease. External quality assessment is the most effective method for evaluation of the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis and its associated factors in selected public health facility laboratories in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in 30 randomly selected public health facility laboratories from November 2014 to January 2015 in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Ten validated stained malaria panel slides with known Plasmodium species, developmental stage and parasite density were distributed. Data were captured; cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software-multivariate logistic regressions and the agreement in reading between the peripheral diagnostic centers and the reference laboratory were done using kappa statistics. A total of 30 health facility laboratories were involved in the study and the overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor (62.3%). The associated predictors of quality in this diagnosis were in-service training [(AOR = 16, 95% CI (1.3, 1.96)], smearing quality [(AOR = 24, 95% CI (1.8, 3.13)], staining quality [(AOR = 15, 95% CI (2.35, 8.61), parasite detection [(AOR = 9, 95% CI (1.1, 8.52)] and identification skills [(AOR = 8.6, 95% CI (1.21, 1.63)]. Eighteen (60%) of health facility laboratories had in-service trained laboratory professionals on malaria microscopy diagnosis. Overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor and a significant gap in this service was observed that could impact on its diagnostic services.

  16. Strategies for Early Outbreak Detection of Malaria in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekorchuk, D.; Gebrehiwot, T.; Mihretie, A.; Awoke, W.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional epidemiological approaches to early detection of disease outbreaks are based on relatively straightforward thresholds (e.g. 75th percentile, standard deviations) estimated from historical case data. For diseases with strong seasonality, these can be modified to create separate thresholds for each seasonal time step. However, for disease processes that are non-stationary, more sophisticated techniques are needed to more accurately estimate outbreak threshold values. Early detection for geohealth-related diseases that also have environmental drivers, such as vector-borne diseases, may also benefit from the integration of time-lagged environmental data and disease ecology models into the threshold calculations. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) project has been integrating malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection, warning, and forecasting of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and has five years of weekly time series data from 47 woredas (districts). Efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in Ethiopia has been met with some notable success in the past two decades with major reduction in cases and deaths. However, malaria remains a significant public health threat as 60% of the population live in malarious areas, and due to the seasonal and unstable transmission patterns with cyclic outbreaks, protective immunity is generally low which could cause high morbidity and mortality during the epidemics. This study compared several approaches for defining outbreak thresholds and for identifying a potential outbreak based on deviations from these thresholds. We found that model-based approaches that accounted for climate-driven seasonality in malaria transmission were most effective, and that incorporating a trend component improved outbreak detection in areas with active malaria elimination efforts. An advantage of these early

  17. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Legesse, Worku; Van Bortel, Wim; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Kloos, Helmut; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2009-01-29

    Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88). A

  18. Current and cumulative malaria infections in a setting embarking on elimination: Amhara, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalew, Woyneshet G; Pal, Sampa; Bansil, Pooja; Dabbs, Rebecca; Tetteh, Kevin; Guinovart, Caterina; Kalnoky, Michael; Serda, Belendia A; Tesfay, Berhane H; Beyene, Belay B; Seneviratne, Catherine; Littrell, Megan; Yokobe, Lindsay; Noland, Gregory S; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Getachew, Asefaw; Drakeley, Chris; Steketee, Richard W

    2017-06-08

    Since 2005, Ethiopia has aggressively scaled up malaria prevention and case management. As a result, the number of malaria cases and deaths has significantly declined. In order to track progress towards the elimination of malaria in Amhara Region, coverage of malaria control tools and current malaria transmission need to be documented. A cross-sectional household survey oversampling children under 5 years of age was conducted during the dry season in 2013. A bivalent rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detecting both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and serology assays using merozoite antigens from both these species were used to assess the prevalence of malaria infections and exposure to malaria parasites in 16 woredas (districts) in Amhara Region. 7878 participants were included, with a mean age of 16.8 years (range 0.5-102.8 years) and 42.0% being children under 5 years of age. The age-adjusted RDT-positivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax infection was 1.5 and 0.4%, respectively, of which 0.05% presented as co-infections. Overall age-adjusted seroprevalence was 30.0% for P. falciparum, 21.8% for P. vivax, and seroprevalence for any malaria species was 39.4%. The prevalence of RDT-positive infections varied by woreda, ranging from 0.0 to 8.3% and by altitude with rates of 3.2, 0.7, and 0.4% at under 2000, 2000-2500, and >2500 m, respectively. Serological analysis showed heterogeneity in transmission intensity by area and altitude and evidence for a change in the force of infection in the mid-2000s. Current and historic malaria transmission across Amhara Region show substantial variation by age and altitude with some settings showing very low or near-zero transmission. Plasmodium vivax infections appear to be lower but relatively more stable across geography and altitude, while P. falciparum is the dominant infection in the higher transmission, low-altitude areas. Age-dependent seroprevalence analyses indicates a drop in transmission occurred in the mid

  19. Multisensor earth observations to characterize wetlands and malaria epidemiology in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Senay, Gabriel; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The spatial heterogeneity of malaria can be affected by factors such as hydrological processes, physiography, and land cover patterns. Tropical wetlands, for example, are important hydrological features that can serve as mosquito breeding habitats. Mapping and monitoring of wetlands using satellite remote sensing can thus help to target interventions aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The objective of this study was to map wetlands and other major land cover types in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and to analyze district-level associations of malaria and wetlands across the region. We evaluated three random forests classification models using remotely sensed topographic and spectral data based on Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, respectively. The model that integrated data from both sensors yielded more accurate land cover classification than single-sensor models. The resulting map of wetlands and other major land cover classes had an overall accuracy of 93.5%. Topographic indices and subpixel level fractional cover indices contributed most strongly to the land cover classification. Further, we found strong spatial associations of percent area of wetlands with malaria cases at the district level across the dry, wet, and fall seasons. Overall, our study provided the most extensive map of wetlands for the Amhara region and documented spatiotemporal associations of wetlands and malaria risk at a broad regional level. These findings can assist public health personnel in developing strategies to effectively control and eliminate malaria in the region.

  20. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  1. Public Interests in the International Court of Justice—A Comparison Between Nuclear Arms Race and South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay I compare the 2016 judgment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in Nuclear Arms Race (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom) with the Court's 1966 judgment in South West Africa (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa). A series of similarities between the two

  2. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse Mengistu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febrile patients were diagnosed for malaria. 458 Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were used for identification of Plasmodium species and Stool samples prepared using Kato-Katz technique were used to examine for intestinal helminths. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using a portable spectrophotometer (Hemocue HB 201. Anthropometry-based nutritional assessment of the study participants was done by measuring body weight to the nearest 0.1 kg and height to the nearest 0.1 cm. Findings 458 of the total febrile patients were positive for malaria. Co infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites is associated with significantly (p Plasmodium parasites. And this difference was also significant for haemoglobin concentration (F = 10.18, p = 0.002, in which patients co infected with Plasmodium and helminth parasites showed lower mean haemoglobin concentration. More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. However the statistics for the difference is not significant. Conclusion Malaria and soil-transmitted helminthiasis obviously contribute to anaemia and low weight status and these conditions are more pronounced in individuals concurrently infected with malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities.

  3. Systematic review on traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia: trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebie, Getachew; Urga, Befikadu; Worku, Amha

    2017-08-01

    Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia. A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs. A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications. The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic

  4. Population Movement as a Risk Factor for Malaria Infection in High-Altitude Villages of Tahtay-Maychew District, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Mebrahtom; Lemma, Hailemariam; Weldu, Yemane

    2017-09-01

    Key goal and targets of the Ethiopia National Malaria Control Program are to achieve malaria elimination within specific geographical areas with historically low malaria transmission and to reach near-zero malaria transmission in the remaining malarious areas by 2020. However, back and forth population movement between high-transmission and low-transmission area imposes challenge on the success of national malaria control programs. Therefore, examining the effect of human movement and identification of at-risk populations is crucial in an elimination setting. A matched case-control study was conducted among 520 study participants at a community level in low malaria transmission settings in northern Ethiopia. Study participants who received a malaria test were interviewed regarding their recent travel history. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine if the reported travel was related to malaria infection. Younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73, 5.89) and travel in the previous month (AOR = 11.40, 95% CI: 6.91, 18.82) were statistically significant risk factors for malaria infection. Other statistically significant factors, including lower educational level (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.86) and nonagricultural in occupation (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.94), were also found as risk factors for malaria infection. Generally, travel history was found to be a strong predictor for malaria acquisition in the high-altitude villages. Therefore, besides the existing efforts in endemic areas, targeting those who frequently travel to malarious areas is crucial to reduce malaria infection risks and possibility of local transmissions in high-altitude areas of northern Ethiopia.

  5. Improved malaria case management in formal private sector through public private partnership in Ethiopia: retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaw, Mesele D; Woldegiorgis, Asfawesen Gy; Abate, Derebe T; Abebe, Mesfin E

    2016-07-11

    Malaria is a major public health problem and still reported among the 10 top causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. More than one-third of the people sought treatment from the private health sector. Evaluating adherences of health care providers to standards are paramount importance to determine the quality and the effectiveness of service delivery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of public private mix (PPM) approach in improving quality of malaria case management among formal private providers. A retrospective data analysis was conducted using 2959 facility-months data collected from 110 PPM for malaria care facilities located in Amhara, Dire Dawa, Hareri, Oromia, Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples and Tigray regions. Data abstraction formats were used to collect and collate the data on quarterly bases. The data were manually cleaned and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. To claim statistical significance non-parametric McNemar test was done and decision accepted at P < 0.05. From April 2012-September 2015, a total of 873,707 malaria suspected patients were identified, of which one-fourth (25.6 %) were treated as malaria cases. Among malaria suspected cases the proportion of malaria investigation improved from recorded in first quarter 87.7-100.0 % in last quarter (X(2) = 66.84, P < 0.001). The majority (96.0 %) were parasitologically-confirmed cases either by using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. The overall slid positivity rate was 25.1 % of which half (50.7 %) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and slightly lower than half (45.2 %) for Plasmodium vivax; the remaining 8790 (4.1 %) showed mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Adherence to appropriate treatment using artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was improved from 47.8 % in the first quarter to 95.7 % in the last quarter (X(2) = 12.89, P < 0.001). Similarly, proper patient management using chloroquine (CQ) was improved

  6. Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2010-06-16

    Malaria transmission is complex and is believed to be associated with local climate changes. However, simple attempts to extrapolate malaria incidence rates from averaged regional meteorological conditions have proven unsuccessful. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if variations in specific meteorological factors are able to consistently predict P. falciparum malaria incidence at different locations in south Ethiopia. Retrospective data from 42 locations were collected including P. falciparum malaria incidence for the period of 1998-2007 and meteorological variables such as monthly rainfall (all locations), temperature (17 locations), and relative humidity (three locations). Thirty-five data sets qualified for the analysis. Ljung-Box Q statistics was used for model diagnosis, and R squared or stationary R squared was taken as goodness of fit measure. Time series modelling was carried out using Transfer Function (TF) models and univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) when there was no significant predictor meteorological variable. Of 35 models, five were discarded because of the significant value of Ljung-Box Q statistics. Past P. falciparum malaria incidence alone (17 locations) or when coupled with meteorological variables (four locations) was able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence within statistical significance. All seasonal AIRMA orders were from locations at altitudes above 1742 m. Monthly rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature was able to predict incidence at four, five and two locations, respectively. In contrast, relative humidity was not able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence. The R squared values for the models ranged from 16% to 97%, with the exception of one model which had a negative value. Models with seasonal ARIMA orders were found to perform better. However, the models for predicting P. falciparum malaria incidence varied from location to location, and among lagged effects, data

  7. Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loha Eskindir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is complex and is believed to be associated with local climate changes. However, simple attempts to extrapolate malaria incidence rates from averaged regional meteorological conditions have proven unsuccessful. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if variations in specific meteorological factors are able to consistently predict P. falciparum malaria incidence at different locations in south Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective data from 42 locations were collected including P. falciparum malaria incidence for the period of 1998-2007 and meteorological variables such as monthly rainfall (all locations, temperature (17 locations, and relative humidity (three locations. Thirty-five data sets qualified for the analysis. Ljung-Box Q statistics was used for model diagnosis, and R squared or stationary R squared was taken as goodness of fit measure. Time series modelling was carried out using Transfer Function (TF models and univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA when there was no significant predictor meteorological variable. Results Of 35 models, five were discarded because of the significant value of Ljung-Box Q statistics. Past P. falciparum malaria incidence alone (17 locations or when coupled with meteorological variables (four locations was able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence within statistical significance. All seasonal AIRMA orders were from locations at altitudes above 1742 m. Monthly rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature was able to predict incidence at four, five and two locations, respectively. In contrast, relative humidity was not able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence. The R squared values for the models ranged from 16% to 97%, with the exception of one model which had a negative value. Models with seasonal ARIMA orders were found to perform better. However, the models for predicting P. falciparum malaria incidence varied from location

  8. Incidence of Severe Malaria Syndromes and Status of Immune Responses among Khat Chewer Malaria Patients in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsige Ketema

    Full Text Available Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20 software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%. Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P0.05, IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001 among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001 with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05 in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.

  9. Malaria and helminth co-infection and nutritional status of febrile patients in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Animut, Abebe; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-02-01

    Because the mechanisms by which Plasmodium and helminth parasites affect nutritional status are different, these parasites likely have additive effects when they co-exist in a host. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of undernutrition in patients infected with either Plasmodium or helminths and those co-infected with the two types of parasites. Acute febrile patients suspected of having malaria who attended the outpatient clinic at Dore Bafeno Health Center between December 2010 and February 2011 were examined for Plasmodium parasites using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears and for helminths using the thick Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined using anthropometric indices generated from height and weight measurements. Of the 702 patients examined, 34.5% were infected with helminths alone, 12.3% were infected with Plasmodium alone, and 19.4% co-infected with Plasmodium and intestinal helminths. Out of the patients examined, 44.9% were undernourished. The prevalence of undernutrition was not significantly different between those patients not infected with Plasmodium or helminth species and those infected with Plasmodium or helminth species. The differences in the odds of undernutrition were also not significant between patients who were co-infected with different Plasmodium and helminth species and those with single infections with Plasmodium or helminth species in our multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for the confounding effects of age and sex. The prevalence of undernutrition was comparable in patients infected with Plasmodium or helminths alone and those co-infected with Plasmodium and helminths in Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. However, further studies are needed in areas of intense transmission where both parasites are endemic to elucidate whether the impact of Plasmodium and helminth co-infection on undernutrition is additive or multiplicative. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for

  10. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  11. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  12. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  13. Prevalence Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe dam Area, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are co-endemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and STHs co-infection and to determine the association risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data, single stool sample and blood sample were collected from each participant. Results The prevalence of STH and malaria was 159 (41%) and 45 (11.6%), respectively and the prevalence of STHs/malaria co-infection was 30 (7.7%). Hookworm was the most prevalent 114 (29.4%) soil transmitted helminthiasis infection followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 58 (15%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 13 (3.4%). Habit of eating soil (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.50-14.36, P=0.008), presence of stagnant water near study participants’ house (AOR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-6.99, P=0.012) and habit of using human feces as a fertilizer (AOR= 5.34, 95% CI: 1.99-14.28, P<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with malaria and STH co-infection among the pregnant women. Hookworm parasitic load was positively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = 0.299, P<0.001) while A. lumbricoides parasitic load was negatively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = −0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Intestinal parasite and/or malaria co-infection is a health problem among pregnant women living around Gilgel Gibe dam area. Therefore, intervention including improving sanitation, removing stagnant water, and health education to the pregnant women should be given. PMID:23837685

  14. Prevalence soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Million; Tafess, Ketema; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Yewhalaw, Delenesaw

    2013-07-09

    Malaria and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are co-endemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and STHs co-infection and to determine the association risk factors. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data, single stool sample and blood sample were collected from each participant. The prevalence of STH and malaria was 159 (41%) and 45 (11.6%), respectively and the prevalence of STHs/malaria co-infection was 30 (7.7%). Hookworm was the most prevalent 114 (29.4%) soil transmitted helminthiasis infection followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 58 (15%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 13 (3.4%). Habit of eating soil (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.50-14.36, P=0.008), presence of stagnant water near study participants' house (AOR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-6.99, P=0.012) and habit of using human feces as a fertilizer (AOR= 5.34, 95% CI: 1.99-14.28, P<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with malaria and STH co-infection among the pregnant women. Hookworm parasitic load was positively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = 0.299, P<0.001) while A. lumbricoides parasitic load was negatively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = -0.095, P<0.001). Intestinal parasite and/or malaria co-infection is a health problem among pregnant women living around Gilgel Gibe dam area. Therefore, intervention including improving sanitation, removing stagnant water, and health education to the pregnant women should be given.

  15. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 SOUTH WEST REGIONAL CENTRE FOR NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY BUILDING NETWORK,. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ... that an integrated approach to water resource development and management offers the best ...

  16. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  17. Common mental disorder symptoms among patients with malaria attending primary care in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are frequent among patients attending primary care. In Africa, CMDs are often misdiagnosed as physical illnesses because many of the patients complain of somatic symptoms of mental distress. We explored whether there was difference in the levels of CMD symptoms between patients with thick film confirmed and clinical cases of malaria with negative thick film in primary care.A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 300 adults with a clinical diagnosis of malaria in primary care centres in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patients were recruited consecutively until 100 cases of 'malaria' with a negative thick film and 200 cases of malaria with a positive thick film consented to participate. The 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 was used to measure CMD. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to explore the association between thick film result and CMD.Participants had a mean age of 28.2 (S.D = 10.9 years and the majority (57.3% were women. The prevalence of high CMD symptoms (six or more symptoms on the SRQ-20 was 24.5%. Suicidal ideation was reported by 13.8% of the participants. CMD symptoms were significantly higher in patients who had taken medication prior to visiting the primary care (p = 0.012 and in those whose symptoms had been present for seven days or more (p = 0.041. There was no statistically significant association between level of CMD symptoms and having a negative thick film result (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.92, 1.04 or objective presence of fever (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.93, 1.15.CMD symptoms among cases of malaria did not appear to be associated with a negative thick film result. The high levels of CMD symptoms, including suicidal ideation, calls for further studies to investigate the persistence and progression of these symptoms following resolution of the acute malarial episode.

  18. The influence of the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on caregivers' knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour towards childhood malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Kassahun, Wondwossen; Woldemichael, Kifle; Tushune, Kora; Sudaker, Morankar; Kaba, Daniel; Duchateau, Luc; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko

    2010-02-11

    Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Malaria (busa) was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86%) and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96%) disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS) in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour.

  19. The influence of the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on caregivers' knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour towards childhood malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchateau Luc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains the most important public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. Mothers' or caregivers' ability to recognize childhood malaria-related morbidity is crucial as knowledge, attitudes and health seeking behavior of caregivers towards childhood malaria could influence response to signs of the disease. Methods A total of 1,003 caregivers in 'at-risk' villages in close proximity to the Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in south-western Ethiopia, and 953 caregivers in 'control' villages further away from the dam were surveyed using structured questionnaires to assess their knowledge, perceptions and health seeking behaviour about childhood malaria. Results Malaria (busa was ranked as the most serious health problem. Caregivers perceived childhood malaria as a preventable ('at-risk' 96%, 'control' 86% and treatable ('at-risk' 98% and 'control' 96% disease. Most caregivers correctly associated the typical clinical manifestations with malaria attacks. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was mentioned as a personal protective measure, whereas the role of indoor residual spraying (IRS in malaria prevention and control was under-recognized. Most of the caregivers would prefer to seek treatment in health-care services in the event of malaria and reported the use of recommended anti-malarials. Conclusion Health education to improve knowledge, perceptions and health-seeking behaviour related to malaria is equally important for caregivers in 'at risk' villages and caregivers in 'control' villages as minimal differences seen between both groups. Concluding, there may be a need of more than one generation after the introduction of the dam before differences can be noticed. Secondly, differences in prevalence between 'control' and 'at-risk' villages may not be sufficient to influence knowledge and behaviour.

  20. Individual and household factors associated with ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets and malaria infection in south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-10-06

    A recent considerable decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is likely to be followed by changes in the practice of effective preventive measures and malaria risk factors. This study aimed to identify determinants of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) ownership and risk of malaria infection. A matched case-control study of 191 case and 377 control households was conducted between October 2014 and November 2015 in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Cases were microscopy or rapid diagnostic test confirmed malaria patients identified at three health centers and nine health posts, and matched on age with two neighbourhood controls. Information was collected on socio-demographic factors, house structure, knowledge on malaria and ownership of LLINs. The logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of LLINs ownership and malaria infection. All cases were infections due to either Plasmodium falciparum (71.2%) or Plasmodium vivax (28.8%). About 31% of the study households had at least one LLINs. Significant determinants of LLINs ownership were household's head malaria knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.22], educational status [read and write (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI 2.30-20.55), primary education or higher (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI 1.57-18.55)], farmer respondent (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), having ≥ 3 sleeping areas (AOR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.40-18.77) and corrugated roof type (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58). This study was unable to identify important risk factors of malaria infection with regard to sex, household wealth index, house structure, ownership of LLINs, keeping livestock inside house, staying overnight outdoor or having malaria during the last 6 months. Household socio-economic status, educational status and knowledge on malaria were important predictors of LLINs ownership. Households with farmer respondents were less likely to own LLINs. Addressing these factors

  1. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  2. Determinants of Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine ownership and utilization of ITNs among households with children under five in the previous night. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gursum district in Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 335 households were surveyed using a pretested structured questionnaire administered though house-to-house interviews. Results. Household ownership for at least one mosquito net and use of nets were 62.4% (95% CI 57.2–67.6% and 21.5% (95% CI 17.1–25.9%, respectively. Households who received or were told about ITN in the last 6 months were three times more likely to have used it than those who were not (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.5–7.10. Households whose heads were engaged as a farmer (adjusted OR 0.137; 95% CI: 0.04–0.50 and housewife (OR 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08–0.82 were less likely to use ITN than those of other occupations. Conclusion. The findings indicate low ITN ownership and utilization among the households. Intensive health education and community mobilization effort should be employed to increase the possession and proper utilization of insecticide treated bed nets.

  3. High entomological inoculation rate of malaria vectors in area of high coverage of interventions in southwest Ethiopia: Implication for residual malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Abraham

    2017-05-01

    Finally, there was an indoor residual malaria transmission in a village of high coverage of bed nets and where the principal malaria vector is susceptibility to propoxur and bendiocarb; insecticides currently in use for indoor residual spraying. The continuing indoor transmission of malaria in such village implies the need for new tools to supplement the existing interventions and to reduce indoor malaria transmission.

  4. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  5. Climatology and Landfall of Tropical Cyclones in the South- West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The climatology of cyclone formation and behaviour in the South-West Indian Ocean, including landfall in Mozambique and Madagascar, has been investigated. The records used were obtained by merging track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre with data from La Reunion – Regional Specialised ...

  6. Relationships between the forest dwelling people of South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief study was carried out in South-West Mau region of the Mau Forest Complex in March 1993. The primary aim was to assess the importance of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827), to the local forest-dwelling people as a source of food and medicine and in their spiritual traditions, while investigating ...

  7. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Yihenew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 individuals from Awramba and the neighboring communities. Specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites using microscopy. Questionnaire was administered to determine the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP of study participants. Results. Of the total 392 study participants examined, 58(14.8% were positive for malaria and 173 (44.1% for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of malaria in Awramba community (5.1% was less than that in neighboring communities (24.5%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in Awramba (18.8% was less than that of the neighboring communities (69.4%. Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general.

  8. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than the risk of catching this infection. Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for protecting against malaria. But because of resistance, it is now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. oval , and ...

  9. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites you, the parasite can get into your blood. The parasite lays eggs, which develop into more parasites. They ... cells until you get very sick. Because the parasites live in the blood, malaria can also be spread through other ways. ...

  10. Spatial pattern recognition of seismic events in South West Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Hernán D.; Flórez, Juan F.; Duque, Diana P.; Benavides, Alberto; Lucía Baquero, Olga; Quintero, Jiber

    2013-09-01

    Recognition of seismogenic zones in geographical regions supports seismic hazard studies. This recognition is usually based on visual, qualitative and subjective analysis of data. Spatial pattern recognition provides a well founded means to obtain relevant information from large amounts of data. The purpose of this work is to identify and classify spatial patterns in instrumental data of the South West Colombian seismic database. In this research, clustering tendency analysis validates whether seismic database possesses a clustering structure. A non-supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm creates groups of seismic events. Given the sensitivity of fuzzy clustering algorithms to centroid initial positions, we proposed a methodology to initialize centroids that generates stable partitions with respect to centroid initialization. As a result of this work, a public software tool provides the user with the routines developed for clustering methodology. The analysis of the seismogenic zones obtained reveals meaningful spatial patterns in South-West Colombia. The clustering analysis provides a quantitative location and dispersion of seismogenic zones that facilitates seismological interpretations of seismic activities in South West Colombia.

  11. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  12. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest ( -1 ) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L -1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L -1 ) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  13. The association between malaria and malnutrition among under-five children in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Terefe; Lemango, Fiseha; Eliso, Endale; Yohannes, Samuel; Yohannes, Tadele

    2017-01-13

    Recent studies have presented conflicting findings about whether malaria is associated with an increased or decreased risk of malnutrition. Therefore, assessing the relationship between these two disastrous diseases in the most vulnerable groups, such as in children aged below 5 years (under-five children), may lead to the discovery of new low-cost and effective aides to current methods of malnutrition prevention in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between malaria and malnutrition among under five children in an area with a high degree of malaria transmission. The study involved comparing malnourished children aged 6-59 months and nourished children of the same age for their past exposure to malaria, in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect home to home socioeconomic data and anthropometric instruments for clinical data. The collected data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics by means of EpiData entry software and STATA data analysis software. A total of 356 (89 malnourished and 267 nourished) under-five children participated in the study. Previous exposure to Plasmodium infection was found to be a predictor for the manifestation of malnutrition in under-five children (P = 0.02 [OR = 1.87, CI = 1.115-3.138]). Children from a household with a monthly income of less than USD 15 were 4.5 more likely to be malnourished as compared to the other children (P = 0.001 [OR = 0.422, CI = 0.181-0.978]). This study found that exposure to Plasmodium has a significant impact on the nutritional status of children. In addition, socio-demographic factors, such as family income, may play a role in determining whether children are malnourished or not and may lead to increased morbidity due to malnourishment in children living in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, malnutrition control interventions should be consolidated with

  14. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Ambachew, Aklilu; Hamid, Halima

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0% (33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5% (9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9% and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (Pparasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities in economically developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  16. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  17. Open-label trial on efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine against the uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Metema district, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudneh F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Feven Wudneh,1,2 Ashenafi Assefa,3 Desalegn Nega,3 Hussien Mohammed,3 Hiwot Solomon,4 Tadesse Kebede,2 Adugna Woyessa,3 Yibeltal Assefa,3 Amha Kebede,3 Moges Kassa3 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2Biomedical Department, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Dilla University, Dilla, 3Malaria and Other Parasitological and Entomological Research Team, Bacterial, Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, 4Malaria Research Team, Disease Prevention and Control Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Following the increased Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Ethiopia adopted artemether/lumefantrine (AL as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum in 2004. According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, this study was carried out for regular monitoring of the efficacy of AL in treating the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Metema district, Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.Patients and methods: This is a one-arm prospective 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy study among the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients aged 6 months and older. The study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, based on the revised World Health Organization protocol of 2009 for surveillance of antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy study. Standard six-dose regimen of AL was given twice daily for 3 days, and then the treatment outcomes were assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and any other unscheduled day for emergency cases.Results: There were 91 study subjects enrolled in this study, of whom 80 study subjects completed the full follow-up schedules and showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses on day 28, with no major adverse event. Per protocol analysis, the unadjusted

  18. malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children who presented with malaria symptoms at the same clinic and tested positive or ... phagocytes immunity and induce anti-inflammatory immune response ...... treatment gap, Malawi will be ready to submit a validation request for virtual .... Conclusions. Vaccination and quarantine are the important disease preventive.

  19. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    dividing and are far more noticeable than the small amount of clear cyto- plasm surrounding them (Figs 10.6a & 10.6b). Mature schizonts contain 8...edema Same as P. vivax 16 10 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Figure 10.38 Transmission electron micrograph of...mesangiopathic glo- merulonephropathy caused by quartan malaria, deposition of immune complexes may be demonstrated by electron or immunofluorescence microscopy

  20. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  1. Exploring the impact of house screening intervention on entomological indices and incidence of malaria in Arba Minch town, southwest Ethiopia: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getawen, Solomon Kinde; Ashine, Temesgen; Massebo, Fekadu; Woldeyes, Daniel; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2018-05-01

    House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia. 92 houses were randomly included in the trial. The baseline entomological and malaria prevalence data were collected. The mosquito sampling was done twice per household per month by Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps for six months. The baseline prevalence of malaria was assessed by testing 396 (83% of the 447 study participants) household members in all the eligible houses. The 92 houses were then randomized into control and intervention groups using mosquito and malaria prevalence baseline data to make the two groups comparable except the intervention. Then, we put wire-mesh on doors and windows of 46 houses. Post-screening mosquito collection was done in each household twice per month for three months. Each household member was visited twice per month for six months to assess malaria episodes. The frequency of damage to different structure of screening was measured twice. In-depth interview was conducted with 24 purposely selected household heads from intervention group. Speciation of Anopheles mosquito was done by morphological key, and the circum-sporozoite proteins (CSPs) analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A generalized estimating equation with a negative binomial distribution was used to assess the impact of the intervention on the indoor density of vectors. Clinical malaria case data were analyzed using Poisson regression with

  2. Mapping malaria risk using geographic information systems and remote sensing: The case of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minale, Amare Sewnet; Alemu, Kalkidan

    2018-05-07

    The main objective of this study was to develop a malaria risk map for Bahir Dar City, Amhara, which is situated south of Lake Tana on the Ethiopian plateau. Rainfall, temperature, altitude, slope and land use/land cover (LULC), as well as proximity measures to lake, river and health facilities, were investigated using remote sensing and geographical information systems. The LULC variable was derived from a 2012 SPOT satellite image by supervised classification, while 30-m spatial resolution measurements of altitude and slope came from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Metrological data were collected from the National Meteorological Agency, Bahir Dar branch. These separate datasets, represented as layers in the computer, were combined using weighted, multi-criteria evaluations. The outcome shows that rainfall, temperature, slope, elevation, distance from the lake and distance from the river influenced the malaria hazard the study area by 35%, 15%, 10%, 7%, 5% and 3%, respectively, resulting in a map showing five areas with different levels of malaria hazard: very high (11.2%); high (14.5%); moderate (63.3%); low (6%); and none (5%). The malaria risk map, based on this hazard map plus additional information on proximity to health facilities and current LULC conditions, shows that Bahir Dar City has areas with very high (15%); high (65%); moderate (8%); and low (5%) levels of malaria risk, with only 2% of the land completely riskfree. Such risk maps are essential for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating disease control as well as for contemplating prevention and elimination of epidemiological hazards from endemic areas.

  3. In vivo antiplasmodial and toxicological effect of crude ethanol extract of Echinops kebericho traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Alemayehu; Deyno, Serawit; Fikru, Abrham; Eyado, Amalework; Beale, Andrew

    2015-05-10

    Medicinal plants have contributed significantly to current malaria treatment. Emergence of resistance to currently available drugs has necessitated the search for new plant-based anti-malarial agents and several plant-based, pharmacologically active anti-malarial compounds have been isolated. This study was conducted to validate the traditional usage of Echinops kebericho for treating malaria in the traditional health care system of Ethiopia. The roots of E. kebericho were collected from Masha Woreda, Sheka Zone. After collection, the plant materials were identified by a taxonomist, dried under shade and crushed to powder for extraction. The powdered roots were extracted by maceration using 70 % ethanol. Acute toxicity study of the crude extract was carried out in Swiss albino mice. The in vivo anti-malarial activity of plant extract (200, 350 and 500 mg/kg) of E. kebericho roots against a chloroquine (CQ) sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei strain ANKA was assessed using the four-day suppressive test procedure. Parameters such as parasitaemia, packed cell volume, body weight and survival time were then determined using standard tests. Oral administration of the ethanol extract showed significant (P<0.001) parasitaemia suppression at dose levels of 350 and 500 mg/kg in dose-related manner compared with the negative control. Five hundred mg/kg showed the highest (57.29±1.76 %) parasitaemia suppression. The survival times of P. berghei-infected mice were also increased in a dose-dependent manner but the test material did not prevent weight loss associated with increased parasitaemia. The result also showed the plant material prevented the loss in packed cell volume associated with increased parasitaemia. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its wider safety margin in mice. The result revealed the ethanol extract of E. kebericho roots has anti-malarial activity against P. berghei in an animal model and lends support to the use of the

  4. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  5. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  6. Traditional access and forest management arrangements for beekeeping: the case of Southwest Ethiopia forest region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endalamaw, T.B.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management

  7. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaye, Sintayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Tolessa, Daniel; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2018-04-24

    Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015. A cross-sectional study design and consecutive sampling technique were used. A single population proportion formula was used to include a total of 360 psychiatric patients. An interview administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and some clinical data. Anthropometric data were collected based on standard guild line for anthropometric measurement. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from ante-cubital fossa after overnight fasting for 8 h. Semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Temis Linear) was used for biochemical laboratory analysis. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version-20 software. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the association between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients was 28.9%. Age greater than 30 years old (AOR: 5.2, CI: 2.3, 11.8, P. value metabolic syndrome among diabetic patients in the study area. The other independent variables such as family history of hypertension, chewing chat, Psychotropic drugs, duration of treatment, regularly eating fruits and vegetables had no statistically significant association with metabolic syndrome (P. value > 0.05). There was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the psychiatric patients. Therefore; close assessment, management and treatment of metabolic syndrome among patients with psychiatry problem is essential. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma University, SouthWest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerebih, Habtamu; Ajaeb, Mohammed; Hailesilassie, Hailemariam

    2017-09-01

    Medical students are at risk of common mental disorders due to difficulties of adjustment to the medical school environment, exposure to death and human suffering. However there is limited data on this aspect. Therefore, the current study assessed the magnitude of common mental disorders and contributing factors among medical students. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 12-16, 2015 using stratified sampling technique. Three hundred and five medical students participated in the study. Common mental disorders were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with common mental disorders among students. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was 35.2%. Being female, younger age, married, having less than 250 birr monthly pocket money, attending pre-clinical class, khat chewing, smoking cigarettes, alcohol drinking and ganja/shisha use were significantly associated with common mental disorders. The overall prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was high. Therefore, it is essential to institute effective intervention strategies giving emphasis to contributing factors to common mental disorders.

  10. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  11. Reasons and predictors for antiretroviral therapy change among HIV-infected adults at South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Endalkachew; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Hussein, Nezif; Feyera, Teka

    2018-06-05

    This retrospective cohort study is aimed to assess reasons and predictors of regimen change from initial highly active antiretroviral therapy among 1533 Human Immunodeficiency virus-infected adult patients at the Jimma University Tertiary Hospital. One in two (47.7%) adults changed their antiretroviral therapy regimen. Patients who were above the primary level of education [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.241 (95% CI 1.070-1.440)] and with human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection [HR 1.405 (95% CI 1.156-1.708)] had the higher risk of regimen change than their comparator. Individuals on Efavirenz [HR 0.675 (95% CI 0.553-0.825)] and non-stavudine [HR 0.494 (95% CI 0.406-0.601)] based regimens had lower risk of regimen change.

  12. Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...

  13. Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengjiang; Xu Zhengqi; Ni Shijun; Chen Youliang

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

  14. ASPECTS ON THE ACTUAL LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT THE SOUTH-WEST REGION OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the educational sector, the work is topical, even though over time there have been many concerns regarding its education and development and the correlation between the level of educational development and the level of economic development. The aim of the paper is to analyze the educational development at the level of the South-West Oltenia region over the period 2010-2015, thus using the statistical series for the mentioned timeframe we analyzed the evolution of the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region And the evolution of the school population in the South-West Oltenia region. Thus, the objective of the paper is enshrined in the overall objective of Romania, namely to reduce the economic and social development disparities between Romania and other EU Member States. The results of the analysis carried out by the two indicators, the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region and the number of the school population at the level of the South-West Oltenia region indicate that the number of educational units in the period 2010-2015 decreased by 4.28% And the number of the school population by 14.67%.

  15. Community awareness about malaria, its treatment and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the rapid expansion of malaria into highland areas of Ethiopia and the movement of malaria inexperienced people to endemic areas, there is no enough information about how highland communities perceive malaria. Objective: To assess communities' awareness of malaria and its mosquito vector in ...

  16. Fresh, dried or smoked? repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Fitsum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for plant-based mosquito repellents, volatile emanations were investigated from five plant species, Corymbia citriodora, Ocimum suave, Ocimum lamiifolium, Olea europaea and Ostostegia integrifolia, traditionally used in Ethiopia as protection against mosquitoes. Methods The behaviour of two mosquitoes, the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, was assessed towards volatiles collected from the headspace of fresh and dried leaves, and the smoke from burning the dried leaves in a two-choice landing bioassay and in the background of human odour. Results Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves. Of all smoke and fresh volatile extracts, those from Co. citriodora (52-76% and Oc. suave (58-68% were found to be the most repellent, Os. integrifolia (29-56% to be intermediate while Ol. europaea (23-40% and Os. integrifolia (19-37% were the least repellent. One volatile present in each of the fresh leaf extracts of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia was ß-ocimene. The levels of ß-ocimene reflected the mosquito repellent activity of these three fresh leaf extracts. Female host-seeking mosquitoes responded dose-dependently to ß-ocimene, both physiologically and behaviourally, with a maximal behavioural repulsion at 14% ß-ocimene. ß-ocimene (14% repels mosquitoes in our 6-minute landing assays comparable to the synthetic insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (10% DEET. Conclusions Volatiles in the smoke of burning as well as fresh leaves of Co. citriodora and Oc. suave have significant repellent properties against host seeking An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. ß-ocimene, present in the fresh leaf headspace of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia, is a significantly effective volatile mosquito

  17. Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ansorge, IJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies and meanders have been shown to be one of the dominant sources of flow variability in the world s ocean. One example of an isolated eddy hotspot is the South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR). Several investigations have shown that the SWIR...

  18. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  19. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from the north; zoological facts suggest that African birds must have evolved within the continent, with .... discovered one in central Tanganyika, appears to have evolved in the South West Arid but to have left these ... seems to me that leucotis is more similar, in size and plumage pattern, to verticalis than to australis.

  20. Archaeological significance of trace element analysis of South West African potsherds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boule, G.J.; Peisach, M.; Jacobson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The archaeological study of early population movements in South West Africa/Namibia has been aided by trace element analysis of potsherds. The results suggest that the central areas of the country were populated by mobile groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, while the northern areas were settled by sedentary peoples [af

  1. Growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe 1834 in the South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens from South-West Indian Ocean seamounts were studied based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish under study ranged between one year and 14 years (15.5–43.5cm fork length). Age distribution was related to depth. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males were ...

  2. Corporate Culture and University Goal Achievement in South-West Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Rasaq L.; Sheu, Adaramaja A.; Kayode, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between culture and university goal achievement in South west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose was to find out the nature of the corporate culture and university goal achievement as well as to determine the relationship between corporate culture and university goal achievement in South…

  3. Situated Literacy Practices Amongst Artisans in the South West of Nigeria: Developmental and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a larger study on literacy practices, needs and perceptions of artisans in a part of the South West region of Nigeria. Using an ethnographic approach to research, it identified a variety of literacy practices, events and mediums, thus confirming the notion of literacy as social practice. The study employed a…

  4. Job Performance and Gender Factors of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the level of administrative staff job performance in South West Nigerian universities and also investigates whether the administrative staff job performance is related to their sexual characteristics. An instrument titled Job Performance Questionnaire (JPQ) was used to collect the data and was administered 400 subjects in…

  5. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers' drought adaption in the south-west Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change projections show that periods of droughts are likely to increase, causing decreasing water availability, salinization, and consequently farm income loss in the south-west Netherlands. Adaptation is the key to decrease a farmer's drought vulnerability and to secure the agricultural

  6. Marriage, Intimacy and Risk of HIV Infection in South West Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were ...

  7. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some years ago, I discussed (Winterbottom 1959) the limits of the zoogeographical district well named by Chapin (1923) the South West Arid and extended it eastward to include the highveld grasslands of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which Chapin had excluded. Later, I (Winter- bottom 1966) considered its ...

  8. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  9. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  10. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-west Algeria: an ethnobotanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Benarba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document and analyze the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, twenty-two local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC were used to analyze the obtained data. Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6 and 4 species respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%, followed by seeds (18%, aerial parts (17% and roots (12%. Furthermore, decoction was the major mode of preparation (49% and oral administration was the most preferred (80%. Thymus vulgaris L. (UV=1.045, Zingiber officinale (UV=0.863, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.545 and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV=0.5 were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727, cancer (0.687, digestive (0.603 and respiratory diseases. The present study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high use-value, fidelity level and informant consensus factor could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 320-330

  11. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  12. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  13. Activity of the 7Be isotope in plants from south-west Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Kaellman, K.M.; Agren, D.; Lill, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    We report the measurements of 7 Be activity in nine vegetable species through the detection of its 477.6 keV γ-ray of 7 Li. The plants were grown 10 km south of the city of Turku in south-west Finland, located at approximately about 23E, 62N. The results show that nettle, salad and cucumber have activities that exceed the detection limit. (author)

  14. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-01-01

    Study region: Jarrah forest in south west Australia. Study focus: The hydrological response to bauxite mining in the jarrah forest could differ from other land uses such as timber harvesting or clearing for agriculture, since mining involves excavation of the upper regolith in addition to changes in forest cover due to clearing and subsequent rehabilitation. Three catchments, one subject to mining, a second subject to an intensive forest thinning treatment and an untreated control were mon...

  15. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Kurian, S.; Gauns, M.; ChndrasekharaRao, A.V.; Mulla, A.; Naik, B.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we...

  16. Seasonal distribution of temperature and salinity in the surface waters off South West Africa, 1972-1974

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, M. J

    1980-01-01

    Monthly distribution charts of surface water temperature and salinity off the coast of South West Africa between Cape Frio and Hollams Bird Island are presented for the periods August 1972 to March...

  17. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT RATES BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA, ROMANIA AND EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Zaharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West Region includes the counties of Dolj, Gorj, Meheninţi, Olt and Valcea and together West Region make up the Macro 4. The geographical, economic and social structural changes in the last two decades, and the economic crisis have led to some peculiarities of labor market in this development region. This paper provides a comparative analysis of employment rates by level of education in the EU (27, some EU countries, as in Romania during 2000-2011. It also analyzes the structure of employment in South West Oltenia development region, by age, level of education, sex and area, in 2010 compared to the structure of employment in Macro 4 and in some cases, with that recorded in Western region. Compared to developments in Romania and Macro 4 level, the employment rates and the structure of employees have certain characteristics. Thus features occur in age groups 55-64 years and especially in the age group over 64 years, the South West region these represents 9.05% of total employment, compared to only 1.74% in the West region. Also, in rural areas, the percentage of employed population 25 to 64 years with low levels of education and medium education level, reach 96.8% of the total, which is a weakness of this region.

  18. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland; Materialy konferencji: Problemy Hydrogeologiczne Poludniowo-Zachodniej Polski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features.

  19. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getaneh Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22±0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean. Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%, A (136, 32.7%, B (87, 20.9%, and AB (18, 4.3%. Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%. The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416. ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P=0.022. High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P=0.003 compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  20. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Anteneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8% and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia

  1. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegăroiu Carina-Elena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of sustainable development of the labor market at a regional level. For this analysis we chose the Development Region of South West Oltenia, based on the terms of future considerations regarding Romania's territorial reorganization. To this extent, we chose to outline, taking into consideration the macroeconomic indicators pertaining to the region chosen for study, the prerequisites for a development based on sound economic principles of the labor market. Sustainable development involves combining all factors of impact for better resource management in the case of labor, which must take into account the cyclical implications of the Romanian economy.

  3. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Dehe Bala calc-alkaline granodiorites, south west of Boein Zahra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Gharamohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dehe Bala pluton is exposed approximately 45 km south-west of Boein Zahra town, Qazvin province. This Pluton which intruded the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic assemblage (UDMA, is mainly composed of granodiorite and produced narrow thermal metamorphic contact aureoles surrounding the intrusion. The body is characterized by SiO2 content ranging from 64.2 to 66.9 wt%, high-k calc-alkaline nature and metaluminous character (A/CNK

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Women Entrepreneurial Motivation in the South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D.Chinonye Okafor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurial motivation is a function of variables that are subject to authors and researchers’ opinions and views. These variables can be classified based on their impact on women entrepreneurial performance, behavior and challenges. This paper is therefore focused on examining the factors that affect women entrepreneurial motivation in the South-West Nigeria. The data used for the study was obtained through primary source. The data gathered was analyzed using the model of correlation analysis. Recommendations were made based on the result obtained from the testing of the hypothesis.

  5. Deer forests, game shooting and landed estates in the South West of Ireland, 1840 - 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John M. (Sean)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the historical aspects of the elitist field sports of deer stalking and game shooting, as practiced by four Irish landed ascendancy families in the south west of Ireland. Four great estates were selected for study. Two of these were, by Irish standards, very large: the Kenmare estate of over 136,000 acres in the ownership of the Roman Catholic Earls of Kenmare, and the Herbert estate of over 44,000 acres in the ownership of the Protestant Herbert family. The oth...

  6. Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity in scrub jungles of south-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammatanda A. Greeshma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly survey in control and fire-impacted regions of scrub jungle of south-west coast of India during south-west monsoon (50 m2 quadrats up to 10 weeks yielded 34 and 25 species of macrofungi, respectively. The species as well as sporocarp richness were the highest during the fourth week, while the diversity attained the highest during the second week in control region. In fire-impacted region, the species and sporocarp richness and diversity peaked at sixth week. Seven species common to both regions were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lepiota sp., Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, Marasmius sp. 3, Polyporus sp., Schizophyllum commune and Tetrapyrgos nigripes. The overall sporocarp richness was higher in fire-impacted than in control region. The Jaccard’s similarity between regions was 13.5%, while fortnights of regions ranged from 0% (10th week to 11.7% (eighth week. Control region showed single-species dominance by Xylaria hypoxylon, while multispecies dominance by Cyathus striatus and Lentinus squarrosulus in fire-impacted region. Except for air temperature, nine abiotic factors significantly differed between control and fire-impacted regions. The Pearson correlation was positive between species richness and phosphorus content in fire-impacted region (r = 0.696, while sporocarp richness was negatively correlated with pH in control region (r = −0.640. Economically viable species were 12 and 10 without overlap in control and fire-impacted regions, respectively.

  7. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.; Vogel, J.C.; Fuls, A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C 4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C 3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C 3 genera are found. The C 3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C 3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C 4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C 4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned [af

  8. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  9. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R P [Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Pretoria (South Africa). Botanical Research Institute; Vogel, J C; Fuls, A [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.

    1980-07-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C/sub 4/ photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C/sub 3/ type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C/sub 3/ genera are found. The C/sub 3/ species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C/sub 3/ grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C/sub 4/ grasses into the three subtypes of the C/sub 4/ pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned.

  10. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture,. Department of ... illiterate than in literate and university graduates (P=0.001) and in raw meat consumers than in ..... Thesis, FVM, AAU, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Kebede, N.

  11. Flow velocities estimated from chlorine-36 in the South-West Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Love, A.J.; Sampson, L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is the largest groundwater basin in the world and is the lifeline for water resources in a large proportion of the arid interior of the Australian continent. Despite its obvious importance, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the estimates of horizontal groundwater flow velocities and recharge rates. We report the first reliable estimates of these sustainability indicators in the south west segment of the GAB. Groundwater was sampled from 23 wells along two transects parallel to the W-E hydraulic gradient for 36 Cl, 14 C, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and major ion chemistry. The groundwater collected was from the undifferentiated Jurassic and Cretaceous (J and K) aquifer. These new data potentially contribute to the resolution of the interpretation of 36 Cl derived ages in a very large slow moving groundwater system and to the overall conceptual understanding of flow systems of the GAB

  12. Retrieval of biophysical parameters with AVIRIS and ISM: The Landes Forest, south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagolski, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Giordano, G.; Marty, G.; Letoan, T.; Beaudoin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The first steps of an experiment for investigating the capability of airborne spectrometer data for retrieval of biophysical parameters of vegetation, especially water conditions are presented. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ISM data were acquired in the frame of the 1991 NASA/JPL and CNES campaigns on the Landes, South west France, a large and flat forest area with mainly maritime pines. In-situ measurements were completed at that time; i.e. reflectance spectra, atmospheric profiles, sampling for further laboratory analyses of elements concentrations (lignin, water, cellulose, nitrogen,...). All information was integrated in an already existing data base (age, LAI, DBH, understory cover,...). A methodology was designed for (1) obtaining geometrically and atmospherically corrected reflectance data, (2) registering all available information, and (3) analyzing these multi-source informations. Our objective is to conduct comparative studies with simulation reflectance models, and to improve these models, especially in the MIR.

  13. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...

  14. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  15. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  16. Youthful Lust and Violation of Mobile Phone Rule in a Private Christian Mission University, South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omonijo Dare; Ugochukwu, Nnedum Obiajulu Anthony; Obinna, Ezeokana Jude

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the difference in the perceived lack of privacy in communication and violation of mobile phone rule among students in a Private Christian Mission University, South-West Nigeria. It equally tries to discover if there is a difference in the perceived students' desire to express love to the opposite sex and violation of…

  17. Humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate GMZ2 and its components in populations naturally exposed to seasonal malaria in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamo, Hassen; Esen, Meral; Ajua, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    for malaria infection microscopically and by the rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Sera were tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total immunoglobulin (Ig) G against P. falciparum blood-stage vaccine candidate GMZ2 and its subunits (Glutamate-rich protein (GLURP-R0), merozoite surface...... transmission in the two localities and/or genetic differences between the two populations in their response to the antigens. In both study sites, IgG subclass levels to GLURP-R0 were significantly higher than that to MSP3 for all corresponding subclasses in most individuals, indicating the higher relative...

  18. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  19. Malignancy in scleroderma patients from south west England: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2010-01-08

    The pathophysiological relationship between scleroderma and malignancy remains poorly understood. Although some previous studies have demonstrated an increased malignancy risk in patients with scleroderma, others have been inconclusive. We aimed to determine if patients with scleroderma had an increased risk of malignancy compared to an age- and sex-matched local South West England population, and if there were any important differences between scleroderma patients with and without malignancy. Methods of this study are as follows. Notes were obtained on all local scleroderma patients (n = 68) locally, and those diagnosed with malignancy verified by contacting each patient\\'s general practitioner. Expected malignancy figures were obtained from age- and sex-stratified regional prevalence data provided by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service registry. Among the patients, 22.1% with scleroderma were identified with concurrent malignancy. Affected sites were of the breast (n = 5), haematological system (n = 5), skin (n = 4), and unknown primary (n = 1). Overall, malignancy risk was found to be increased in scleroderma (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, p = 0.01). In particular, this risk was the highest for haematological malignancies (RR = 18.5, 95% CI 6-43, p = 0.03), especially for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (RR = 25.8, 95% CI 5-75, p = 0.10). The majority of patients (86.7%) developed malignancy after the onset of scleroderma (mean = 6.9 years). Age of >70 and patients with limited scleroderma were significant risk factors for a patient with scleroderma to have a concurrent malignancy; however, no increased risk was found in patients with any particular pattern of organ involvement, cytotoxic usage or serology. To conclude, in this small patient cohort, we have found that scleroderma is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. This risk is statistically significant in patients with limited scleroderma. Patients who are elderly and those with limited disease

  20. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  1. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  2. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South West Region: Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  3. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barnett

    Full Text Available Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM. Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1 and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2. In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  4. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5 years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5 years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Osseous Frame Index calculations of the early medieval South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasch, Isabelle; Langer, Antje; Boley, Moritz; Mumm, Rebekka; Riesenberg, Martin; Mann, Robert; Wahl, Joachim

    2018-05-15

    The proper description of former populations is one of the most difficult tasks in anthropology. Archaeological material is often limited due to fragmented and sometimes poorly preserved bone material resulting in incomplete data. Published skeletal raw data are available from the past, but much of this data is either unavailable or not used for scientific studies. The authors seek to elicit more information about prehistoric times by using this dataset to introduce a new method. The purpose is to provide an approach to reconstruct a former population in respect to robusticity and health status. For this in the pilot study the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Frame Index (FI) of early medieval South-West Germany have been analysed. The FI, in contrast to the BMI, has not yet been used for robusticity analysis utilizing only skeletal remains. As far as we know, this is the first time that the FI has been calculated using archaeological material. Due to unknown soft-tissue thickness we introduce the Osseous Frame Index (OFI). The measured OFI reveals new insights in (pre-)historic populations and allows comparisons with modern reference samples. Our OFI calculations are relatively similar to modern calculations. Males have a higher robusticity than females, slightly increasing during life-time compared to females. These calculations provide a better historical understanding of human body composition.

  6. Terrace Agriculture of the Hani People – Cultural Heritage of the South-West China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kladovshchikova Mariya Evgenyevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of terrace agriculture of Hani and Yi indigenous minorities, living in the Yunnan province in the South-West China, just a step away from the Laos and Vietnam boundaries. The cultural landscape of the Hani rice terraces, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2013 (Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, expresses the conservation of the minorities’ course of life during the last 1 300 years. The geological framework, climate patterns and conform type of vegetation predefine the specific character of natural conditions necessary for terrace agriculture and red rice growth – the most important crop within the region. At that, the landscape picture which fully reflects the season fluctuations of regional subtropical climate, also facilitates to aesthetic and romantic perception forming, symbolizing man-made environment integral and interlaced into natural landscape. The special focus is made on the description of terraced slopes unique morphology and ancient land cultivation technologies for the essential regional culture – red rice. Preservation of centuries-old traditions of efficient agriculture makes it possible to achieve integration of cultural and natural landscapes, that seamlessly comprises the ethnic minorities’ life, as well as to prevent development of erosion and landslide slope processes. The elements of the traditional Hani people way of life, including ritual customs associated with terrace agriculture, are particularly described.

  7. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  8. INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS FROM SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Mirela SIRBU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the major impact the organizational culture exerts over long-term performance of organizations and on the competitive advantage, in the theory and practice of management the concerns for understanding its multiple facets have intensified worldwide. This is highlighted by the numerous intercultural studies that emphasize the "invisible force" of each nation's culture and each organization's culture, which constitutes irrefutable arguments for enhancing the knowledge in this area. In this context, this study highlights how the cultural dimension "individualism-collectivism" influences the behavior of employees, in general, but especially that of managers from South-West Oltenia Region. The study results are based on the responses of 1086 respondents from 70 organizations in various fields of economic activity, whose opinions were investigated in two perspectives: current practice and desired practice. This paper presents some of the findings resulted from the research COMOR- Managerial Behavior in the Organizations in Romania, initiated and carried out throughout the country since 2009 by the Management Scientific Society of Romania (SSMAR in collaboration with the Association of Faculties of Economics in Romania (AFER.

  9. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  10. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 - 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  11. Sedimentary evolution and ecosystem change in Ahémé lake, south-west Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussou, Ernest; Totin Vodounon, Henri S.; Vissin, Expédit W.; Mahé, Gil; Oyédé, Marc Lucien

    2018-04-01

    Tropical moist ecosystems, such as Ahémé lake, south-west Benin, are increasingly marked by water degradation, linked with the activities of increasing riparian populations. The objective of this study is to analyze sedimentary dynamics and its influence on the changing ecosystem of Ahémé lake from 1961-2010. Data used to carry out the study are records of precipitation, flows, turbidity, suspended sediment, mineral elements and bathymetry. Grain size data from the sieving of sediment samples were used to interpret suspended solids distribution in the lake. Linear correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of dependence between rainfall and runoff inputs to the lake. Lake depth measurements in some areas of the lake serve to determine the rate of infilling. The sorting index was used to highlight the distribution and origin of sediments in the lake. The results show a degradation of the lake Ahémé ecosystem characterized by infilling of its bed, a high correlation (r = 0.90) between rainfall and runoff, seasonal change in physicochemical parameters (total suspended sediment decrease by -91 %) and decrease in fish production by 135.8 t yr-1. The highest mean suspended sediment concentrations in lake inputs occur during high water periods (123 mg L-1) compared to low water periods (11.2 mg L-1).

  12. Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Da-Qiao; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77875(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-west China. Bacterial growth occurred from 37 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were rod-shaped and colonies were convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77875(T) belongs to the genus Lysobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77875(T) and other species of the genus Lysobacter were all below 94.7 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77875(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(11:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77875(T) represents a novel species, Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., in the genus Lysobacter. The type strain is YIM 77875(T) (CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)).

  13. Profiles of innovators in a semi-arid smallholder agricultural environment in south west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2017-08-01

    Innovations are regarded as critical to improving the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of African agriculture. However, few efforts have been directed at understanding 'agricultural innovators', especially among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who face low agricultural productivity and widespread food insecurity. This paper investigates the profile of innovators from a local perspective in a semi-arid smallholder farming area in south-west Zimbabwe. The paper is based on data collected from key informant interviews and a household questionnaire survey administered to 239 households from Gwanda and Insiza districts between 2013 and 2014. Qualities or attributes of an innovator (which constitute the profile of an innovator) identified by key informants included: resource endowment; social networks; education; and enthusiasm (passionate and hardworking). The attributes were used in a logit regression model to estimate the probability of the 239 households exhibiting the attributes of an innovator. Social networks and resource endowment, as depicted by amount of land cultivated, were found to significantly influence the probability of an individual being an innovator. Interestingly, the common attributes of education or belonging to an innovation platform used by extension and development agents, were found not to influence the probability of one being an innovator. The paper concludes that understanding local perceptions of innovators, which is based on appreciation of the socio-economic and biophysical circumstances, should be used to identify a 'basket' of context specific innovations that have potential to address the diverse needs of rural households farming households.

  14. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. HUMAN RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PAWN IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a strategy by which people seek ways to economic development, benefiting also from the local environment or to benefit quality of life. Aim of this paper is to highlight that each county has different sustainable development opportunities, according to demographic and economic potential. These opportunities exist for each urban area in part due to each Region.Starting from the idea accepted worldwide through sustainable development that seeks interaction and compatibility of four systems: human (social economic, environmental (for environmental or ecological and technology, we considered an analysis of human resources in the South-West Oltenia Region. Rresearch methods used consist of systemic analysis, comparative and comprehensive approach to the topic investigated, depending on the target. This research is based on different databases, and uses various methods in an attempt to provide an explanation of the issues that are, theoretically speaking, persuasive. Research results are to highlight the employment rate in the South region West Oltenia, the programs used by authorities to reduce unemployment and to identify any tracks to revive the labor market in this region.

  16. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG IRANIAN MANDAEANS LIVING IN SOUTH-WEST IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Zarghami, Mahdis

    2018-07-01

    SummarySeveral studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. A total of 137 couples (urban areas: 79 couples; rural areas: 58 couples) were included in the study. Information on the consanguineous marriages of the subjects was collected through direct interviews. Marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples as double first cousins, first cousins, first cousin once removed, second cousins and unrelated marriages. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for the population, stratified by rural and urban areas. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 50.7% in urban and 86.2% in rural areas. There was a significant difference between rural and urban areas in types of marriages (χ 2=24.8, df=4, p<0.001) and first cousin marriages (51.8%) were the most common type. The overall α-value was estimated to be 0.0363 for the Iranian Mandaean population.

  17. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  18. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  19. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  20. The terrestrial distribution of artificial radioactivity in south-west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul; Cook, G.T.; Baxter, M.S.; Thompson, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation extends the data base on dispersion of Sella-field-derived radionuclides to the northern Solway coastal zone of south-west Scotland. Results of 10x10 km grid soil survey indicate that the predominant source of 239+240 Pu to the area has been weapons fallout, Chernobyl fallout having greatly modified 134 Cs and 137 Cs inventories. Inland transects reveal little evidence of airborne sea-to-land transfer of Sellafield-derived radionuclides, but riverine systems exhibit regions of significant on-land input from Sellafield via tidal inundation and deposition of particles. Sequential chemical leaching of soil and sediment samples suggests a change in chemical association of plutonium between marine and terrestrial systems. In radiological terms, airborne on-land transfer of Sellafield radionuclides is of negligible significance. Radionuclide inventories in Solway soils are generally well below the limiting values implied by the recommended generalised derived limits (GDL). In some tidally inundated riverbank areas however, 137 Cs, Puα and 241 Am levels occasionally exceed 25% of the appropriate GDL values. (author). 40 refs.; 8 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. Reproductive patterns of blacktail comber ( Serranus atricauda, Serranidae) from south-west Portugal seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge of the reproductive strategy is essential for the comprehensive understanding of the population dynamics of any fish species. This study intends to define the spawning season, verify the type of fecundity regulation and estimate relative annual fecundity for Serranus atricauda inhabiting the south-west of Portugal seamounts (Gorringe, Ampère and Lion). Monthly samples, between September 2010 and December 2011, were obtained from commercial vessels. This species is synchronously hermaphroditic, and mature individuals were found all year round, with gonadosomatic index peak from February to September. No clear relation between hepatosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor and gonadal development was found, and therefore, it is probable that reproductive success depends more on environmental conditions and food availability during the spawning season than on body energy reserves. No gap exists between pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and the oocyte size-frequency distribution during the main spawning season show no dominant cohort progressing through time. The number of standing stock of advanced vitellogenic oocytes showed an increase trend along the spawning season decreasing only at its end and the relative intensity of α-atresia was always low throughout this period with an increase towards the end. All these criteria corroborate the indeterminate fecundity type assigned to S. atricauda in previous studies. Mean relative annual fecundity estimated was 5,655 ± 4,321 oocytes per gram of gutted weight.

  2. Saline variability at the south-west of Portugal after kriging data from Ramalina spp. biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, R.; Sousa, A.J.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Catarino, F.

    2000-01-01

    Sea-salt input over the land masses may have deleterious effects on man-made structures, vegetable organisms (crops and vegetation) and soil/water resources. Recent work has shown the ability of some lichen species to monitor the deposition of airborne salts of marine origin. The atmospheric transport and deposition of sea salts can be assessed by measuring saline elements in lichens growing over coastal areas. The concentration of Cl - and Na + was determined in lichen thalli collected in three different dates on the south-west region of Portugal. The extracellular fraction of Na + was obtained by a sequential elution procedure, and Cl - was determined after leaching samples with water. The dispersion of element grades in the area was studied through geostatistical analysis. Numerical values were estimated by two interpolation methods: ordinary kriging and kriging with an external drift. The latter method used the logarithm of the distance to the coast as an auxiliary variable and yielded more reliable results. Every set of data produced a similar spatial pattern, showing a steep gradient in the first three kilometres from the coast. However, considerable variation can be observed between surveys. The variability of results is interpreted using the precipitation data obtained for the region under consideration. (author)

  3. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  4. Studies on MODIS NDVI and its relation with the south west monsoon, western ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Kumar, Tv; Barbosa, Humberto; Uma, R.; Rao, Koteswara

    2012-07-01

    Eleven years (2000 to 2010) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, derived from Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra with 250m resolution are used in the present study to discuss the changes in the trends of vegetal cover. The interannual variability of NDVI over western ghats (number of test sites are 17) showed increasing trend and the pronounced changes are resulted due to the monsoon variability in terms of its distribution (wide spread/fairly wide spread/scattered/isolated) and activity (vigorous/normal/weak) and are studied in detail. The NDVI progression is observed from June with a minimum value of 0.179 and yielded to maximum at 0.565 during September/October, on average. The study then relates the NDVI with the no of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events via statistical techniques such as correlation and regression to understand the connection in between the ground vegetation and the south west monsoon. The results of the study inferred i) NDVI, Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) are in good agreement throughout the monsoon which is evidenced by correlation as well as by Morlett Wavelet Analysis, ii) NDVI maintained good correlation with no of Light Rainy and Moderate Rainy alternatively but not with no of Heavy Rainy days, iii) Relation of NDVI with Isolated, Scattered distributions and active monsoons is substantial and iv) Phenological stages captured the Rate of Green Up during the crop season over western ghats.

  5. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  6. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, K. V.; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  7. Improving learning infrastructure and environment for sustainable quality assurance practice in secondary schools in Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Adelabu, Modupe A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the state of learning environment and infrastructure, together with their effects on teaching and learning activities and the extent to which they are being maintained. The study uses a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents consist of 60 principals and 540 teachers that were randomly selected using the multi-stage sampling technique from a pool of 599 public secondary schools in the Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria. Data were collected using the Learning En...

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi; A.O. Tom Ashafa

    2015-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml) when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect ...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 3 m Backscatter Mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico, Project NF-06-03, 2006, UTM 19 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team, in...

  10. About Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us About Malaria Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria is ... from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. About Malaria Topics FAQs Frequently Asked Question, Incubation period, uncomplicated & ...

  11. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF AGROPASTORALISTS IN THE DERIVED SAVANNA OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted by the administration of structured questionnaires to agropastoralists in fifty settlements in the derived savannah of South-west Nigeria in other to highlight the management practices and some of the factors influencing production in the area. The production system is traditional with animals being maintained on free range grazing, browsing and offer of crop-residues. Rangelands were, however, the major source of feed for the cattle. Farmers rarely supplemented their stock with concentrate diet while the most commonly purchased feed supplement was salt. Cattle constituted the major ruminant in the stock (65% while sheep and goats accounted for 23% and 11%, respectively. The most favoured and dominant breed of cattle in the agropastoral herd is the Bunaji (White Fulani (72.10% followed by N’Dama (18.20% and Keteku (9.30%. Female cattle were more in the herd than the male for all the breeds. Labour allocation among the agropastoralists is based on sex with more male tasks than female. All the agropastoralists (100% inherited there stock while few (24% engaged in care-taking of animals for others. Low milk production, soil-eating and diarrhoea were the prevalent diseases among the animals. Majority (84% of the agropastoralists depended on the use of local herbs and self medication for treating their animals as against a few (6% engaging the services of the veterinarian. The system under study vividly typifies a traditional smallholder dairy production system characterized by little or not input. Improved feeding, housing and health management will enhance the productivity of the animals.

  12. 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Blakers, Andrew; Stocks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing penetration of renewables, primarily wind and photovoltaics (PV), is causing a move away from fossil fuel in the Australian electric power industry. This study focuses on the South West Interconnected System in Western Australia. Several high (90% and 100%) renewables penetration scenarios have been modelled, comprising wind and PV supplemented with a small amount of biogas, and compared with a “like-for-like” fossil-fuel replacement scenario. Short-term off-river (closed cycle) pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is utilised in some simulations as a large-scale conventional storage technology. The scenarios are examined by using a chronological dispatch model. An important feature of the modelling is that only technologies that have been already deployed on a large scale (>150 gigawatts) are utilised. This includes wind, PV and PHES. The modelling results demonstrate that 90–100% penetration by wind and PV electricity is compatible with a balanced grid. With the integration of off-river PHES, 90% renewables penetration is able to provide low-carbon electricity at competitive prices. Pumped hydro also facilitates a 100% renewables scenario which produces zero greenhouse gas emissions with attractive electricity prices. A sensitivity analysis shows the most important factors in the system cost are discount rate and wind turbine cost. - Highlights: • Short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES). • 90–100% renewables for a large-scale self-contained power system. • PV and wind serves 80–90% of the total energy. • 90% renewables system costs $116 ($103)/MWh using 2016 (2030) prices.

  13. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu, MBBS, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is central in designing cost effective programs for reducing maternal deaths among women. This study assessed factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and April, 2015. Systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 400 women attending antenatal clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: More than half (51.3% of our respondents were in the 30-39 age category. Only 40.3% of these respondents were reported well prepared for births and were complication ready. The proportion of women who had BP/CR was significantly higher among those in the middle socio-economic group (51.6%, p<0.05, those who practiced Christianity (76.4%, p<0.05 and those from Yoruba ethnic group (80.1%, p<0.05. Respondents in lower socio-economic group were 42% less likely to have prepared for birth compared to women in the high socio-economic class (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The proportion of Nigerian women in our sample who were well-prepared for birth and its complication was below average. There is need for more awareness programs on BP/CR; such programs should target all women especially the vulnerable group

  14. Pelagic communities of the South West Indian Ocean seamounts: R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Cruise 2009-410

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Alvheim, O.; Bemanaja, E.; Benivary, D.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bornman, T. G.; Cedras, R.; Du Plessis, N.; Gotheil, S.; Høines, A.; Kemp, K.; Kristiansen, J.; Letessier, T.; Mangar, V.; Mazungula, N.; Mørk, T.; Pinet, P.; Pollard, R.; Read, J.; Sonnekus, T.

    2017-02-01

    The seamounts of the southern Indian Ocean remain some of the most poorly studied globally and yet have been subject to deep-sea fishing for decades and may face new exploitation through mining of seabed massive sulphides in the future. As an attempt to redress the knowledge deficit on deep-sea benthic and pelagic communities associated mainly with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge two cruises were undertaken to explore the pelagic and benthic ecology in 2009 and 2011 respectively. In this volume are presented studies on pelagic ecosystems around six seamounts, five on the South West Indian Ridge, including Atlantis Bank, Sapmer Seamount, Middle of What Seamount, Melville Bank and Coral Seamount and one un-named seamount on the Madagascar Ridge. In this paper, existing knowledge on the seamounts of the southwestern Indian Ocean is presented to provide context for the studies presented in this volume. An account of the overall aims, approaches and methods used primarily on the 2009 cruise are presented including metadata associated with sampling and some of the limitations of the study. Sampling during this cruise included physical oceanographic measurements, multibeam bathymetry, biological acoustics, and net sampling of phytoplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton/nekton. The studies that follow reveal new data on the physical oceanography of this dynamic region of the oceans, and the important influence of water masses on the pelagic ecology associated with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge. New information on the pelagic fauna of the region fills an important biogeographic gap for the mid- to high-latitudes of the oceans of the southern hemisphere.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the South-West Coast of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarwar Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2007 and four seasons (Pre-monsoon; Monsoon; Post-Monsoon and Winter, during the period 1948–2007. Eight weather stations were divided into two zones: exposed (exposed to sea and interior (distant to sea. Overall, rainfall increased during the period 1948–2007, while the trends intensified during post-1990s. Post-monsoon and winter rainfall was observed to follow significant positive trends at most weather stations during the time period 1948–2007. The rate of change was found in exposed zone and interior zone are +12.51 and +4.86 mm/year, respectively, over post monsoon and +0.9 and +1.86 mm/year, respectively, over winter. These trends intensified both in the exposed zone (+45.81 mm/year and the interior zone (+27.09 mm/year 1990 onwards. Winter rainfall does not exhibit significant change (p > 0.1 over the exterior or interior zone, though individual stations like Jessore, Satkhira and Bhola show significant negative trends after 1990s. Although the trends were observed to weaken in the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, they are not significant. Moreover, an 11-year cyclicity was found within these two seasons, whilst no cyclicity was observed in the post-monsoon and winter seasons. Sequential Mann Kendal test reveals that the changes in two zones rainfall trends are started around mid-80s, where step change found only for fours season in Khulna stations and also for winter seasons in all weather stations. These changes may have a detrimental effect on rain-fed agriculture in Bangladesh. The application of palaeo-environmental techniques, threshold determination and rainfall analysis across the whole country could be useful to support adaptation planning of

  16. Recovery from acidification of lochs in Galloway, south-west Scotland, UK: 1979-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Ferrier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galloway region of south-west Scotland has historically been subject to long-term deposition of acidic precipitation which has resulted in acidification of soils and surface waters and subsequent damage to aquatic ecology. Since the end of the 1970s, however, acidic deposition has decreased substantially. The general pattern is for a rapid decline in non-marine sulphate in rainwater over the period 1978-1988 followed by stable concentrations to the mid-1990s. Concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in deposition have remained constant between 1980 and 1998. Seven water quality surveys of 48 lochs in the Galloway region have been conducted between 1979 and 1998. During the first 10 years, from 1979, there was a major decline in regional sulphate concentrations in the lochs, which was expected to have produced a decline in base cations and an increase in the acid neutralising capacity. But sea-salt levels (as indicated by chloride concentrations were approximately 25% higher in 1988 than in 1979 and thus short-term acidification due to sea-salts offset much of the long-term recovery trend expected in the lochs. During the next 10 years, however, the chloride concentrations returned to 1979 levels and the lochs showed large increases in acid neutralising capacity despite little change in sulphate concentrations. From the observed decline in sulphate deposition and concentrations of sulphate in the lochs, it appears that approximately 75% of the possible improvement in acid neutralising capacity has already occurred over the 20-year period (1979-1998. The role of acid deposition as a driving factor for change in water chemistry in the Galloway lochs is confounded by concurrent changes in other driving variables, most notably, factors related to episodic and year-to-year variations in climate. In addition to inputs of sea-salts, climate probably also influences other chemical signals such as peaks in regional nitrate concentrations and the sharp

  17. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  18. The new face of rheumatic heart disease in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Johnson Olarewaju Peter,2 Adebayo Tolulope Oyedeji,2 Abiona Oluwadamilola Odeyemi21Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine the current prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD, clinical features, types of valvular lesions, complications and mortality, at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all the cases of RHD seen in the medical outpatient clinics and wards of LAUTECH for 9 years, from January 2003 to December 2011. Statistical analysis of data obtained was done using SPSS 16. Results: The total number of attendees of all the medical outpatient clinics during the 9-year period was 67,378, with a subset of 9423 attending the cardiology clinic. There were 11 cases of RHD, which translates to a prevalence of 0.16/1000 and 1.2/1000 for medical outpatient clinics and the cardiology clinic respectively. The mean age of the patients was 25.64 ± 9.65 years, age range 14–40 years and male to female ratio of 1:1.2. The most common valve affected was mitral (90.9%, followed by the aortic (36.4%, and the tricuspid (18.2%. Mitral and aortic lesions coexisted in 18.2% of the patients, and late presentation was common in all RHD cases. Heart failure was the most common complication (90.9%. Other complications were secondary pulmonary hypertension (36.4%, infective endocarditis (27.3%, atrial fibrillation (27.3%, cardioembolic cerebrovascular disease (18.2%, and atrial flutter (9.1%. Mortality was 9.1%, while only one patient (9.1% had definitive surgery. Financial constraints precluded others from having definitive surgery.Conclusion: The prevalence of RHD has declined considerably as a result of improvements in the primary health care delivery system, with widespread use

  19. Integrated risk mapping and landscape characterisation of lymphatic filariasis and loiasis in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A. Brant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with the drug ivermectin. To better understand factors influencing LF elimination in loiasis areas, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence and co-distribution of the two infections, and the potential demographic, landscape, human movement, and intervention-related risk factors at a micro-level in the South West zone of Nigeria. In total, 870 participants from 10 communities on the fringe of a meso-endemic loiasis area of Osun State were selected. LF prevalence was measured by clinical assessment and using the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT to detect W. bancrofti antigen. Overall LF prevalence was low with ICT positivity ranging from 0 to 4.7%, with only 1 hydrocoele case identified. Males had significantly higher ICT positivity than females (3.2% vs 0.8%. Participants who did not sleep under a bed net had higher ICT positivity (4.0% than those who did (1.3%. ICT positivity was also higher in communities with less tree coverage/canopy height (2.5–2.8% than more forested areas with greater tree coverage/canopy height (0.9–1.0%. In comparison, loiasis was determined using the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA, and found in all 10 communities with prevalence ranging from 1.4% to 11.2%. No significant difference was found by participants' age or sex. However, communities with predominately shrub land (10.4% or forested land cover (6.2% had higher prevalence than those with mosaic vegetation/croplands (2.5%. Satellite imagery

  20. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: THE REGION OF SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂCESCU ANIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive statistic of the regional entrepreneurial environment in Romania, focusing on South-West Oltenia, with the aim that surprised the level of entrepreneurship in this area. In this study we considered the demographic analysis of active enterprises at the 8 development regions of Romania, the survival rate of enterprises, the competitiveness, and profile of the entrepreneur. The period under review is 2008-2014, and the main sources of information were the databases of the National Institute of Statistics and the National Trade Register Office

  1. The Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Children with Unexplained Failure to Thrive in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Taheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease (CD, considered as a common chronic and genetic diseases that caused by hypersensitivity to gluten. Failure to thrive (FTT, is one of three major clinical features of CD during childhood. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children with unexplained FTT in South West of Iran. Materials and Methods  This cross‑sectional study was conducted on 433 children 9-month to 6 years old that diagnosed as unexplained FTT referred to Abuzar Children's Hospital, Ahvaz, South West of Iran, in 2014. In this study, we examined the serum levels of anti-transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG in children with unexplained FTT. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results  The results showed that the prevalence of CD in children with unexplained FTT in was 8.8%. The mean scores of children's anti-tTG serum levels in both gender and age groups, showed no significant difference (P> 0.05. Conclusion  At current study, the prevalence of CD in children with FTT was 8.8%. Since the CD is an important cause of unexplained FTT in children, the early screening and diagnosis and dietary management can be decrease the risk for long-term complications in these children.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect for the plants was H. indicum> S. fistula> S. anthelmia. Acetone and ethanol extracts of the three plants showed the most effective activity (100% mortality against adult earth worm (Pheretima posthuma after 30 min of exposure The reference standard drug (Vermox® showed less effectiveness compared to the medicinal plants used in the study. Overall, the study indicates that Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia are potential anthelmintic herbal drugs, which in turn validates the use of the three species as worm expellers by the Yorubas tribe of South West Nigeria.

  3. The reliability of blood film examination for malaria at the peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a common and serious problem in Ethiopia. Blood film examination is the best tool for diagnosing malaria where feasible. Objective: To assess the reliability of blood film examination at the primary health care level. Method: Two specimens were taken from all suspected patients in five health center ...

  4. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  5. Malaria Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Malaria Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: NIAID Colorized ... for the disease. Why Is the Study of Malaria a Priority for NIAID? Roughly 3.2 billion ...

  6. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  7. High incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in newly arrived Eritrean refugees in Sweden since May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonden, K; Castro, E; Törnnberg, L; Stenstrom, C; Tegnell, A; Farnert, A

    2014-09-04

    Since May 2014, an increase in Plasmodium vivax malaria has been observed in Sweden. As of 31 August 2014, 105 malaria cases have been reported in newly arrived Eritrean refugees, 84 of them P. vivax. The patients were mainly young men and reported migration through Ethiopia and/or Sudan. Severe anaemia and long symptom duration reflect inadequate healthcare during migration. Countries currently hosting Eritrean refugees need to consider P. vivax malaria in this group of migrants.

  8. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  9. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  10. Applications of biological tools or biomarkers in aquatic biota: A case study of the Tamar estuary, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Lorna J; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2015-06-30

    Biological systems are the ultimate recipients of pollutant-induced damage. Consequently, our traditional reliance on analytical tools is not enough to assess ecosystem health. Biological responses or biomarkers are therefore also considered to be important tools for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Due to historical mining, other anthropogenic activities, and its conservational importance (e.g. NATURA sites, SACs), the Tamar estuary in South West England is an ideal environment in which to examine applications of such biological tools. This review presents a thorough and critical evaluation of the different biological tools used in the Tamar estuary thus far, while also discussing future perspectives for biomarker studies from a global perspective. In particular, we focus on the challenges which hinder applications of biological tools from being more readily incorporated into regulatory frameworks, with the aim of enabling both policymakers and primary stakeholders to maximise the environmental relevance and regulatory usefulness of such tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  12. Moderation and Assessment Project--South West. A Presentation of a Model for Moderating Pupils' Work That Is Teacher Assessed, Developed in England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnor, Hilary

    The Moderation and Assessment Project, South West, was an outgrowth of the Technical and Vocational Educational Initiative of the government of the United Kingdom that attempted to develop more courses with vocational relevance for adolescents. Growing from research projects under the Moderation and Assessment project, a new model of moderation is…

  13. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  14. A predominance of hypertensive heart disease among patients with cardiac disease in buea, a semi-urban setting, South west region of cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkoke, Clovis; Makoge, Christelle; Dzudie, Anastase; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Menanga, Alain; Kingue, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The pattern of heart disease is diverse within and among world regions. The little data on the spectrum of heart disease in Cameroon has been so far limited to major cities. We sought to describe the pattern of heart disease in Buea, the South West Region of Cameroon, a semi-urban

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Papadaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  16. Continuous Monitoring of CH4 Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction in South West Pennsylvania Using Top Down Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, D. P.; Belmecheri, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Sowers, T. A.; Bryant, S.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Aikins, J.; Sweeney, C.; Petron, G.; Davis, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas extraction from shale formations via hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) is expanding rapidly in several regions of North America. In Pennsylvania, the number of wells drilled to extract natural gas from the Marcellus shale has grown from 195 in 2008 to 1,386 in 2010. The gas extraction process using the fracking technology results in the escape of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas and the principal component of natural gas, into the atmosphere. Emissions of methane from fracking operations remain poorly quantified, leading to a large range of scenarios for the contribution of fracking to climate change. A mobile measurement campaign provided insights on methane leakage rates and an improved understanding of the spatio-temporal variability in active drilling areas in the South West of Pennsylvania. Two towers were then instrumented to monitor fugitive emissions of methane from well pads, pipelines, and other infrastructures in the area. The towers, one within a drilling region and one upwind of active drilling, measured atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios continuously. Isotopic measurements from air flasks were also collected. Data from the initial mobile campaign were used to estimate emission rates from single sites such as wells and compressor stations. Tower data will be used to construct a simple atmospheric inversion for regional methane emissions. Our results show the daily variability in emissions and allow us to estimate leakage rates over a one month period in South West Pennsylvania. We discuss potential deployment strategies in drilling zones to monitor emissions of methane over longer periods of time.

  17. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  18. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Vaccines Directorate, Ethiopia. 4Department of ... and III were given 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight/day plant .... Experimental animals preparation: A total of thirty adult ..... Tesgaye K. In-vivo anti-malaria activity of plants ...

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxia; Fan, Ping; Liu, Hongwei; Bai, Huai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is a relatively high incidence of dyslipidemia and MS in south-west Chinese women with PCOS, especially in patients without hyperandrogenism. Patients with dyslipidemia are more obese, and have a more adverse glucose and lipid metabolic profile and higher apoB levels and apoB/apoA-I ratio. The increased apoB levels and apoB/A1 ratio and the MS are strongly associated with PCOS, suggesting that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Dyslipidemia and MS have been widely studied in women with PCOS, but to date no data from south-west Chinese subjects have been available. The apoB/apoA-I ratio has been reported to be strongly associated with MS and insulin resistance (IR) and to be a reliable parameter that reflects lipid disturbances and the potential to develop atherosclerosis, but its relationship with PCOS is unclear. DESIGN This case-control study included 406 patients with PCOS and 342 control women between 17 and 40 years of age from a population in south-west China during 2006-2011. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control group, consisting of women with infertility due to a Fallopian obstruction or the husband's infertility, women undergoing a pre-pregnancy check and healthy volunteers, was recruited from the same hospital during the same period. All women were not taking any medication known to affect carbohydrate or lipid or hormone metabolism for at least 3 months prior to the study, and were studied during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. MS was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria modified for Asian populations. Dyslipidemia was defined by one or more of the

  20. Ethiopia: Land Opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Tommerup, Emil; Valciukaite, Silvestra; Gulbinaite, Simona; Wang, Yizhuo

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, many foreign companies have been attracted to invest in Ethiopian land, Karuturi is one of the largest land investors in Ethiopia and it also claimed its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. As a developing country with high ranking in corruption, there might be potential risk for investing in Ethiopia, the problem arises: Why does Karuturi invest its production in Ethiopia and even doing CSR? Focused on this problem within the case study of Karuturi, we implemented analysis ...

  1. Me'en ritual, medicinal and other plants : a contribution to South-West Ethiopian ethno-botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present article offers a descriptive survey of the most important plants used by the Southeast Surmic-speaking Me'en in southwestern Käfa, Ethiopia, based on information gathered over a period of 14-months field research (1989-1991). Data covering the Me'en name of each plant, the scientific

  2. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  3. Malaria Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  4. Risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female students in Jimma Zone preparatory schools, South West Ethiopia: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female preparatory school (grades 11 and 12) students in Jimma Zone. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma Zone. A total of 520 students were selected using simple random sampling technique. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regressions were performed on the data to understand risky sexual behaviors among students. Twenty-two (25.9%) of male and 25(21.6%) of female students had two or more sexual partners in the last six months. Eighty-three (32.3%), 113(43.5%) male and female students were sexually at risk in the last six months. Only 8(9.4%) of the male and 10(8.6%) of the female students used condom consistently in the last six months. Female students living away from their parents were 3 times more likely to be at risk than students living with their parents (OR 95%CI 3.0(1.48-6.34)). Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consume alcohol (OR 95%CI 7.27(3.36-15.7)). Male students who consumed alcohol were 2.8 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consumed alcohol (OR 95%CI, 2.81(1.3-6.06)). Male students who chewed khat were 4.6 times more likely to be at risk than students who did not chew khat (OR 95%CI, 4.58(1.95-10.76). Living arrangement, educational status of parents, family connectedness, alcohol consumption and khat-chewing were the major predictors of risky sexual behavior. Therefore, School, family and zonal education office should be involved in reducing the risky sexual behavior of school youth.

  5. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  6. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species' geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies.

  7. Three-dimensional architecture and development of Danianbryozoan mounds at Limhamn, south-west Sweden, usingground-penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Schack von Brockdorff, A.; Bjerager, Morten Gustav Erik

    2009-01-01

    in the Limhamn limestone quarry, south-west Sweden, obtained from combined reflected ground-penetrating radar signals and outcrop analysis provide new information about the architecture and growth development of such mounds. The mounds are composed of bryozoan limestone and dark-grey to black flint bands which...... outline mound geometries. Ground-penetrating radar data sections are collected over a 120 m by 60 m grid of data lines with trace spacing of 0·25 m, providing a depth penetration of 7 to 12 m and a vertical resolution of ca 0·30 m. The ground-penetrating radar images outline the geometry of the internal...... layering of the mounds which, typically, have widths and lengths of 30 to 60 m and heights of 5 to 10 m. Mound architecture and growth show great variability in the ground-penetrating radar images. Small-scale mound structures with a palaeorelief of only a few metres may constitute the basis for growth...

  8. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)).

  9. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species’ geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:29401494

  10. RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS USING SNYDER AND SCS SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH METHODS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RIVERS IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Adebayo Salami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of runoff hydrographs for selected rivers in Ogun-Osun river catchment, south west, Nigeria using Snyder and Soil Conservation Service (SCS methods of synthetic unit hydrograph to determine the ordinates. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS curve Number method was used to estimate the excess rainfall from storm of different return periods. The peak runoff hydrographs were determined by convoluting the unit hydrographs ordinates with the excess rainfall and the value of peak flows obtained by both Snyder and SCS methods observed to vary from one river watershed to the other. The peak runoff hydrograph flows obtained based on the unit hydrograph ordinate determined with Snyder method for 20-yr, 50-yr, 100-yr, 200-yr and 500-yr, return period varied from 112.63m3/s and 13364.30m3/s, while those based on the SCS method varied from 304.43m3/s and 6466.84m3/s for the eight watersheds. However, the percentage difference shows that for values of peak flows obtained with Snyder and SCS methods varies from 13.14% to 63.30%. However, SCS method is recommended to estimate the ordinate required for the development of peak runoff hydrograph in the river watersheds because it utilized additional morphometric parameters such as watershed slope and the curve number (CN which is a function of the properties of the soil and vegetation cover of the watershed.

  11. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection in Immunocompromised Pa-tients, In South-West of Iran, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balouty Dehkordy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection by antigen detection in faeces among immunocompromised patients referred to educational hospitals of Ahvaz City, South-West of Iran, 2009-2010.Methods: Fecal samples from 176 immunocompromised patients were collected and Cryptosporid­ium coproantigen test was performed using ELISA method (DRG kit, Germany. A questionnaire was completed for each case and the results were analyzed using descriptive and Chi-Square tests, by SPSS statistical software (15th version.Results: Our study indicated 5.1% Cryptosporidium infection prevalence in the immunocompro­mised participated population. Furthermore, 4.2 %, 4%, 4.5 % and 9.1% infection rates were identi­fied in children suffered from hematopoietic malignancy, adult cancer patients, renal trans­plant recipients, and HIV+ cases, respectively. There was not significant correlation between the infection and age and gender (P>0.05. Infection was most frequent among HIV+ patients.Conclusion: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium antigen in fe­cal samples of immunocompromised patients in the region. As no chemotherapeutic agents have yet proven, especially in immunosuppressed patients, therefore our results highlight the impor­tance of preventive intervention in these groups.

  12. Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Bing-Huo; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A novel filamentous bacterium, designated YIM 77831(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth occurred from 28 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The strain formed branched substrate mycelia, endospores were produced on the substrate mycelium and aerial mycelium was not produced on any of the growth media tested. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 77831(T) was affiliated with the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The stain YIM 77831(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, galactose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and four unknown phospholipids. The only menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content was 55.6 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77831(T) represents a novel genus and species, Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The type strain is YIM 77831(T) (CCTCC AA 2011024(T) = JCM 18059(T)).

  13. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  14. A study of environmental radon levels in rammed earth dwellings in the south west of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Jennings, P.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor radon and thoron progeny Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EEC) were measured with a portable 'Radon Sniffer' in 10 rammed earth dwellings and 10 conventional dwellings in Margaret River in the South West of Western Australia. Natural background gamma radiation was also measured within the dwellings. The results of this study show that the mean indoor radon progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 24 Bq m -3 EEC and 9.3 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean indoor thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 3.9 Bq m -3 EEC and 0.8 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The ranges of combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were between 2.1 and 76 Bq m -3 EEC and 2.0 and 27 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean annual effective radiation dose equivalents from combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations EEC using UNSCEAR's (1982) conversion factors in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were 4.1 mSv y -1 and 2.2 mSv y -1 respectively. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  15. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the south-west of Ireland 1983-1992: a comparison with M. tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of human Mycobacterium bovis disease were investigated in south-west Ireland (counties Cork & Kerry, population 536,000) over the years 1983-92 inclusive and compared to M. tuberculosis. Results showed a small, stable incidence of culture positive M. bovis human disease, mean annual incidence 0.56 per 100,000 population compared to a higher but declining incidence of culture positive M. tuberculosis (15.3 per 100,000 in 1983, 9.0 per 100,000 in 1992). Male patients were the majority, 63.4 per cent of M. bovis; 62.4% of M. tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Fifty three per cent of M. bovis cases (n = 30) were pulmonary, compared to 85% of M. tuberculosis (n = 626; p = 0.0001). M. bovis patients were older (p = 0.02), mean age 58.4 years (SD 18.9) compared to 48.5 (SD 22.2). The mycobacterial smear positive rate was similar in both groups taken as a whole. No rural-urban difference in incidence was found in either disease, suggesting in the case of M. bovis initial infection in childhood via contaminated milk in the pre-pasteurisation era.

  16. Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2018-06-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote 'innovations' as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented. This paper explores the key attributes of agricultural innovations by assessing how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe. The study gathered information from 13 key informants and a household survey of 239 farmer households from Gwanda and Insiza districts. Results showed a multiplicity of understandings of agricultural innovations among different stakeholders. However, novelty/newness, utility and adaptability were identified as the major attributes. In general, farmers characterized agricultural innovations as 'something new and mostly introduced by NGOs' but did not associate them with the key attributes of utility and adaptability. More crop-related innovations were identified despite the area being suitable for livestock production. The paper concludes that, rather than view the multiple and sometimes competing understandings of agricultural innovations as undesirable, this should be used to promote context specific innovations which stand a better chance of enhancing agriculture-based livelihoods.

  17. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  18. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  19. Egg cases of the graytail skate Bathyraja griseocauda and the cuphead skate Bathyraja scaphiops from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Vazquez, D M; Gabbanelli, V; Sabadin, D; Barbini, S A; Lucifora, L O

    2017-09-01

    Egg cases of Bathyraja griseocauda were larger (140-142 mm in length) than those of Bathyraja scaphiops (88-90 mm in length) and their surface was relatively smooth, without denticles, prickles or any ornamentation. Egg cases of B. scaphiops had a relative coarse surface, covered with prickles of similar size. An identification key for the all described egg cases from Bathyraja occurring in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is provided. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Malaria prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria D:lay still be contracted despite good cOD:lpliance with ... true that prophylaxis is always better than no prophy- laxis, nor is ... If used during pregnancy, a folic acid supplement ... include folate deficiency, agranulocytosis, illegaloblastic.

  1. Attitudes towards Prosthodontic Clinical Decision-Making for Edentulous Patients among South West Deanery Dental Foundation Year One Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the study between May and June 2011 and a previously piloted questionnaire was administered to the trainees by their training programme directors. The questionnaire posed questions based upon a clinical scenario of discussing treatment options with patients. Seventy-two questionnaires were used in the analysis (91% overall response rate. Trainees perceived their own values to be less important than the patient’s values (p < 0.001 in decision making, but similar to the patient’s friend’s/relative’s values (p = 0.1. In addition, the trainees perceived the patient’s values to be less important than their friend’s/relatives (p < 0.001. Sixty-six per cent of trainees acknowledged an influence from their own personal values on their presentation of material to patients who are in the process of choosing among different treatment options, and 87% thought their edentulous patients were satisfied with the decision making process when choosing among different treatment options. Fifty-eight per cent of trainees supported a strategy of negotiation between patients and clinicians (shared decision making. There was no strong evidence to suggest gender had an influence on the attitudes towards decision making. The finding of a consensus towards shared decision making in the attitudes of trainees, and no gender differences is encouraging and is supportive of UK dental schools’ ability to foster ethical and professional values among dentists.

  2. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  3. Distribution and enrichment of 210Po and 210Pb in the environment of Mangalore, South West coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.; Rajashekara, K.M.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil samples of Mangalore South west coast of India. The soil samples collected from the region were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity using radiochemical analytical techniques to understand the distribution and enrichment of those radionuclides. The 210 Po activity in soil in the environment of Mangalore varies from 1.5 Bq kg -1 to 26.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 12.6 Bq kg -1 and that of 210 Pb varies in the range 7.6 Bq kg -1 to 67.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 38.9 Bq kg -1 . The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio observed was 0.3 and it shows that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in soil is more compared to 210 Po. A good correlation exists between the activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb with correlation coefficient r = 0.7. The absorbed gamma dose in the environment of the region varies from 39.4 nGy h -1 to 78.8 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 48.2 nGy h -1 . The results of the systematic studies on the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  5. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  6. Simulating the characteristics of tropical cyclones over the South West Indian Ocean using a Stretched-Grid Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.

  7. Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkali geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Duan, Yan-Yan; Zhou, En-Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Feng, Hui-Geng; Liu, Lan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-05-01

    An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant and Gram-stain negative bacterium, designated strain YIM 78007(T), was isolated from an alkaline geothermal soil sample from Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of strain YIM 78007(T) were observed to be aerobic and short rod-shaped. The colonies were observed to be orange-red, convex and circular. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 78007(T) clustered with members of the genus Roseomonas (with similarities from 97.2 to 92.2 %). Optimal growth of strain YIM 78007 occurs at 40-50 °C and pH 8.0-10.0. The predominant ubiquinone was identified as Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63 mol %. The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain YIM 78007(T) and its closet neighbours (Roseomonas lacus JCM 13283(T) and Roseomonas terrae JCM 14592(T)) were well below the threshold required for the proposal of a novel species. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the phylogenetic analysis, as well as low DNA-DNA hybridization values, allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78007(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain YIM 78007(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78007(T) (=BCRC 80644(T) = JCM 19656(T)).

  8. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  9. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  10. Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, M; Pool, R; Bwanika, K

    2001-06-01

    Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six middlemen and 12 CSWs were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Interviewing truck drivers also entailed participating in the town's nightlife and spending much time in the bars. Truck drivers stop briefly at the truck stop for various reasons: to eat, sleep, have sex and sell goods they are carrying. Middlemen mediate the latter two activities. Middlemen buy goods from the drivers and introduce them to 'suitable' women with whom they can have casual sex. Most drivers have sex when they spend the night at the truck stop, and most make use of the services of the middlemen. The most important reasons why drivers use middlemen are that the latter speak the local languages and, in particular, know the trustworthy and 'safe' (HIV-negative) women. The CSWs use middlemen mainly because they are a guarantee that the driver will pay and they usually ensure that drivers pay well. The mediation system is becoming increasingly professionalized. Most drivers claimed to use condoms during casual sex, and this was confirmed by the CSWs. General use of condoms is encouraging, particularly given the context of a culture generally opposed to condoms. The idea that middlemen can recognize 'safe' women is worrying. However, given their key position, middlemen could form the hub of an opinion leader type intervention focused on drivers and the professional group of sex workers described here, providing condoms, advising about the importance of condom use in all casual sexual encounters, giving information about HIV and STDs, and possibly referring drivers and women to appropriate sources of HIV counselling and testing

  11. Malaria chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Peter; Ward, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Most malaria control strategies today depend on safe and effective drugs, as they have done for decades. But sensitivity to chloroquine, hitherto the workhorse of malaria chemotherapy, has rapidly declined throughout the tropics since the 1980s, and this drug is now useless in many high-transmission areas. New options for resource-constrained governments are few, and there is growing evidence that the burden from malaria has been increasing, as has malaria mortality in Africa. In this chapter, we have tried to outline the main pharmacological properties of current drugs, and their therapeutic uses and limitations. We have summarised the ways in which these drugs are employed, both in the formal health sector and in self-medication. We have briefly touched on the limitations of current drug development, but have tried to pick out a few promising drugs that are under development. Given that Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that kills, and that has developed multi-drug resistance, we have tended to focus upon it. Similarly, given that around 90% of global mortality from malaria occurs in Africa, there is the tendency to dwell on this continent. We give no apology for placing our emphasis upon the use of antimalarial drugs in endemic populations rather than their use for prophylaxis in travellers.

  12. Light for Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2009-07-01

    With the aid of small island PV systems, a German-based aid foundation is bringing light in the huts of Ethiopia's rural population. The solar energy is also awakening the energy of the people themselves. (orig.)

  13. Ethiopia's New Cybercrime Legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinfe Micheal Yilma

    Ethiopia introduced the first set of cybercrime rules with the enactment of the ... Information Network Security Agency (INSA)– released a draft comprehensive .... attention to the importance of cooperation with law enforcement bodies of other.

  14. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHODS......: A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized...... to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. RESULTS: Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly...

  15. Staging computed tomography in upper GI malignancy. A survey of the 5 cancer networks covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, M.P.; Bailey, D.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify the methods and protocols of staging CT scans performed for upper GI malignancy throughout the region covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire relating to the protocols used in the CT staging of upper GI cancer was circulated to all the Cancer Leads and Clinical Directors of Radiology throughout the network covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service (SWCIS). Information about the type of scanner, the provision of protocols and the staging of oesophageal, gastric and pancreatic carcinoma was obtained. RESULTS: Twenty one of the twenty six departments contacted responded (81%). Ninety percent of departments perform staging CT scans to a departmental protocol but these protocols vary throughout the region. Most centres have multislice CT technology and all use intravenous contrast media administered via a pump. All centres us a portal venous phase to exclude liver metastasis in all cancers. Thirty-eight to forty percent of centres use an arterial phase of enhancement when examining the oesophagus and stomach. Sixty one percent of centres use an arterial phase and seventy percent of centres use a pancreatic phase of enhancement in addition to a portal venous phase when staging pancreatic carcinoma. Addition imaging of the chest to identify disseminated disease is often performed, 100% of centres include the chest when staging oesophageal malignancy, 87% include the chest in gastric staging and 51% include this additional scan when staging pancreatic carcinoma. The staging scans were reported in 80% of centres by radiologists with a sub-speciality interest in GI malignancy. CONCLUSION: Whilst nearly all centres perform staging CT scans for upper GI malignancy to a departmental protocol there is much variability in the protocols used throughout the South West region

  16. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  17. Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Grand-Clement, Emile; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme Smith, D., Grand-Clement, E., Anderson, K., Luscombe, D., G, N., Bratis, Brazier, R.E Peatlands in the South West of the British Isles have been extensively drained for agricultural reclamation and peat cutting. The improvement in food production resulting from this management practice has never clearly been observed. Instead, we are now faced with several detrimental consequences on a whole suite of ecosystem services, such as the delivery of water, water quality, biodiversity and carbon storage. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment. As a result, water companies now need to find appropriate solutions to varying water levels and decreasing water quality through catchment management. The Mires Project, the catchment management programme used by South West Water (SWW) is working with a wide range of stakeholders to restore the hydrological functioning of peatlands, and the ecosystem services they provide. This programme is driven by overarching legal requirements (i.e. the water framework directive, Natura 2000), future climate change predictions, corporate responsibility and commercial needs. Post-restoration scientific monitoring is at the heart of the project improving of our understanding of the eco-hydrological and chemical process driving changes in management practice. The challenges faced from the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders will be explored, focusing on the benefits from stakeholder involvement in catchment management and hydrological research, but also considering the difficulties to be overcome. SWW is working with private land-owners, government agencies, local and national park Authorities, community and single interest groups and research institutions to achieve its

  18. Severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in Cameroon: prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achidi Eric A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the factors that account for differences in clinical outcomes of malaria as well as its relationship with ethnicity, transmission intensity and parasite density. Methods A prospective study was conducted in nine health facilities in the Centre, Littoral and South West regions of Cameroon, and in three ethnic groups; the Bantu, Semi-Bantu and Foulbe. Children aged one month to 13 years, with diagnosis suggestive of malaria, were recruited and characterized using the WHO definition for severe and uncomplicated malaria. Malaria parasitaemia was determined by light microscopy, haematological analysis using an automated haematology analyser and glucose level by colorimetric technique. Results Of the febrile children screened, 971 of the febrile children screened fulfilled the inclusion criteria for specific malaria clinical phenotypes. Forty-nine (9.2% children had cerebral malaria, a feature that was similar across age groups, ethnicity and gender but lower (P P P = 0.009 and Foulbe (P = 0.026 counterparts in the Centre region. The overall study case fatality was 4.8 (47/755, with cerebral malaria being the only significant risk factor associated with death. Severe anaemia, though a common and major clinical presentation, was not significantly associated with risk of death. Conclusion About half of the acutely febrile children presented with severe malaria, the majority being cases of severe malaria anaemia, followed by respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The latter two were less prevalent in the Centre region compared to the other regions. Cerebral malaria and hyperpyrexia were the only significant risk factors associated with death.

  19. Evaluation of climate-induced waterlogging hazards in the south-west coast of Bangladesh using Geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Syed M; Tauhid Ur Rahman, M; Zahedul Islam, A Z M; Baddruzzaman, A B M; Ashraf Ali, M

    2018-03-19

    Climate-induced waterlogging has been significantly affecting the lives and livelihood of people in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh for a couple of decades. The objective of this study is to investigate the waterlogging hazards of Tala, a south-western coastal Upazila of Bangladesh by analyzing satellite image. An empirical model based on velocity of flow, depth of flow, and inundation depth has been proposed to assess waterlogging hazard in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon period. Landsat TM images for the years 1989, 2000, and 2011 were analyzed by using Geoinformatics including GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify the water hazard. Three dominant land use classes such as "water," "vegetation," and "bare lands and others" were selected to identify the land use land cover change. Both FGD (focus group discussions) and KII (key informant interviews) were also accomplished to assess the waterlogging hazard. It was revealed that 0.7% of the study area (246 ha) was under water in 1989, which increased alarmingly to 34% (11,525 ha) in 2011. There was an increase in 62.9% of water bodies during 1989 to 2000, which was further expanded to 77% during 2000 to 2011. Satellite image analysis between 2011 and 2015 also showed that nearly 89% of the waterlogged area including floodplain is inundated by tidal saline water that supports shrimp cultivation. On the contrary, 11% of the waterlogged area was occupied by trapped rain water. Confirmation of saline water and fresh water was done by measuring electrical conductivity and conducting "mouth taste" during field visit. The decreasing rate of "bare lands and others" category indicates that there is around 69.4% of reduction in this category to accommodate the increasing water covering areas. The hazard model shows that the middle part of the Tala along with the flood plain of the Kabodak River usually have to suffer waterlogged in both pre monsoon and post monsoon period. It was found that low

  20. Development, terroir and welfare: a case study of farm-produced foie gras, in south west France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le foie gras et les produits de palmipèdes gavés font partie du patrimoine culinaire et culturel régional de la France et tout particulièrement du Sud Ouest. A ce titre ils sont ce que l’on appelle des produits de terroir. Ce travail, en retraçant le développement récent et l’internationalisation de ces produits avec les problèmes qui les accompagnent, tente de déchiffrer ce que de tels phénomènes signifient pour les producteurs au plan local, dans l’aire délimitée par l’IGP Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. A travers l’exemple d’une famille de producteurs à la ferme, on observera concrètement des points d’articulation entre global et local : comment cohabitent développement économique et protection de savoir-faire traditionnels ; comment des producteurs s’approprient de nouvelles technologies pour améliorer la productivité et les conditions de travail ; comment son réactualisés certains aspects traditionnels et ancestraux; et comment se développent de nouvelles sociabilités.Foie gras and fat duck products are part of the French culinary and cultural heritage, particularly of South West France. As such they belong to the produits de terroir category. Starting by tracing the recent developments and globalisation of such products with subsequent challenges, this paper assumes a local perspective, in the geographical area delimited by the PGI Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. Through the observation of a family of farmers, meeting points between local and global are analyzed, particularly tensions between economic development and the protection of traditional knowledge but also the way contemporary changes promote new sociabilities.

  1. Phleboviruses detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a human leishmaniasis focus in South-West Madrid region, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Jiménez, Maribel; Fortuna, Claudia; Benedetti, Eleonora; Marchi, Antonella; Genovese, Domenico; Gramiccia, Marina; Molina, Ricardo; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-13

    Phlebotomus-borne (PhB-) viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected. Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid, Spain, a sand fly collection was carried out. Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during 2012-2013 summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed. The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of 963 P. perniciosus (202 females). Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus (TOSV) B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus (ARBV), and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus. Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described. The evidence of viral species never identified before in Spain, as ARBV and Arrabida-like virus, and TOSV B genotype focus stability was demonstrated. Environmental aspects

  2. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  3. 2H, 3H and 18O Tracers used for a preliminary study of groundwaters vulnerability to contaminants in the South-West of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Randrianasolo, A.; Randrianarisoa, H.; Mamifarananahary, E.; Ranaivoarisoa, A.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh water access is one of the main issues in the South-West of Madagascar. Most people in this area draw water from surface water which is usually of bad quality and source of stomach diseases. The only reliable water resource is groundwater. However, the latter is more or less vulnerable to geogenic and anthropogenic contaminants. Use of 2 H, 3 H and 18 O environmental tracers has contributed to localize and estimate the active and potential focuses of contamination in shallower and deeper aquifers, within the frame of a preliminary study of ground waters vulnerability to contaminants.

  4. ENSO and interdecadal climate variability over the last century documented by geochemical records of two coral cores from the South West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ourbak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The south west Pacific is affected by climatic phenomena such as ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Near-monthly resolution calibrations of Sr/Ca, U/Ca and δ18Oc were made on corals taken from New Caledonia and Wallis Island. These geochemical variations could be linked to SST (sea surface temperature and SSS (sea surface salinity variations over the last two decades, itselves dependent on ENSO occurrences. On the other hand, near-half-yearly resolution over the last century smoothes seasonal and interannual climate signals, but emphasizes low frequency climate variability.

  5. Kompliceret malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  6. Using Rainfall and Temperature Data in the Evaluation of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Madeleine C; Ukawuba, Israel; Hershey, Christine L; Bennett, Adam; Ceccato, Pietro; Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa

    2017-09-01

    Since 2010, the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership, including National Malaria Control Programs, donor agencies (e.g., President's Malaria Initiative and Global Fund), and other stakeholders have been evaluating the impact of scaling up malaria control interventions on all-cause under-five mortality in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The evaluation framework assesses whether the deployed interventions have had an impact on malaria morbidity and mortality and requires consideration of potential nonintervention influencers of transmission, such as drought/floods or higher temperatures. Herein, we assess the likely effect of climate on the assessment of the impact malaria interventions in 10 priority countries/regions in eastern, western, and southern Africa for the President's Malaria Initiative. We used newly available quality controlled Enhanced National Climate Services rainfall and temperature products as well as global climate products to investigate likely impacts of climate on malaria evaluations and test the assumption that changing the baseline period can significantly impact on the influence of climate in the assessment of interventions. Based on current baseline periods used in national malaria impact assessments, we identify three countries/regions where current evaluations may overestimate the impact of interventions (Tanzania, Zanzibar, Uganda) and three countries where current malaria evaluations may underestimate the impact of interventions (Mali, Senegal and Ethiopia). In four countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Mozambique, and Angola) there was no strong difference in climate suitability for malaria in the pre- and post-intervention period. In part, this may be due to data quality and analysis issues.

  7. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  8. Performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test has shown encouraging results for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the performance of the test could be affected by different factors like gene polymorphisms, excess heat and humidity. Hence, evaluation of the performance of ...

  9. Trend of Malaria Cases in Hana and Keyafer Health Centers, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... 1South Omo Education Office,. Jinka, Ethiopia. 2College of. Natural and. Computational ... the intervention methods and to plan malaria control accordingly. The aim of this ..... differences in climatic, environmental or human behavioral risk ... might be due to giving more priority to small children in the use of ...

  10. Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2011-12-30

    The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical audit and peer review scheme for the South West post-new 2006 dental contract: a report on progress so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Williams, P

    2009-01-10

    With the introduction of personal dental services (PDS) into the South West the Local Assessment Panel (LAP) devised a new scheme consisting of 'cookbook' audits and piloted the scheme amongst the PDS dentists of South and West Devon, Somerset and Avon in 2005/2006. When the new contracting arrangements came into force, and in the absence of guidance from above, the LAP in consultation with the PCTs decided to consolidate the successful pilot audit scheme for PDS dentists and extend the new scheme to all the participating PCTs and their performers. The current scheme covers Devon, Somerset, Avon and Gloucester PCTs and is administrated by Mrs Jackie Derrick on behalf of Somerset PCT. All the audits showed improvement with the exception of the patient satisfaction survey where the first audit cycle showed an average patient satisfaction rating of 99% which cannot be improved on. We have redesigned this audit to try and make it more challenging and informative. The improvement in clinical record keeping was particularly marked. With the advent of new contractual arrangements in April 2009 it is essential that practitioners are able to demonstrate quality assurance in their practice and we believe that the South West scheme is a dentist friendly scheme, relevant to everyday dental practice.

  12. High hepatitis E virus antibody positive rates in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M Y; Gao, H; Yan, X X; Qu, W J; Sun, Y K; Fu, G W; Yan, Y L

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV infection among dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west region of China. A total of 4,490 dog serum samples and 2,206 relative practitioner serum samples were collected from 18 pet hospitals and dog farms in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou province, and the anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the total positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies was 36.55% with the highest rate in city stray dogs, and the differences in distinct species and growth phases were significant. The positive rate of anti-HEV antibody in veterinarian and farm staff-related practitioners was significantly higher than the general population. The finding of the present survey suggested that high HEV seroprevalence in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west area of China poses a significant public health concern. It is urgent to improve integrated strategies to detect, prevent and control HEV infection in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in this area. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  14. Are we seeing the effects of public awareness campaigns? A 10-year analysis of Breslow thickness at presentation of malignant melanoma in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A; Powell, C; Powell, R; Hallam, N; Taylor, J; Bird, J; Sarran, C; Oliver, D

    2014-03-01

    The last 20 years has seen a marked improvement in skin cancer awareness campaigns. We sought to establish whether this has affected the presenting Breslow thickness of malignant melanoma in the South West. This is a retrospective study looking at the first presentation of melanomas from 2003 to 2011. Data was accessed using the local online melanoma database. A total of 2001 new melanomas presented from 2003 to 2012 (Male:Female = 1:1.062). The average yearly number of melanomas was 200.1 (range = 138-312). The mean age was 62.5 years (range 12-99). Data was analysed using a Chi² test. For 0-1 mm melanomas, there is a significant difference in the observed versus expected values over the 10 years (p = 0.0018). There is an increasing proportion of 0-1 mm (thin) melanomas presenting year on year, with a positive linear trend. This is very statistically significant (p 4 mm melanomas (p = 0.1456). The proportion of thin 0-1 mm melanomas presenting in South West England has significantly increased from 2003 to 2012. There is no significant change in the thick >4 mm melanomas. This may be a result of increased public awareness due to effective public health campaigns which has significant prognostic and financial implications. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE WORKFORCE IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION IN COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES SUCH AS E-WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Enăchescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West region covers an area of 29,212 km2, approximately 12.25% of the country (238391 km ² and includes five counties: Dolj, Olt, Valcea, Mehedinti and Gorj. It is bordered by Bulgaria, Serbia and South Muntenia, Central and West. From the total workforce of 828,900 people, 332,300 people are employed in farming, forestry and fishing (40% and only 4500 in the areas of information and communications, respectively in 6600 other activities. The regional unemployment rate was 7.7% in 2011 compared to 7.6% nationally, 7.1% for women respectively 8.3% for men, a level very close to the national average[5][7]. We presented these statistics to highlight the region's potential in the development of e-work activities that would increase employment levels both in urban population and especially in rural areas, low unemployment and thus the local population migration and support sustainable development of the region. This paper aims to analyze the opportunity to develop complementary activities of e-work employment for the South West region.

  16. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete

  17. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  18. Comparing the performance of coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere models at two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, S.; Wöhling, T.; Priesack, E.; Wizemann, H.-D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    of their structural complexity on two winter wheat research fields under different climate in South-West Germany. We investigate the ability of the models to simultaneously fit measured soil water contents, leaf area development and actual evapotranspiration rates from eddy-covariance measurements. The calibration of the models is performed in a multi-criteria context using three objective functions, which describe the discrepancy between measurements and simulations of the three data types. We use the AMALGAM evolutionary search algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most important plant and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show that the trade-off in fitting soil moisture, leaf area development and evapotranspiration can be quite large for those models that represent plant processes by simple concepts. However, these trade-offs are smaller for the more mechanistic plant growth models, so that it can be expected that these optimized mechanistic models will provide the basis for improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere feedback processes.

  19. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000 established a new emphasis for the management of freshwaters by establishing ecologically-based water quality targets that are to be achieved through holistic, catchment-scale, ecosystem management approaches. However, significant knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the cumulative effectiveness of multiple mitigation measures on a number of pollutants at a catchment scale. This research furthers the understanding of the effectiveness of an ecosystem management approach to deliver catchment-scale water quality improvements in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England: the lowland agricultural Aller and the upland semi-natural Horner Water. Characterisation of the spatial variability of soil properties (bulk density, total carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio, stable isotope δ15N, total, organic and inorganic phosphorus) in the two study catchments demonstrated extensive alteration of soil properties in the agricultural catchment, with likely long-term implications for the restoration of ecosystem functioning and water quality management (Glendell et al., 2014b). Further, the agricultural catchment supported a proportionally greater total fluvial carbon (dissolved and particulate) export than the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment (25.5-116.2 t km-2) were higher than from the semi-natural catchment (21.7-57.8 t km-2). In addition, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC (0.51-2.59 kg mm-1) than the semi-natural catchment (0.36-0.97 kg mm-1) and a similar amount of DOC (0.26-0.52 kg mm-1 in the Aller and 0.24-0.32 kg mm-1 in Horner Water), when normalised by catchment area and total discharge, despite the lower total soil carbon pool, thus indicating an enhanced fluvial loss of sediment and carbon (Glendell and Brazier, in review). Whilst

  20. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Glaucoma: Experiences in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, Girum W

    2015-07-01

    The management of refractory glaucoma is a challenging task for any glaucoma surgeon. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in refractory glaucomas in South-West Ethiopia. A retrospective review was conducted on the charts of consecutive patients treated with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation at Jimma University Specialized Hospital between August 2012 and August 2014. Success was defined as Intraocular Pressure (IOP) less than 22 mm Hg and greater than 5mm Hg at 6 months, with at least 30% reduction from baseline, without medical therapy (complete success) or either with or without medication (qualified successes). A total of 12 eyes of 11 patients were included. The mean age of patients was 40.7 (SD= 19.0) years; 63.6% of them were males. The main types of glaucoma were pseudoexfoliative (3 eyes), uveitic (2 eyes), chronic angle closure (2 eyes) and Juvenile Open Angle (JOAG) (2 eyes). The mean IOP was reduced from preoperative level (32.75±7.14 mmHg) to (15.75 ±4.35 mmHg) at six postoperative months, (PAhmed glaucoma valve implant appears to be effective and relatively safe for treating complicated glaucomas with success rate comparable with those reported from other studies. Ahmed glaucoma valve, refractory glaucoma, complications, Ethiopia.

  1. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  2. Food choices in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.

  3. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  4. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  5. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...

  6. Status of coral reefs of Upolu (Independent State of Samoa) in the South West Pacific and recommendations to promote resilience and recovery of coastal ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren; Qué ré , Gaë lle; Ghiglione, Jean-Franç ois; Iwankow, Guillaume; Barbe, Valé rie; Boissin, Emilie; Wincker, Patrick; Planes, Serge; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2018-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems worldwide are immediately threatened by the impacts of climate change. Here we report on the condition of coral reefs over 83 km of coastline at the island of Upolu, Samoa in the remote South West Pacific in 2016 during the Tara Pacific Expedition. Despite the distance to large urban centers, coral cover was extremely low (<1%) at approximately half of the sites and below 10% at 78% of sites. Two reef fish species, Acanthurus triostegus and Zanclus cornutus, were 10% smaller at Upolu than at neighboring islands. Importantly, coral cover was higher within marine protected areas, indicating that local management action remains a useful tool to support the resilience of local reef ecosystems to anthropogenic impacts. This study may be interpreted as cautionary sign for reef ecosystem health in remote locations on this planet, reinforcing the need to immediately reduce anthropogenic impacts on a global scale.

  7. Status of coral reefs of Upolu (Independent State of Samoa) in the South West Pacific and recommendations to promote resilience and recovery of coastal ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2018-03-23

    Coral reef ecosystems worldwide are immediately threatened by the impacts of climate change. Here we report on the condition of coral reefs over 83 km of coastline at the island of Upolu, Samoa in the remote South West Pacific in 2016 during the Tara Pacific Expedition. Despite the distance to large urban centers, coral cover was extremely low (<1%) at approximately half of the sites and below 10% at 78% of sites. Two reef fish species, Acanthurus triostegus and Zanclus cornutus, were 10% smaller at Upolu than at neighboring islands. Importantly, coral cover was higher within marine protected areas, indicating that local management action remains a useful tool to support the resilience of local reef ecosystems to anthropogenic impacts. This study may be interpreted as cautionary sign for reef ecosystem health in remote locations on this planet, reinforcing the need to immediately reduce anthropogenic impacts on a global scale.

  8. Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

    2012-08-01

    Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 2·2 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. The Tectonic Boundary Between Eastern Subbaisin and South-West Subbasin of the South China Sea Revealed from the Normalized Magnetic Source Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Meng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), surrounded by the Eurasia, Pacific and India-Australia plates, is one of the largest marginal seas in the Western Pacific. It was formed by the interaction of the three plates and the seafloor spreading during Late Oligocene time to Early Miocene time. The boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin of the SCS has long been debated in the literature. Refining the boundary is one of the crucial tasks for correctly understanding the seafloor spreading model of the SCS. Due to few drills on the deep ocean basin of the SCS, magnetic data become important information for refining the boundary. However, the interpretation of magnetic data in the SCS suffers from the remanent magnetization of ocean crust as well as igneous rock and seamounts. The conventional reduction-to-pole anomalies at low latitudes usually neglect the remanent magnetization, making the interpretation incorrect. Here, we assembled high-resolution total magnetic intensity (TMI) data around the ocean basin of the SCS, and then did a special transformation of the TMI anomalies with a varying magnetic inclinations algorithm to obtain the normalized source strength (NSS). The NSS has advantage of insensitivity to remanent magnetization, benefitting correct interpretation. The NSS presents discriminative features from east to west in the ocean basin. The boundary of the discriminative features is clear and just ranges from the northeastern edge of the Zhongsha Islands running in the southeast direction to the northeastern edge of the Reed Bank. These imply that magnetic structure and tectonic features in the crust are discriminative between both sides of this boundary. It can be deduced that this boundary is the tectonic boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41374093) and the SinoProbe-01-05 project.

  10. Assessment of Information and Communication Technology for Selective Dissemination of Information and Current Awareness Services: A Case Study of University Libraries in the South-West Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturday U. Omeluzor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To assess the use of information and communication technology (ICT for selective dissemination of information (SDI and current awareness services (CAS in university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria. Methods – A descriptive research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to a population consisting of 379 librarians, with 353 usable questionnaires retrieved. Results – Findings revealed that most university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria do not use ICT in delivery of SDI and CAS. It is evident in this study that despite the known positive effects of ICT in library services, traditional methods were predominantly used for SDI and CAS to the library users. The study revealed that erratic Internet services, insufficient training, inadequate ICT skills, and low support for ICT were hindrances towards ICT use for SDI and CAS. Conclusions – The integration of ICT features in library services for the delivery of CAS and SDI has been a challenge in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. Only a few libraries and a low percentage of librarians had adopted the use of ICT in the delivery of CAS and SDI, while a larger number of libraries resorted to the use of traditional methods. The level of ICT literacy among the librarians in this study is low, as a higher percentage of librarians did not have adequate ICT skill to use available online resources on the Internet and other ICT tools to deliver SDI and CAS in South-West, Nigeria. This is not unconnected to the fact that the training and technical support received by the librarians is inadequate, and the level of support that academic libraries received from their university managements in South-West Nigeria in terms of funding for ICT development is inadequate, which led to low Internet services.

  11. Spatio-temporal variability and trends of precipitation and extreme rainfall events in Ethiopia in 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadi, Sridhar; Rao, K. P. C.; Seid, Jemal; Legesse, Gizachew; Kadiyala, M. D. M.; Takele, Robel; Amede, Tilahun; Whitbread, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    -eastern parts of Ethiopia extending to the south-west covering Somali and Oromia regions. Similar trends are also observed in the greatest 3-, 5- and 10-day rainfall amounts. Changes in the consecutive dry and wet days showed that consecutive wet days during Belg and Kiremt seasons decreased significantly in many areas in Ethiopia while consecutive dry days increased. The consistency in the trends over large spatial areas confirms the robustness of the trends and serves as a basis for understanding the projected changes in the climate. These results were discussed in relation to their significance to agriculture.

  12. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  13. Made in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staritz, Cornelia; Whitfield, Lindsay

    exporting apparel, which makes Ethiopia distinct from most other Sub-Saharan African apparel exporter countries. Ethiopian-owned apparel firms exhibit diverse ownership patterns, including state-owned, party-owned, and private sector-owned firms. The first phase of industrial policy particularly focused...... of the emergence and evolution of the apparel export sector in Ethiopia. It argues that the EPRDF government’s pro-active industrial policy played an important role in the development of the sector. While foreign firms are an important driver behind the growth of apparel exports, there are also locally owned firms...... on exports, the EPRDF government simultaneously has pursued import-substitution policies in the textile and apparel sector, which has helped the development of locally owned apparel firms by subsidizing the cost of learning to export as well as building a national supply chain from cotton to textile...

  14. Decentralization in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Mulugeta Debebbe

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia officially launched the District Level Decentralization Program (DLDP) by the year 2002. The program flagged core objectives such as institutionalizing viable development centers at local levels, deepening devolution of power, enhancing the democratization process through broad-based participatory strategy, promoting good governance and improving service delivery. Since the inception of this program two strategic planning terms (one strategic term is five years) have already elapsed ...

  15. Policy Brief for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agaje Tadele F.; Tarfasa Solomon; Kebede Shiferaw

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Government of Ethiopia introduced an agriculture based development strategy known as Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI). The basis for adoption of this strategy is the conviction in strategic importance and centrality of the agricultural sector for the overall economy and the advantage in using the abundant resources of land and labour while progressively increasing capital share in the resource endowment.

  16. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  17. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria.A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity.The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for

  18. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  19. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria and Travelers for U.S. Residents Recommend on Facebook ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  20. STATUS HEMATOLOGI PENDERITA MALARIA SEREBRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria

  1. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh

    2014-10-01

    Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.

  2. Evolution of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonian coral lagoon (South West Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, M.; Marie, L.; Röttgers, R.; Rodier, M.; Van Wambeke, F.; Helias, S.; Caffin, M.; Cornet-Barthaux, V.; Dupouy, C.

    2015-10-01

    In the framework of the VAHINE project, we investigated the spectral characteristics and the variability of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials throughout a 23 day mesocosm experiment conducted in the South West Pacific at the exit of the New Caledonian coral lagoon (22°29.073 S-166°26.905 E) from 13 January to 4 February 2013. Samples were collected in a mesocosm fertilized with phosphorus at 1, 6 and 12 m depth and in the surrounding waters. Light absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (ag(λ)), particulate matter (ap(λ)) and CDOM + particulate matter (ag+p(λ)) were measured using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM), while fluorescent DOM (FDOM) components were determined from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The evolutions of ag(λ), ap(λ) and ag+p(λ) in the mesocosm were similar to those of total chlorophyll a concentration, Synechococcus spp. and picoeukaryote abundances, bacterial production, particulate organic nitrogen and total organic carbon concentrations, with roughly a decrease from the beginning of the experiment to days 9-10, and an increase from days 9-10 to the end of the experiment. In the surrounding waters, the same trend was observed but the increase was much less pronounced, emphasizing the effect of the phosphorus fertilization on the mesocosm's plankton community. Correlations suggested that both Synechococcus cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were strongly involved in the production of CDOM and absorption of particulate matter. The increase in phytoplankton activities during the second part of the experiment led to a higher contribution of particulate material in the absorption budget at 442 nm. The three FDOM components identified (tryptophan-, tyrosine- and UVC humic-like fluorophores) did not follow the evolution of CDOM and particulate matter, proving that these were driven by different production

  3. Management of advanced ovarian cancer in South West Wales - a comparison between primary debulking surgery and primary chemotherapy treatment strategies in an unselected, consecutive patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, F; Bertelli, G; Lutchman-Singh, K

    2017-08-01

    This study represents the first reported outcomes for patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) in South-West Wales undergoing treatment with primary debulking surgery or primary chemotherapy respectively. This is a retrospective study of consecutive, unselected patients with advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer (FIGO III/IV) presenting to a regional cancer centre between October 2007 and October 2014. Patients were identified from Welsh Cancer Services records and relevant data was extracted from electronic National Health Service (NHS) databases. Main outcome measures were median overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and perioperative adverse events. Hazard ratio estimation was carried out with Cox Regression analysis and survival determined by Kaplan-Meier plots. Of 220 women with AOC, 32.3% underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) and 67.7% primary chemotherapy and interval debulking (PCT-IDS). Patients were often elderly (median age 67 years) with a poor performance status (26.5% PS >1). Complete cytoreduction (0cm residual) was achieved in 32.4% of patients in the PDS group and in 50.0% of patients undergoing IDS. Median OS for all patients was 21.9 months (PDS: 27.0 and PCT-IDS: 19.2 months; p >0.05) and median PFS was 13.1 months (PDS: 14.3 months and PCT-IDS: 13.0 months; p >0.05). Median overall and progression free survival for patients achieving complete cytoreduction were 48.0 and 23.2 months respectively in the PDS group and 35.4 months and 18.6 months in the IDS group (p >0.05). This retrospective study of an unselected, consecutive cohort of women with AOC in South West Wales shows comparable survival outcomes with recently published trials, despite the relatively advanced age and poor performance status of our patient cohort. Over the seven-year study period, our data also demonstrated a non-significant trend towards improved survival following primary surgery in patients who achieved maximal

  4. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  5. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  6. Malaria in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  8. Analysis of land degradation processes on a tiger bush plateau in South West Niger using MODIS and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Edoardo; Maselli, Fabio; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing digital image analysis has been applied to monitor land clearing and degradation processes on a plateau covered by tiger bush near Niamey in South West Niger, where signs of severe landscape degradation due to fuelwood supply have been observed in the last decades. A MODIS NDVI dataset (2000-2015) and five LANDSAT images (1986-2012) were used to identify spatial and temporal dynamics and to emphasize areas of greater degradation. The study indicates that the land clearing found by previous investigations in the second part of the 20th century is still ongoing, with a decreasing trend of MODIS NDVI values recorded in the period 2000-2015. This trend appeared to be linked to an increase in bare soil areas that was demonstrated by analysis of LANDSAT SAVI images. The investigation also indicated that rates of degradation are stronger in more deteriorated areas like those located nearer Niamey; degradation patterns also tend to increase from the inner areas to the edges of the plateau. These results attest to the urgency to develop effective environmental preservation policies and find alternative solutions for domestic energy supply.

  9. Applying the change vector analysis technique to assess the desertification risk in the south-west of Romania in the period 1984-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2017-09-26

    The desertification risk affects around 40% of the agricultural land in various regions of Romania. The purpose of this study is to analyse the risk of desertification in the south-west of Romania in the period 1984-2011 using the change vector analysis (CVA) technique and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) satellite images. CVA was applied to combinations of normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI)-albedo, NDVI-bare soil index (BI) and tasselled cap greenness (TCG)-tasselled cap brightness (TCB). The combination NDVI-albedo proved to be the best in assessing the desertification risk, with an overall accuracy of 87.67%, identifying a desertification risk on 25.16% of the studied period. The classification of the maps was performed for the following classes: desertification risk, re-growing and persistence. Four degrees of desertification risk and re-growing were used: low, medium, high and extreme. Using the combination NDVI-albedo, 0.53% of the analysed surface was assessed as having an extreme degree of desertification risk, 3.93% a high degree, 8.72% a medium degree and 11.98% a low degree. The driving forces behind the risk of desertification are both anthropogenic and climatic causes. The anthropogenic causes include the destruction of the irrigation system, deforestation, the destruction of the forest shelterbelts, the fragmentation of agricultural land and its inefficient management. Climatic causes refer to increase of temperatures, frequent and prolonged droughts and decline of the amount of precipitation.

  10. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  11. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  12. Hydrochemistry and origin of principal major elements in the groundwater of the Béchar–Kénadsa basin in arid zone, South-West of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachache Salih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Béchar region is located in the southwest of Algeria, characterized by an arid climate with a Saharan tendency. It is subject to an increasing demand for water like all the great agglomerations due to the economic and demographic development. The groundwater of region is deteriorating because of the economic development, and the rapid growth of population. This article is devoted to the study of hydrochemistry and processes of mineralization of groundwater in this region. The results of physicochemicals analyses shows the same chemical facies of the chloride and sulphate-calcium and magnesium type, with high mineralization from North-East to South-West to the outlet of Béchar–Kénadsa basin. The determination of the mineralization origin and the main major elements were approached by multivariate statistical treatment and geochemical. This method has identified the main chemical phenomena involved in the acquisition of mineralization of water in this aquifer. These phenomena are mainly related to the dissolution of evaporite formations, the infiltration of runoff water and direct ion exchange and mixing. However, the high mineralization anomaly is observed at the centre of Béchar–Kénadsa basin progressively by going to the outlet of this basin.

  13. Increased aeolian activity during humidity shifts as recorded in a raised bog in south-west Sweden during the past 1700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Jong

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of testate amoebae and aeolian sediment influx (ASI were used to reconstruct effective humidity changes and aeolian activity in the coastal zone of south-west Sweden. Cores were taken from an ombrotrophic peat sequence from the Undarsmosse bog. Since both types of analysis were carried out on the same core, a direct comparison between humidity fluctuations in the bog and aeolian activity was possible, potentially providing detailed information on atmospheric circulation changes in this region. Relatively wet bog surface conditions occurred from around 1500 to 1230 and 770 to 380 cal. yrs BP, whereas dry conditions dominated from ca. 1630 to 1530, 1160 to 830 and 300 to 50 cal. yrs BP. The transitions between these phases occurred within 60–100 years and are characterised by a major change in the testate amoebae assemblages. A watertable reconstruction was used to study the hydrological changes at the bog surface in more detail. ASI peak events were reconstructed around 1450, 1150, 850 and after 370 cal. yrs BP. Most interestingly, these aeolian activity peaks started during the recorded hydrological transitions, regardless of the direction of these shifts. Our results therefore suggest that humidity shifts in this region were associated with temporary intensifications of atmospheric circulation during the past 1700 years. Several ASI peaks apparently coincide with reduced solar activity, possibly suggesting a solar related cause for some of the observed events.

  14. Life-history variability of non-native centrarchids in regulated river systems of the lower River Guadiana drainage (south-west Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2010-02-01

    Life-history variability of two non-native centrarchids, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, was evaluated in three stream stretches of the lower River Guadiana drainage (south-west Iberian Peninsula) with different degrees of regulated flows. Abundance, condition and population structure differed among populations for both species, but invasion success was lower in the least regulated river. Lepomis gibbosus were abundant and had multiple age classes in the three river sites, whereas M. salmoides were less abundant and mainly represented by young-of-the-year fish. Juvenile growth in L. gibbosus was similar in all three populations, though longevity was slightly greater in the population from the River Guadiana mainstream. Lepomis gibbosus exhibited a long reproductive season, but the duration of season, size at maturity and reproductive effort varied among populations. The life-history differences found demonstrate the importance of species adaptation to local conditions which might favour their invasion success. Lepomis gibbosus were more adaptable and resilient to local conditions, whereas M. salmoides seemed dependent on reservoirs and large rivers for maintenance of riverine populations.

  15. The Summers 2003 and 2015 in South-West Germany: Heat Waves and Heat-Related Mortality in the Context of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, another hot summer took place in Western and Central Europe in 2015. In this study, we compare the characteristics of the two major heat waves of these two summers and their effect on the heat related mortality. The analysis is performed with focus on South-West Germany (Baden–Württemberg. With an additional mean summer mortality of +7.9% (2003 and +5.8% (2015 both years mark the top-two records of the summer mortality in the period 1968–2015. In each summer, one major heat wave contributed strongly to the excess summer mortality: In August 2003, daily mortality reached anomalies of +70% and in July 2015 maximum deviations of +56% were observed. The August 2003 heat wave was very long-lasting and characterized by exceptional high maximum and minimum temperatures. In July 2015, temperatures were slightly lower than in 2003, however, the high air humidity during the day and night, lead to comparable heat loads. Furthermore, the heat wave occurred earlier during the summer, when the population was less acclimated to heat stress. Using regional climate models we project an increasing probability for future 2003- and 2015-like heat waves already in the near future (2021–2050, with a 2015-like event occurring about every second summer. In the far future (2070–2099 pronounced increases with more than two 2015-like heat waves per summer are possible.

  16. Defining biological assemblages (biotopes) of conservation interest in the submarine canyons of the South West Approaches (offshore United Kingdom) for use in marine habitat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jaime S.; Howell, Kerry L.; Stewart, Heather A.; Guinan, Janine; Golding, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the upper part of a submarine canyon system located in water depths between 138 and 1165 m in the South West (SW) Approaches (North East Atlantic Ocean) was surveyed over a 2 week period. High-resolution multibeam echosounder data covering 1106 km2, and 44 ground-truthing video and image transects were acquired to characterise the biological assemblages of the canyons. The SW Approaches is an area of complex terrain, and intensive ground-truthing revealed the canyons to be dominated by soft sediment assemblages. A combination of multivariate analysis of seabed photographs (184-1059 m) and visual assessment of video ground-truthing identified 12 megabenthic assemblages (biotopes) at an appropriate scale to act as mapping units. Of these biotopes, 5 adhered to current definitions of habitats of conservation concern, 4 of which were classed as Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Some of the biotopes correspond to descriptions of communities from other megahabitat features (for example the continental shelf and seamounts), although it appears that the canyons host modified versions, possibly due to the inferred high rates of sedimentation in the canyons. Other biotopes described appear to be unique to canyon features, particularly the sea pen biotope consisting of Kophobelemnon stelliferum and cerianthids.

  17. Malaria Epidemics in Dembia, Northwest Ethiopia 1952 – 1953

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    result, dead bodies were reportedly devoured by dogs and wild animals. That was particularly the case when domestic servants died. They were left in the open field to be eaten by vultures, dogs, and hyenas. Some of the lucky ones were .... had fever and enormous swelling of the spleen and nearly all of them had serious ...

  18. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  19. ---Stock Market Devpt in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jetu_E_Ch

    The term stock can be defined as “the capital or principal fund raised by a corporation .... 20 Tiruneh Legesse (2012), “Establishing Financial Markets in Ethiopia: the .... improve accounting and auditing standards, provide effective tools for.

  20. Building emergency medicine in Ethiopia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Ethiopia faces a critical gap in emergency medical care. ... Dr Biruk Germa, Senior Emergency Medicine Resident at Addis Ababa University, also ... The issue Inaccessibility to veterinary services in Ethiopia's livestock sector.

  1. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  2. MALARIA AMONG CHILDREN (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant woman. In past few years, Ethiopia introduced different strategies to control and prevent mularia. .... Jaundice: yellowish discoloration of the sclera and. Specialized .... patients with fever and lor entire communities without. This study ...

  3. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löscher Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assessed. Results P. falciparum and P. vivax were observed in 69% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Pfdhfr triple mutations and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutations occurred in 87% and 86% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was seen in all and pfmdr1 Y86 in 81% of P. falciparum. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations N117 and R58 were present in 94% and 74%, respectively. Conclusion These data point to an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia, and strongly support that both SP and CQ are inadequate drugs for this region.

  4. Congenital malaria in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%, reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients

  5. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethiopia overhauled its arbitration laws with the enactment of the Civil Code and .... 2 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial ...... investment agreement between Ethiopia and Great Britain and Northern Ireland under Article 8, Ethiopia and.

  6. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  7. Astronomy in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Legesse W.

    2002-02-01

    There is a recent history of astronomical observations and space-related activities in Ethiopia, even though much of it is now abandoned. However, the proximity of the country to the equator, its extensive high plateaux which rise over 4,600 meters above sea level, as well as the dry weather conditions persistent in most of the regions in the country, make it one of the very few places in the world which can provide optimum sites for high-quality astronomical observations. Currently, an effort is being made to initiate basic space science education and research in the country. This is an effort of the Working Group in Space Sciences in Africa supported by the UNESCO Pilot African Academic Exchange (UPAAE) program, which pays the expenses for the training of academics at the facilities of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in Cape Town, South Africa.

  8. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg -1 of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg -1 of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site

  9. Results of a paleomagnetic survey undertaken in the Damara mobile belt, South West Africa, with special reference to the magnetisation of the uraniferous pegmatitic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Henthorn, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    A project study, undertaken by the Geology Division of the AEB, on the correlation between airborne magnetic and radiometric data covering a portion of the Damara Mobile Belt in South West Africa, has revealed that all the known occurrences of uranium in late- to post-tectonic leucogranite (alaskite) of the Damara orogeny are associated with negative geomagnetic anomalies. Although the uranium occurrences themselves do not display marked geomagnetic anomalies, their immediate geological environment is characterised by the negative anomalies, which are semi-regional in extent. To investigate the origin of these anomalies, the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa undertook a palaeomagnetic study of the area. Oriented cores were taken from 31 sites in the mobile belt, 18 of which were selected within the negative magnetic zones, mostly in close association with known uraniferous alaskitic granites. Palaeomagnetic evidence suggests that the negative geomagnetic anomalies are associated with a remanent magnetisation, resulting from the Damara orogenic event, whose direction is removed from the earth's present field and which has affected rocks of the Nosib Group. Absence of this stable remanent direction in rocks stratigraphically overlying the Nosib Group accounts for the distinctive geomagnetic signature, in the form of negative anomalies, of the Nosib Group. It is this signature which can be used in airborne surveys to identify rocks of the Nosib Group outcropping, or of shallow suboutcrop, in anticlinal or dome-like structures. Since the uraniferous alaskites are mostly confined stratigraphically to the Nosib Group, the negative geomagnetic anomalies form an important prospecting criterion as they may be used to delineate target areas for further exploration in areas covered by sand, scree and duricrust deposits [af

  10. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  11. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  12. Personal birth preferences and actual mode of delivery outcomes of obstetricians and gynaecologists in South West England; with comparison to regional and national birth statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightly, Katie; Shaw, Elisabeth; Dailami, Narges; Bisson, Dina

    2014-10-01

    To determine personal birth preferences of obstetricians in various clinical scenarios, in particular elective caesarean section for maternal request. To determine actual rates of modes of deliveries amongst the same group. To compare the obstetrician's mode of delivery rates, to the general population. Following ethical approval, a piloted online survey link was sent via email to 242 current obstetricians and gynaecologists, (consultants and trainees) in South West England. Mode of delivery results were compared to regional and national population data, using Hospital Episode Statistics and subjected to statistical analysis. The response rate was 68%. 90% would hypothetically plan a vaginal delivery, 10% would consider a caesarean section in an otherwise uncomplicated primiparous pregnancy. Of the 94/165 (60%) respondents with children (201 children), mode of delivery for the first born child; normal vaginal delivery 48%, caesarean section 26.5% (elective 8.5%, emergency 18%), instrumental 24.5% and vaginal breech 1%. Only one chose an elective caesarean for maternal request. During 2006-2011 obstetricians have the same overall actual modes of birth as the population (p=0.9). Ten percent of obstetricians report they would consider requesting caesarean section for themselves/their partner, which is the lowest rate reported within UK studies. However only 1% actually had a caesarean solely for maternal choice. When compared to regional/national statistics obstetricians currently have modes of delivery that are not significantly different than the population and suggests that they choose non interventional delivery if possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni Bashiru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : ABO incompatibility in maternal-fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB; a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs : A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods : ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb′s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions : Thirty-eight percent (50 mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80 mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%; A (30%; B (20%; and AB (5%. Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due

  14. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  15. Why do GPs leave direct patient care and what might help to retain them? A qualitative study of GPs in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Anna; Terry, Rohini; Fletcher, Emily; Salisbury, Chris; Long, Linda; Richards, Suzanne H; Aylward, Alex; Welsman, Jo; Sims, Laura; Campbell, John L; Dean, Sarah G

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify factors influencing general practitioners’ (GPs’) decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role. Design Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care. Setting South West England, UK. Participants 41 GPs: 7 retired; 8 intending to take early retirement; 11 who were on or intending to take a career break; 9 aged under 50 years who had left or were intending to leave direct patient care and 6 who were not intending to leave or to take a career break. Plus 19 stakeholders from a range of primary care-related professional organisations and roles. Results Reasons for leaving direct patient care were complex and based on a range of job-related and individual factors. Three key themes underpinned the interviewed GPs’ thinking and rationale: issues relating to their personal and professional identity and the perceived value of general practice-based care within the healthcare system; concerns regarding fear and risk, for example, in respect of medical litigation and managing administrative challenges within the context of increasingly complex care pathways and environments; and issues around choice and volition in respect of personal social, financial, domestic and professional considerations. These themes provide increased understanding of the lived experiences of working in today’s National Health Service for this group of GPs. Conclusion Future policies and strategies aimed at retaining GPs in direct patient care should clarify the role and expectations of general practice and align with GPs’ perception of their own roles and identity; demonstrate to GPs that they are valued and listened to in planning delivery of the UK healthcare; target GPs’ concerns regarding fear and risk, seeking to reduce these to manageable levels and give GPs viable options to support

  16. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointurier, F. E-mail: fabien.pointurier@cea.fr; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg{sup -1} of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg{sup -1} of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site.

  17. Impact of nutritional education on nutritional status of under-five children in two rural communities of south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, S S; Onayade, A A; Abiona, T C; Fatusi, A O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Esimai, O A; Ijadunola, K T

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of nutritional education on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers concerning infants and young children feeding and their children's nutritional status in two semi-urban communities of south-west Nigeria. This is a community intervention study. We recruited 150 mothers of children aged 0-18 months independently from the intervention and control communities through a multi-stage sampling technique. We collected data with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at six months after intervention from both communities to obtain information on feeding of infants and young children. In addition, we measured weights and heights of recruited children. Intervention involved group counselling of mothers and food demonstrations at designated health facilities. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using Epi-Info software, and for qualitative data, content analysis of major themes was used. Before intervention, recruited mothers and their children from the two communities were comparable in terms of all the parameters assessed (P>0.05 in all cases). After six months of intervention, mothers who had nutritional education demonstrated better knowledge and attitudes to key infant and young children feeding recommendations. There was also limited improvement in feeding practices. Mothers from the intervention community exclusively breastfed their infants longer with mean age at introduction of complementary foods at 5.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the control community (Pchildren longer (Pchildren. In this study, nutritional education of mothers only had positive impact on their level of KAP on infant and young children feeding.

  18. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  19. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from SouthWest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olumuyiwa Samuel; Mendonça, Nuno; Adeleke, Olufemi Ezekiel; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis . A total of 108 P. mirabilis strains collected from five tertiary hospitals in SouthWest Nigeria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced. Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from 0-12 years old children. PCR analysis revealed the presence of aac(6')-Ib (33.3%), plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA (36.7%), acc(6')-Ib-cr (5%)], TEM (48.3%), CTX-M (6.7%) and integrons class 1 (58.3%) and class 2 (26.7%). Sequencing analysis revealed bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 associated with IS Ecp1 and eight different arrays of gene cassettes: aadA1, aadA1-qacH, aadB-aadA2, aadA5, dfrA7, dfrA15, dfrA17, dfrA17-aadA5 . Transferable resistance genes in association with MGEs are present in Nigerian P. mirabilis thus their potential in disseminating resistance.

  20. Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies.  Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...

  1. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  2. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...

  3. Air–sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l., each from a different period during 2014–2015. At sampling heights  ≥  18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤  ±20 % in the mean agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air–sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air–sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m−2 d−1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l. than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m−2 d−1, consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater. Finally, we found the detection limit of the air–sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m−2 d−1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m−2 d−1 over 24 h.

  4. Why do GPs leave direct patient care and what might help to retain them? A qualitative study of GPs in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Anna; Terry, Rohini; Fletcher, Emily; Salisbury, Chris; Long, Linda; Richards, Suzanne H; Aylward, Alex; Welsman, Jo; Sims, Laura; Campbell, John L; Dean, Sarah G

    2018-01-10

    To identify factors influencing general practitioners' (GPs') decisions about whether or not to remain in direct patient care in general practice and what might help to retain them in that role. Qualitative, in-depth, individual interviews exploring factors related to GPs leaving, remaining in and returning to direct patient care. South West England, UK. 41 GPs: 7 retired; 8 intending to take early retirement; 11 who were on or intending to take a career break; 9 aged under 50 years who had left or were intending to leave direct patient care and 6 who were not intending to leave or to take a career break. Plus 19 stakeholders from a range of primary care-related professional organisations and roles. Reasons for leaving direct patient care were complex and based on a range of job-related and individual factors. Three key themes underpinned the interviewed GPs' thinking and rationale: issues relating to their personal and professional identity and the perceived value of general practice-based care within the healthcare system; concerns regarding fear and risk, for example, in respect of medical litigation and managing administrative challenges within the context of increasingly complex care pathways and environments; and issues around choice and volition in respect of personal social, financial, domestic and professional considerations. These themes provide increased understanding of the lived experiences of working in today's National Health Service for this group of GPs. Future policies and strategies aimed at retaining GPs in direct patient care should clarify the role and expectations of general practice and align with GPs' perception of their own roles and identity; demonstrate to GPs that they are valued and listened to in planning delivery of the UK healthcare; target GPs' concerns regarding fear and risk, seeking to reduce these to manageable levels and give GPs viable options to support them to remain in direct patient care. © Article author(s) (or their

  5. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  6. Which cause of diffuse peritonitis is the deadliest in the tropics? A retrospective analysis of 305 cases from the South-West Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Fon, Tabe Alain; Ngowe-Ngowe, Marcelin

    2016-01-01

    Acute diffuse peritonitis is a common surgical emergency worldwide and a major contributor to non-trauma related death toll. Its causes vary widely and are correlated with mortality. Community acquired peritonitis seems to play a major role and is frequently related to hollow viscus perforation. Data on the outcome of peritonitis in the tropics are scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of tropic latitude causes of diffuse peritonitis on morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 305 patients operated on for a diffuse peritonitis in two regional hospitals in the South-West Region of Cameroon over a 7 years period. The contributions of various causes of peritonitis to morbidity and mortality were analyzed. The diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis was suggested on clinical ground only in more than 93 % of cases. The most common causes of diffuse peritonitis included peptic ulcer perforation (n = 69), complications of acute appendicitis (n = 53) and spontaneous perforations of the terminal ileum (n = 43). A total of 142 complications were recorded in 96 patients (31.5 % complication rate). The most common complications included wound dehiscence, sepsis, prolonged paralytic ileus and multi-organ failure. Patients with typhoid perforation of the terminal ileum carried a significantly higher risk of developing a complication (p = 0.002). The overall mortality rate was 15.1 %. The most common cause of death was septic shock. Differential analysis of mortality of various causes of peritonitis indicated that the highest contributors to death toll were typhoid perforation of terminal ileum (34.7 % of deaths), post-operative peritonitis (19.5 %) and peptic ulcer perforation (15.2 %). The diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis can still rely on clinical assessment alone in the absence of sophisticated imaging tools. Peptic ulcer and typhoid perforations are still major contributors to death toll. Patients presenting with

  7. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  8. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Elkhiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain. Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems of the Atlantic coast with a Mediterranean climate. They have a common palaeoenvironmental history that is largely responsible for their similar hydrology and water composition. Oceanic influence has probably produced a slight disproportion of Mg2+ over Ca2+ through airborne sea salt deposition and the surface evaporation of groundwater feeding these wetlands during annual flood and drought cycles. The wide spectrum of environmental conditions encountered in the Doñana wetlands is epitomised by the Merja Sidi Boughaba, where water and sediment gradually change in the same water body from north to south: from humic-coloured waters and a sandy substrate to a calcium-rich substrate with turbid and silted waters which eventually dry out. As a consequence, the community of submersed macrophytes is very rich and dominated by dense charophyte beds. The high primary production coupled with high biodiversity found in the Merja Sidi Boughaba is also shared by the Doñana wetlands. The high conservation status of both sites enables a useful comparison to be made of the water quality of shallow aquatic systems at a regional scale which, contrary to the trophic classifications developed for deep stratified lakes in temperate regions, is not based on regressions between the concentrations of chlorophyll and total phosphorus (Tot-P but on the proportions of dissolved and particulate P pools. In these Mediterranean sites, nutrients are more efficiently recycled through the

  9. Mapping of coastal landforms and volumetric change analysis in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal landforms along the south west coast of Kanyakumari have undergone remarkable change in terms of shape and disposition due to both natural and anthropogenic interference. An attempt is made here to map the coastal landforms along the coast using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Spatial data sources, such as, topographical map published by Survey of India, Landsat ETM+ (30 m image, IKONOS image (0.82 m, SRTM and ASTER DEM datasets have been comprehensively analyzed for extracting coastal landforms. Change detection methods, such as, (i topographical change detection, (ii cross-shore profile analysis, (iii Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD using DEM of Difference (DoD were adopted for assessment of volumetric changes of coastal landforms for the period between 2000 and 2011. The GCD analysis uses ASTER and SRTM DEM datasets by resampling them into common scale (pixel size using pixel-by-pixel based Wavelet Transform and Pan-Sharpening techniques in ERDAS Imagine software. Volumetric changes of coastal landforms were validated with data derived from GPS-based field survey. Coastal landform units were mapped based on process of their evolution such as beach landforms including sandy beach, cusp, berm, scarp, beach terrace, upland, rockyshore, cliffs, wave-cut notches and wave-cut platforms; and the fluvial landforms. Comprising of alluvial plain, flood plains, and other shallow marshes in estuaries. The topographical change analysis reveals that the beach landforms have reduced their elevation ranging from 1 to 3 m probably due to sediment removal or flattening. Analysis of cross-shore profiles for twelve locations indicate varying degrees of loss or gain of coastal landforms. For example, the K3-K3′ profile across the Kovalam coast has shown significant erosion (−0.26 to −0.76 m of the sandy beaches resulting in the formation of beach cusps and beach scarps within a distance of 300 m from the shoreline. The volumetric change

  10. The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J.; Brouwer, J.; Barker, A. P.; Gaze, S. R.; Valentine, C.

    1997-11-01

    The surface hydrology of a semi-arid area of patterned vegetation in south-west Niger is described. In this region alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours of a gently sloping terrain give rise to a phenomenon known as `brousse tigrée' (tiger bush). At the selected study site the vegetation bands are 10-30 m wide, separated by 50-100-m-wide bands of bare ground. Five species of shrub dominate, Guiera senegalensis, Combretum micranthum, C. nigricans, Acacia ataxacantha and A. macrostachya. Herbaceous vegetation is generally limited to the upslope edges of vegetation bands. A comprehensive field programme was undertaken to investigate the hydrology. Topographic, vegetation and surface feature surveys were carried out in conjunction with the measurement of rainfall, surface and subsurface hydraulic conductivity, particle size and soil moisture content. Four types of vegetation class are recognised, each tending to occupy a constant position relative to the others and to the regional slope. In a downslope direction the classes are: bare ground, grassy open bush, closed bush, bare open bush, bare ground etc. The nature of the ground surface is closely linked to the vegetation class. Over the bare, bare open and grassy open classes various types of surface crust are present with each type of crust tending to occupy a constant position on the regional slope relative to the vegetation class and other crust types. Below closed bush crusts are generally absent. The typical downslope sequence from the downslope boundary of a vegetation band is: structural (sieving) crust→erosion crust→(gravel crust)→sedimentation crust→microphytic sedimentation crust→no crust→sieving crust, etc. It is also shown that these crust types are dynamic and evolve from one to the other as hydrological conditions change. Hydraulic conductivities of surface crusts are low, typically falling within the range 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1. The presence of large

  11. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  12. Community knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon: The case of Ekondotiti and Mbonge health districts in the South-west Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Njih, Irine Ngani-Nformi; Pluschke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional community survey of 233 respondents aged 15–75 years, free from leprosy, and living in two rural health districts of the South-west Region of Cameroon. A questionnaire designed to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about leprosy was used. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of negative attitudes. Results About 82% of respondents had heard about, and 64.4% knew someone with leprosy. Information on leprosy was mainly from community volunteers (40.6%), friends (38.0%), and the media (24%). Only 19.7% of respondents knew the cause of leprosy, and a considerable proportion linked it to a spell (25.3%), unclean blood (15.5%) and heredity (14.6%). About 72% knew that leprosy is curable and 86.3% would advise medical treatment. Attitudes towards leprosy patients were generally negative. Only 42% would shake hands, 32.6% would share the same plate, and 28.3% and 27% respectively, would allow their child to play or marry a person with leprosy. Furthermore, only 33.9% approved of participation of leprosy patients, and 42.9% of their employment. Independent predictors of negative attitudes were: the belief that leprosy is a curse; is caused by a germ; and having seen a leprosy patient. The negative attitudes were dampened by: the beliefs that leprosy is a punishment, is hereditary and is due to poor personal hygiene. Conclusion An awareness intervention using community volunteers and the media, with information on the cause of leprosy, its clinical manifestations and curability, and sensitization messages correcting the misconceptions and beliefs regarding leprosy, could improve the community

  13. Seroepidemiology and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Dechassa; Kelifa, Amin; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Yohannes, Moti

    2016-12-09

    T.gondii is a global zoonotic disease and is considered as the most neglected tropical disease in sub-Saharan countries. The exact seroepidemiological distribution and risk factors for the infection of food animals and humans in Ethiopia was less studied although, such studies are important. The objective of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 in South west Ethiopia in four selected districts of Jimma zone (n = 368). Slide agglutination test (Toxo-latex) was used to detect anti-T.gondii antibodies. Logistic regression was used to determine potential risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 57.60% (212/368; 95% CI: 52.55-62.6) was detected. 58.18% (148/252; 95% CI: 52.75-64.88) and 55.18% (64/116; 95% CI: 46.13-64.23) sero prevalence was found in sheep and goats respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in adult sheep and goats [(sheep: Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5, confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.23; p = 0.015), (goats: OR = 3.9, confidence interval (CI):1.64-9.41: p = 0.002)] than in young sheep and goats, in female [(sheep: OR = 1.93, CI: 1.11-3.36, p = 0.018, (goats: OR = 2.9, CI: 121-6.93, p = 0.002)] than in males sheep and goats, in Highland [(sheep: OR = 4.57, CI: 1.75-12.66, P = 0.000, (goats: OR = 4.4, CI: 1.75-13.66, p = 0.004)] than sheep and goats from lowland. This study indicates that seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in small ruminants is high, therefore, it is decidedly indispensable to minimize risk factors exposing to the infection like consumption of raw meat as source of infection for humans.

  14. Community participation for malaria elimination in Tafea Province, Vanuatu: Part I. Maintaining motivation for prevention practices in the context of disappearing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Toaliu, Hilson; Taleo, George; Tynan, Anna; Whittaker, Maxine; Riley, Ian; Vallely, Andrew

    2010-04-12

    In the 1990s, the experience of eliminating malaria from Aneityum Island, Vanuatu is often given as evidence for the potential to eliminate malaria in the south-west Pacific. This experience, however, cannot provide a blueprint for larger islands that represent more complex social and environmental contexts. Community support was a key contributor to success in Aneityum. In the context of disappearing disease, obtaining and maintaining community participation in strategies to eliminate malaria in the rest of Tafea Province, Vanuatu will be significantly more challenging. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs), 12 key informant interviews (KIIs), three transect walks and seven participatory workshops were carried out in three villages across Tanna Island to investigate community perceptions and practices relating to malaria prevention (particularly relating to bed nets); influences on these practices including how malaria is contextualized within community health and disease priorities; and effective avenues for channelling health information. The primary protection method identified by participants was the use of bed nets, however, the frequency and motivation for their use differed between study villages on the basis of the perceived presence of malaria. Village, household and personal cleanliness were identified by participants as important for protection against malaria. Barriers and influences on bed net use included cultural beliefs and practices, travel, gender roles, seasonality of mosquito nuisance and risk perception. Health care workers and church leaders were reported to have greatest influence on malaria prevention practices. Participants preferred receiving health information through visiting community health promotion teams, health workers, church leaders and village chiefs. In low malaria transmission settings, a package for augmenting social capital and sustaining community participation for elimination will be essential and includes: 'sentinel sites

  15. Community participation for malaria elimination in Tafea Province, Vanuatu: Part I. Maintaining motivation for prevention practices in the context of disappearing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Ian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 1990s, the experience of eliminating malaria from Aneityum Island, Vanuatu is often given as evidence for the potential to eliminate malaria in the south-west Pacific. This experience, however, cannot provide a blueprint for larger islands that represent more complex social and environmental contexts. Community support was a key contributor to success in Aneityum. In the context of disappearing disease, obtaining and maintaining community participation in strategies to eliminate malaria in the rest of Tafea Province, Vanuatu will be significantly more challenging. Method Nine focus group discussions (FGDs, 12 key informant interviews (KIIs, three transect walks and seven participatory workshops were carried out in three villages across Tanna Island to investigate community perceptions and practices relating to malaria prevention (particularly relating to bed nets; influences on these practices including how malaria is contextualized within community health and disease priorities; and effective avenues for channelling health information. Results The primary protection method identified by participants was the use of bed nets, however, the frequency and motivation for their use differed between study villages on the basis of the perceived presence of malaria. Village, household and personal cleanliness were identified by participants as important for protection against malaria. Barriers and influences on bed net use included cultural beliefs and practices, travel, gender roles, seasonality of mosquito nuisance and risk perception. Health care workers and church leaders were reported to have greatest influence on malaria prevention practices. Participants preferred receiving health information through visiting community health promotion teams, health workers, church leaders and village chiefs. Conclusion In low malaria transmission settings, a package for augmenting social capital and sustaining community participation

  16. Controlling Malaria Using Livestock-Based Interventions: A One Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana O.; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Rowland, Mark; Coleman, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis) or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock). Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null) repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an Africa region with

  17. Malaria in east African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El - Safi Himeidan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia to 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 - 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda to 2838000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained.

  18. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Disease What is Malaria? Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease ... cycle of disease and poverty. How People Get Malaria (Transmission) How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get ...

  19. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  20. ERITREA-ETHIOPIA ARBITRATION: Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SeyoumYT

    basis at the Institute for Peace and Security Studies. The author's ...... Nations, Araya Desta wrote to the President of the Security Council that. Ethiopia ... intervene in the Ethio-Eritrean conflict”, and that “[i]t is in the best interest of the AU (as ...

  1. Wind energy survey in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

  2. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: aristoteles.caf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  3. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease

  4. Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.

  5. Transfer of Knowledge in Muslim Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Adday

    2018-01-01

    Muslims in Ethiopia represent a considerable part of the total population, but until recently, their literary tradition and their cultural heritage have remained understudied. The present article aims to shed light on the Islamic manuscript tradition in Ethiopia in the late Nineteenth and early...... Twentieth century by focusing on the codices owned by šayḫ Ḥabīb, a renowned scholar and respected walī from Wallo, in northeastern Ethiopia....

  6. Changing the Malaria Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tega

    Malaria in the 21st Century” was held at ... seconds, and more than one million deaths occur annually from this disease. ... Biological control, for example the use of predatory fish against mosquito larvae and the use of other predatory insects.

  7. Bioinformatics approaches to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Aaen

    Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum......, which is the subject of the first part of this thesis. The PfEMP1 protein which is encoded by the highly variablevargene family is important in the pathogenesis and immune evasion of malaria parasites. We analyzed and classified these genes based on the upstream sequence in seven......Plasmodium falciparumclones. We show that the amount of nucleotide diversity is just as big within each clone as it is between the clones. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic species. We are studying DNA methylation in the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum. The work is still in progress...

  8. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  9. Renewed mobilization against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    1 million people die in the world from malaria annually, 800,000 of whom are 5 year old children in Sub-Sahara Africa. Further it affects 270 million people. In fact, 110 million develop malaria, 90 million of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus WHO has introduced a new world initiative for malaria control to reverse the worsening trend that began in the mid 1970s. In October 1991, 150 officials from 50 African, Asian, and Latin American countries and participants from UN cooperation and development agencies and bilateral agencies attended an interregional conference at the WHO Regional office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. It strove to evaluate malaria situations specific to Africa, to update the malaria control plan in Africa, and to contribute to the development of an implementable world strategy. This world strategy needs to consider the local situation and encourage participation of the government and people of affected countries. Further individuals, communities, and various sectors of the national economy including those involved in health, education, development, and agriculture need to participate in malaria control. In addition, for this strategy to work, most countries must strengthen the management and financing of health services to meet their needs. For example, local populations must share local operating costs such as those for essential drugs and mosquito control operations. Community participation must also include personal protection such as impregnated bed nets and environmental measures. Besides malaria control must be integrated into the existing health system at country, provincial, and peripheral levels. In sum, improved case management, control of malaria transmission, and prevention and control of epidemics form the basis for the new strategy.

  10. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.

  11. Quality of anthelminthic medicines available in Jimma Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Sileshi; Suleman, Sultan; Wynendaele, Evelien; D'Hondt, Matthias; Kosgei, Anne; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in Ethiopia. Mass deworming of at-risk population using a single dose administration of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) or 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) for treatment of common intestinal worms and 40mg of praziquantel (PZQ) per kg body weight for treatment of schistosomiasis is one of the strategies recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in order to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. Since storage condition, climate, way of transportation and distribution route could all affect the quality of medicines, regular assessment by surveys is very critical to ensure the therapeutic outcome, to minimize risk of toxicity to the patient and resistance of parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the pharmaceutical quality of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ tablet brands commonly available in Jimma town (south west Ethiopia). Retail pharmacies (n=10) operating in Jimma town were selected using simple random sampling method. Samples of anthelminthic medicines available in the selected pharmacies were collected. Sample information was recorded and encompassed trade name, active ingredient name, manufacturer's name and full address, labeled medicine strength, dosage form, number of units per container, dosage statement, batch/lot number, manufacturing and expiry dates, storage information and presence of leaflets/package insert. Moreover, a first visual inspection was performed encompassing uniformity of color, uniformity of size, breaks, cracks, splits, embedded surface spots or visual contaminations. Finally, physico-chemical quality attributes investigated encompassed mass uniformity, quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), disintegration and dissolution, all following Pharmacopoeial test methods The physical characteristics of dosage form, packaging and labeling information of all samples complied with criteria given in the WHO checklists. The

  12. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.

  13. Equilibrium Line Altitude Fluctuation on the South West Slope of Nevado Coropuna Since The Last Glacial Maximum (Cordillera Ampato, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos, Néstor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the LLGM (local last glacial maximum, 1955 and 2007 glacial phases on the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna to obtain valuable information on the changes that have occurred and analyze the glacier evolution. For this purpose the ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude indicator has been used as a reference, with the AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio method, based on the principle of weighting the mass balance according to the distance above or below the ELA of that area. An ELA of 4762 m was obtained for the LLGM, 5779 m for 1955 and 5850 m for 2007, implying a vertical shift of 1088 m from the LLGM to 2007 and of 71 m from 1955 to 2007. The total glaciated surface was reduced by 21.5% between 1955 and 2007 and the temperature shift from LLGM to 2007 was 9.13 ºC (0.0091ºC/m. The ice of glaciers makes them valuable for climate research, this method offers quantitative information and the analysis of this data may contribute to research into climate change and climatic trends for future predictions.El principal objetivo de esta investigación es reconstruir las fases glaciares del Último Máximo Glaciar Local (LLGM, 1955 y 2007 en la vertiente Suroeste del Nevado Coropuna para obtener información sobre los cambios ocurridos y analizar la evolución glaciar. Para este propósito el indicador de la altitud de la línea de equilibrio glaciar (ELA ha sido utilizado como referencia, calculado con el método AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio, basado en el principio de ponderación del balance de masa en función de la distancia por encima o debajo de la ELA de esa área. Se obtuvo una ELA de 4762 m para el LLGM, 5779 m para 1955 y 5850 m para 2007, lo que implica una variación de 1088 m desde el LLGM hasta el 2007 y 71 m desde 1955 hasta 2007. La superficie total glaciada se redujo un 21,5% entre 1955 y 2007 y la variación de temperatura desde el LLGM hasta 2007 fue de 9,13 ºC (0,0091ºC/m. El hielo

  14. Indoor radon measurements in south west England explained by topsoil and stream sediment geochemistry, airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Antonio; Daraktchieva, Zornitza; Beamish, David; Kirkwood, Charles; Lister, T Robert; Cave, Mark; Wragg, Joanna; Lee, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Predictive mapping of indoor radon potential often requires the use of additional datasets. A range of geological, geochemical and geophysical data may be considered, either individually or in combination. The present work is an evaluation of how much of the indoor radon variation in south west England can be explained by four different datasets: a) the geology (G), b) the airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy (AGR), c) the geochemistry of topsoil (TSG) and d) the geochemistry of stream sediments (SSG). The study area was chosen since it provides a large (197,464) indoor radon dataset in association with the above information. Geology provides information on the distribution of the materials that may contribute to radon release while the latter three items provide more direct observations on the distributions of the radionuclide elements uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K). In addition, (c) and (d) provide multi-element assessments of geochemistry which are also included in this study. The effectiveness of datasets for predicting the existing indoor radon data is assessed through the level (the higher the better) of explained variation (% of variance or ANOVA) obtained from the tested models. A multiple linear regression using a compositional data (CODA) approach is carried out to obtain the required measure of determination for each analysis. Results show that, amongst the four tested datasets, the soil geochemistry (TSG, i.e. including all the available 41 elements, 10 major - Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Ti - plus 31 trace) provides the highest explained variation of indoor radon (about 40%); more than double the value provided by U alone (ca. 15%), or the sub composition U, Th, K (ca. 16%) from the same TSG data. The remaining three datasets provide values ranging from about 27% to 32.5%. The enhanced prediction of the AGR model relative to the U, Th, K in soils suggests that the AGR signal captures more than just the U, Th and K content in the soil. The

  15. Health risk analysis of a Mexico South-west oil installation; Analisis de riesgo a la salud de una instalacion petrolera del Suroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbide-Arguelles, R; Flores-Serrano, R. Ma; Torres-Bustillos, L.G [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: ria@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2006-01-15

    During an Environmental audit. In an oil storage and distribution station (TAD) located al South-west Mexico, hydrocarbon contamination was detected. Because of it, a complete study of the site's contamination was required. From this work's results, it can be stated that TAD subsoil is contaminated by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in concentrations from ND to 59,000 mg/kg. Neither benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes (BTEX), nor methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), nor methyl tert-amyl ether (MTE) were detected. From the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) analyzed, only naphthalene was found in one sample point at a concentration below 1 mg/kg. The presence of Fe, Pb, and Zn was identified in the subsoil, but the calculated geo-accumulations and not a contamination's product. TPH were found in groundwater, but only in one of the six sampled wells over the recommended level of 10 mg/l. It was also found that Fe concentrations exceed the suggested value of 0.3 mg/l in five of the six sampled wells. It was determined that groundwater's pH value is not linked to the metal concentration level, but with the TPH concentration. Health risk assessment indicated that naphthalene, and zinc concentrations, present in water and subsoil, do not represent a health risk neither for the neighborhood inhabitants, not for the TAD workers. Nevertheless, given the high TPH concentrations in the TAD's north side, the remediation of 8,000 m{sup 3} of subsoil by means of a biopiles system was recommended. [Spanish] En la Terminal de Almacenamiento y Distribucion de combustibles, (TAD), tales como el diesel y la gasolina, localizada al Suroeste de Mexico, se detecto contaminacion por hidrocarburos a raiz de una auditoria ambiental, por lo que se solicito un estudio completo de la contaminacion en la TAD. A partir de los resultados de este trabajo, se puede decir que el suelo de la TAD se encuentra contaminado por hidrocarburos totales de petroleo (HTP

  16. Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

    2009-04-01

    the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

  17. Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetteh Duamor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on.We designed a three (3-year retrospective (2012, 2013 and 2014, descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the roles of operational challenges in the failure of CDTI to control the disease as expected. We administered 83 semi-structured questionnaires and conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Chiefs of Bureau Health, Chiefs of Centers, CDDs and Community Heads. Descriptive statistics was used to explore indicators of performance which were supported with views from in-depth interviews.We found that community participation was weak; communities were not deciding time and mode of distributions. Only 6 (15.0% of 40 Community Drug Distributors reported they were selected at general community meetings as required. The health service was not able to meet and discuss Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin activities with individual communities partly due to transportation challenges; this was mostly done through letters. Funding was reported to be inadequate and not timely. Funds were not available to conduct Community-Self Monitoring after the 2014 Mass Drug Administration. There was inadequate health staff at the frontline health facility levels, and some Chiefs of Center reported that Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin work was too much for them. The mean operational Community Drug Distributor-population ratio was 1 Community Drug Distributor per 317 populations (range: 194-464, expected is 1:250. Community

  18. Hari Malaria Sedunia 2013 Investasi Di Masa Depan. Taklukkan Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnida Sitorus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still the global health problems, World Health Organization estimates that malaria causes death of approximately 660.000 in 2010, most of the age of the children in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. World Malaria Day 2013 assigned the theme “Invest in the future. Defeat malaria”. It takes political will and collective action to jointly combat malaria through malaria elimination. Needed more new donors to be involved in global partnerships against malaria. These partnerships exist, one of which is support of funding or facility for malaria endemic countries which do not have sufficient resources to control malaria. A lot of effort has been done or is still in the development stage. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets appropriately can reduce malaria cases. The use of rapid diagnostic test, especially in remote areas and health facility with no microscopy, is very beneficial for patients to get prompt treatment. The control of malaria through integrated vector management is a rational decision making process to optimize the use of resources in the control of vector. Sterile insect technique has a promising prospect and expected to replace the role of chemical insecticides that have negative impact both on the environment and target vector (resistance. Keywords: Malaria, long-lasting insecticidal nets, rapid diagnostic test Abstrak Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO memperkirakan malaria menyebabkan kurang lebih 660.000 kematian pada tahun 2010, kebanyakan usia anak-anak di wilayah Sub-Sahara Afrika. Pada peringatan hari malaria dunia tahun 2013 ditetapkan tema “Investasi di masa depan. Taklukkan malaria”. Dibutuhkan kemauan politik dan tindakan kolektif untuk bersama-sama memerangi malaria melalui gerakan eliminasi malaria. Diperlukan lebih banyak donor baru untuk turut terlibat dalam kemitraan global melawan malaria. Wujud kemitraan tersebut salah satunya adalah

  19. Knowledge of malaria and practice of home management of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is the 3rd leading cause of death for children under five years worldwide. Home-based management of malaria may go a long way in reducing the attending morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in this group ...

  20. Case management of malaria: Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triggering control programme action, and detecting gametocyte carriers, who may ... clinical malaria does not generally apply to local-born populations, although it ... deficiencies in the quality of malaria diagnosis in routine laboratories. Quality ...

  1. Successes and challenges of the millennium development goals in Ethiopia: lessons for the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Damme, Wim Van; Williams, Owain D; Hill, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the performance of Ethiopia in achieving the health-related millennium development goals (MDGs) with the aim of acquiring lessons for the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Ethiopia achieved most of the health MDGs: a 67% reduction in under-five mortality, a 71% decline in maternal mortality ratio, a 90% decline in new HIV infections, a decrease in malaria-related deaths by 73% and a more than 50% decline in mortality due to tuberculosis. We argue that these achievements are due to implementation of a mix of comprehensive strategies within the health system and across other sectors of the government. Scaling up of interventions by disease control programmes (including the health extension programme) and strengthening of the health system have played important roles towards the achievements. These health gains could not have been realised without progress in the other MDGs: poverty reduction, education, access to safe drinking-water and peace and stability of the country. However, the gains were not equitable, with differences between urban and rural areas, among regions and socioeconomic strata. Ethiopia's remarkable success in meeting most of the targets of the health-related MDGs could be explained by its comprehensive and multisectoral approach for health development. The inequity gap remains a challenge that achieving the health-related SDGs requires the country to implement strategies, which specifically target more marginal populations and geographic areas. This also needs peace and stability, without which it is almost impossible to improve health.

  2. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines......, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  3. Climate Change, Growth, and Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    intergration Tests 8 Empirical Strategy 8 Discussion of Estimation Results 9 Climate Change and Economic Growth...production and marketing (Parry, 2007; Barrios et al , 2004), the impact of which can easily be transmitted to Ethiopia through trade channels with...Ethiopia and other developing countries to depend particularly on expensive cereal imports, worsening the trade balance in these countries However

  4. Dynamics of Poverty and Wellbeing in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    of the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank's Living. Standards ... Panel data also offers significant value in reducing potential bias from confounding ... For these reasons, panel data can play a large role in helping the researcher, .... ESS data but adds to the literature on wellbeing dynamics in Ethiopia.

  5. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  6. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  7. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Feature article. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: II. MEDICINAL AND INDUSTRIAL USES. Mulugeta Lemenih1 and Demel Teketay2. 1 Wondo Genet College of Forestry, PO Box, 128 Shashemene, Ethiopia. E-mail: wgcf@telecom.net.et. 2 Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box ...

  8. MALARIA VACCINE: MYTH OR REALITY?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    Malaria currently remains the highest killer disease nationwide despite existing control measures. Malaria vaccine ... that malaria could be eliminated or at least controlled. However, because of changes in vector behaviour, drug resistance, manpower constraints for public ..... Although animal host models are different from ...

  9. Malaria and Agriculture in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    die every day from malaria, conventional efforts to control the disease have not worked. Malaria parasites are .... and other animals. Mosquito nets. Provide insecticide-treated bednets to groups at high risk for malaria, namely young children and pregnant women, through partnerships with nongovernmental organizations ...

  10. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  11. Towards A Malaria Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S GARG

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.

  12. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  13. The economic burden of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, J L; Sachs, J D

    2001-01-01

    Malaria and poverty are intimately connected. Controlling for factors such as tropical location, colonial history, and geographical isolation, countries with intensive malaria had income levels in 1995 of only 33% that of countries without malaria, whether or not the countries were in Africa. The high levels of malaria in poor countries are not mainly a consequence of poverty. Malaria is geographically specific. The ecological conditions that support the more efficient malaria mosquito vectors primarily determine the distribution and intensity of the disease. Intensive efforts to eliminate malaria in the most severely affected tropical countries have been largely ineffective. Countries that have eliminated malaria in the past half century have all been either subtropical or islands. These countries' economic growth in the 5 years after eliminating malaria has usually been substantially higher than growth in the neighboring countries. Cross-country regressions for the 1965-1990 period confirm the relationship between malaria and economic growth. Taking into account initial poverty, economic policy, tropical location, and life expectancy, among other factors, countries with intensive malaria grew 1.3% less per person per year, and a 10% reduction in malaria was associated with 0.3% higher growth. Controlling for many other tropical diseases does not change the correlation of malaria with economic growth, and these diseases are not themselves significantly negatively correlated with economic growth. A second independent measure of malaria has a slightly higher correlation with economic growth in the 1980-1996 period. We speculate about the mechanisms that could cause malaria to have such a large impact on the economy, such as foreign investment and economic networks within the country.

  14. Cost analysis of the development and implementation of a spatial decision support system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Luke; Kelly, Gerard C; Hale, Erick; Clements, Archie C A; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2014-08-18

    The goal of malaria elimination faces numerous challenges. New tools are required to support the scale up of interventions and improve national malaria programme capacity to conduct detailed surveillance. This study investigates the cost factors influencing the development and implementation of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for malaria elimination in the two elimination provinces of Isabel and Temotu, Solomon Islands. Financial and economic costs to develop and implement a SDSS were estimated using the Solomon Islands programme's financial records. Using an ingredients approach, verified by stakeholders and operational reports, total costs for each province were quantified. A budget impact sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of variations in standard budgetary components on the costs and to identify potential cost savings. A total investment of US$ 96,046 (2012 constant dollars) was required to develop and implement the SDSS in two provinces (Temotu Province US$ 49,806 and Isabel Province US$ 46,240). The single largest expense category was for computerized equipment totalling approximately US$ 30,085. Geographical reconnaissance was the most expensive phase of development and implementation, accounting for approximately 62% of total costs. Sensitivity analysis identified different cost factors between the provinces. Reduced equipment costs would deliver a budget saving of approximately 10% in Isabel Province. Combined travel costs represented the greatest influence on the total budget in the more remote Temotu Province. This study provides the first cost analysis of an operational surveillance tool used specifically for malaria elimination in the South-West Pacific. It is demonstrated that the costs of such a decision support system are driven by specialized equipment and travel expenses. Such factors should be closely scrutinized in future programme budgets to ensure maximum efficiencies are gained and available resources

  15. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  16. Vacuna contra la malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-01-01

    La malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria producida por la picadura de un mosquito; una afección que en el año 2015 registró 212 millones de casos y 429.000 muertes. Cada dos minutos, la malaria provocó la muerte de un niño menor de cinco años en todo el mundo. Diferentes científicos a lo largo de todo el mundo han hecho múltiples intentos para combatir esta enfermedad con una vacuna efectiva que pueda erradicarla de raíz.

  17. Environmental cues and constraints affecting the seasonality of dominant calanoid copepods in brackish, coastal waters: a case study of Acartia, Temora and Eurytemora species in the south-west Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diekmann, A. Berenike S.; Clemmesen, Catriona; St. John, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Information on physiological rates and tolerances helps one gain a cause-and-effect understanding of the role that some environmental (bottom–up) factors play in regulating the seasonality and productivity of key species. We combined the results of laboratory experiments on reproductive success...... that included the effects of ‘controlling’, ‘masking’ and ‘directive’ environmental factors. Over a 5-year period, changes in adult abundance within two south-west Baltic field sites (Kiel Fjord Pier, 54°19′89N, 10°09′06E, 12–21 psu, and North/Baltic Sea Canal NOK, 54°20′45N, 9°57′02E, 4–10 psu) were evaluated...... production. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) factors influence the production of different egg types (normal and resting), regulate life-history strategies and influence match–mismatch dynamics....

  18. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  19. Maternal Mortality Trend in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Deaths complicated by malaria are seen in certain parts of the country. The case fatality rates of ... complications of pregnancy and child birth (1). More than 70% of all ... year) experience pregnancy-related health problems during or after ...

  20. Costing commodity and human resource needs for integrated community case management in thie differing community health strategies of Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefdt, Rory; Ribaira, Eric; Diallo, Khassoum

    2014-10-01

    To ensure correct and appropriate funding is available, there is a need to estimate resource needs for improved planning and implementation of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM). To compare and estimate costs for commodity and human resource needs for iCCM, based on treatment coverage rates, bottlenecks and national targets in Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia from 2014 to 2016. Resource needs were estimated using Ministry of Health (MoH) targets fronm 2014 to 2016 for implementation of case management of pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria through iCCM based on epidemiological, demographic, economic, intervention coverage and other health system parameters. Bottleneck analysis adjusted cost estimates against system barriers. Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia were chosen to compare differences in iCCM costs in different programmatic implementation landscapes. Coverage treatment rates through iCCM are lowest in Ethiopia, followed by Kenya and Zambia, but Ethiopia had the greatest increases between 2009 and 2012. Deployment of health extension workers (HEWs) in Ethiopia is more advanced compared to Kenya and Zambia, which have fewer equivalent cadres (called commu- nity health workers (CHWs)) covering a smaller proportion of the population. Between 2014 and 2016, the propor- tion of treatments through iCCM compared to health centres are set to increase from 30% to 81% in Ethiopia, 1% to 18% in Kenya and 3% to 22% in Zambia. The total estimated cost of iCCM for these three years are USD 75,531,376 for Ethiopia, USD 19,839,780 for Kenya and USD 33,667,742 for Zambia. Projected per capita expen- diture for 2016 is USD 0.28 for Ethiopia, USD 0.20 in Kenya and USD 0.98 in Zambia. Commodity costs for pneumonia and diarrhea were a small fraction of the total iCCM budget for all three countries (less than 3%), while around 80% of the costs related to human resources. Analysis of coverage, demography and epidemiology data improves estimates of fimding requirements for iCCM. Bottleneck

  1. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    reported on malaria in the community or the density of the adult anopheline population. In the absence of direct evidence of an effect on transmission, we performed a secondary analysis on studies that evaluated the effect of introducing larvivorous fish on the density or presence of immature anopheline mosquitoes (larvae and pupae forms) in water sources to determine whether this intervention has any potential that may justify further research in the control of malaria vectors. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened each article by title and abstract, and examined potentially relevant studies for inclusion using an eligibility form. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. If relevant data were unclear or were not reported, we contacted the study authors for clarification. We presented data in tables, and we summarized studies that evaluated the effects of introducing fish on anopheline immature density or presence, or both. We used the GRADE approach to summarize the certainty of the evidence. We also examined whether the included studies reported any possible adverse impact of introducing larvivorous fish on non-target native species. Main results We identified no studies that reported the effects of introducing larvivorous fish on the primary outcomes of this review: malaria infection in nearby communities, entomological inoculation rate, or on adult Anopheles density. For the secondary analysis, we examined the effects of introducing larvivorous fish on the density and presence of anopheline larvae and pupae in community water sources, and found 15 small studies with a follow-up period between 22 days and five years. These studies were undertaken in Sri Lanka (two studies), India (three studies), Ethiopia (one study), Kenya (two studies), Sudan (one study), Grande Comore Island (one study), Korea (two studies), Indonesia (one study), and Tajikistan (two studies). These

  2. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.) [de

  3. Chemotherapy of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-31

    malaria in Vietnam was resisent to drugs such as chloroquine , generally recognized since World War ii as satisfactory antimalarial agents. The urgent...known to have antimalarial activity; (3) structural analogues of compounds found active in our test system and representing several novel chemical

  4. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...

  5. Malaria and gold fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, H

    1993-08-14

    The mineral rich territory of the Yanomami Indians of northern Brazil has been invaded by miners--who have destroyed the environment and introduced disease. Médecins Sans Frontières agreed to help combat the malaria epidemic. Conditions in the rainforest and villages and the health care facilities are described. Mere medical aid cannot prevent the Yanomami from being decimated.

  6. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.

  7. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria, therefore ... children. The incidence of history of fever, indicative of malaria in children of the respondents within one ... interventions for the control of childhood malaria. ..... Yellow eyes. 20.

  8. Choosing a Drug to Prevent Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medicines, also consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions with other medicines that the person might be ...

  9. Malaria and protective behaviours: is there a malaria trap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthélemy, Jean-Claude; Thuilliez, Josselin; Doumbo, Ogobara; Gaudart, Jean

    2013-06-13

    In spite of massive efforts to generalize efficient prevention, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), malaria remains prevalent in many countries and ITN/LLINs are still only used to a limited extent. This study proposes a new model for malaria economic analysis by combining economic epidemiology tools with the literature on poverty traps. A theoretical model of rational protective behaviour in response to malaria is designed, which includes endogenous externalities and disease characteristics. Survey data available for Uganda provide empirical support to the theory of prevalence-elastic protection behaviours, once endogeneity issues related to epidemiology and poverty are solved. Two important conclusions emerge from the model. First, agents increase their protective behaviour when malaria is more prevalent in a society. This is consistent with the literature on "prevalence-elastic behaviour". Second, a 'malaria trap' defined as the result of malaria reinforcing poverty while poverty reduces the ability to deal with malaria can theoretically exist and the conditions of existence of the malaria trap are identified. These results suggest the possible existence of malaria traps, which provides policy implications. Notably, providing ITN/LLINs at subsidized prices is not sufficient. To be efficient an ITN/LLINs dissemination campaigns should include incentive of the very poor for using ITN/LLINs.

  10. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  11. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  12. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    the top export articles of Ethiopia where their export alone ... accelerate economic development in these marginal lands. .... consequences in making identification of source species ...... Ethiopian M.Sc. in Forestry Prgoramme thesis works.

  13. ETHIOPIA'S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ... Acronyms. GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services .... services; v. preparation of indigenous traditional medicines; vi. ..... Tourism/ travel services. 66.73.

  14. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  15. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Review. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ... seed micropropagation, virus-cleaning ongoing, good progress. Garlic meristem ... large quantities of disease-free planting materials in short time.

  16. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Survey (2010) data suggest that Ethiopia not only has one of the largest fertility rates .... Asian countries where the rural-urban fertility differentials were smaller and more ...... Sibanda, A., Z. Woubalem, D. P. Hogan, and D. P. Lindstrom. 2003.

  17. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  18. Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of identity, language and religion that the existing social realities might not ..... maintains a strict system of controls over digital media, making Ethiopia ...... Yemen. Appendix 2: The nine regional states and the two chartered cities (Addis Ababa ...

  19. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  20. Design of Epidemia - an Ecohealth Informatics System for Integrated Forecasting of Malaria Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Bayabil, E.; Beyane, B.; Bishaw, M.; Henebry, G. M.; Lemma, A.; Liu, Y.; Merkord, C. L.; Mihretie, A.; Senay, G. B.; Yalew, W.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning of the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. In response to this need, we are developing the Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system. The system incorporates software for capturing, processing, and integrating environmental and epidemiological data from multiple sources; data assimilation techniques that continually update models and forecasts; and a web-based interface that makes the resulting information available to public health decision makers. This technology will enable forecasts based on lagged responses to environmental risk factors as well as information about recent trends in malaria cases. Environmental driving variables will include a variety of remote-sensed hydrological indicators. EPIDEMIA will be implemented and tested in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia in collaboration with local stakeholders. We conducted an initial co-design workshop in July 2014 that included environmental scientists, software engineers, and participants from the NGO, academic, and public health sectors in Ethiopia. A prototype of the EPIDEMIA web interface was presented and a requirements analysis was conducted to characterize the main use cases for the public health community, identify the critical data requirements for malaria risk modeling, and develop of a list of baseline features for the public health interface. Several critical system features were identified, including a secure web-based interface for uploading and validating surveillance data; a flexible query system to allow retrieval of environmental and epidemiological data summaries as tables, charts, and maps; and an alert system to provide automatic warnings in response to environmental and epidemiological risk factors for malaria. Future system development will involve a cycle of implementation, training, usability testing, and

  1. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  2. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  3. Project Title: Partnering to establish emergency medicine in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... current graduate working in. Ethiopia). Procedures ..... majority (62.6%) of deaths occurred within 48 hours of admission to the emergency department. ..... encourage graduates to pursue careers within Ethiopia. Conclusion: A ...

  4. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-14

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, ... These policies are still in place in Ethiopia, even though they clash with market principles. ... August 14, 2015 ...

  5. Smartphone app is improving sustainable cattle farming in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... Inaccessibility to veterinary services in Ethiopia's livestock sector ... of Ethiopia's gross domestic product — and directly contribute to the livelihoods of ... applications of digital technologies to address development challenges.

  6. Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia | Negussie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia. ... Abstract. Background: Alcohol advertising should be prepared with an appropriate sense of responsibility to the consumer public. In Ethiopia ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Case studies of Teff, Wheat and Rice in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    Brazil, Behrman and Birdshall estimate a much lower social return to expanding ... higher teacher salaries and greater school length- enhance educational outcomes. 3. Methods ...... Poverty Profile of Ethiopia, March, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  8. Accessibility Inequality to Basic Education in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    educational services in Amhara region of Ethiopia in terms of availability and accessibility ... Dept. of Geography Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ... and very high students / teacher ratio. .... facilities to train their children (Hanmer et ...

  9. All projects related to Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia. Project. The aim of this project is to enhance the understanding of the complexities of ... Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia.

  10. The new innovative medical education system in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Background: A New Innovative Medical Education Initiative (NIMEI) had been launched in Ethiopia in February ... development as well as for the overall health system of the country. .... A national survey was conducted in all regions of Ethiopia.

  11. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Uganda. Program: ... Region: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  12. All projects related to Ethiopia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, ... exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. ... Region: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  13. SMS messages increase adherence to rapid diagnostic test results among malaria patients: results from a pilot study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Schatzkin, Eric; De La Cruz, Anna; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Nwokolo, Ernest; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ujuju, Chinazo; Montagu, Dominic; Liu, Jenny

    2014-02-25

    The World Health Organization now recommends parasitological confirmation for malaria case management. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are an accurate and simple diagnostic to confirm parasite presence in blood. However, where they have been deployed, adherence to RDT results has been poor, especially when the test result is negative. Few studies have examined adherence to RDTs distributed or purchased through the private sector. The Rapid Examination of Malaria and Evaluation of Diagnostic Information (REMEDI) study assessed the acceptability of and adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care from private sector drug retailers in two cities in Oyo State in south-west Nigeria. In total, 465 adult participants were enrolled upon exit from a participating drug shop having purchased anti-malaria drugs for themselves. Participants were given a free RDT and the appropriate treatment advice based on their RDT result. Short Message Service (SMS) text messages reiterating the treatment advice were sent to a randomly selected half of the participants one day after being tested. Participants were contacted via phone four days after the RDT was conducted to assess adherence to the RDT information and treatment advice. Adherence to RDT results was 14.3 percentage points (P-val <0.001) higher in the treatment group who were sent the SMS. The higher adherence in the treatment group was robust to several specification tests and the estimated difference in adherence ranged from 9.7 to 16.1 percentage points. Further, the higher adherence to the treatment advice was specific to the treatment advice for anti-malarial drugs and not other drugs purchased to treat malaria symptoms in the RDT-negative participants who bought both anti-malarial and symptom drugs. There was no difference in adherence for the RDT-positive participants who were sent the SMS. SMS text messages substantially increased adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care for malaria from

  14. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot

    2014-02-05

    Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial

  16. Households' incidence on malaria and expenditures to treat malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between expenditure and use of different vector control depends on the geographic location of respondents. People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools.

  17. Malaria parasitemia among asymptomatic infants seen in a malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In clinical settings, management of malaria cases has primarily been centred on case definition, giving minimal consideration to the asymptomatic individuals who remain a major reservoir since they do not seek care. In malaria endemic areas, infants are likely to remain asymptomatic since they have partial immunity ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and the long-distance truck drivers in south-west Nigeria: A cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude, risk behaviour and beliefs of truckers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory O. Atilola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objectives: According to the last HIV surveillance survey conducted in 2008, the overall National HIV prevalence in Nigeria stands at 4.6%. Recent studies and estimates by UNAIDS/WHO show higher prevalences in some selected states in Nigeria. The focus of this study is to determine the prevalence, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV among long-distance heavy-truckers from a cross-sectional survey conducted in the south-west Nigeria. Methods: Four major truck terminals (devoted to long-distance trips in south western Nigeria were identified. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a total sample size of 451 truckers who consented to be interviewed. A questionnaire (in English, Hausa and Yoruba languages for data collection on the socio-demographic, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV from the truckers was also designed. The multiple logistic regressions analysis was used to assess the association between some selected variables and factors. Results: Only 164 (36.4% participants out of the study population of 451 were tested for HIV (due to limited test facilities and consent and the prevalence of HIV antibodies among the truckers was found to be 2.4% (4/164 with all the infected individuals being within 21–30 years of age. 309 (68.1% of the respondents admitted that they were at risk of contracting HIV while a total of 249 (55.3% admitted that they had more than one sexual partners. In addition, while 392 (86.9% said it was important for them to know their HIV status, 88 (19.5% said that they would commit suicide should they test positive for HIV. Conclusion: Although the HIV prevalence rate observed among the tested participants (2.4% was lower than the overall national prevalence (4.6%, the result calls for concern as it showed that the population of truckers is a potential high risk group in Nigeria. Also, the mobile nature of this high-risk group has made getting HIV/AIDS awareness messages across to them a

  19. National scale-up of integrated community case management in rural Ethiopia: implementation and early lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Although under-five mortality in Ethiopia has decreased 67% in the past two decades, many, children still die from preventable or treatable conditions, mainly pneumonia, newborn problems, diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition. Most of these deaths can be avoided with timely and appropriate care, but access to and use of treatment remains inadequate. Community health workers, appropriately trained, supervised, and supplied with essen- tial equipment and medicines, can deliver case management or referral to most sick children. In 2010, Ethiopia added pneumonia to diarrhea, malaria and severe acute malnutrition, targeted for treatment in the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy. This article describes the national scale-up of iCCM implementation and early lessons learned. We reviewed data related to iCCM program inputs and processes from reports, minutes, and related documents from January 2010 through July 2013. We describe introduction and scale-up through eight health system components. The government and partners trained and supplied 27,116 of the total 32,000 Health Extension Workers and mentored 80% of them to deliver iCCM services to over one million children. The government led a strong-iCCM partnership that attracted development partners in implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and research. Service utilization and weak supply chain remain-major challenges. Strong MOH leadership, policy support, and national partnerships helped successful national iCCM scale-up and should help settle remaining challenges.

  20. Study on the species composition and ecology of anophelines in Addis Zemen, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindu, Mizan; Aklilu, Esayas; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2018-03-27

    Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia and its transmission is generally unstable and seasonal. For the selection of the most appropriate vector control measures, knowledge on the ecology of the vector is necessary at a local level. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to document the species composition, breeding habitat characteristics and occurrence of anopheline larva in Sheni stream and the vectorial role of the prevailing Anopheles in relation to malaria transmission in Addis Zemen, Ethiopia. Immature anophelines were sampled from breeding habitats and characteristics, such as water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables, of the habitats were measured from October 2011 to February 2012. Adult anophelines were sampled inside human dwellings using space spray and Center for Disease Control light traps. Artificial pit shelters and clay pots were also used for outdoor adult collections. Anophelines collected were identified using morphological key. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to detect circumsporozoite proteins of Plasmodium and source of blood meals. A total of 6258 Anopheles larvae were collected and identified morphologically. Five anopheline species were found: An. gambiae (s.l.), An. cinereus, An. demeilloni, An. christi and An. pretoriensis. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) existed in most of the habitats investigated. Only the former three species were captured in the adult collections. Sun-lit Sheni stream, rain pools, hoof prints, drainage and irrigation canals were found to be habitats of larvae. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae were most abundantly sampled from sand mining and natural sand pools of Sheni stream. Multiple regression analysis showed that clear, permanent and temporary habitats devoid of mats of algae were the best predictors of An. gambiae (s.l.) larval abundance. It is also the responsible malaria vector in the study area and exhibits anthropophilic and endophagic behaviour. The

  1. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Million

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9% were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007, those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01 and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001 had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, PAscaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care

  2. Malaria in pregnancy | Okpere | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10,000 maternal deaths and to at least 200,000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor ...

  3. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  4. Vulnerability to episodes of extreme weather: Butajira, Ethiopia, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Anders; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane; Wall, Stig; Byass, Peter

    2008-12-16

    During 1999-2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 sub-communities in the Butajira district in central Ethiopia. These were supplemented by rainfall and agricultural data from the national reporting systems. Rainfall was high in 1998 and well below average in 1999 and 2000. In 1998, heavy rains continued from April into October, in 1999 the small rains failed and the big rains lasted into the harvesting period. For the years 1998-1999, the mortality rate was 24.5 per 1,000 person-years, compared with 10.2 in the remainder of the period 1997-2001. Mortality peaks reflect epidemics of malaria and diarrhoeal disease. During these peaks, mortality was significantly higher among the poorer. The analyses reveal a serious humanitarian crisis with the Butajira population during 1998-1999, which met the CDC guideline crisis definition of more than one death per 10,000 per day. No substantial humanitarian relief efforts were triggered, though from the results it seems likely that the poorest in the farming communities are as vulnerable as the pastoralists in the North and East of Ethiopia. Food insecurity and reliance on subsistence agriculture continue to be major issues in this and similar rural communities. Epidemics of traditional infectious diseases can still be devastating, given opportunities in nutritionally challenged populations with little access to health care.

  5. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  6. [Fake malaria drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2009-03-02

    The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.

  7. Bioorganometallic Chemistry and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot, Christophe; Dive, Daniel

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of organometallic antimalarials. It begins with a general introduction to malaria and the biology of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a focus on the heme detoxification system. Then, a number of metal complexes from the literature are reported for their antiplasmodial activity. The second half of the chapter deals with the serendipitous discovery of ferroquine, its mechanism(s) of action, and the failure to induce a resistance. Last, but not least, we suggest that the bioorganometallic approach offers the potential for the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  8. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Water is an essential ... dissolved solids, conductivity and redox potential provide a general classification of water bodies with a ..... In rift valley lakes, the smallest value of salinity was noted in koka (200 mg r1. ) which has an ...

  9. ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    tanneries in the world (about 90%) use chromium salts to produce leather, because these salts provide better leather ... former are not biodegradable. .... Each sample was filtered with Whatman filter paper (0.45 μm of pore size). .... might be causing pollution of the surrounding air with hydrogen sulfide, which also warrants.

  10. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    To secure a computer system and ensure cyber security, it is important to understand the attacks ... Denial-of-service attack: Denial of service attacks are designed to make a machine or network ... Many fail to recognize cybercrimes in their IT.

  11. Variation in Complexity of Infection and Transmission Stability between Neighbouring Populations of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Getachew

    Full Text Available P. vivax is an important public health burden in Ethiopia, accounting for almost half of all malaria cases. Owing to heterogeneous transmission across the country, a stronger evidence base on local transmission dynamics is needed to optimise allocation of resources and improve malaria interventions.In a pilot evaluation of local level P. vivax molecular surveillance in southern Ethiopia, the diversity and population structure of isolates collected between May and November 2013 were investigated. Blood samples were collected from microscopy positive P. vivax patients recruited to clinical and cross-sectional surveys from four sites: Arbaminch, Halaba, Badawacho and Hawassa. Parasite genotyping was undertaken at nine tandem repeat markers. Eight loci were successfully genotyped in 197 samples (between 36 and 59 per site. Heterogeneity was observed in parasite diversity and structure amongst the sites. Badawacho displayed evidence of unstable transmission, with clusters of identical clonal infections. Linkage disequilibrium in Badawacho was higher (IAS = 0.32, P = 0.010 than in the other populations (IAS range = 0.01-0.02 and declined markedly after adjusting for identical infections (IAS = 0.06, P = 0.010. Other than Badawacho (HE = 0.70, population diversity was equivalently high across the sites (HE = 0.83. Polyclonal infections were more frequent in Hawassa (67% than the other populations (range: 8-44%. Despite the variable diversity, differentiation between the sites was low (FST range: 5 x 10-3-0.03.Marked variation in parasite population structure likely reflects differing local transmission dynamics. Parasite genotyping in these heterogeneous settings has potential to provide important complementary information with which to optimise malaria control interventions.

  12. Association between serum transferrin receptor levels and malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... and malaria is common in sub-Saharan Africa, and is a complex phenomenon. ... iron status and malaria incidence among children in a high malaria ... seasonally as cash crops. ... Children were followed for presence of malaria parasites by.

  13. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...... hypoglycaemia may be due to direct effects of similar molecules on glucose metabolism. These molecules appear to be phospholipids and we suggest that when fully characterized they might form the basis of antitoxic therapy for malaria....

  14. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  15. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own sufficient insecticide treated nets at Dabat HDSS site: evidence from a cross sectional re-census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchie, Kindie Fentahun; Alemu, Kassahun; Tariku, Amare; Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Awoke, Tadesse; Biks, Gashaw Andargie

    2017-11-21

    Malaria is the leading cause of disease burden across the world, especially in African countries. Ethiopia has designed a five year (2011-2015) plan to cover 100% of the households in malarious areas with one insecticide treated net (ITN) for every two persons, and to raise consistent ITN utilization to at least 80%. However, evidence on ownership of ITN among malarious rural households in northwest Ethiopia is quite limited. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing ownership of ITN and associated factors among rural households at risk of malaria at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional re-census was carried out in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site during peak malaria seasons from October to December, 2014. Data for 15,088 households at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site were used for the analysis. Descriptive measures and binary logistic regression were carried out. Among those who owned at least one ITN, 53.4% were living at an altitude >2500 m above sea level. However, out of households living at an altitude ownership of ITN. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own a sufficient number of ITN though the utilization is promising. Moreover, prioritizing children and pregnant women to sleep under ITN remains public health problems. Programmers, partners and implementers should consider tailored intervention strategy stratified by altitude in distributing ITN. ITN distribution should also be accompanied by using exhaustive promotion strategies that consider people without access to any source of information, and educating households to prioritize pregnant and under five children to sleep under ITN.

  16. Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Eba; Asale, Abebe; Eba, Kasahun; Getahun, Kefelegn; Tushune, Kora; Bryon, Astrid; Morou, Evangelia; Vontas, John; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Duchateau, Luc; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2017-09-02

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids

  17. [Congenital malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F

    2000-05-19

    Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.

  18. An Anthropologist Looks at Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of malaria is a major selective agent in- ... century before Darwin put forward the Theory of Natural ... A. C. Allison, a former research student of the Anatomy ... A review of all available ... However, they both draw attention to the.

  19. Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... antigenic polymorphism, shedding of parts of parasite proteins, cross-reactive epitopes of antigens of ... Due to the lack of HLA molecules on the surface of the .... Susceptibility and death rates in P. falciparum malaria are.

  20. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  1. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  2. Heritability of malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown.We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively.Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden of disease in malaria-endemic areas.

  3. Heritability of Malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden

  4. Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa; A decision tool using GIS in Didessa Valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, A.M.; Dwinger, R.H.; Bedane, B.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.; Wint, W.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is one of the main constraints to livestock production, particularly in the sub-humid and the semi-arid zones in Africa. To study the impact of the disease and the people economically affected by the disease GIS has proven to be a valuable decision tool to prioritise intervention areas and to select control or eradication methods. In this study a GIS and remote sensing based model have been used in the Didessa Valley and southwestern Ethiopia to study valley specific relationships of all factors (host, vector, disease, human population/activity) with geography, environment and farming systems to answer the following questions: Where does trypanosomosis have a negative effect on (agricultural) development? In which areas will control measures have the highest impact/economical benefit? These findings have been extrapolated to set priority areas for tsetse control for Ethiopia as a whole, using a multi-criterion evaluation technique and a Boolean disease data-set to create signatures (training sets) to predict the probability of agricultural suitability and disease suitability based on a set of environmental predictors. Data sets have been validated through ground-truthing using a random data-set for the specified window of Southwestern Ethiopia. A logical expression has been used to combine the factors (vector distribution, agricultural suitability, climatically disease suitability, control area suitability) to select the priority areas for tsetse control. Areas permanently infested by malaria, one of the life-threatening human diseases in Africa, have been considered as not suitable for intervention, The result, a Boolean representation of the priority areas for southwestern Ethiopia can be prioritised further by the decision maker (government, donor, specialist) using criteria such as cost/benefit, administrative organisation and control method. The unique altitude related dynamic tsetse situation in Ethiopia, makes wider extrapolation using the

  5. Cross-sectional study to evaluate Trichomonas vaginalis positivity in women tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, attending genitourinary medicine and primary care clinics in Bristol, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jane E; Turner, Katy M E; North, Paul; Ferguson, Ralph; May, Margaret T; Gough, Karen; Macleod, John; Muir, Peter; Horner, Patrick J

    2018-03-01

    Highly sensitive, commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for Trichomonas vaginalis have only recently been recommended for use in the UK. While testing for T. vaginalis is routine in symptomatic women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, it is rare in asymptomatic women or those attending primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity of T. vaginalis using a commercial NAAT, in symptomatic and asymptomatic women undergoing testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in GUM and primary care settings. Samples from 9186 women undergoing chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in South West England between May 2013 and Jan 2015 were also tested for T. vaginalis by NAAT alongside existing tests. T. vaginalis positivity using NAAT was as follows: in GUM 4.5% (24/530, symptomatic) and 1.7% (27/1584, asymptomatic); in primary care 2.7% (94/3499, symptomatic) and 1.2% (41/3573, asymptomatic). Multivariable regression found that in GUM older age, black ethnicity and deprivation were independent risk factors for T. vaginalis infection. Older age and deprivation were also risk factors in primary care. Testing women presenting with symptoms in GUM and primary care using TV NAATs is estimated to cost £260 per positive case diagnosed compared with £716 using current microbiological tests. Aptima TV outperforms existing testing methods used to identify T. vaginalis infection in this population. An NAAT should be used when testing for T. vaginalis in women who present for testing with symptoms in primary care and GUM, based on test performance and cost. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also chiefly used medicinally for indigestion, stomachache, malaria, fevers, common cold, and motion sickness. The literature survey revealed that there is no study conducted on the determination of metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. Hence it is worthwhile to determine the levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. The levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivated in four different regions of Ethiopia and the soil where it was grown were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 0.5 g of oven dried ginger and soil samples were digested using 3 mL of HNO3 and 1 mL of HClO4 at 210°C for 3 h and a mixture of 6 mL aqua-regia and 1.5 mL H2O2 at 270°C for 3 h, respectively. The mean metal concentration (μg/g dry weight basis) ranged in the ginger and soil samples, respectively, were: Ca (2000-2540, 1770-3580), Mg (2700-4090, 1460-2440), Fe (41.8-89.0, 21700-46900), Zn (38.5-55.2, 255-412), Cu (1.1-4.8, 3.80-33.9), Co (2.0-7.6, 48.5-159), Cr (6.0-10.8, 110-163), Mn (184-401, 1760-6470), Ni (5.6-8.4, 14.1-79.3) and Cd (0.38-0.97, 0.24-1.1). The toxic metal Pb was not detected in both the ginger and soil samples. There was good correlation between some metals in ginger and soil samples while poor correlation between other metals (Fe, Ni, Cu). This study revealed that Ethiopian gingers are good source of essential metals and free from toxic

  7. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  8. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as

  9. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  10. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ethiopia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  11. Pragmatic Constraints affecting the efficacy in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    eminence of teacher education and the alternative paradigm to this regard ... Lecturer in Physics, Faculty of Education, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. .... Selected Indicators of Growth and Development on School Education in India ..... skills as well as the professional skills .... the student teacher perception about the.

  12. Handbook for Greenhouse Rose Production Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.; Hoogerwerf, F.; Marrewijk, van J.; Kerklaan, E.; Posthumus, J.; Boven, van A.; Elings, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Rikken, M.; Humphries, G.

    2012-01-01

    This practical handbook is prepared by DLV Plant, in collaboration with Wageningen UR, CBI and EHPEA, under assignment of the Ethiopia Netherlands Horticulture Partnership (ENHP). The following persons have contributed to this handbook: DVL Plant: Edwin van der Maden, Francis Hoogerwerf, Jeroen van

  13. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. Pharmacists' job .... Female. N (%). Total No. of. Pharmacists,. N(%). Population Size. Density of .... 51(13.2). Marital Status. Single. 252 (64.1). Married. 136 (34.6). Divorced ..... Production, attrition and retention: In the memory of.

  14. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This legislation formed the legal basis for official establishment of drug regulation in the history of Ethiopia, enabling the regulation of the practice of pharmacists, druggists and pharmacy technicians; manufacturing, distribution, and sale of medicines. In June 1999, a new regulation called the “Drug Administration and ...

  15. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper intends to examine the environmental foundation for establishing financial markets in Ethiopia, identify the potential challenges and opportunities. The environmental foundation is assessed using the PEST (political, economic, social and technological) perspectives. Emphasis is given to identify the roles that ...

  16. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia | Alemayehu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worldwide, adolescents suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. Throughout the world, over 14 million adolescents aged 15-19 years give birth annually. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and identify proximate and other determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia.

  17. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  18. Demand for money and shortages in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the long-run monetary conditions in Ethiopia in the last three decades. These decades can be characterized by large political changes, leading to shocks on income and population growth, and two serious periods of drought. Both affected inflation and real demand for M-1 through

  19. communicable diseases at health facilities in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    unsatisfactory and it varied between urban (34%) and rural (5%) health facilities. In general, cervical ... data for planning and monitoring scale-up intervention ... authority, Ethiopia, 2016. Regions. Number of facilities Percentage. Tigray. 42. 8. Afar. 38. 7. Amhara. 61. 11. Oromiya. 99. 18. Somali. 43. 8. Beni. Gumuz. 30. 5.

  20. Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience, Current Initiatives and Future Prospects. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The main contention of the paper is that in the past, regional development, in line with the functional integration approach, was considered a national project.

  1. Administrative rulemaking in Ethiopia: normative and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of and the theoretical issues in relation to administrative legislation are discussed followed by the basic procedures and principles that should harness discretion and abuse of authority. Keywords: Administrative law, Administrative rulemaking, FDRE Constitution, Ethiopia MIZAN LAW REVIEW, Vol. 7 No.1 ...

  2. Assessment of Pharmacists Workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. ... pharmacists practice in community, hospitals and other medical .... Higher proportion of female pharmacists than males were working .... Recognition they get for good work. 8 ..... pharmacists' empowerment and organizational.

  3. 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E. J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in

  4. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...

  5. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  6. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Muslims communities in Ethiopia do have their own internal dispute ... Christians offers commercial dispute resolution service involving thousands and ...... practices and decisions of these institutions heighten the quality and prestige of ..... the center spend their money to hotels, restaurants, shops and other services or.

  7. The Pineapple Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market

  8. Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These crises have greatly affected agriculture and quality of life. ... In Ethiopia, this resulted in more effective pest-control strategies, better quality water, and new food and cash crops. ... 111 activities worth CA$30.8 million since 1972. DFID/J.

  9. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...

  10. Ethiopia - energy situation 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

  11. Ethiopia - energy situation 1984. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments. (UA).

  12. Ethiopia - energy situation 1985. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

  13. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... to be of paramount importance in providing input information for policy makers ... military government ruling Ethiopia at that time, no capital market has been ... hinders the growth of investment and private sector involvement in the ...... Alemayehu (2008) clearly shows that Ethiopian firms technology usage is.

  14. Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical

  15. Determinants of Crop Diversification in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversification of agriculture is central to economic transformation. It contributes to ... growth and poverty reduction strategies of Ethiopia place emphasized on broad ..... Similarly, (Bonham et al., 2012) found that positive relationship between on-farm diversity of pearl millet and income from agricultural production in India.

  16. The Internet and Regulatory Responses in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KM_Yilma & HH_Abraha

    Law and Policy Researcher at the Ethiopian Information Network Security Agency. ... “The sad irony is that Ethiopia's enthusiastic embrace of the computer has made .... See, for instance, Draft Ethiopian Data Protection Act, Version 1.1, 7 May ...

  17. Wind Energy in Ethiopia | Blaho | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Wind Energy in Ethiopia. M Blaho. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  18. The Proposed Plea Bargaining in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alemu Meheretu

    Plea bargaining, models of plea bargaining, the proposed plea bargaining, efficiency ... based on my PhD thesis titled: ` Introducing Plea bargaining in Ethiopia: Concerns and prospects`. .... defendant in return to not only pleading guilty but also waiving some rights as .... contradict the adversarial style of plea bargaining.

  19. Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what's new, what's needed: a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breman, Joel G; Alilio, Martin S; Mills, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Each year, up to three million deaths due to malaria and close to five billion episodes of clinical illness possibly meriting antimalarial therapy occur throughout the world, with Africa having more than 90% of this burden. Almost 3% of disability adjusted life years are due to malaria mortality globally, 10% in Africa. New information is presented in this supplement on malaria-related perinatal mortality, occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus in pregnancy, undernutrition, and neurologic, cognitive, and developmental sequelae. The entomologic determinants of transmission and uses of modeling for program planning and disease prediction and prevention are discussed. New data are presented from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe on the increasing urban malaria problem and on epidemic malaria. Between 6% and 28% of the malaria burden may occur in cities, which comprise less than 2% of the African surface. Macroeconomic projections show that the costs are far greater than the costs of individual cases, with a substantial deleterious impact of malaria on schooling of patients, external investments into endemic countries, and tourism. Poor populations are at greatest risk; 58% of the cases occur in the poorest 20% of the world's population and these patients receive the worst care and have catastrophic economic consequences from their illness. This social vulnerability requires better understanding for improving deployment, access, quality, and use of effective interventions. Studies from Ghana and elsewhere indicate that for every patient with febrile illness assumed to be malaria seen in health facilities, 4-5 episodes occur in the community. Effective actions for malaria control mandate rational public policies; market forces, which often drive sales and use of drugs and other interventions, are unlikely to guarantee their use. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria is rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective

  20. Malaria in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brasil, Patrícia; Ladislau, José L B; Tauil, Pedro L; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2010-04-30

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306,000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  1. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several

  2. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  3. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  4. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if

  5. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data ..... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  6. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  7. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  8. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regard to tourism, within an area of ~100 000 km2. ... Unfortunately, international funding for .... carriers, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, to interrupt malaria ... education of healthcare workers on malaria diagnosis and treatment.

  9. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... randomisation produced comparable intervention and comparison groups with balanced characteristics. Specific results of the baseline studies are presented in the companion paper. ... strategies for protecting pregnant women against malaria. ..... from malaria vaccine trial conducted among Tanzanian.

  10. Hemozoin Inhibition and Control of Clinical Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria has a negative impact on health and social and economic life of residents of endemic countries. The ultimate goals of designing new treatment for malaria are to prevent clinical infection, reduce morbidity, and decrease mortality. There are great advances in the understanding of the parasite-host interaction through studies by various scientists. In some of these studies, attempts were made to evaluate the roles of malaria pigment or toxins in the pathogenesis of malaria. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA, immunosuppression, and cytokine dysfunction. Targeting of this pigment may be necessary in the design of new therapeutic products against malaria. In this review, the roles of hemozoin in the morbidity and mortality of malaria are highlighted as an essential target in the quest for effective control of clinical malaria.

  11. Diagnostic comparison of malaria infection in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental biopsies in Cameroonian parturient women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchang-Kimbi Judith K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy presents an enormous diagnostic challenge. The epidemiological and clinical relevance of the different types of malaria diagnosis as well as risk factors associated with malaria infection at delivery were investigated. Method In a cross-sectional survey, 306 women reporting for delivery in the Mutenegene maternity clinic, Fako division, South West province, Cameroon were screened for P. falciparum in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental tissue sections by microscopy. Information relating to the use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, history of fever attack, infant birth weights and maternal anaemia were recorded. Results Among these women, P. falciparum infection was detected in 5.6%, 25.5% and 60.5% of the cases in peripheral blood, placental blood and placental histological sections respectively. Placental histology was more sensitive (97.4% than placental blood film (41.5% and peripheral blood (8.0% microscopy. In multivariate analysis, age (≤ 20 years old (OR = 4.61, 95% CI = 1.47 – 14.70, history of fever attack (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.58 – 5.73 were significant risk factors associated with microscopically detected parasitaemia. The use of ≥ 2 SP doses (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06 – 0.52 was associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of microscopic parasitaemia at delivery. Age (>20 years (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15 – 0.75 was the only significant risk factor associated with parasitaemia diagnosed by histology only in univariate analysis. Microscopic parasitaemia (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.33–5.62 was a significant risk factor for maternal anaemia at delivery, but neither infection detected by histology only, nor past infection were associated with increased risk of anaemia. Conclusion Placenta histological examination was the most sensitive indicator of malaria infection at

  12. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  13. Recent Experiences with Severe and Cerebral Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...

  14. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Africa among the human population. Determination of risk of malaria transmission requires quick and accurate methods of identification of Anopheles mosquitoes especially when targeting vector control. (Maxwell, et al., 2003). Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. The most important vectors of malaria are members of.

  15. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...

  16. Malaria in Pregnancy: Morbidities and Management | Yakasai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control of malaria in the African Subregion during pregnancy has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). These include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and access to effective case management for malaria illness and anemia. Keywords: malaria in ...

  17. Malaria - sick air on the march

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin

    1999-01-01

    The article surveys the expansion of the malaria risk zones with increasing temperatures, change in climate and habitat alterations. Factors such as the living conditions for various malaria parasites, climatic changes, immunity and drug resistance are studied. It is evident that the greenhouse effects contribute to the expanding malaria risk zones

  18. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  19. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  20. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... refractive errors in children attending an eye clinic in South West Nigeria. METHODS: A ... associated low vision (3).The World Health ... population (11). Vision disorders occurring in childhood may carry on ..... American Indians had lower associated risk. (23). ... contributions of the Resident Doctors and the.