WorldWideScience

Sample records for malaria pldh pan

  1. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  2. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Plasmodium falciparum infections with high parasite densities may generate false positive Plasmodium vivax pLDH lines

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs detect Plasmodium falciparum and an antigen common to the four species. Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs target P. vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH. Previous observations of false positive Pv-pLDH test lines in P. falciparum samples incited to the present study, which assessed P. vivax-specific RDTs for the occurrence of false positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples. Methods Nine P. vivax-specific RDTs were tested with 85 P. falciparum samples of high (≥2% parasite density. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were ruled out by real-time PCR. The RDTs included two-band (detecting Pv-pLDH, three-band (detecting P. falciparum-antigen and Pv-pLDH and four-band RDTs (detecting P. falciparum, Pv-pLDH and pan-pLDH. Results False positive Pv-pLDH lines were observed in 6/9 RDTs (including two- three- and four-band RDTs. They occurred in the individual RDT brands at frequencies ranging from 8.2% to 29.1%. For 19/85 samples, at least two RDT brands generated a false positive Pv-pLDH line. Sixteen of 85 (18.8% false positive lines were of medium or strong line intensity. There was no significant relation between false positive results and parasite density or geographic origin of the samples. Conclusion False positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples with high parasite density occurred in 6/9 P. vivax-specific RDTs. This is of concern as P. falciparum and P. vivax are co-circulating in many regions. The diagnosis of life-threatening P. falciparum malaria may be missed (two-band Pv-pLDH RDT, or the patient may be treated incorrectly with primaquine (three- or four-band RDTs.

  3. Field application of SD bioline malaria Ag Pf/Pan rapid diagnostic test for malaria in Greece.

    Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the field application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy.

  4. Performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Imported Malaria in Clinical Practice: Results of a National Multicenter Study

    Houzé, Sandrine; Boutron, Isabelle; Marmorat, Anne; Dalichampt, Marie; Choquet, Christophe; Poilane, Isabelle; Godineau, Nadine; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Thellier, Marc; Broutier, Hélène; Fenneteau, Odile; Millet, Pascal; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Hubert, Véronique; Houzé, Pascal; Tubach, Florence; Le Bras, Jacques; Matheron, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    We compared the performance of four rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for imported malaria, and particularly Plasmodium falciparum infection, using thick and thin blood smears as the gold standard. All the tests are designed to detect at least one protein specific to P. falciparum ( Plasmodium histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) or Plasmodium LDH (PfLDH)) and one pan-Plasmodium protein (aldolase or Plasmodium LDH (pLDH)). 1,311 consecutive patients presenting to 9 French hospitals with suspected malaria were included in this prospective study between April 2006 and September 2008. Blood smears revealed malaria parasites in 374 cases (29%). For the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection, the three tests detecting PfHRP2 showed high and similar sensitivity (96%), positive predictive value (PPV) (90%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (98%). The PfLDH test showed lower sensitivity (83%) and NPV (80%), despite good PPV (98%). For the diagnosis of non-falciparum species, the PPV and NPV of tests targeting pLDH or aldolase were 94–99% and 52–64%, respectively. PfHRP2-based RDTs are thus an acceptable alternative to routine microscopy for diagnosing P. falciparum malaria. However, as malaria may be misdiagnosed with RDTs, all negative results must be confirmed by the reference diagnostic method when clinical, biological or other factors are highly suggestive of malaria. PMID:24098699

  5. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

    Daniel J Kyabayinze

    Full Text Available Intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.

  6. Evaluation of the OnSite malaria rapid test performance in Miandrivazo, Madagascar.

    Ravaoarisoa, E; Andriamiandranoro, T; Raherinjafy, R; Jahevitra, M; Razanatsiorimalala, S; Andrianaranjaka, V; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1.8%, 95% CI: 0.6-4.9%) were invalid. Ninety four (43,1%) cases of malaria were confirmed by microscopy, of which 90 were P. falciparum malaria and 4 Plasmodium vivax malaria. With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.94, the agreement between microscopy and OnSite is excellent. Compared with the rapid test CareStart™ commonly used within the public health structures in Madagascar, the sensitivity and specificity of the OnSite test were 97.9% and 96.8%.

  7. Evaluation of the Palutop+4 malaria rapid diagnostic test in a non-endemic setting

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palutop+4 (All. Diag, Strasbourg, France, a four-band malaria rapid diagnostic test (malaria RDT targeting the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH and pan Plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan-pLDH was evaluated in a non-endemic setting on stored whole blood samples from international travellers suspected of malaria. Methods Microscopy corrected by PCR was the reference method. Samples include those infected by Plasmodium falciparum (n = 323, Plasmodium vivax (n = 97, Plasmodium ovale (n = 73 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 25 and 95 malaria negative samples. Results The sensitivities for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 85.1%, 66.0%, 32.0% and 5.5%. Sensitivities increased at higher parasite densities and reached 90.0% for P. falciparum >100/μl and 83.8% for P. vivax > 500/μl. Fourteen P. falciparum samples reacted with the Pv-pLDH line, one P. vivax sample with the HRP-2 line, and respectively two and four P. ovale and P. malariae samples reacted with the HRP-2 line. Two negative samples gave a signal with the HRP-2 line. Faint and weak line intensities were observed for 129/289 (44.6% HRP-2 lines in P. falciparum samples, for 50/64 (78.1% Pv-pLDH lines in P. vivax samples and for 9/13 (69.2% pan-pLDH lines in P. ovale and P. malariae samples combined. Inter-observer reliabilities for positive and negative readings were excellent for the HRP-2 and Pv-pLDH lines (overall agreement > 92.0% and kappa-values for each pair of readers ≥ 0.88, and good for the pan-pLDH line (85.5% overall agreement and kappa-values ≥ 0.74. Conclusions Palutop+4 performed moderately for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities were lower than those of three-band malaria RDTs.

  8. Malaria.

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  9. Plasmodium subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1): insights into the active-site structure, specificity and function of a pan-malaria drug target.

    Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Suarez, Catherine; Fulle, Simone; Kher, Samir; Penzo, Maria; Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Koussis, Kostas; Hackett, Fiona; Jirgensons, Aigars; Finn, Paul; Blackman, Michael J

    2012-05-15

    Release of the malaria merozoite from its host erythrocyte (egress) and invasion of a fresh cell are crucial steps in the life cycle of the malaria pathogen. Subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a parasite serine protease implicated in both processes. In the most dangerous human malarial species, Plasmodium falciparum, SUB1 has previously been shown to have several parasite-derived substrates, proteolytic cleavage of which is important both for egress and maturation of the merozoite surface to enable invasion. Here we have used molecular modelling, existing knowledge of SUB1 substrates, and recombinant expression and characterisation of additional Plasmodium SUB1 orthologues, to examine the active site architecture and substrate specificity of P. falciparum SUB1 and its orthologues from the two other major human malaria pathogens Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, as well as from the rodent malaria species, Plasmodium berghei. Our results reveal a number of unusual features of the SUB1 substrate binding cleft, including a requirement to interact with both prime and non-prime side residues of the substrate recognition motif. Cleavage of conserved parasite substrates is mediated by SUB1 in all parasite species examined, and the importance of this is supported by evidence for species-specific co-evolution of protease and substrates. Two peptidyl alpha-ketoamides based on an authentic PfSUB1 substrate inhibit all SUB1 orthologues examined, with inhibitory potency enhanced by the presence of a carboxyl moiety designed to introduce prime side interactions with the protease. Our findings demonstrate that it should be possible to develop 'pan-reactive' drug-like compounds that inhibit SUB1 in all three major human malaria pathogens, enabling production of broad-spectrum antimalarial drugs targeting SUB1. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Malaria

    ... less than the risk of catching this infection. Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for protecting against malaria. But because of resistance, it is now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. oval , and ...

  11. Malaria

    ... bites you, the parasite can get into your blood. The parasite lays eggs, which develop into more parasites. They ... cells until you get very sick. Because the parasites live in the blood, malaria can also be spread through other ways. ...

  12. Optimized Pan-species and speciation duplex real-time PCR assays for Plasmodium parasites detection in malaria vectors.

    Maurice Marcel Sandeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito's vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. METHODS: Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. RESULTS: The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6% and specificity (98%, compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was "excellent" (κ=0.8, P<0.05. The relative quantification of Plasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P=0, 2. All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. CONCLUSION: This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the

  13. SD Bioline malaria antigen Pf (HRP-2/pLHD) for assessing efficacy ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Higher proportions of false positive cases were observed on the HRP-2 band irrespective of patient parasite densities during the follow up but these were barely seen on the pLDH band.

  14. malaria

    children who presented with malaria symptoms at the same clinic and tested positive or ... phagocytes immunity and induce anti-inflammatory immune response ...... treatment gap, Malawi will be ready to submit a validation request for virtual .... Conclusions. Vaccination and quarantine are the important disease preventive.

  15. Malaria

    2011-06-01

    dividing and are far more noticeable than the small amount of clear cyto- plasm surrounding them (Figs 10.6a & 10.6b). Mature schizonts contain 8...edema Same as P. vivax 16 10 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Figure 10.38 Transmission electron micrograph of...mesangiopathic glo- merulonephropathy caused by quartan malaria, deposition of immune complexes may be demonstrated by electron or immunofluorescence microscopy

  16. The diagnostic and prognostic value of conventional and rapid diagnostic tools in malaria

    Chandrakanth C.H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of malaria is raising all over the world and India is no exception. Despite well established treatment regimens and diagnostic tools, Malaria is thought to kill between1.1 to 2.7 million people worldwide each year. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment are one of the key factors in controlling the disease burden of malaria. Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of rapid test (QBC, PLDH, HRP2) with conventional thick and th...

  17. About Malaria

    ... Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us About Malaria Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria is ... from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. About Malaria Topics FAQs Frequently Asked Question, Incubation period, uncomplicated & ...

  18. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  19. Malaria Research

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Malaria Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: NIAID Colorized ... for the disease. Why Is the Study of Malaria a Priority for NIAID? Roughly 3.2 billion ...

  20. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  1. Malaria Matters

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  2. Peter Pan-demien

    Holm, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Ungdommelig opførsel er moderne. I gamle dage skulle vi blive voksne. I dag skal selv gamle mænd og kvinder holde sig unge. Peter Pan-panikken er i os, og en af vores væsentligste sociale lidelser er umodenhed.......Ungdommelig opførsel er moderne. I gamle dage skulle vi blive voksne. I dag skal selv gamle mænd og kvinder holde sig unge. Peter Pan-panikken er i os, og en af vores væsentligste sociale lidelser er umodenhed....

  3. PanJen

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Panduro, Toke Emil

    functional transformations, driven by an a priori and theory-based hypothesis. The plots and model fit metrics enable users to make an informed choice of how to specify the functional form the regression. We show that the PanJen ranking outperforms the Box-Tidwell transformation, especially in the presence...... of inefficiency, heteroscedasticity or endogeneity....

  4. Malaria prophylaxis

    Malaria D:lay still be contracted despite good cOD:lpliance with ... true that prophylaxis is always better than no prophy- laxis, nor is ... If used during pregnancy, a folic acid supplement ... include folate deficiency, agranulocytosis, illegaloblastic.

  5. Pan-pan Girls: Humiliating Liberation in Postwar Japanese Literature

    Rumi Sakamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some literary representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japan. ‘Pan-pan’ is a derogatory term for street prostitutes who (mostly served the soldiers of the occupying forces. Immediately after World War II, the Japanese government established the RAA (Recreation Amusement Association and employed several thousand women to provide sexual services for foreign soldiers, ostensibly to protect Japanese women of middle and upper classes from rape and other violence. When the RAA was closed down in 1946 due to the US concern over widespread VD, many of the women who lost their jobs went out on the street and became private and illegal prostitutes – the pan-pan girls. With their red lipstick, cigarettes, nylon stockings and high-heel shoes, often holding onto the arms of tall, uniformed American GIs, the ‘pan-pan girls’ became a symbol of the occupation, and have been textually reproduced throughout the postwar period. This paper analyses the images and representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japanese literature, to consider how the ‘pan-pan girls’ have functioned as a metaphor for the occupation and contributed to the public memory construction of the occupation. I identify some major codes of representations (victimisation, humiliation, and national trauma; eroticism and decadence; sexual freedom and materialism and argue that the highly gendered and sexualised bodies of the ‘pan-pan girls’ have continued to allow simplistic and selective remembering of the occupation at the expense of recalling the pivotal role of Japanese patriarchy in the postwar period.

  6. Performance of “VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan” (IMACCESS®, a new malaria rapid diagnostic test for detection of symptomatic malaria infections

    Chou Monidarin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, IMACCESS® developed a new malaria test (VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™, based on the detection of falciparum malaria (HRP-2 and non-falciparum malaria (aldolase. Methods The performance of this new malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT was assessed using 1,000 febrile patients seeking malaria treatment in four health centres in Cambodia from August to December 2011. The results of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan were compared with those obtained by microscopy, the CareStart Malaria™ RDT (AccessBio® which is currently used in Cambodia, and real-time PCR (as “gold standard”. Results The best performances of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ test for detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum were with 20–30 min reading times (sensitivity of 93.4% for P. falciparum and 82.8% for non-P. falciparum and specificity of 98.6% for P. falciparum and 98.9% for non-P. falciparum and were similar to those for the CareStart Malaria™ test. Conclusions This new RDT performs similarly well as other commercially available tests (especially the CareStart Malaria™ test, used as comparator, and conforms to the World Health Organization’s recommendations for RDT performance. It is a good alternative tool for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas.

  7. EDITORIAL THE ROLE OF DRUGS IN CONTROL OF MALARIA In ...

    Pharm-chem

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 14 (2011). EDITORIAL. THE ROLE OF DRUGS IN CONTROL OF MALARIA. In the early 1960s, President Kwame Nkrumah, the then doyen of Pan African politics, suggested that it would be appropriate to erect a monument in honour of mosquito which had ...

  8. Malaria chemotherapy.

    Winstanley, Peter; Ward, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Most malaria control strategies today depend on safe and effective drugs, as they have done for decades. But sensitivity to chloroquine, hitherto the workhorse of malaria chemotherapy, has rapidly declined throughout the tropics since the 1980s, and this drug is now useless in many high-transmission areas. New options for resource-constrained governments are few, and there is growing evidence that the burden from malaria has been increasing, as has malaria mortality in Africa. In this chapter, we have tried to outline the main pharmacological properties of current drugs, and their therapeutic uses and limitations. We have summarised the ways in which these drugs are employed, both in the formal health sector and in self-medication. We have briefly touched on the limitations of current drug development, but have tried to pick out a few promising drugs that are under development. Given that Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that kills, and that has developed multi-drug resistance, we have tended to focus upon it. Similarly, given that around 90% of global mortality from malaria occurs in Africa, there is the tendency to dwell on this continent. We give no apology for placing our emphasis upon the use of antimalarial drugs in endemic populations rather than their use for prophylaxis in travellers.

  9. Kompliceret malaria

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  10. Archives: Pan African Medical Journal

    Items 1 - 28 of 28 ... Archives: Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Pan African Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 28 of 28 Items ...

  11. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  12. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  13. Analysis list: pan [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available pan Embryo,Larvae,Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target.../pan.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Larvae.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Pupae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  14. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  15. Malaria and Travelers

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria and Travelers for U.S. Residents Recommend on Facebook ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  16. STATUS HEMATOLOGI PENDERITA MALARIA SEREBRAL

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria

  17. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  18. Investigation of needleless electrospun PAN nanofiber mats

    Sabantina, Lilia; Mirasol, José Rodríguez; Cordero, Tomás; Finsterbusch, Karin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can be spun from a nontoxic solvent (DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide) and is nevertheless waterproof, opposite to the biopolymers which are spinnable from aqueous solutions. This makes PAN an interesting material for electrospinning nanofiber mats which can be used for diverse biotechnological or medical applications, such as filters, cell growth, wound healing or tissue engineering. On the other hand, PAN is a typical base material for producing carbon nanofibers. Nevertheless, electrospinning PAN necessitates convenient spinning parameters to create nanofibers without too many membranes or agglomerations. Thus we have studied the influence of spinning parameters on the needleless electrospinning process of PAN dissolved in DMSO and the resulting nanofiber mats.

  19. Malaria in Children.

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Malaria og graviditet

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  1. Kinematic measurement from panned cinematography.

    Gervais, P; Bedingfield, E W; Wronko, C; Kollias, I; Marchiori, G; Kuntz, J; Way, N; Kuiper, D

    1989-06-01

    Traditional 2-D cinematography has used a stationary camera with its optical axis perpendicular to the plane of motion. This method has constrained the size of the object plane or has introduced potential errors from a small subject image size with large object field widths. The purpose of this study was to assess a panning technique that could overcome the inherent limitations of small object field widths, small object image sizes and limited movement samples. The proposed technique used a series of reference targets in the object field that provided the necessary scales and origin translations. A 102 m object field was panned. Comparisons between criterion distances and film measured distances for field widths of 46 m and 22 m resulted in absolute mean differences that were comparable to that of the traditional method.

  2. Congenital malaria in China.

    Zhi-Yong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%, reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients

  3. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  4. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  5. A comparative molecular survey of malaria prevalence among Eastern chimpanzee populations in Issa Valley (Tanzania) and Kalinzu (Uganda)

    Mapua, M. I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Burgunder, J.; Dadáková, E.; Brožová, K.; Hrazdilová, K.; Stewart, F. A.; Piel, A. K.; Vallo, P.; Fuehrer, H.-P.; Hashimoto, C.; Modrý, David; Qablan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, AUG 19 (2016), č. článku 423. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Malaria * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * Plasmodium spp. * Laverania * Cyt-b gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  6. Evaluación de una prueba rápida para el diagnostico de Malaria en áreas endémicas del Perú

    Nancy Arrospide V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba rapida basada en la deteccion de la pLDH (OptiMALR kit individual para el diagnostico de malaria en areas endemicas del Peru. Materiales y metodos: Estudio transversal realizado con pacientes febriles atendidos en centros de salud de la selva norte del Peru (San Martin y Loreto, de abril a diciembre de 2001. A cada paciente se le realizo la gota gruesa, la prueba OptiMALR y densidad parasitaria en forma ciega, por personal local capacitado y luego en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Malaria. Se calculo la sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo(VPN de la prueba OptiMALR en relacion a la gota gruesa para el diagnostico de malaria global y segun especie (P.falciparum y P.vivax. Resultados: Se incluyeron 346 muestras, 170 positivas. La prueba OptiMALR tuvo niveles de S=95,7%, E=97,1%, VPP=97,7%, VPN=95,3% independientemente de la especie. Para P.falciparum tuvo S=90,5%, E=97,3%, VPP=67,9 y VPN=99.4%; en tanto que para P.vivax S=92,0%, E=99,0%, VPP=98,7% y VPN=93,5%. Las sensibilidades estratificadas por parasitemia fueron 97,0% (5000 parasitos/¥ìL, 99% (100-5000 p/¥ìL y 50% (<100p/¥ìL. Conclusiones: La prueba rapida OptiMALR es un metodo con buena sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnostico de malaria y puede ser usado en lugares donde no se dispone de laboratorios o microscopistas.

  7. Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight

    Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies.  Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...

  8. Severe malaria in Europe

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  9. O pan das ánimas

    Antón, Fina; Mandianes Castro, Manuel

    1996-01-01

    O pan, ademais de cumprir una función alimenticia de primeira orde, está revestido dunha significación simbólica importante. O pan durante a vida axuda a pasa-los límites, a da-lo paso, a integrarse entre os cristiáns por cousa do bautismo e a integrarse no grupo dos homes e mulleres co adaxo da boda, pero o pan axuda, sobre todo, a pasa-lo río Xordán, que é, sen dúbida o límite que separa este mundo do outro; a serpe e as ánimas constitúen un límite e o pan facilita o seu paso. O pan está in...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Disease What is Malaria? Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease ... cycle of disease and poverty. How People Get Malaria (Transmission) How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get ...

  11. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: aristoteles.caf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  12. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease

  13. A new malaria agent in African hominids.

    Benjamin Ollomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the major human malaria agent responsible for 200 to 300 million infections and one to three million deaths annually, mainly among African infants. The origin and evolution of this pathogen within the human lineage is still unresolved. A single species, P. reichenowi, which infects chimpanzees, is known to be a close sister lineage of P. falciparum. Here we report the discovery of a new Plasmodium species infecting Hominids. This new species has been isolated in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes kept as pets by villagers in Gabon (Africa. Analysis of its complete mitochondrial genome (5529 nucleotides including Cyt b, Cox I and Cox III genes reveals an older divergence of this lineage from the clade that includes P. falciparum and P. reichenowi (approximately 21+/-9 Myrs ago using Bayesian methods and considering that the divergence between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi occurred 4 to 7 million years ago as generally considered in the literature. This time frame would be congruent with the radiation of hominoids, suggesting that this Plasmodium lineage might have been present in early hominoids and that they may both have experienced a simultaneous diversification. Investigation of the nuclear genome of this new species will further the understanding of the genetic adaptations of P. falciparum to humans. The risk of transfer and emergence of this new species in humans must be now seriously considered given that it was found in two chimpanzees living in contact with humans and its close relatedness to the most virulent agent of malaria.

  14. Changing the Malaria Environment

    tega

    Malaria in the 21st Century” was held at ... seconds, and more than one million deaths occur annually from this disease. ... Biological control, for example the use of predatory fish against mosquito larvae and the use of other predatory insects.

  15. Bioinformatics approaches to malaria

    Hansen, Daniel Aaen

    Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum......, which is the subject of the first part of this thesis. The PfEMP1 protein which is encoded by the highly variablevargene family is important in the pathogenesis and immune evasion of malaria parasites. We analyzed and classified these genes based on the upstream sequence in seven......Plasmodium falciparumclones. We show that the amount of nucleotide diversity is just as big within each clone as it is between the clones. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic species. We are studying DNA methylation in the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum. The work is still in progress...

  16. Muscling out malaria

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  17. Renewed mobilization against malaria.

    1991-01-01

    1 million people die in the world from malaria annually, 800,000 of whom are 5 year old children in Sub-Sahara Africa. Further it affects 270 million people. In fact, 110 million develop malaria, 90 million of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus WHO has introduced a new world initiative for malaria control to reverse the worsening trend that began in the mid 1970s. In October 1991, 150 officials from 50 African, Asian, and Latin American countries and participants from UN cooperation and development agencies and bilateral agencies attended an interregional conference at the WHO Regional office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. It strove to evaluate malaria situations specific to Africa, to update the malaria control plan in Africa, and to contribute to the development of an implementable world strategy. This world strategy needs to consider the local situation and encourage participation of the government and people of affected countries. Further individuals, communities, and various sectors of the national economy including those involved in health, education, development, and agriculture need to participate in malaria control. In addition, for this strategy to work, most countries must strengthen the management and financing of health services to meet their needs. For example, local populations must share local operating costs such as those for essential drugs and mosquito control operations. Community participation must also include personal protection such as impregnated bed nets and environmental measures. Besides malaria control must be integrated into the existing health system at country, provincial, and peripheral levels. In sum, improved case management, control of malaria transmission, and prevention and control of epidemics form the basis for the new strategy.

  18. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Jesus R. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.

  19. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  20. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria

    Siahaan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.

  1. Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendor

    Prakash Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.

  2. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation

    Achard, F; DeFries, R; Eva, H; Hansen, M; Mayaux, P; Stibig, H-J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation from a pan-tropical perspective in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, which is studying the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The successful implementation of such policies requires effective forest monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented from national to pan-tropical levels. Remotely sensed data, supported by ground observations, are crucial to such efforts. Recent developments in global to regional monitoring of forests can contribute to reducing the uncertainties in estimates of emissions from deforestation. Monitoring systems at national levels in developing countries can also benefit from pan-tropical and regional observations, mainly by identifying hot spots of change and prioritizing areas for monitoring at finer spatial scales. A pan-tropical perspective is also required to ensure consistency between different national monitoring systems. Data sources already exist to determine baseline periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Key requirements for implementing such monitoring programs, both at pan-tropical and at national scales, are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standardized, consensus protocols for data interpretation and analysis

  3. Hari Malaria Sedunia 2013 Investasi Di Masa Depan. Taklukkan Malaria

    Hotnida Sitorus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still the global health problems, World Health Organization estimates that malaria causes death of approximately 660.000 in 2010, most of the age of the children in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. World Malaria Day 2013 assigned the theme “Invest in the future. Defeat malaria”. It takes political will and collective action to jointly combat malaria through malaria elimination. Needed more new donors to be involved in global partnerships against malaria. These partnerships exist, one of which is support of funding or facility for malaria endemic countries which do not have sufficient resources to control malaria. A lot of effort has been done or is still in the development stage. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets appropriately can reduce malaria cases. The use of rapid diagnostic test, especially in remote areas and health facility with no microscopy, is very beneficial for patients to get prompt treatment. The control of malaria through integrated vector management is a rational decision making process to optimize the use of resources in the control of vector. Sterile insect technique has a promising prospect and expected to replace the role of chemical insecticides that have negative impact both on the environment and target vector (resistance. Keywords: Malaria, long-lasting insecticidal nets, rapid diagnostic test Abstrak Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO memperkirakan malaria menyebabkan kurang lebih 660.000 kematian pada tahun 2010, kebanyakan usia anak-anak di wilayah Sub-Sahara Afrika. Pada peringatan hari malaria dunia tahun 2013 ditetapkan tema “Investasi di masa depan. Taklukkan malaria”. Dibutuhkan kemauan politik dan tindakan kolektif untuk bersama-sama memerangi malaria melalui gerakan eliminasi malaria. Diperlukan lebih banyak donor baru untuk turut terlibat dalam kemitraan global melawan malaria. Wujud kemitraan tersebut salah satunya adalah

  4. Knowledge of malaria and practice of home management of malaria ...

    Background: Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is the 3rd leading cause of death for children under five years worldwide. Home-based management of malaria may go a long way in reducing the attending morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in this group ...

  5. Case management of malaria: Diagnosis

    triggering control programme action, and detecting gametocyte carriers, who may ... clinical malaria does not generally apply to local-born populations, although it ... deficiencies in the quality of malaria diagnosis in routine laboratories. Quality ...

  6. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    Potau, J. M.; Arias-Martorell, J.; Bello-Hellegouarch, G.; Casado, A.; Pastor, J. F.; de Paz, F.; Diogo, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan\\ud troglodytes) and bonobos(Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans(Homo sapiens). We\\ud have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and\\ud five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we...

  7. A comparative molecular survey of malaria prevalence among Eastern chimpanzee populations in Issa Valley (Tanzania) and Kalinzu (Uganda)

    Mapua, M. I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Burgunder, J.; Dadáková, E.; Brožová, K.; Hrazdilová, K.; Stewart, F. A.; Piel, A. K.; Vallo, Peter; Fuehrer, H.-P.; Hashimoto, C.; Modrý, D.; Qablan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 423 (2016), s. 423 ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyt-b gene * Laverania * Malaria * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * Plasmodium spp Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  8. Panning artifacts in digital pathology images

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Lanciault, Christian; Espig, Kathryn S.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2017-03-01

    In making a pathologic diagnosis, a pathologist uses cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, and search (Pena and Andrade-Filho, 2009). Typically, this involves focus while panning from one region of a slide to another, using either a microscope in a traditional workflow or software program and display in a digital pathology workflow (DICOM Standard Committee, 2010). We theorize that during panning operation, the pathologist receives information important to diagnosis efficiency and/or correctness. As compared to an optical microscope, panning in a digital pathology image involves some visual artifacts due to the following: (i) the frame rate is finite; (ii) time varying visual signals are reconstructed using imperfect zero-order hold. Specifically, after pixel's digital drive is changed, it takes time for a pixel to emit the expected amount of light. Previous work suggests that 49% of navigation is conducted in low-power/overview with digital pathology (Molin et al., 2015), but the influence of display factors has not been measured. We conducted a reader study to establish a relationship between display frame rate, panel response time, and threshold panning speed (above which the artifacts become noticeable). Our results suggest visual tasks that involve tissue structure are more impacted by the simulated panning artifacts than those that only involve color (e.g., staining intensity estimation), and that the panning artifacts versus normalized panning speed has a peak behavior which is surprising and may change for a diagnostic task. This is work in progress and our final findings should be considered in designing future digital pathology systems.

  9. MALARIA VACCINE: MYTH OR REALITY?

    Femi Olaleye

    Malaria currently remains the highest killer disease nationwide despite existing control measures. Malaria vaccine ... that malaria could be eliminated or at least controlled. However, because of changes in vector behaviour, drug resistance, manpower constraints for public ..... Although animal host models are different from ...

  10. Malaria and Agriculture in Kenya

    Nancy Minogue

    die every day from malaria, conventional efforts to control the disease have not worked. Malaria parasites are .... and other animals. Mosquito nets. Provide insecticide-treated bednets to groups at high risk for malaria, namely young children and pregnant women, through partnerships with nongovernmental organizations ...

  11. Towards A Malaria Vaccine?

    B S GARG

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.

  12. Roll back malaria update.

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  13. The economic burden of malaria.

    Gallup, J L; Sachs, J D

    2001-01-01

    Malaria and poverty are intimately connected. Controlling for factors such as tropical location, colonial history, and geographical isolation, countries with intensive malaria had income levels in 1995 of only 33% that of countries without malaria, whether or not the countries were in Africa. The high levels of malaria in poor countries are not mainly a consequence of poverty. Malaria is geographically specific. The ecological conditions that support the more efficient malaria mosquito vectors primarily determine the distribution and intensity of the disease. Intensive efforts to eliminate malaria in the most severely affected tropical countries have been largely ineffective. Countries that have eliminated malaria in the past half century have all been either subtropical or islands. These countries' economic growth in the 5 years after eliminating malaria has usually been substantially higher than growth in the neighboring countries. Cross-country regressions for the 1965-1990 period confirm the relationship between malaria and economic growth. Taking into account initial poverty, economic policy, tropical location, and life expectancy, among other factors, countries with intensive malaria grew 1.3% less per person per year, and a 10% reduction in malaria was associated with 0.3% higher growth. Controlling for many other tropical diseases does not change the correlation of malaria with economic growth, and these diseases are not themselves significantly negatively correlated with economic growth. A second independent measure of malaria has a slightly higher correlation with economic growth in the 1980-1996 period. We speculate about the mechanisms that could cause malaria to have such a large impact on the economy, such as foreign investment and economic networks within the country.

  14. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring

    Padolski, Siarhei; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Korchuganova, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    BigPanDA monitoring is a web based application which provides various processing and representation of the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system objects states. Analyzing hundreds of millions of computation entities such as an event or a job BigPanDA monitoring builds different scale and levels of abstraction reports in real time mode. Provided information allows users to drill down into the reason of a concrete event failure or observe system bigger picture such as tracking the computation nucleus and satellites performance or the progress of whole production campaign. PanDA system was originally developed for the Atlas experiment and today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 170 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA is its core component commissioned in the middle of 2014 and now is the primary source of information for ATLAS users about state of their computations and the source of decision support information for shifters, operators and managers. In this wor...

  15. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring

    Padolski, Siarhei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    BigPanDA monitoring is a web-based application that provides various processing and representation of the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system objects states. Analysing hundreds of millions of computation entities such as an event or a job BigPanDA monitoring builds different scale and levels of abstraction reports in real time mode. Provided information allows users to drill down into the reason of a concrete event failure or observe system bigger picture such as tracking the computation nucleus and satellites performance or the progress of whole production campaign. PanDA system was originally developed for the Atlas experiment and today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 170 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA is its core component commissioned in the middle of 2014 and now is the primary source of information for ATLAS users about state of their computations and the source of decision support information for shifters, operators and managers. In this work...

  16. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  17. Vacuna contra la malaria

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-01-01

    La malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria producida por la picadura de un mosquito; una afección que en el año 2015 registró 212 millones de casos y 429.000 muertes. Cada dos minutos, la malaria provocó la muerte de un niño menor de cinco años en todo el mundo. Diferentes científicos a lo largo de todo el mundo han hecho múltiples intentos para combatir esta enfermedad con una vacuna efectiva que pueda erradicarla de raíz.

  18. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  19. Nested PCR detection of Plasmodium malariae from microscopy confirmed P. falciparum samples in endemic area of NE India.

    Dhiman, Sunil; Goswami, Diganta; Kumar, Dinesh; Rabha, Bipul; Sharma, Dhirendra Kumar; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluates the performance of OptiMAL-IT test and nested PCR assay in detection of malaria parasites. A total of 76 randomly selected blood samples collected from two malaria endemic areas were tested for malaria parasites using microscopy and OptiMAL-IT test in the field. PCR assays were performed in the laboratory using DNA extracted from blood spots of the same samples collected on the FTA classic cards. Of the total of 61 field confirmed malaria positive samples, only 58 (95%) were detected positive using microscopy in the laboratory. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false discovery rate of OptiMal-IT in comparison to the microscopy were 93%, 83%, 95%, 79% and 5%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR assay were 97% and 100%, respectively, whereas positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false discovery rate were 100%, 90% and 0%, respectively. The overall performance of OptiMal-IT and PCR assays for malaria diagnosis was 76% and 97%, respectively. PCR assay enabled the identification of infection with Plasmodium malariae Laveran, 1881 in four samples misidentified by microscopy and Plasmodium-specific antigen (PAN) identified by the OptiMAL-IT test. In addition to the standard methods, such PCR assay could be useful to obtain the real incidence of each malaria parasite species for epidemiological perspectives.

  20. Fight malaria at home: Therapeutic and prophylaxis clinical data

    Deepak Bhattacharya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify a new, safe and effective source to combat and prevent drug resistant malaria therapeutically and to make it as a home-made bio-medicine which is called as OMARIA (Orissa malaria research indigenous attempt and use it on long term basis (decade in mono clinical station and in field. Methods: The rind of a lesser known Indian indigenous fruit dalimba/ Punica granatum (P. granatum is taken. Manual process to make a hand-made or home-made bio-medicine is done. Hand-filled into gelatin capsules and administered as an internal medicine. Therapy to 532 clinical cases is given at the Govt Red Cross Clinic, and Prophylaxis at site is administered to 401 cases by adopting 3 villages. Results: Hydrophyllic, ellagitannins viz., punicalagin (C 48H28O 30; mw 1 1 00~1 1 25, punicalin (C 34H22O 22; mw 780~785, ellagic acid (C14H6O8; mw 302 and K+ co-exists as the only drug moieties. OMARIA has no other confounding or confabulating compounds. There is non alkaloid. Conclusions: OMARIA delivers therapeutics and prophylaxis to drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum cases. There are no side effects and no contradictions. Non-toxic at bolus/loading doses. No case progressed to cerebral malaria. OMARIA is a first time work. Original report on pan global basis.

  1. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.) [de

  2. Chemotherapy of Malaria

    1974-05-31

    malaria in Vietnam was resisent to drugs such as chloroquine , generally recognized since World War ii as satisfactory antimalarial agents. The urgent...known to have antimalarial activity; (3) structural analogues of compounds found active in our test system and representing several novel chemical

  3. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...

  4. Malaria and gold fever.

    Veeken, H

    1993-08-14

    The mineral rich territory of the Yanomami Indians of northern Brazil has been invaded by miners--who have destroyed the environment and introduced disease. Médecins Sans Frontières agreed to help combat the malaria epidemic. Conditions in the rainforest and villages and the health care facilities are described. Mere medical aid cannot prevent the Yanomami from being decimated.

  5. Malaria prevention and treatment

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.

  6. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria, therefore ... children. The incidence of history of fever, indicative of malaria in children of the respondents within one ... interventions for the control of childhood malaria. ..... Yellow eyes. 20.

  7. Choosing a Drug to Prevent Malaria

    ... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medicines, also consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions with other medicines that the person might be ...

  8. Initial Burn Pan (JMTF) Testing Results

    2016-03-01

    burn pan and one located high on the Ex-USS Shadwell. There were also a number of GoPro cameras (3-4) that were positioned to observe specific...locations around the test area. A remote control drone equipped with a GoPro camera was also used to video the third test. All recorded video and still

  9. Bronchiectasis: a bacteriological profile | Bopaka | Pan African ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  10. Hypoglycemia revealing arachnoidocele in infant | Jellouli | Pan ...

    The patient was treated with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine and growth hormone replacement. The outcome was favorable without recourse to neurosurgery at the lack of damage to the optic nerve and the sphenoid bone, with a decline of five years otherwise the child has a delay in psychomotor acquisitions. Pan African ...

  11. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  12. The occurrence of large branchiopod crustaceans in perennial pans ...

    Pans are isolated, shallow depressions that are endorheic in nature. Because of the natural hydrological functioning of pans, these systems are usually restricted to arid regions and complete desiccation occurs seasonally. In the eastern provinces of South Africa many pans are perennial in nature often remaining inundated ...

  13. Malaria and protective behaviours: is there a malaria trap?

    Berthélemy, Jean-Claude; Thuilliez, Josselin; Doumbo, Ogobara; Gaudart, Jean

    2013-06-13

    In spite of massive efforts to generalize efficient prevention, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), malaria remains prevalent in many countries and ITN/LLINs are still only used to a limited extent. This study proposes a new model for malaria economic analysis by combining economic epidemiology tools with the literature on poverty traps. A theoretical model of rational protective behaviour in response to malaria is designed, which includes endogenous externalities and disease characteristics. Survey data available for Uganda provide empirical support to the theory of prevalence-elastic protection behaviours, once endogeneity issues related to epidemiology and poverty are solved. Two important conclusions emerge from the model. First, agents increase their protective behaviour when malaria is more prevalent in a society. This is consistent with the literature on "prevalence-elastic behaviour". Second, a 'malaria trap' defined as the result of malaria reinforcing poverty while poverty reduces the ability to deal with malaria can theoretically exist and the conditions of existence of the malaria trap are identified. These results suggest the possible existence of malaria traps, which provides policy implications. Notably, providing ITN/LLINs at subsidized prices is not sufficient. To be efficient an ITN/LLINs dissemination campaigns should include incentive of the very poor for using ITN/LLINs.

  14. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on vegetation. I. Herbaceous plants PAN injury symptoms

    Nouchi, I.; Iijima, T.; Oodaira, T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of exposure experiments were conducted in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber equipped with artificial light apparatus, using PAN synthesized from ultraviolet irradiation of ethyl nitrite vapor in oxygen. Exposures of 6 approx. 16 hours and 10 pphm PAN caused serious damage like caving with glazing or bronzing in caved lesions to the lower surface of younger leaves. Leaves of white-flowered petunia were found to be most sensitive to PAN and were damaged even by a 3 pphm exposure. Microscopic examinations showed that the PAN characteristically caused injuries of spongy cells and that these cells collapsed and turned brown. Leaf injury symptoms on herbaceous plants caused by synthesized PAN in the exposure experiments were found to be quite similar to those seen in the field under high oxidant emergence. Therefore, it seems that the said type of injuries to leaf beet, kidney bean, and head lettuce observed in the field were caused by PAN. 21 references. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  16. Intravenous artesunate plus Artemisnin based Combination Therapy (ACT) or intravenous quinine plus ACT for treatment of severe malaria in Ugandan children: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Achan, Jane; Lamorde, Mohammed; Karera-Gonahasa, Carine; Kiragga, Agnes N; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nsobya, Sam; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Merry, Concepta

    2017-12-28

    Severe malaria is a medical emergency associated with high mortality. Adequate treatment requires initial parenteral therapy for fast parasite clearance followed by longer acting oral antimalarial drugs for cure and prevention of recrudescence. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the 42-day parasitological outcomes of severe malaria treatment with intravenous artesunate (AS) or intravenous quinine (QNN) followed by oral artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) in children living in a high malaria transmission setting in Eastern Uganda. We enrolled 300 participants and all were included in the intention to treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment arms. The median and interquartile range for number of days from baseline to parasite clearance was significantly lower among participants who received intravenous AS (2 (1-2) vs 3 (2-3), P malaria symptoms. In this high transmission setting, we observed adequate initial treatment outcomes followed by very high rates of malaria re-infection post severe malaria treatment. The impact of recurrent antimalarial treatment on the long term efficacy of antimalarial regimens needs to be investigated and surveillance mechanisms for resistance markers established since recurrent malaria infections are likely to be exposed to sub-therapeutic drug concentrations. More strategies for prevention of recurrent malaria infections in the most at risk populations are needed. The study was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( PACTR201110000321348 ).

  17. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  18. Clash of pans: pan-Africanism and pan-Anglo-Saxonism and the global colour line, 1919–1945

    Ledwidge, M.; Parmar, I.

    2017-01-01

    The article demonstrates both conceptually and empirically that pan-Anglo-Saxonist knowledge networks reconstructed and reimagined an apparently de-racialised, scientific, sober and liberal world order that outwardly abandoned, but did not eradicate the twin phenomena of racism and imperialism. Rather the new liberal (imperial) internationalists, organised in newly formed “think tanks” such as Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations, and through their increasingly global elite netw...

  19. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  20. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear.

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan- Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria. A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium -specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction. The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum . All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR. By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  1. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear

    Gholamreza HASSANPOUR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan-Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria.Methods: A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium-specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction.Results: The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum. All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR.Conclusion: By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  2. Fuel and energy saving in open pan furnace used in jaggery making through modified juice boiling/concentrating pans

    Anwar, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the concept of fins has been used for heating purpose for improving efficiency of open pan jaggery making furnace. Pan is the integral part of these furnaces where boiling/concentration of sugarcane juice take place. Parallel fins were provided to the bottom of main pan and gutter pan of IISR Lucknow 2-pan furnace. Choice for type of fins was based on movement of flames and hot flue gases generated due to combustion of bagasse. Fins helped in more heat transfer to the sugarcane juice being concentrated. Considerable improvement in heat utilization efficiency (9.44%) was observed which resulted in saving of fuel and energy (31.34%).

  3. Households' incidence on malaria and expenditures to treat malaria ...

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between expenditure and use of different vector control depends on the geographic location of respondents. People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools.

  4. Malaria parasitemia among asymptomatic infants seen in a malaria ...

    In clinical settings, management of malaria cases has primarily been centred on case definition, giving minimal consideration to the asymptomatic individuals who remain a major reservoir since they do not seek care. In malaria endemic areas, infants are likely to remain asymptomatic since they have partial immunity ...

  5. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Bonobos (Pan paniscus, and Humans (Homo sapiens

    J. M. Potau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens. We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes; none of the Pan paniscus, however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus. In all six Pan troglodytes, the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens, it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  6. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens).

    Potau, J M; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Casado, A; Pastor, J F; de Paz, F; Diogo, R

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens) . We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes , five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens . Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes ; none of the Pan paniscus , however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus . In all six Pan troglodytes , the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens , it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  7. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  8. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  9. BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of salt pan regolith samples are presented in this study in an effort to understand the role of spatial and spectral variability of the natural biome. The samples were obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20 deg S, 15.93 deg E, alt. 1100 m). It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results, airborne BRDF measurements acquires with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the regolith samples were collected are compared with the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory measured and field measured BRDF is reported.

  10. Peter Pan på All Inclusive

    Schwartz, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste ti år er det blevet svært og ikke mindst enormt kedeligt at blive voksen i nyere dansk litteratur, og det i en sådan grad, at der måske i samtidslitteraturen er tale om en nærmst epidemisk modstand mod at blive formet og modnet i voksne termer. I artiklen Peter Pan på All...

  11. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys

    Chambers, Kenneth; Pan-STARRS Team

    2018-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys are complete and the first data release, DR1, is available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute. The data include a database of measured attributes of 3 billion objects, stacked images, and metadata of the 3pi Steradian Survey. The DR1 contains all stationary objects with mean and stack photometry registered on the GAIA astrometric frame. DR2 is in preparation and will be released this winter with all the individual epoch images and time domain photometry and forced photometry on the individual epoch images. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Measured attributes include PSF model magnitudes, aperture magnitudes, Kron Magnitudes, radial moments, Petrosian magnitudes, DeVaucoulers, Exponential, and Sersic magnitudes for extended objects. Images include total intensity, variance, and masks.An overview of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys and data releases will be presented together with a brief description of the data collected since the end of the PS1 Science Consortium surveys, and the plans for the upcoming survey with PS1 and PS2 begining in February 2018.

  12. El pan nuestro de cada mes

    Dora Cecilia Ramírez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Comenzar escribiendo que Pan fue una revista singular sería caer en un lugar común. Lo más fácil sería decir que Pan fue o es una caja de sorpresas. Corre 1935. Colombia es un país rural; cobija una sociedad que se resiste, a pesar de los discursos progresistas, a ese proceso de transformación que ya anuncia el comercio cafetero y las primeras huelgas. Es la época de auge de los ferrocarriles nacionales, cuando se toma Cafiaspirina y Griperol, se viaja a Nueva York vía La Habana en lujosos trasatlánticos y, por supuesto, no existe la televisión. La mujer está en la casa en "lo suyo" el hombre por fuera también en "lo suyo", "las ventanas de acero se imponen en las construcciones modernas" y la soledad del ser es la misma de hoy. Se respira una gran mediocridad nacional y los escritores adoran la retórica. Entonces aparece Pan, con su formato de 15 por 23 centímetros y sus ochenta y cuatro páginas.

  13. Malaria in pregnancy | Okpere | Nigerian Medical Journal

    Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10,000 maternal deaths and to at least 200,000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor ...

  14. Damage of plants due to peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)

    Fukuda, H.; Terakado, K.

    1974-02-01

    In Japan plant damages began to resemble those due to PAN about 1972. Exposure experiments with artifically synthesized PAN in an environment simulation room determined the concentration of PAN and its duration to examine the relationship between these data in the field and crop damage. Synthesized PAN created by irradiating a mixture of ethyl nitrate and oxygen with ultraviolet light gave results similar to those seen in fields. From the end of April to the end of November, damages to petunias seemingly due to PAN appeared 15 times. The symptoms differed with the variety of petunia. After 14 experiments in fields from September 20 to November 30 with a continuous determination of the environmental concentration of PAN, damages to petunia were confirmed on 6 days when the maximum PAN concentration range was 3.0-6.7 ppb. The duration of concentrations higher than 3 ppb was 2-13 hr. The most serious damage appeared on September 20 when a concentration of more than 5 ppb continued for 7 hours. No damage appeared with a long continuation (6-12 hr) of a lower concentration of PAN of 2 ppb. Inter-varietal grafting showed that the symptoms and the degree of damage due to PAN were influenced only by the physiological specificity of the aerial portion of the plant. Leaves which are most affected by PAN differed with the variety of petunia.

  15. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  16. Is Pan-Asian Economic Integration Moving Forward?: Evidence from Pan-Asian Trade Statistics

    Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur; Shuto, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    Asia is growing economically faster than any other region in the world; this led to the shift of the center of gravity of the global economy from the West to the East. However, it is not clear whether the Asian economy is integrating regionally or globally. In the context of the growing efforts of regional or sub-regional pan-Asian integration, it is worthwhile to explore the pan-Asian trade flows regionally as well as globally. Thus, this paper examines the trend and determinants of economic...

  17. A PanDA backend for the ganga analysis interface

    Vanderster, D C; Elmsheuser, J; Walker, R; Liko, D; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P

    2010-01-01

    Ganga provides a uniform interface for running ATLAS user analyses on a number of local, batch, and grid backends. PanDA is a pilot-based production and distributed analysis system developed and used extensively by ATLAS. This work presents the implementation and usage experiences of a PanDA backend for Ganga. Built upon reusable application libraries from GangaAtlas and PanDA, the Ganga PanDA backend allows users to run their analyses on the worldwide PanDA resources, while providing the ability for users to develop simple or complex analysis workflows in Ganga. Further, the backend allows users to submit and manage 'personal' PanDA pilots: these pilots run under the user's grid certificate and provide a secure alternative to shared pilot certificates while enabling the usage of local resource allocations.

  18. Precision Photometry and Astrometry from Pan-STARRS

    Magnier, Eugene A.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2018-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS 3pi Survey has been calibrated with excellent precision for both astrometry and photometry. The Pan-STARRS Data Release 1, opened to the public on 2016 Dec 16, provides photometry in 5 well-calibrated, well-defined bandpasses (grizy) astrometrically registered to the Gaia frame. Comparisons with other surveys illustrate the high quality of the calibration and provide tests of remaining systematic errors in both Pan-STARRS and those external surveys. With photometry and astrometry of roughly 3 billion astronomical objects, the Pan-STARRS DR1 has substantial overlap with Gaia, SDSS, 2MASS and other surveys. I will discuss the astrometric tie between Pan-STARRS DR1 and Gaia and show comparisons between Pan-STARRS and other large-scale surveys.

  19. [Fake malaria drugs].

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2009-03-02

    The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.

  20. Bioorganometallic Chemistry and Malaria

    Biot, Christophe; Dive, Daniel

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of organometallic antimalarials. It begins with a general introduction to malaria and the biology of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a focus on the heme detoxification system. Then, a number of metal complexes from the literature are reported for their antiplasmodial activity. The second half of the chapter deals with the serendipitous discovery of ferroquine, its mechanism(s) of action, and the failure to induce a resistance. Last, but not least, we suggest that the bioorganometallic approach offers the potential for the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  1. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas.

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Robertson, Joel D; Keele, Brandon F; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here we develop a single-genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in faecal samples from wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed and almost always made up of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas comprised parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

  2. Association between serum transferrin receptor levels and malaria ...

    user

    ... and malaria is common in sub-Saharan Africa, and is a complex phenomenon. ... iron status and malaria incidence among children in a high malaria ... seasonally as cash crops. ... Children were followed for presence of malaria parasites by.

  3. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...... hypoglycaemia may be due to direct effects of similar molecules on glucose metabolism. These molecules appear to be phospholipids and we suggest that when fully characterized they might form the basis of antitoxic therapy for malaria....

  4. On linearity of pan-integral and pan-integrable functions space

    Ouyang, Y.; Li, J.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 307-318 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linearity * monotone measure * Pan-integrable space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477549.pdf

  5. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  6. HOW TO PAN-SHARPEN IMAGES USING THE GRAM-SCHMIDT PAN-SHARPEN METHOD – A RECIPE

    T. Maurer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its publication in 1998 (Laben and Brower, 2000, the Gram-Schmidt pan-sharpen method has become one of the most popular algorithms to pan-sharpen multispectral (MS imagery. It outperforms most other pan-sharpen methods in both maximizing image sharpness and minimizing color distortion. It is, on the other hand, also more complex and computationally expensive than most other methods, as it requires forward and backward transforming the entire image. Another complication is the lack of a clear recipe of how to compute the sensor dependent MS to Pan weights that are needed to compute the simulated low resolution pan band. Estimating them from the sensor’s spectral sensitivity curves (in different ways, or using linear regression or least square methods are typical candidates which can include other degrees of freedom such as adding a constant offset or not. As a result, most companies and data providers do it somewhat differently. Here we present a solution to both problems. The transform coefficients can be computed directly and in advance from the MS covariance matrix and the MS to Pan weights. Once the MS covariance matrix is computed and stored with the image statistics, any small section of the image can be pan-sharpened on the fly, without having to compute anything else over the entire image. Similarly, optimal MS to Pan weights can be computed directly from the full MS-Pan covariance matrix, guaranteeing optimal image quality and consistency.

  7. [Congenital malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae].

    Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F

    2000-05-19

    Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.

  8. Pan Am tar sand bid revealed

    Gray, E

    1968-12-16

    Muskeg Oil Co., wholly-owned subsidiary of Pan American Canada Oil Co. Ltd., hopes to expand its proposed initial 8,000 bpd in situ Athabasca tar sand production scheme to an ultimate rate of 60,000 bpd. The Muskeg recovery process involves an in situ combustion technique developed by Pan American and applied successfully in experimental work in the Athabasca area. The underground burning process develops heat in the formation, reduces crude bitumen viscosity, and displaces the bitumen to the producing wells. Core analyses have been used to determine bitumen in place, wherever possible. Values for uncored wells were based on logs, through development of an empirical relationship between formation resistivity measured by focused logging devices and bitumen content determined by core analysis. The proposed recovery process is a 10-acre well spacing with 9-spot configuration. The McMurray Formation will be fractured hydraulically and preheated by a combustion process. The bitumen will be recovered by a combustion displacement process utilizing air and water.

  9. An Anthropologist Looks at Malaria

    prevalence of malaria is a major selective agent in- ... century before Darwin put forward the Theory of Natural ... A. C. Allison, a former research student of the Anatomy ... A review of all available ... However, they both draw attention to the.

  10. Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... antigenic polymorphism, shedding of parts of parasite proteins, cross-reactive epitopes of antigens of ... Due to the lack of HLA molecules on the surface of the .... Susceptibility and death rates in P. falciparum malaria are.

  11. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  12. 75 FR 61698 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    2010-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department... Commerce (Secretary) by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American) has closed. No additional information, briefs...

  13. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  14. Heritability of malaria in Africa.

    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown.We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively.Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden of disease in malaria-endemic areas.

  15. Heritability of Malaria in Africa.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden

  16. ATLAS BigPanDA Monitoring and Its Evolution

    Wenaus, Torre; The ATLAS collaboration; Korchuganova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    BigPanDA is the latest generation of the monitoring system for the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system. The BigPanDA monitor is a core component of PanDA and also serves the monitoring needs of the new ATLAS Production System Prodsys-2. BigPanDA has been developed to serve the growing computation needs of the ATLAS Experiment and the wider applications of PanDA beyond ATLAS. Through a system-wide job database, the BigPanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the tasks and jobs executed by the system, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. The system has been in production and has remained in continuous development since mid 2014, today effectively managing more than 2 million jobs per day distributed over 150 computing centers worldwide. BigPanDA also delivers web-based analytics and system state views to groups of users including distributed computing systems operators, shifters, physicist end-users, computing managers and accounting services. Provi...

  17. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses.

    Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A; Patel, Sonal J; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R; Frei, Julia C; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L; Froude, Jeffrey W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M; Glass, Pamela J; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross

  18. Development and characterization of highly oriented PAN nanofiber

    M. Sadrjahani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and non-conventional electrospinning technique was employed for producing highly oriented Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers. The PAN nanofibers were electrospun from 14 wt% solution of PAN in dimethylformamid (DMF at 11 kv on a rotating drum with various linear speeds from 22.5 m/min to 67.7 m/min. The influence of take up velocity was investigated on the degree of alignment, internal structure and mechanical properties of collected PAN nanofibers. Using an image processing technique, the best degree of alignment was obtained for those nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring molecular orientation of PAN nanofibers. Similarly, a maximum chain orientation parameter of 0.25 was determined for nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min.

  19. Malaria in Brazil: an overview.

    Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brasil, Patrícia; Ladislau, José L B; Tauil, Pedro L; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2010-04-30

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306,000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  20. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    Brasil Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several

  1. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  2. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  3. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if

  4. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data ..... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  5. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  6. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  7. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa

    regard to tourism, within an area of ~100 000 km2. ... Unfortunately, international funding for .... carriers, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, to interrupt malaria ... education of healthcare workers on malaria diagnosis and treatment.

  8. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... randomisation produced comparable intervention and comparison groups with balanced characteristics. Specific results of the baseline studies are presented in the companion paper. ... strategies for protecting pregnant women against malaria. ..... from malaria vaccine trial conducted among Tanzanian.

  9. Hemozoin Inhibition and Control of Clinical Malaria

    Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria has a negative impact on health and social and economic life of residents of endemic countries. The ultimate goals of designing new treatment for malaria are to prevent clinical infection, reduce morbidity, and decrease mortality. There are great advances in the understanding of the parasite-host interaction through studies by various scientists. In some of these studies, attempts were made to evaluate the roles of malaria pigment or toxins in the pathogenesis of malaria. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA, immunosuppression, and cytokine dysfunction. Targeting of this pigment may be necessary in the design of new therapeutic products against malaria. In this review, the roles of hemozoin in the morbidity and mortality of malaria are highlighted as an essential target in the quest for effective control of clinical malaria.

  10. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Lanzer, Peter (ed.) [Health Care Center Bitterfeld (Germany). Division of Cardiovascular Disease

    2015-06-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  11. PanVascular medicine. 2. ed.

    Lanzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vascular management and care has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise as the number of specialists involved in the treatment of patients with vascular diseases has steadily increased. While in the past, treatments were delivered by individual specialists, in the twenty-first century a team approach is without doubt the most effective strategy. In order to promote professional excellence in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field, a shared knowledge base and interdisciplinary standards need to be established. Pan Vascular Medicine, 2nd edition has been designed to offer such an interdisciplinary platform, providing vascular specialists with state-of-the art descriptive and procedural knowledge. Basic science, diagnostics, and therapy are all comprehensively covered. In a series of succinct, clearly written chapters, renowned specialists introduce and comment on the current international guidelines and present up-to-date reviews of all aspects of vascular care.

  12. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2016-01-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns' compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  13. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns’ compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  14. Concentration of uranium on TiO-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite absorbers

    Motl, Alois; Sebesta, Ferdinand; John, Jan; Spendlikova, Irena; Nemec, Mojmir

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers have been extensively tested for use in separation and concentration of uranium from Surface water. Except for separation of uranium from uranium -Contaminated waste water (e.g. waste water from mining and milling of uranium, Waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing) their main area of application has been foreseen to be their use for extraction of uranium from sea water which could partially cover future needs of uranium. Another perspective area of application is pre-concentration of uranium from natural waters followed by uranium determination via various specialized techniques such as TRLFS or AMS. Possibilities of uranium extraction from sea water have been subject of several international conferences (e.g. Topical meetings on the Recovery of Uranium from Seawater in 1980's, ACS National Meetings 2012 etc.) and are critically evaluated in a review by Bitte or recently by Kim. In the Czech Republic uranium-selective inorganic ion exchangers might be applied for treatment of various wastes from uranium industry, namely underground Water, uranium milling over-balance water, or acid waste water from underground uranium leaching and also like in other countries for determination of uranium isotopic composition focusing on anthropogenic and natural 236 U content. Among the best performing inorganic ion exchangers for the above listed purposes hydrated titanium dioxide (abbreviated as TiO) and sodium titanate (abbreviated as NaTiO) can be listed. Properties of TiO and NaTiO were reviewed by Lehto. From the point of view of ion-exchange, properties of hydrated titanium oxide and sodium titanate are very similar. The main disadvantage of these ion exchangers for industrial-scale application is their insufficient mechanical stability. To improve this property, the sorption materials can be embedded into a binding matrix. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been proposed at the Czech Technical University in Prague as a universal binding matrix for

  15. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  16. Recent Experiences with Severe and Cerebral Malaria

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...

  17. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles

    DR. AMIN

    Africa among the human population. Determination of risk of malaria transmission requires quick and accurate methods of identification of Anopheles mosquitoes especially when targeting vector control. (Maxwell, et al., 2003). Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. The most important vectors of malaria are members of.

  18. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...

  19. Malaria in Pregnancy: Morbidities and Management | Yakasai ...

    control of malaria in the African Subregion during pregnancy has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). These include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and access to effective case management for malaria illness and anemia. Keywords: malaria in ...

  20. Malaria - sick air on the march

    Aunan, Kristin

    1999-01-01

    The article surveys the expansion of the malaria risk zones with increasing temperatures, change in climate and habitat alterations. Factors such as the living conditions for various malaria parasites, climatic changes, immunity and drug resistance are studied. It is evident that the greenhouse effects contribute to the expanding malaria risk zones

  1. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  2. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  3. Tamización de malaria en donantes de sangre de Cali, Colombia.

    Carmen M. Castillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En Colombia existe déficit de unidades de sangre. En ciudades como Cali este déficit se agrava por el rechazo de donantes debido al riesgo de transmitir malaria; aunque en la ciudad no hay transmisión de malaria, está próxima a la Costa Pacífica, zona de alta transmisión de malaria en el país. En los bancos de sangre, la tamización de malaria está basada solamente en una entrevista. Una prueba de laboratorio para malaria podría mejorar la selección de los donantes y, así, incrementar el número de unidades de sangre disponibles. Objetivo. Evaluar las pruebas de gota gruesa, ELISA-IgG y ELISA-HRPII usando la PCR semi- anidada como prueba de referencia en la tamización de donantes de sangre en Cali. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un banco de sangre de Cali entre febrero y mayo de 2002. Se practicaron gota gruesa, ELISA-IgG y ELISA-HRPII (Pan Malaria Antibody ELISA y Malaria Ag CELISA, Cellabs, Australia y sus resultados se compararon con la PCR semianidada. Se evaluaron 286 muestras, 115 eran donantes rechazados únicamente por tener antecedentes de haber vivido o viajado a zonas endémicas en el último año y 171 eran donantes aceptados. Resultados. Ninguna muestra tuvo resultado positivo con las pruebas realizadas. Conclusión. Los donantes rechazados basados en la entrevista podrían haber sido aceptados según las pruebas de laboratorio. Con el propósito de mejorar el proceso de tamización, sugerimos realizar una prueba de laboratorio a los donantes que son rechazados por el riesgo potencial de transmitir malaria. Se requieren estudios adicionales que permitan seleccionar la prueba más adecuada.

  4. HUBUNGAN ANOPHELES BARBIROSTRIS DENGAN MALARIA

    Krisna Iryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by intercellular obligate protozoa genus of Plasmodium which is a parasite carried by female Anopheles mosquito. One of them is Anopheles barbirostris. Research in several places already proved that Anopheles barbirostris acts as a vector of malaria. One case that occurred in Cineam district, Tasikmalaya regency showed that Anopheles barbirostris is suspected as vector of malaria. This is proven through a research on the relationship between Anopheles barbirostris with malaria. Data was taken from the larvae and adult mosquitoes captured around Cineam village, Tasikmalaya. The observation was done in the open field and laboratory. Data and identification by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that the population of Anopheles barbirostris was always a dominant population compared to another Anopheles species. Because of the breeding ponds and the resting places were around the village, it is suspected that they mainly bit humans. The result of the observation in laboratory showed the life cycle of Anopheles barbirostris are around 20-27 days, and the longevity of 20 days. Morphological identification of Anopheles barbirostris by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that there is no any significant difference. This research showed that Anopheles barbirostris was suspected as vector of malaria in Cineam village, Tasikmalaya.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  6. Management of malaria in pregnancy

    Stephen J Rogerson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are especially susceptible to malaria infection. Without existing immunity, severe malaria can develop requiring emergency treatment, and pregnancy loss is common. In semi-immune women, consequences of malaria for the mother include anaemia while stillbirth, premature delivery and foetal growth restriction affect the developing foetus. Preventive measures include insecticide-treated nets and (in some African settings intermittent preventive treatment. Prompt management of maternal infection is key, using parenteral artemisinins for severe malaria, and artemisinin combination treatments (ACTs in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. ACTs may soon also be recommended as an alternative to quinine as a treatment in the first trimester of pregnancy. Monitoring the safety of antimalarials and understanding their pharmacokinetics is particularly important in pregnancy with the altered maternal physiology and the risks to the developing foetus. As increasing numbers of countries embrace malaria elimination as a goal, the special needs of the vulnerable group of pregnant women and their infants should not be overlooked.

  7. Thermal and radiochemical degradation of some PAN copolymers

    Jipa, S. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Zaharescu, T. [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania)], E-mail: traian_zaharescu@yahoo.com; Setnescu, R. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Dragan, E.S.; Dinu, M.V. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2008-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and some copolymers of acrylonitrile with divinylbenzene (AN-DVB) were investigated by the characterization of their thermal and radiation stabilities. The contribution of DVB to the thermal stability of PAN by the modification in the amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon between 6 and 20% was revealed by the evaluation of oxidation induction periods and required activation energies. The exposure of these materials to the action of {gamma}-radiation points out the higher stability of copolymers (AN-DVB) in comparison to the relative stability of PAN.

  8. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  10. Malaria in inter-war British India.

    Bynum, W F

    2000-06-01

    British India was an important site of much important malaria research. Although Ronald Ross left India in 1899, a number of malariologists continued the task of evaluating the incidence and distribution of malaria in the country. Implementing practical solutions was hampered by formidable social and economic problems. This paper examines the Indian situation in the late 1920s, through a retrospective selection of writings chosen by J.A. Sinton for reproduction in an early issue of 'The records of the malaria survey of India', and the analysis of the Indian malaria situation through a visit of the League of Nations Malaria Commission in 1929.

  11. Severe falciparum malaria: A case report

    Arcelia, F.; Asymida, F.; Lubis, N. F. M.; Pasaribu, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Plasmodium parasites caused Malaria. Indonesia is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that endemic to malaria. The burden of malaria is more in the eastern part of Indonesia than the Western part as well as the endemicity. Some cases of malaria will develop to severe form. Usually, the manifestation of children and adult are different. We reported a severe case of malaria in a 14-year-old boy who develops several manifestations such as anemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis and black water fever. We successfully treated the patient with Artesunate intravenous and continued with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine.

  12. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  13. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  14. 75 FR 47262 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.

    2010-08-05

    ... by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department..., closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American..., 2010, Pan American Grain Co. filed notice of an appeal with the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary...

  15. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development.

    Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K; Miller, Louis H

    2010-12-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major public health threat, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa. An effective malaria vaccine would be a valuable tool to reduce the disease burden and could contribute to elimination of malaria in some regions of the world. Current malaria vaccine candidates are directed against human and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle, but thus far, relatively few proteins have been studied for potential vaccine development. The most advanced vaccine candidate, RTS,S, conferred partial protection against malaria in phase II clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a phase III trial in Africa. New vaccine targets need to be identified to improve the chances of developing a highly effective malaria vaccine. A better understanding of the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity to malaria may lead to insights for vaccine development.

  16. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  17. Pan computed tomography for blunt polytrauma: Are we doing too ...

    organ injuries, and better selection of patients needing intensive care or those ... Trauma Service, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, during the 12-month period .... technology.[14] .... emergency room, while in our setting, pan CT is only performed.

  18. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  19. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  20. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  1. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014) .... Cancer incidence in Morocco: report from Casablanca registry 2005-2007 · EMAIL FREE FULL .... Maladie de Leo-Buerger faisant suite à une intoxication au cannabis · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Pan Evaporation Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily pan evaporation (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Cooperative Network (COOP) or supplemental networks of NOAA's...

  3. Damage symptoms of plants due to PAN exposure

    Nouchi, I; Sawada, T; Ohashi, T; Odaira, T

    1974-11-01

    In order to identify the cause of plant damage which differed from that by ozone, a series of exposure experiments was carried out on Beta vulgaris, Japanese radish, French bean, luthern, tomato, and spinach in a controlled weather room by artificially synthesized PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate). The damage appeared generally on younger leaves as a lustering and bronzing on the lower surface; there was a specific symptom in which the interveinary part of the lower surface depressed, leaving the veins in relief. At higher concentrations of PAN, damages appeared on the upper surface of leaves, however, bronzing and lustering were clearer during exposure to lower concentrations of PAN. The position of the leaves and the part of a leaf which was damaged were constant in the petunia, morning glory, and tobacco. There was a hyperbolic relationship between the concentration of PAN and the time period of appearance of the damage as was seen during sulfur dioxide and ozone exposures.

  4. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society...

  5. La dionisización del dios Pan

    Silvia Porres Caballero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pan is a god peculiar in many respects. In contrast to the other gods of the Greek pantheon, he is not anthropomorphic, but he has the legs, tail and horns of a goat. These features show his age. A god like Pan can only survive in Arcadia, a region that preserves many religious archaisms. However, from 490 BC, when his cult is established in Athens, this god begins to change. In his evolution, Pan becomes increasingly assimilated the god Dionysus. The rapprochement between the two gods left his mark on the mythology, but especially in the cult of Pan. Thus, a god who was worshiped in Arcadia in sanctuaries built by men, in the rest of Greece is worshiped in wild shrines, mainly caves. Out of Arcadia, the grotto also is the place reserved for the mystery cults, including the Dionysian ones. Does not seem a coincidence

  6. El Abasto de Pan en el Madrid del Siglo XVII

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado del pan era el más importante de los mercados de abastos, pero también el que contaba con el más complejo sistema de intervención. Los objetivos de la política de abastos eran asegurar un suministro continuo a precios estables y moderados.Los instrumentos incluían la regulación de los precios del grano y el pan, la provisión directa a través del pósito municipal y, en el caso de la corte, el pan de registro. En este trabajo examinamos la política de tasas, las disposiciones del gobierno y el comportamiento de los precios del pan en Madrid y del trigo en los mercados de origen.

  7. Isolation of hydrolase producing bacteria from Sua pan solar ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... sp. Sua-BAC020 were studied further. Isolate Sua-BAC005 affiliated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens secreted ... halotolerant eubacteria from Sua pan evaporator ponds in ... PCR fragments were ligated into pGEM-T Easy.

  8. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of...... seeking care for malaria in the private sector. © 2016 The Author(s)....

  9. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  10. An open source business model for malaria.

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related to new malaria

  11. Elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tajikistan.

    Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sharipov, Azizullo S; Kadamov, Dilshod S; Karimov, Saifuddin S; Gasimov, Elkhan; Baranova, Alla M; Morozova, Lola F; Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-05-30

    Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases. The malaria epidemic was contained by 1999 as a result of considerable financial input from the Government and the international community. Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax. To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The main activities included the use of pyrethroids for the IRS with determined periodicity, deployment of mosquito nets, impregnated with insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes as a biological larvicide, implementation of small-scale environmental management, and use of personal protection methods by population under malaria risk. The malaria surveillance system was strengthened by the use of ACD, PCD, RCD and selective use of mass blood surveys. All detected cases were timely epidemiologically investigated and treated based on the results of laboratory diagnosis. As a result, by 2009, P. falciparum malaria was eliminated from all of Tajikistan, one year ahead of the originally targeted date. Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards

  12. An open source business model for malaria.

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related

  13. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  14. The development and evolution of Etosha Pan, Namibia

    Hipondoka, Martin H.T.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores and examines the geomorphology of a large endorheic basin, approximately twice the size of Luxemburg, situated in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. The main focus is directed on how and when this depression, known as Etosha Pan, came into being. Geomorphological investigation was complemented and guided primarily by the application and interpretation of satellite-derived information. Etosha Pan has attracted scientific investigations for nearly a century. Unfortunately, t...

  15. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    Bazinet, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus sensu lato ( s . l .) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis...

  16. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants

    2016-06-01

    2013 - 06/01/2016 A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants Michael Walsh USA CRREL USA CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755...Army Alaska XRF X-Ray Florescence vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Project ER-201323, A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Gun Propellants, was a very...contamination problem while allowing troops to train as they fight, we have developed a portable training device for burning excess gun propellants. 1.1

  17. Pan masala advertisements are surrogate for tobacco products

    Sushma C; Sharang C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pan masala is a comparatively recent habit in India and is marketed with and without tobacco. Advertisements of tobacco products have been banned in India since 1st May 2004. The advertisements of plain pan masala, which continue in Indian media, have been suspected to be surrogate for tobacco products bearing the same name. The study was carried out to assess whether these advertisements were for the intended product, or for tobacco products with same brand name. MATERIALS AND ...

  18. Malaria: prevention in travellers.

    Croft, Ashley M

    2010-07-12

    Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.

  19. Neoliberal Imperialism and Pan-African Resistance

    Niels S.C. Hahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism has in the past three decades had a tremendous impact on both thought and practice throughout most of the world, and has dominated international development since the early 1980s. Although neoliberalism presents itself as modern and progressive, it is argued that the underlying ideologies and power agendas have their origins in the political debates of the eighteenth century and earlier. Through an analysis of neoliberalism from a world-historical and global perspective, indications are seen that the international development agenda has more to do with political and economic interests than with benevolent pro-poor development. This leads to the debate about redistribution of resources and State-led Development versus Free-market Development, which is inextricable from the discussion of Liberal Democratic Peace Theory versus Realism. From this perspective it is argued that the notion of democratic peace is used as a popular seductive rhetoric, to legitimize western military interventions and the imposition of economic policies in the name of democracy, human rights and free market economy. In this context, it is argued that neoliberalism cannot be analysed without also considering inherent links to imperialism and neo-colonialism, which is being resisted by pan-African movements.

  20. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro Emanuel; Wenaus, Torre; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  1. Retinopathy in severe malaria in Ghanaian children - overlap between fundus changes in cerebral and non-cerebral malaria

    Essuman, Vera A; Ntim-Amponsah, Christine T; Astrup, Birgitte S

    2010-01-01

    diagnostic tool. This study was designed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of retinopathy on ophthalmoscopy in severe malaria syndromes: Cerebral malaria (CM) and non-cerebral severe malaria (non-CM), i.e. malaria with respiratory distress (RD) and malaria with severe anaemia (SA), in Ghanaian children...

  2. Utility of health facility-based malaria data for malaria surveillance.

    Yaw A Afrane

    Full Text Available Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data.The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria.These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.

  3. Malaria-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Schmidt, K G

    1984-01-01

    On return from Liberia, a previously healthy 36-year-old man showed signs of malaria accompanied by severe haemolysis and slight thrombocytopenia. We found evidence of a platelet-associated IgG being responsible for the thrombocytopenia, inasmuch as the direct platelet suspension immunofluorescen...

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  5. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan Highlands

    Krief Sabrina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp., including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour in which they consume plant parts of low nutritional value but that contain compounds with anti-malarial properties suggests that the apes health might be affected by the parasite. The avoidance of the night-biting anopheline mosquitoes is another potential behavioural adaptation that would lead to a decrease in the number of infectious bites and consequently malaria. Methods Mosquitoes were collected over two years using suction-light traps and yeast-generated CO2 traps at the nesting and the feeding sites of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park. The species of the female Anopheles caught were then determined and the presence of Plasmodium was sought in these insects by PCR amplification. Results The mosquito catches yielded a total of 309 female Anopheles specimens, the only known vectors of malaria parasites of mammalians. These specimens belonged to 10 species, of which Anopheles implexus, Anopheles vinckei and Anopheles demeilloni dominated. Sensitive DNA amplification techniques failed to detect any Plasmodium-positive Anopheles specimens. Humidity and trap height influenced the Anopheles capture success, and there was a negative correlation between nest numbers and mosquito abundance. The anopheline mosquitoes were also less diverse and numerous in sites where chimpanzees were nesting as compared to those where they were feeding. Conclusions These observations suggest that the sites where chimpanzees build their nests every night might be

  6. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  7. Pan-European stochastic flood event set

    Kadlec, Martin; Pinto, Joaquim G.; He, Yi; Punčochář, Petr; Kelemen, Fanni D.; Manful, Desmond; Palán, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    Impact Forecasting (IF), the model development center of Aon Benfield, has been developing a large suite of catastrophe flood models on probabilistic bases for individual countries in Europe. Such natural catastrophes do not follow national boundaries: for example, the major flood in 2016 was responsible for the Europe's largest insured loss of USD3.4bn and affected Germany, France, Belgium, Austria and parts of several other countries. Reflecting such needs, IF initiated a pan-European flood event set development which combines cross-country exposures with country based loss distributions to provide more insightful data to re/insurers. Because the observed discharge data are not available across the whole Europe in sufficient quantity and quality to permit a detailed loss evaluation purposes, a top-down approach was chosen. This approach is based on simulating precipitation from a GCM/RCM model chain followed by a calculation of discharges using rainfall-runoff modelling. IF set up this project in a close collaboration with Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) regarding the precipitation estimates and with University of East Anglia (UEA) in terms of the rainfall-runoff modelling. KIT's main objective is to provide high resolution daily historical and stochastic time series of key meteorological variables. A purely dynamical downscaling approach with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) is used to generate the historical time series, using re-analysis data as boundary conditions. The resulting time series are validated against the gridded observational dataset E-OBS, and different bias-correction methods are employed. The generation of the stochastic time series requires transfer functions between large-scale atmospheric variables and regional temperature and precipitation fields. These transfer functions are developed for the historical time series using reanalysis data as predictors and bias-corrected CCLM simulated precipitation and temperature as

  8. Methods employed in the prevention and treatment of malaria ...

    onasoga olayinka

    of malaria among pregnant women in riverine community in Bayelsa State, ... at high risk of the effects of malaria infection and need special protective .... mentioned maintenance of clean environment, as other methods of preventing malaria.

  9. 1 Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    Abstract: Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria ... breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health ... Key words: scepticism, low uptake, mosquito nets, malaria, social marketing, Tanzania.

  10. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  11. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  12. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  13. Personality in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Garai, Cintia; Weiss, Alexander; Arnaud, Coline; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the evolution of personality structure requires examining personality dimensions in multiple species using a common set of traits. Little research has been conducted on personality in wild populations of nonhuman primates. Using behavioral observations and questionnaire ratings, we examined factors influencing personality in 16 wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We extracted five factors from 31 of the items from the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and three factors from observed behaviors. The HPQ factors were labeled Unemotionality Q , Friendliness Q , Aggressiveness Q , Irritability Q , and Activity Q . The behavioral factors were labeled Grooming B , Playfulness B , and Introversion B . We established the convergent and divergent validity of these factors by obtaining correlations between the HPQ and behavioral factors. We tested for sex differences and found that males were significantly higher on Introversion B and significantly lower in Irritability Q . We then tested for age differences and found that Friendliness Q was lower and Aggressiveness Q was higher in older individuals. Finally, we found that, among males, hierarchical rank was associated with higher Aggressiveness Q . These findings contrast with findings in chimpanzees in ways consistent with known species differences. For one, consistent with the more egalitarian structure of bonobo society, we did not identify a clear Dominance factor. Also, the results related to sex differences were consistent with previous findings that reveal closer bonds between female bonobos than female chimpanzees. These findings highlight the importance of studying personality in closely related species and the need to consider species' socioecology when studying personality. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1178-1189, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about malaria: Socio-demographic implications for malaria control in rural Ghana.

    Assan, Abraham; Takian, Amirhossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Nematolahi, Shahrzad

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuing international attention to malaria prevention, the disease remains a global public health problem. We investigated socio-demographic factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices about malaria in rural Ghana. Our survey looked at 354 households. Mean knowledge score was higher among individuals with a history of volunteers having visited their households to educate them about malaria; families with 4-6 members; and males. Households with at least one under-five-aged child also had significantly higher knowledge scores. Households with at least one pregnant woman evinced a positive attitude towards malaria prevention. National malaria control strategies have achieved positive results in the fight against malaria. Nonetheless, multipronged community-based health strategies that integrate malaria programs and population growth control initiatives may be able to reach by 2030 the sustainable development goal of eliminating malaria.

  15. The role of vitamin D in malaria.

    Lương, Khanh Vinh Quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2015-01-15

    An abnormal calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis has been reported in patients with malaria infection. A role for vitamin D in malaria has been suggested by many studies. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link vitamin D to malaria, including human leukocyte antigen genes, toll-like receptors, heme oxygenase-1, angiopoietin-2, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and Bcl-2. Vitamin D has also been implicated in malaria via its effects on the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, reactive oxidative species, and nitric oxide synthase. Vitamin D may be important in malaria; therefore, additional research on its role in malaria is needed.

  16. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    Breeveld, Florence J. V.; Vreden, Stephen G. S.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the

  17. CASE STUDY: Mexico — Fighting malaria without DDT | IDRC ...

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... ... spraying techniques, Mexico has dramatically reduced malaria transmission. ... and the parasite, community perceptions of malaria, statistical analyses, and ... epidemiology, informatics, entomology, and the social sciences.

  18. Hidden burden of malaria in Indian women

    Sharma Vinod P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is endemic in India with an estimated 70-100 million cases each year (1.6-1.8 million reported by NVBDCP; of this 50-55% are Plasmodium vivax and 45-50% Plasmodium falciparum. A recent study on malaria in pregnancy reported from undivided Madhya Pradesh state (includes Chhattisgarh state, that an estimated over 220,000 pregnant women contract malaria infection each year. Malaria in pregnancy caused- abortions 34.5%; stillbirths 9%; and maternal deaths 0.45%. Bulk of this tragic outcome can be averted by following the Roll Back Malaria/WHO recommendations of the use of malaria prevention i.e. indoor residual spraying (IRS/insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN preferably long-lasting treated bed nets (LLIN; intermittent preventive therapy (IPT; early diagnosis, prompt and complete treatment using microscopic/malaria rapid diagnostics test (RDT and case management. High incidence in pregnancy has arisen because of malaria surveillance lacking coverage, lack of age and sex wise data, staff shortages, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT applicable in high transmission states/pockets is not included in the national drug policy- an essential component of fighting malaria in pregnancy in African settings. Inadequate surveillance and gross under-reporting has been highlighted time and again for over three decades. As a result the huge problem of malaria in pregnancy reported occasionally by researchers has remained hidden. Malaria in pregnancy may quicken severity in patients with drug resistant parasites, anaemia, endemic poverty, and malnutrition. There is, therefore, urgent need to streamline malaria control strategies to make a difference in tackling this grim scenario in human health.

  19. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow...

  20. From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    Roderick, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the

  1. Efficient oligonucleotide probe selection for pan-genomic tiling arrays

    Zhang Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization is a fast and cost-effective method for detecting, genotyping, and comparing the genomic sequence of unknown bacterial isolates. This method, as with all microarray applications, requires adequate coverage of probes targeting the regions of interest. An unbiased tiling of probes across the entire length of the genome is the most flexible design approach. However, such a whole-genome tiling requires that the genome sequence is known in advance. For the accurate analysis of uncharacterized bacteria, an array must query a fully representative set of sequences from the species' pan-genome. Prior microarrays have included only a single strain per array or the conserved sequences of gene families. These arrays omit potentially important genes and sequence variants from the pan-genome. Results This paper presents a new probe selection algorithm (PanArray that can tile multiple whole genomes using a minimal number of probes. Unlike arrays built on clustered gene families, PanArray uses an unbiased, probe-centric approach that does not rely on annotations, gene clustering, or multi-alignments. Instead, probes are evenly tiled across all sequences of the pan-genome at a consistent level of coverage. To minimize the required number of probes, probes conserved across multiple strains in the pan-genome are selected first, and additional probes are used only where necessary to span polymorphic regions of the genome. The viability of the algorithm is demonstrated by array designs for seven different bacterial pan-genomes and, in particular, the design of a 385,000 probe array that fully tiles the genomes of 20 different Listeria monocytogenes strains with overlapping probes at greater than twofold coverage. Conclusion PanArray is an oligonucleotide probe selection algorithm for tiling multiple genome sequences using a minimal number of probes. It is capable of fully tiling all genomes of a species on

  2. Pan-sharpening via compressed superresolution reconstruction and multidictionary learning

    Shi, Cheng; Liu, Fang; Li, Lingling; Jiao, Licheng; Hao, Hongxia; Shang, Ronghua; Li, Yangyang

    2018-01-01

    In recent compressed sensing (CS)-based pan-sharpening algorithms, pan-sharpening performance is affected by two key problems. One is that there are always errors between the high-resolution panchromatic (HRP) image and the linear weighted high-resolution multispectral (HRM) image, resulting in spatial and spectral information lost. The other is that the dictionary construction process depends on the nontruth training samples. These problems have limited applications to CS-based pan-sharpening algorithm. To solve these two problems, we propose a pan-sharpening algorithm via compressed superresolution reconstruction and multidictionary learning. Through a two-stage implementation, compressed superresolution reconstruction model reduces the error effectively between the HRP and the linear weighted HRM images. Meanwhile, the multidictionary with ridgelet and curvelet is learned for both the two stages in the superresolution reconstruction process. Since ridgelet and curvelet can better capture the structure and directional characteristics, a better reconstruction result can be obtained. Experiments are done on the QuickBird and IKONOS satellites images. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm is competitive compared with the recent CS-based pan-sharpening methods and other well-known methods.

  3. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  4. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Klimentov, A; Nevski, P; Wenaus, T; Potekhin, M

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  5. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  6. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  7. Can slide positivity rates predict malaria transmission?

    Bi Yan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a significant threat to population health in the border areas of Yunnan Province, China. How to accurately measure malaria transmission is an important issue. This study aimed to examine the role of slide positivity rates (SPR in malaria transmission in Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods Data on annual malaria cases, SPR and socio-economic factors for the period of 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the Bureau of Statistics, Mengla, China. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the relationship between socio-ecologic factors and malaria incidence. Results The results show that SPR was significantly positively associated with the malaria incidence rates. The SPR (β = 1.244, p = 0.000 alone and combination (SPR, β = 1.326, p  Conclusion SPR is a strong predictor of malaria transmission, and can be used to improve the planning and implementation of malaria elimination programmes in Mengla and other similar locations. SPR might also be a useful indicator of malaria early warning systems in China.

  8. T-cell responses in malaria

    Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1992-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It remains one of the most severe health problems in tropical regions of the world, and the rapid spread of resistance to drugs and insecticides has stimulated intensive research aimed at the development of a malaria...... vaccine. Despite this, no efficient operative vaccine is currently available. A large amount of information on T-cell responses to malaria antigens has been accumulated, concerning antigens derived from all stages of the parasite life cycle. The present review summarizes some of that information......, and discusses factors affecting the responses of T cells to malaria antigens....

  9. Hysteresis in simulations of malaria transmission

    Yamana, Teresa K.; Qiu, Xin; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Malaria transmission is a complex system and in many parts of the world is closely related to climate conditions. However, studies on environmental determinants of malaria generally consider only concurrent climate conditions and ignore the historical or initial conditions of the system. Here, we demonstrate the concept of hysteresis in malaria transmission, defined as non-uniqueness of the relationship between malaria prevalence and concurrent climate conditions. We show the dependence of simulated malaria transmission on initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. Using realistic time series of environmental variables, we quantify the effect of hysteresis in a modeled population. In a set of numerical experiments using HYDREMATS, a field-tested mechanistic model of malaria transmission, the simulated maximum malaria prevalence depends on both the initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. We found the effects of initial conditions to be of comparable magnitude to the effects of interannual variability in environmental conditions in determining malaria prevalence. The memory associated with this hysteresis effect is longer in high transmission settings than in low transmission settings. Our results show that efforts to simulate and forecast malaria transmission must consider the exposure history of a location as well as the concurrent environmental drivers.

  10. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement.

    Young, Kurt B

    2010-01-01

    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  11. The hydrochemistry of a semi-arid pan basin case study: Sua Pan, Makgadikgadi, Botswana

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Bryant, Robert G.; McCulloch, Graham; Spiro, Baruch; Wood, Warren W.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents results on the fluid and salt chemistry for the Makgadikgadi, a substantial continental basin in the semi-arid Kalahari. The aims of the study are to improve understanding of the hydrology of such a system and to identify the sources of the solutes and the controls on their cycling within pans. Sampling took place against the backdrop of unusually severe flooding as well as significant anthropogenic extraction of subsurface brines. This paper examines in particular the relationship between the chemistry of soil leachates, fresh stream water, salty lake water, surface salts and subsurface brines at Sua Pan, Botswana with the aim of improving the understanding of the system's hydrology. Occasionally during the short wet season (December-March) surface water enters the saline environment and precipitates mostly calcite and halite, as well as dolomite and traces of other salts associated with the desiccation of the lake. The hypersaline subsurface brine (up to TDS 190,000 mg/L) is homogenous with minor variations due to pumping by BotAsh mine (Botswana Ash (Pty) Ltd.), which extracts 2400 m 3 of brine/h from a depth of 38 m. Notable is the decrease in TDS as the pumping rate increases which may be indicative of subsurface recharge by less saline water. Isotope chemistry for Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr average 0.722087) and S (δ 34 S average 34.35) suggests subsurface brines have been subject to a lithological contribution of undetermined origin. Recharge of the subsurface brine from surface water including the Nata River appears to be negligible

  12. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic African migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification

    Schallig Henk DFH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South Americas, there is in Europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in particular due to the higher mobility in today's society. Methods The prevalence of a possible asymptomatic infection with Plasmodium species was assessed using Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA assays on clinical samples collected from 195 study cases with no clinical signs related to malaria and coming from sub-Saharan African regions to Southern Italy. In addition, base-line demographic, clinical and socio-economic information was collected from study participants who also underwent a full clinical examination. Results Sixty-two study subjects (31.8% were found positive for Plasmodium using a pan Plasmodium specific NASBA which can detect all four Plasmodium species causing human disease, based on the small subunit 18S rRNA gene (18S NASBA. Twenty-four samples (38% of the 62 18S NASBA positive study cases were found positive with a Pfs25 mRNA NASBA, which is specific for the detection of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. A statistically significant association was observed between 18S NASBA positivity and splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and leukopaenia and country of origin. Conclusion This study showed that a substantial proportion of people originating from malaria endemic countries harbor malaria parasites in their blood. If transmission conditions are available, they could potentially be a reservoir. Thefore, health authorities should pay special attention to the health of this potential risk group and aim to improve their health conditions.

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  14. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  15. Controlling imported malaria cases in the United States of America.

    Dembele, Bassidy; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2017-02-01

    We extend the mathematical malaria epidemic model framework of Dembele et al. and use it to ``capture" the 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported data on the 2011 number of imported malaria cases in the USA. Furthermore, we use our ``fitted" malaria models for the top 20 countries of malaria acquisition by USA residents to study the impact of protecting USA residents from malaria infection when they travel to malaria endemic areas, the impact of protecting residents of malaria endemic regions from mosquito bites and the impact of killing mosquitoes in those endemic areas on the CDC number of imported malaria cases in USA. To significantly reduce the number of imported malaria cases in USA, for each top 20 country of malaria acquisition by USA travelers, we compute the optimal proportion of USA international travelers that must be protected against malaria infection and the optimal proportion of mosquitoes that must be killed.

  16. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  17. The Malaria Problem: short communication

    Charles Ebikeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the world's most prevalent infectious disease, a major cause of mortality, and a barrier to social and economic development and growth in many countries throughout the world. Antimalarials represent an important part of strategy to curbing this debilitating disease. The spread of drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. To date, parasite resistance to all but one case of antimalarials exists in most endemic countries. Meaning, new drug to combat the disease are a priority.

  18. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  19. Microbial comparative pan-genomics using binomial mixture models

    Ussery, David; Snipen, L; Almøy, T

    2009-01-01

    The size of the core- and pan-genome of bacterial species is a topic of increasing interest due to the growing number of sequenced prokaryote genomes, many from the same species. Attempts to estimate these quantities have been made, using regression methods or mixture models. We extend the latter...... approach by using statistical ideas developed for capture-recapture problems in ecology and epidemiology. RESULTS: We estimate core- and pan-genome sizes for 16 different bacterial species. The results reveal a complex dependency structure for most species, manifested as heterogeneous detection...... probabilities. Estimated pan-genome sizes range from small (around 2600 gene families) in Buchnera aphidicola to large (around 43000 gene families) in Escherichia coli. Results for Echerichia coli show that as more data become available, a larger diversity is estimated, indicating an extensive pool of rarely...

  20. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  1. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [UFRRJ/Conservation International Brazil, Seropedica (Brazil); Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medeiros, Rodrigo [Federal Rural Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Walter, Arnaldo [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Venier, Lisa A. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie (Canada). Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2015-06-24

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  2. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Bejar, J Caballero; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Compostella, G; Contreras, C; Dos Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  3. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  4. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Stradling, A; Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) was designed to meet ATLAS requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  5. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    Lee, H.J.; Joo, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p less than 0.05), appearance (p less than 0.01), color (p less than 0.01), moistness (p less than 0.01), and overall quality (p less than 0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life

  6. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  7. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  8. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  9. Automated detection of malaria pigment: feasibility for malaria diagnosing in an area with seasonal malaria in northern Namibia

    de Langen, Adrianus J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Witte, Piet; Mucheto, Samson; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of automated malaria detection with the Cell-Dyn 3700 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) haematology analyser for diagnosing malaria in northern Namibia. METHODS: From April to June 2003, all patients with a positive blood smear result and a subset of

  10. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  11. PERFORMING MANHOOD: GLAHN AND THE MASCULINITY CRISIS IN HAMSUN'S PAN

    Chengzhou He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Hamsun’s novel Pan, Lieutenant Glahn holds an essentialist notion of masculinity that is somewhat outdated in the context of emerging Norwegian modernity. His acts of violence, which are performative of his male pride, not only bring harm to others, but also become destructive to himself. The masculinity crisis enacted in Pan is put into the context of the social, historical, and cultural changes related to gender and modernity that occurred during the end of the 19th century in Norway and beyond.

  12. Design of an Enterobacteriaceae Pan-genome Microarray Chip

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2010-01-01

    -density microarray chip has been designed, using 116 Enterobacteriaceae genome sequences, taking into account the enteric pan-genome. Probes for the microarray were checked in silico and performance of the chip, based on experimental strains from four different genera, demonstrate a relatively high ability...... to distinguish those strains on genus, species, and pathotype/serovar levels. Additionally, the microarray performed well when investigating which genes were found in a given strain of interest. The Enterobacteriaceae pan-genome microarray, based on 116 genomes, provides a valuable tool for determination...

  13. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  14. Sickle cell protection from malaria.

    Eridani, Sandro

    2011-10-19

    A linkage between presence of Sickle Haemoglobin (HbS) and protection from malaria infection and clinical manifestations in certain areas was suspected from early observations and progressively elucidated by more recent studies. Research has confirmed the abovementioned connection, but also clarified how such protection may be abolished by coexistence of sickle cell trait (HbS trait) and alpha thalassemia, which may explain the relatively low incidence of HbS trait in the Mediterranean. The mechanisms of such protective effect are now being investigated: factors of genetic, molecular and immunological nature are prominent. As for genetic factors attention is given to the role of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane complement regulatory proteins as polymorphisms of these components seem to be associated with resistance to severe malaria; genetic ligands like the Duffy group blood antigen, necessary for erythrocytic invasion, and human protein CD36, a major receptor for P. falciparum-infected RBC's, are also under scrutiny: attention is focused also on plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigens, which bind to RBC surface components. Genome-wide linkage and association studies are now carried out too, in order to identify genes associated with malaria resistance. Only a minor role is attributed to intravascular sickling, phagocytosis and haemolysis, while specific molecular mechanisms are the object of intensive research: among these a decisive role is played by a biochemical sequence, involving activation of haeme oxygenase (HMO-1), whose effect appears mediated by carbon monoxide (CO). A central role in protection from malaria is also played by immunological factors, which may stimulate antibody production to plasmodium antigens in the early years of life; the role of agents like pathogenic CD8 T-cells has been suggested while the effects of molecular actions on the immunity mechanism are presently investigated. It thus appears that protection from malaria can be

  15. Avances más recientes en el desarrollo de vacunas contra la malaria The most recent advances in developing vaccines against malaria

    Lázara Rojas Rivero

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available According to reports of the Pan American Health Organization, malaria transmission continues to occur in 21 countries of the Americas. Of the 835 million inhabitants of the Region of the Americas, 293 million live in areas with some possibility of transmission of the disease. The most advanced of the candidate vaccines that have been designed based on the sequences of the circumsporozoite protein, is one based on the RTS,S/AS02A polypeptides of Plasmodium falciparum. A test of that vaccine was conducted in Mozambique with children from 1 to 4 years old. The test proved the vaccine to be safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, but the level of protection reached was still low. However, the advantages that the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine offers to people who live in malaria-endemic areas justifies its being tested in the Americas in order to evaluate its effectiveness in the clinical and epidemiological conditions specific to the Region.

  16. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  17. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum malaria, as well as malaria preventive measures. The venous blood specimens were collected, processed, Giemsa-stained and examined microscopically. ABO groups were determined by agglutination test using ...

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    Administrator

    The recent increases in malaria mortality rates in Africa ... the world's population at risk of malaria are in Africa. (WHO, 2000). ... understood to be both a disease of poverty and a cause ... anaemia and 8 to 14% of low birth weight in areas with.

  19. Is the Malaria Elimination Target Achievable?

    user

    in low and middle income countries (1-4). In. 2013, malaria killed over a billion people, mostly in sub-Saharan ... According to the 2016 report,. 27% of the population lives in high transmission areas while 41% ... Similarly several countries have reduced malaria transmission to levels low enough to allow them to embark on ...

  20. Attitudes to malaria, prevention, treatment and management ...

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... consequences of malaria treatment pattern and management strategies in an urban center. Questionnaires were issued ... anopheles mosquitoes as malaria vector are some of the factors militating against prevention and proper management of the .... bush clearing, drainage and gutter control in preventing.

  1. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  2. Malaria vaccines: immunity, models and monoclonal antibodies

    Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in the field have agreed on the malaria vaccine technology roadmap that should be followed (http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net/), the path towards an effective malaria vaccine remains littered with intellectual and practical pot-holes. The animal models that are currently...

  3. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  4. Alanine metabolism in acute falciparum malaria

    Pukrittayakamee, S.; Krishna, S.; ter Kuile, F.; Wilaiwan, O.; Williamson, D. H.; White, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the integrity of the gluconeogenic pathway in severe malaria using alanine metabolism as a measure. Alanine disposition and liver blood flow, assessed by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, were measured simultaneously in 10 patients with falciparum malaria (six severe and four

  5. Neonatal malaria complicated by hypoglycaemia and ...

    There is no established and widely accepted guidelines for clinical management of severe neonatal malaria. The aim of this paper is to raise the alertness of physicians regarding the occurrence of severe malaria in the neonatal period and to describe the treatment modality we adopted (in the absence of an internationally ...

  6. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    imported or Odyssean malaria from countries such as Swaziland,. Mozambique ... can be administered.⁵ The only .... Treatment. With the introduction of an effective vaccine for Southern Africa .... Being prepared for a malaria infection by packing ... sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen and.

  7. Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria ...

    Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria chemotherapy: The past, the present and the future. ... regions. It was initially highly effective against the four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malaria, P. ovale and P. vivax) infecting human. It is also effective against gametocytes except those of P. falciparum.

  8. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  9. The sick placenta - the role of malaria

    Brabin, B. J.; Romagosa, C.; Abdelgalil, S.; Menéndez, C.; Verhoeff, F. H.; McGready, R.; Fletcher, K. A.; Owens, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Nosten, F.; Fischer, P. R.; Ordi, J.

    2004-01-01

    The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby. The pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, but it is clear that it leads to a distinct

  10. A Feast of Malaria Parasite Genomes.

    Carlton, Jane M; Sullivan, Steven A

    2017-03-08

    The Plasmodium genus has evolved over time and across hosts, complexifying our understanding of malaria. In a recent Nature paper, Rutledge et al. (2017) describe the genome sequences of three major human malaria parasite species, providing insight into Plasmodium evolution and raising the question of how many species there are. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  12. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | IDRC ...

    Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently lacking in the nation's health service. This grant will allow the ...

  13. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | CRDI ...

    Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently lacking in the nation's health service. This grant will allow the ...

  14. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design

  15. Community awareness about malaria, its treatment and mosquito ...

    Background: Despite the rapid expansion of malaria into highland areas of Ethiopia and the movement of malaria inexperienced people to endemic areas, there is no enough information about how highland communities perceive malaria. Objective: To assess communities' awareness of malaria and its mosquito vector in ...

  16. Transferring the Malaria Epidemic Prediction Model to Users in East ...

    Transferring the Malaria Epidemic Prediction Model to Users in East Africa. In the highlands of East Africa, epidemic malaria is an emerging climate-related hazard that urgently needs addressing. Malaria incidence increased by 337% during the 1987 epidemic in Rwanda. In Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya, malaria incidence ...

  17. Malaria in pregnancy: ultrasound studies of fetal growth

    Rijken, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria has been a plague for human mankind. Each year roughly 125 million pregnancies are at risk for malaria infection. This thesis demonstrates the detrimental effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and the baby. To determine the effects of malaria in pregnancy on birth outcomes, accurate

  18. Malaria infection during pregnancy in area of stable transmission ...

    Malaria infection during pregnancy in area of stable transmission. ... (LBW), a leading cause of neonatal death in areas of stable malaria transmission. ... areas of stable malaria transmission and the effective strategies for prevention and control. Keywords: malaria, pregnancy, semi-immune women, anaemia, low birthweight

  19. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria : recognition and management.

    Taylor, Walter R J; Cañon, Viviam; White, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    Lung involvement in malaria has been recognized for more than 200 hundred years, yet our knowledge of its pathogenesis and management is limited. Pulmonary edema is the most severe form of lung involvement. Increased alveolar capillary permeability leading to intravascular fluid loss into the lungs is the main pathophysiologic mechanism. This defines malaria as another cause of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Pulmonary edema has been described most often in non-immune individuals with Plasmodium falciparum infections as part of a severe systemic illness or as the main feature of acute malaria. P.vivax and P.ovale have also rarely caused pulmonary edema.Clinically, patients usually present with acute breathlessness that can rapidly progress to respiratory failure either at disease presentation or, interestingly, after treatment when clinical improvement is taking place and the parasitemia is falling. Pregnant women are particularly prone to developing pulmonary edema. Optimal management of malaria-induced ALI/ARDS includes early recognition and diagnosis. Malaria must always be suspected in a returning traveler or a visitor from a malaria-endemic country with an acute febrile illness. Slide microscopy and/or the use of rapid antigen tests are standard diagnostic tools. Malaria must be treated with effective drugs, but current choices are few: e.g. parenteral artemisinins, intravenous quinine or quinidine (in the US only). A recent trial in adults has shown that intravenous artesunate reduces severe malaria mortality by a third compared with adults treated with intravenous quinine. Respiratory compromise should be managed on its merits and may require mechanical ventilation.Patients should be managed in an intensive care unit and particular attention should be paid to the energetic management of other severe malaria complications, notably coma and acute renal failure. ALI/ARDS may also be related to a coincidental bacterial

  20. Evaluation of water balance parameters from isotopic measurements in evaporation pans

    Allison, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of the parameters governing the isotopic composition of evaporating water bodies was attempted by means of evaporation pans. The instability of the meteorological conditions, however, makes it virtually impossible to evaluate the atmospheric relative humidity and its isotopic composition with pans. Pans are only suitable to obtain seasonal trends of the isotopic composition of the net evaporated water. For this, a technique based on two pans is also proposed. (author)

  1. Malaria infections in crews of Japanese ships.

    Shoda, M; Shimizu, K; Nagano, M; Ishii, M

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most dangerous infection for seafarers in West Africa. In December 1998, five cases of this infection occurred among Japanese seafarers in West Africa, two of them died, one on board ship, and another died five days after the admission to the hospital in Reunion island, East Africa. Six other cases of falciparum malaria infection occurred among Japanese seafarers on another ship in December 1999. Three infected persons were admitted to hospitals in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Point Noire (Congo). In Japan, over 100 cases of imported malaria were recorded each year during the period from 1990 to 1997, and about 40% of these cases were falciparum infections. It is not known how many of them occurred among seafarers. We estimate that at least 5% of all malaria cases in Japan are seafarers. Measures to protect crews of ships against malaria are discussed.

  2. Optimal control for Malaria disease through vaccination

    Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.

  3. Pengendalian Malaria dalam Upaya Percepatan Pencapaian Target Millennium Development Goals

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2012-08-01

    health official Malaria Center, and community leaders who observe malaria. Retrieval of data time is 10 – 16 April 2011 by in-depth interviews. It was found that malaria control programs have been implemented by the Departement of Health North Maluku Province, but have not been able to effectively reduce malaria morbidity. This is because malaria control is performed is not comprehensive. Handling is more directed to break the chain transmission to human, their habitats have not been touched up. Key words: Control of malaria, millennium development goals, malaria morbidity

  4. Important advances in malaria vaccine research

    Priyanka Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly

  5. Building the sequence map of the human pan-genome

    Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Zheng, Hancheng

    2010-01-01

    analysis of predicted genes indicated that the novel sequences contain potentially functional coding regions. We estimate that a complete human pan-genome would contain approximately 19-40 Mb of novel sequence not present in the extant reference genome. The extensive amount of novel sequence contributing...

  6. Characterization of PAN/ATO nanocomposites prepared by solution ...

    Conducting nanocomposites of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) were prepared by solution blending. Electrical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by means of electrical conductivity measurements and the phase structures were investigated via scanning electron microscopy ...

  7. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  8. Harlequin color change in preterm infant | Hamida | Pan African ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  9. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview | Adagbada | Pan ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. Failure of pan-retinal laser photocoagulation to regress ...

    Objectives: (i) To illustrate the occurrence of failure of regression of neovascularization (NV) following adequate initial and supplemental pan-retinal laser photo- coagulation (PRP) using 3 case histories (ii) To review the literature on possible aetiogenesis and further management options. Methods: The hospital records of 3 ...

  11. Microbial comparative pan-genomics using binomial mixture models

    Ussery David W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size of the core- and pan-genome of bacterial species is a topic of increasing interest due to the growing number of sequenced prokaryote genomes, many from the same species. Attempts to estimate these quantities have been made, using regression methods or mixture models. We extend the latter approach by using statistical ideas developed for capture-recapture problems in ecology and epidemiology. Results We estimate core- and pan-genome sizes for 16 different bacterial species. The results reveal a complex dependency structure for most species, manifested as heterogeneous detection probabilities. Estimated pan-genome sizes range from small (around 2600 gene families in Buchnera aphidicola to large (around 43000 gene families in Escherichia coli. Results for Echerichia coli show that as more data become available, a larger diversity is estimated, indicating an extensive pool of rarely occurring genes in the population. Conclusion Analyzing pan-genomics data with binomial mixture models is a way to handle dependencies between genomes, which we find is always present. A bottleneck in the estimation procedure is the annotation of rarely occurring genes.

  12. Femi Osofisan's discourse on Pan-Africanism and reconciliation in ...

    The paper is a critical appraisal of Femi Osofisan's ideological perspectives of Pan-Africanism, imperialism and reconciliation as exemplified in his plays especially in Nkrumah-Ni… Africa-Ni and Reel, Rwanda. The paper also explores the playwright's views on the dynamics of the problems confronting the African continent ...

  13. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  14. Prostatic fossa calculus | El Abiad | Pan African Medical Journal

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  15. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  16. The Future of PanDA in ATLAS Distributed Computing

    De, Kaushik; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyze the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favor of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addi...

  17. Sparse Multi-Pitch and Panning Estimation of Stereophonic Signals

    Kronvall, Ted; Jakobsson, Andreas; Hansen, Martin Weiss

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present in the mix...

  18. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults | Olatayo | Pan African Medical ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  19. Multiple cystic lung disease in an adolescent boy | Sogut | Pan ...

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  20. Women in Science and Technology at PAN-IIT Chennai

    We plan to have a one day conference on 'Women in Science and Technology' at the PAN-IIT convention to be held at IIT. Madras on December 20th, 2008. This conference intends to address the issue of the serious underrepresentation of women at all levels of science and technology education and research. Given this ...

  1. Cannabis body packing : a case report | Ngatchou | Pan African ...

    Cannabis body packing : a case report. ... a diffuse abdominal plain to the emergency department. Abdominal X-ray demonstrated multiple foreign bodies along the intestinal tract, which were found to be cannabis packets. The patient was treated conservatively with a good result. The Pan African Medical Journal 2016;24.

  2. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  3. Radioimmunodetection of human pancreatic tumor xenografts using DU-PAN II monoclonal antibody

    Nakamura, Kayoko; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo; Furuuchi, Takayuki; Abe, Osahiko; Takami, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of DU-PAN II, monoclonal antibody (IgM), which was raised against the human tumor cell line, was evaluated for radioimmunodetection of human pancreatic tumors (PAN-5-JCK and EXP-58) grown in nude mice. 125 I-labeled DU-PAN II was accumulated into PAN-5-JCK producing DU-PAN II antigen with a tumor-to-blood ratio of 2.72 ± 3.00, but it did not localize in EXP-58 because of insufficient DU-PAN II. There was no significant uptake of 125 I-nonimmunized IgM in PAN-5-JCK. These facts indicated the specific tumor uptake of DU-PAN II. Excellent images of the tumor PAN-5-JCK were obtained 3 days after the injection of 125 I-DU-PAN II. Gel chromatography was also investigated with respect to the plasma taken from mice injected with antibody, or incubated with antibody in vitro. The results indicate that circulating antigen affected the tumor uptake of DU-PAN II: The more the tumor grew, the higher the amount of antigen excreted into the blood, leading to the degradation of DU-PAN II before it reached the tumor sites. Consequently, the immunoscintigram of the small tumor was remarkably clear. The catabolism and the radiolysis of the labeled IgM injected are critical points in applying immunoscintigraphy. (author)

  4. The indicative map of the pan-European ecological network in Western Europe : technical background report

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Bouwma, I.M.; Doorn, van A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Pan European Ecological Network for Western Europe is the third project in developing the Pan European Ecological Network The objective of the Pan-European Ecological Network is to develop a vision for a coherent network of high value areas for biodiversity, as internationally and nationally

  5. Exploring the emotional appeal of green and social Europe myths among pan-European Union organisations

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    : (1) pan-EU NGOs are receptive to political myths, including in the short term; (2) pan-EU NGOs contribute to the reproduction of myths, especially already-institutionalised myths and myths that resonate with their sectoral activities; and (3) pan-EU NGOs strategically use political myths to justify...

  6. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs)....

  7. How well are malaria maps used to design and finance malaria control in Africa?

    Judy A Omumbo

    Full Text Available Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed.An audit of the risk maps used by NMCPs in 47 malaria endemic countries in Africa was undertaken by examining the most recent national malaria strategies, monitoring and evaluation plans, malaria programme reviews and applications submitted to the Global Fund. The types of maps presented and how they have been used to define priorities for investment and control was investigated.91% of endemic countries in Africa have defined malaria risk at sub-national levels using at least one risk map. The range of risk maps varies from maps based on suitability of climate for transmission; predicted malaria seasons and temperature/altitude limitations, to representations of clinical data and modelled parasite prevalence. The choice of maps is influenced by the source of the information. Maps developed using national data through in-country research partnerships have greater utility than more readily accessible web-based options developed without inputs from national control programmes. Although almost all countries have stratification maps, only a few use them to guide decisions on the selection of interventions allocation of resources for malaria control.The way information on the epidemiology of malaria is presented and used needs to be addressed to ensure evidence-based added value in planning control. The science on modelled impact of interventions must be integrated into new mapping products to allow a translation of risk into rational decision making for malaria control. As overseas and domestic funding diminishes, strategic planning will be necessary to guide appropriate

  8. How well are malaria maps used to design and finance malaria control in Africa?

    Omumbo, Judy A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Fall, Ibrahima S; Snow, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed. An audit of the risk maps used by NMCPs in 47 malaria endemic countries in Africa was undertaken by examining the most recent national malaria strategies, monitoring and evaluation plans, malaria programme reviews and applications submitted to the Global Fund. The types of maps presented and how they have been used to define priorities for investment and control was investigated. 91% of endemic countries in Africa have defined malaria risk at sub-national levels using at least one risk map. The range of risk maps varies from maps based on suitability of climate for transmission; predicted malaria seasons and temperature/altitude limitations, to representations of clinical data and modelled parasite prevalence. The choice of maps is influenced by the source of the information. Maps developed using national data through in-country research partnerships have greater utility than more readily accessible web-based options developed without inputs from national control programmes. Although almost all countries have stratification maps, only a few use them to guide decisions on the selection of interventions allocation of resources for malaria control. The way information on the epidemiology of malaria is presented and used needs to be addressed to ensure evidence-based added value in planning control. The science on modelled impact of interventions must be integrated into new mapping products to allow a translation of risk into rational decision making for malaria control. As overseas and domestic funding diminishes, strategic planning will be necessary to guide appropriate financing for malaria

  9. Assessment of climate-driven variations in malaria incidence in Swaziland: toward malaria elimination.

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Soble, Adam; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Mkhonta, Nomcebo; Seyama, Eric; Mthethwa, Steven; Pindolia, Deepa; Kunene, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Swaziland aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, imported cases from neighbouring endemic countries continue to sustain local parasite reservoirs and initiate transmission. As certain weather and climatic conditions may trigger or intensify malaria outbreaks, identification of areas prone to these conditions may aid decision-makers in deploying targeted malaria interventions more effectively. Malaria case-surveillance data for Swaziland were provided by Swaziland's National Malaria Control Programme. Climate data were derived from local weather stations and remote sensing images. Climate parameters and malaria cases between 2001 and 2015 were then analysed using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). The incidence of malaria in Swaziland increased between 2005 and 2010, especially in the Lubombo and Hhohho regions. A time-series analysis indicated that warmer temperatures and higher precipitation in the Lubombo and Hhohho administrative regions are conducive to malaria transmission. DLNM showed that the risk of malaria increased in Lubombo when the maximum temperature was above 30 °C or monthly precipitation was above 5 in. In Hhohho, the minimum temperature remaining above 15 °C or precipitation being greater than 10 in. might be associated with malaria transmission. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of short-term climate variations on malaria transmission in Swaziland. The geographic separation of imported and locally acquired malaria, as well as population behaviour, highlight the varying modes of transmission, part of which may be relevant to climate conditions. Thus, the impact of changing climate conditions should be noted as Swaziland moves toward malaria elimination.

  10. How Well Are Malaria Maps Used to Design and Finance Malaria Control in Africa?

    Omumbo, Judy A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Fall, Ibrahima S.; Snow, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed. Materials and Methods An audit of the risk maps used by NMCPs in 47 malaria endemic countries in Africa was undertaken by examining the most recent national malaria strategies, monitoring and evaluation plans, malaria programme reviews and applications submitted to the Global Fund. The types of maps presented and how they have been used to define priorities for investment and control was investigated. Results 91% of endemic countries in Africa have defined malaria risk at sub-national levels using at least one risk map. The range of risk maps varies from maps based on suitability of climate for transmission; predicted malaria seasons and temperature/altitude limitations, to representations of clinical data and modelled parasite prevalence. The choice of maps is influenced by the source of the information. Maps developed using national data through in-country research partnerships have greater utility than more readily accessible web-based options developed without inputs from national control programmes. Although almost all countries have stratification maps, only a few use them to guide decisions on the selection of interventions allocation of resources for malaria control. Conclusion The way information on the epidemiology of malaria is presented and used needs to be addressed to ensure evidence-based added value in planning control. The science on modelled impact of interventions must be integrated into new mapping products to allow a translation of risk into rational decision making for malaria control. As overseas and domestic funding diminishes, strategic planning will be

  11. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland.

    Koita, Kadiatou; Novotny, Joseph; Kunene, Simon; Zulu, Zulizile; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Gandhi, Monica; Gosling, Roland

    2013-06-27

    Swaziland has made great progress towards its goal of malaria elimination by 2015. However, malaria importation from neighbouring high-endemic Mozambique through Swaziland's eastern border remains a major factor that could prevent elimination from being achieved. In order to reach elimination, Swaziland must rapidly identify and treat imported malaria cases before onward transmission occurs. A nationwide formative assessment was conducted over eight weeks to determine if the imported cases of malaria identified by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme could be linked to broader social networks and to explore methods to access these networks. Using a structured format, interviews were carried out with malaria surveillance agents (6), health providers (10), previously identified imported malaria cases (19) and people belonging to the networks identified through these interviews (25). Most imported malaria cases were Mozambicans (63%, 12/19) making a living in Swaziland and sustaining their families in Mozambique. The majority of imported cases (73%, 14/19) were labourers and self-employed contractors who travelled frequently to Mozambique to visit their families and conduct business. Social networks of imported cases with similar travel patterns were identified through these interviews. Nearly all imported cases (89%, 17/19) were willing to share contact information to enable network members to be interviewed. Interviews of network members and key informants revealed common congregation points, such as the urban market places in Manzini and Malkerns, as well as certain bus stations, where people with similar travel patterns and malaria risk behaviours could be located and tested for malaria. This study demonstrated that imported cases of malaria belonged to networks of people with similar travel patterns. This study may provide novel methods for screening high-risk groups of travellers using both snowball sampling and time-location sampling of networks to

  12. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    2012-01-01

    With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities. PMID:23268712

  13. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    Birkholtz Lyn-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.

  14. The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline

    Magnier, E.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) performs the image processing and data analysis tasks needed to enable the scientific use of the images obtained by the Pan-STARRS PS1 prototype telescope. The primary goals of the IPP are to process the science images from the Pan-STARRS telescopes and make the results available to other systems within Pan-STARRS. It also is responsible for combining all of the science images in a given filter into a single representation of the non-variable component of the night sky defined as the "Static Sky". To achieve these goals, the IPP also performs other analysis functions to generate the calibrations needed in the science image processing, and to occasionally use the derived data to generate improved astrometric and photometric reference catalogs. It also provides the infrastructure needed to store the incoming data and the resulting data products. The IPP inherits lessons learned, and in some cases code and prototype code, from several other astronomy image analysis systems, including Imcat (Kaiser), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (REF), the Elixir system (Magnier & Cuillandre), and Vista (Tonry). Imcat and Vista have a large number of robust image processing functions. SDSS has demonstrated a working analysis pipeline and large-scale databasesystem for a dedicated project. The Elixir system has demonstrated an automatic image processing system and an object database system for operational usage. This talk will present an overview of the IPP architecture, functional flow, code development structure, and selected analysis algorithms. Also discussed is the HW highly parallel HW configuration necessary to support PS1 operational requirements. Finally, results are presented of the processing of images collected during PS1 early commissioning tasks utilizing the Pan-STARRS Test Camera #3.

  15. Malaria and tuberculosis: our concerns.

    Shiva, M

    1997-01-01

    In 1978 the concept of primary health care was adopted by 116 countries at Alma Ata, yet the negative impact of structural readjustment programs in Africa and South America could be felt due to the cuts in expenditures on health, education, and social matters. The result is a resurgence of communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. Another factor in this resurgence is extreme poverty. In 1994 over 1000 people died in Rajasthan, India, of a malaria epidemic, and during the same time in Delhi over 300 deaths were attributed to hemorrhagic dengue fever. Malariogenic and tuberculous conditions continue to flourish owing to distorted development patterns and commercialization of medical care as public health and community health services are being replaced by profit-oriented curative care, 80% of which is in private hands. This has resulted in spiraling medical care costs and rural indebtedness. Socioeconomic deprivation in developing countries threatens TB control. Factors contributing to the spread of TB were established in 1899 and are still valid in India and other developing countries: TB contamination of air, inadequate food, overcrowded dwelling, and low state of physical health. Even in developed countries TB is on the rise: there were 172 cases in 1991 in England vs. 305 cases in 1993, half of them among immigrants. The increase occurred in the poorest 30% of the population. The World Bank is providing loans for a revised TB and malaria strategy, and the Disability Adjusted Life Year has been used to identify the greatest burden of diseases. On the other hand, the Indian National Health Policy has not been revised since 1983. Priority must be given to those living in extreme poverty to curb the resurgence of once controlled diseases.

  16. The treatment of severe malaria.

    Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nick P J

    2007-07-01

    In the SEAQUAMAT trial, parenteral artesunate was shown to be associated with a considerably lower mortality than quinine, and is now the recommended treatment for severe malaria in low-transmission areas and in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A trial is underway to establish its role in African children. The development of artesunate suppositories may provide the means to treat patients with severe disease in remote rural settings, potentially buying the time needed to reach a health care facility. The increasing availability of basic intensive care facilities in developing countries also has the potential to further reduce mortality.

  17. Pan-specific MHC class I predictors: A benchmark of HLA class I pan-specific prediction methods

    Zhang, Hao; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    not previously been compared using independent evaluation sets. Results: A diverse set of quantitative peptide binding affinity measurements was collected from IEDB, together with a large set of HLA class I ligands from the SYFPEITHI database. Based on these data sets, three different pan-specific HLA web...

  18. Radiological Protection Measurements Implemented during the 16. Pan American and 4. ParaPan American Games: Guadalajara, Mexico, 2011

    2014-02-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. Often national and international high level public events are the subject of much public interest and receive extensive coverage in the media. In this sense, it is well known that there is a real threat of a terrorist attack in important public events, such as major economic summits, high level political meetings or sporting events. In 1955 and 1975, the 2nd and 7th Pan American Games were organized by the City of Mexico. In 2011, the Pan American Games was the third event of its kind held in Guadalajara, Jalisco. At the national level, the implementation of nuclear security measures in the Pan American Games laid the foundations for a sustainable national nuclear security framework that will continue long after the event. The political decision, the existing legal basis and structure, agency coordination facilitated the incorporation of nuclear security measures. It was also a challenge to integrate all the relevant organizations, provide focus to the threat of terrorism linked to weapons of mass destruction for security games, plan resources and execute the project on time, among other details. For this reason, information and lessons learned that are reported in this document, received in Mexico during the 16th edition of the Pan American Games will be useful for the implementation of nuclear security measures in States with similar situations

  19. An epidemiological overview of malaria in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Nazrul; Bonovas, Stefanos; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the four major malaria-endemic countries in South-East Asia having approximately 34% of its population at risk of malaria. This paper aims at providing an overview of the malaria situation in this country. Relevant information was retrieved from published articles and reports in PubMed and Google Scholar. Malaria in Bangladesh is concentrated in 13 districts with a prevalence ranging between 3.1% and 36%, and is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Geographical conditions pose a potential risk for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Resistance to a number of drugs previously recommended for treatment has been reported. Low socio-economic status, poor schooling and close proximity to water bodies and forest areas comprise important risk factors. Despite the significant steps in Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN)/Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage in Bangladesh, there are still many challenges including the extension of malaria support to the remote areas of Bangladesh, where malaria prevalence is higher, and further improvements in the field of referral system and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Status and Evolution of ATLAS Workload Management System PanDA

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067365; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a sophisticated workload management system, PanDA, to provide access for thousands of physicists to distributed computing resources of unprecedented scale. This system has proved to be robust and scalable during three years of LHC operations. We describe the design and performance of PanDA in ATLAS. The features which make PanDA successful in ATLAS could be applicable to other exabyte scale scientific projects. We describe plans to evolve PanDA towards a general workload management system for the new BigData initiative announced by the US government. Other planned future improvements to PanDA will also be described

  1. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses

  2. Malaria transmission in Tripura: Disease distribution & determinants.

    Dev, Vas; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P; Nanda, Nutan; Baidya, Bimal K

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Tripura and focal disease outbreaks are of frequent occurrence. The state is co-endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and transmission is perennial and persistent. The present study was aimed to review data on disease distribution to prioritize high-risk districts, and to study seasonal prevalence of disease vectors and their bionomical characteristics to help formulate vector species-specific interventions for malaria control. Data on malaria morbidity in the State were reviewed retrospectively (2008-2012) for understanding disease distribution and transmission dynamics. Cross-sectional mass blood surveys were conducted in malaria endemic villages of South Tripura district to ascertain the prevalence of malaria and proportions of parasite species. Mosquito collections were made in human dwellings of malaria endemic villages aiming at vector incrimination and to study relative abundance, resting and feeding preferences, and their present susceptibility status to DDT. The study showed that malaria was widely prevalent and P. falciparum was the predominant infection (>90%), the remaining were P. vivax cases. The disease distribution, however, was uneven with large concentration of cases in districts of South Tripura and Dhalai coinciding with vast forest cover and tribal populations. Both Anopheles minimus s.s. and An. baimaii were recorded to be prevalent and observed to be highly anthropophagic and susceptible to DDT. Of these, An. minimus was incriminated (sporozoite infection rate 4.92%), and its bionomical characteristics revealed this species to be largely indoor resting and endophagic. For effective control of malaria in the state, it is recommended that diseases surveillance should be robust, and vector control interventions including DDT spray coverage, mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets/ long-lasting insecticidal nets should be intensified prioritizing population groups most at risk to

  3. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    1995-03-13

    Colombian professor Manuel Patarroyo developed a new malaria vaccine (SPF66). In February 1995, WHO and the Colombian government agreed to establish a manufacturing plant in Colombia for mass production of SPF66. This vaccine is likely to be available to persons in Africa, where 90% of all annual global cases live. In fact, Africa witnesses one million of 1.5 million annual malaria cases. Many children die from malaria. An extensive clinical trial of the SPF66 vaccine in Colombia achieved a 22-77% protection rate. The young and the very old had the high protection rates. A series of human clinical trials in the Gambia and Tanzania indicate that SPF66 produces a strong immune response against malaria without any harmful side effects. The results of field tests in the Gambia and Thailand and of trials in Colombia are expected in 1995. If the vaccine could reduce the incidence of malaria by just 50%, the lives of as many as 500,000 African children could be saved. SPF66 contains a combination of synthetic peptides (=or 2 amino acids). Mass production would make it affordable (estimated $5/injection). At least five other malaria vaccines hold promise and are ready for human testing in endemic countries. SPF66 is approximately three years ahead of all other promising malaria vaccines. 20 more vaccines are in the development stage. The large scale production of SPF66 in Colombia could begin within three years. Professor Patarroyo has financed his 12-year-old research himself because he wants to protect the lives of persons in developing countries. In 1992, the Congo's president petitioned the international community at the WHO summit in Amsterdam to join the fight against malaria since it is now in a position to defeat malaria since it finished the cold war.

  4. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Forecasting Malaria in the Western Amazon

    Pan, W. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Pizzitutti, F.; Berky, A.; Feingold, B.; Mena, C.; Janko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Reported cases of malaria in the western Amazon regions of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador have more than tripled since 2011. Responding to this epidemic has been challenging given large-scale environmental impacts and demographic changes combined with changing financial and political priorities. In Peru alone, malaria cases increased 5-fold since 2011. Reasons include changes in the Global Malaria Fund, massive flooding in 2012, the "mega" El Nino in 2016, and continued natural resource extraction via logging and mining. These challenges prompted the recent creation of the Malaria Cero program in 2017 with the goal to eradicate malaria by 2021. To assist in malaria eradiation, a team of investigators supported by NASA have been developing an Early Warning System for Malaria. The system leverages demographic, epidemiological, meteorological and land use/cover data to develop a four-component system that will improve detection of malaria across the western Amazon Basin. System components include a land data assimilation system (LDAS) to estimate past and future hydrological states and flux, a seasonal human population model to estimate population at risk and spatial connectivity to high risk transmission areas, a sub-regional statistical model to identify when and where observed malaria cases have exceeded those expected, and an Agent Based Model (ABM) to integrate human, environmental, and entomological transmission dynamics with potential strategies for control. Data include: daily case detection reports between 2000 and 2017 from all health posts in the region of Loreto in the northern Peruvian Amazon; LDAS outputs (precipitation, temperature, humidity, solar radiation) at a 1km and weekly scale; satellite-derived estimates of land cover; and human population size from census and health data. This presentation will provide an overview of components, focusing on how the system identifies an outbreak and plans for technology transfer.

  6. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  7. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  8. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  9. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region

    Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk; Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde; Aisha Indo Mamman

    2017-01-01

    Background. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried ou...

  10. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Askling Helena H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the

  11. PanViz: interactive visualization of the structure of functionally annotated pangenomes

    Pedersen, Thomas Lin; Nookaew, Intawat; Wayne Ussery, David

    2017-01-01

    with gene ontology based navigation of gene groups. Furthermore it allows for rich and complex visual querying of gene groups in the pangenome. PanViz visualizations require no external programs and are easily sharable, allowing for rapid pangenome analyses. PanViz is written entirely in Java......PanViz is a novel, interactive, visualization tool for pangenome analysis. PanViz allows visualization of changes in gene group (groups of similar genes across genomes) classification as different subsets of pangenomes are selected, as well as comparisons of individual genomes to pangenomes......Script and is available on https://github.com/thomasp85/PanViz A companion R package that facilitates the creation of PanViz visualizations from a range of data formats is released through Bioconductor and is available at https://bioconductor.org/packages/PanVizGenerator CONTACT: thomasp85@gmail...

  12. In-air PIXE for analyzing heavy metals in water boiled in pans

    Tomita, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    1993-01-01

    The release rates of heavy metals from pans were measured for boiling water as well as for an acidic solution prior to an investigation on the release or sorption of trace elements due to cooking of food by boiling. The boiled samples were condensed and analyzed by means of in-air PIXE. The release of heavy metals was measured for five kinds of pans. For all pans the release rates were considerably more increased by boiling of a 5% solution of acetic acid. Furthermore it was found that by using the alumina coated aluminum pan (alumina pan) the respective release rates of Fe, Cu and Zn were all less than 50 μg per 100 cm 2 of the pan surface dipped in the solution, and that monitoring of the contents of aluminum in the boiled solution enabled the estimation of the contribution of metal elements from the pan wall. (orig.)

  13. The Pan-STARRS1 Survey Data Release

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2017-01-01

    The first Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission is complete and an initial Data Release 1, or DR1, including a database of measured attributes, stacked images, and metadata of the 3PI Survey, will be available from the STScI MAST archive. This release will contain all stationary objects with mean and stack photometry registered on the GAIA astrometric frame.The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Measured attributes include PSF model magnitudes, aperture magnitudes, Kron Magnitudes, radial moments, Petrosian magnitudes, DeVaucoulers, Exponential, and Sersic magnitudes for extended objects. Images include total intensity, variance, and masks.An overview of both DR1 and the second data release DR2, to follow in the spring of 2017, will be presented. DR2 will add all time domain data and individual warped images. We will also report on the status of the Pan-STARRS2 Observatory and ongoing science with Pan-STARRS. The science from the PS1 surveys has included results in many t fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology.The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants No. NNX08AR22G, NNX12AR65G, NNX14AM74G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST

  14. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups. A cohort of over 1,800 participants from all age groups was selected randomly from over 350 houses in 10 villages stratified by topography and followed for two-and-a-half years. Participants were visited every two weeks and screened for clinical malaria, defined as an individual with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature≥37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache or vomiting) at the time of examination or 1-2 days prior to the examination in the presence of a Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smear. Individuals in the same cohort were screened for asymptomatic malaria infection during the low and high malaria transmission seasons. Parasite densities and temperature were used to define clinical malaria by age in the population. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria was calculated using logistic regression models. Incidence of clinical malaria was highest in valley bottom population (5.0% cases per 1,000 population per year) compared to mid-hill (2.2% cases per 1,000 population per year) and up-hill (1.1% cases per 1,000 population per year) populations. The optimum cut-off parasite densities through the determination of the sensitivity and specificity showed that in children less than five years of age, 500 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases for this age group. In children between the ages of 5-14, a parasite density of 1,000 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the

  15. Evaluation of the Deki Reader™, an automated RDT reader and data management device, in a household survey setting in low malaria endemic southwestern Uganda.

    Oyet, Caesar; Roh, Michelle E; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Parikh, Sunil; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap

    2017-11-07

    Early diagnosis of suspected malaria cases with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) has been shown to be an effective malaria control tool used in many resource-constrained settings. However, poor quality control and quality assurance hinder the accurate reporting of malaria diagnoses. Recent use of a portable, battery operated RDT reader (Deki Reader™, Fio Corporation) has shown to have high agreement with visual inspection across diverse health centre settings, however evidence of its feasibility and usability during cross sectional surveys are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Deki Reader™ in a cross-sectional survey of children from southwestern Uganda. A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling survey was conducted between July and October 2014 in three districts of southwestern Uganda, with varying malaria transmission intensities. A total of 566 children aged 6-59 months were included in the analysis. Blood samples were collected and tested for malaria using: the SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan RDT and microscopy. Results were compared between visual inspection of the RDT and by the Deki Reader™. Diagnostic performance of both methods were compared to gold-standard microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of the Deki Reader™ was 94.1% (95% CI 69.2-99.6%) and 95.6% (95% CI 93.4-97.1%), respectively. The overall percent agreement between the Deki Reader™ and visual RDT inspection was 98.9% (95% CI 93.2-99.8), with kappa statistic of 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.98). The findings from this study suggest that the Deki Reader™ is comparable to visual inspection and performs well in detecting microscopy-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in a household survey setting. However, the reader's performance was highly dependent on ensuring adequate battery life and a work environment free of dirt particles.

  16. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  17. Changing pattern of malaria in Bissau, Guinea Bissau

    Rodrigues, Amabelia; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Guinea-Bissau, in view of the fact that more funds are available now for malaria control in the country. METHODS: From May 2003 to May 2004, surveillance for malaria was conducted among children less than 5 years of age at three health centres...... covering the study area of the Bandim Health Project (BHP) and at the outpatient clinic of the national hospital in Bissau. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the community in different malaria seasons. RESULTS: Malaria was overdiagnosed in both health centres and hospital. Sixty-four per cent...... of the children who presented at a health centre were clinically diagnosed with malaria, but only 13% of outpatient children who tested for malaria had malaria parasitaemia. Only 44% (963/2193) of children admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria had parasitaemia. The proportion of positive cases...

  18. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria

    Rajesh Sonani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA, a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct were high. This patient′s blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT, antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2 nd day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4 th day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this.

  19. Development of pan-Arctic database for river chemistry

    McClelland, J.W.; Holmes, R.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Amon, R.; Brabets, T.; Cooper, L.; Gibson, J.; Gordeev, V.V.; Guay, C.; Milburn, D.; Staples, R.; Raymond, P.A.; Shiklomanov, I.; Striegl, Robert G.; Zhulidov, A.; Gurtovaya, T.; Zimov, S.

    2008-01-01

    More than 10% of all continental runoff flows into the Arctic Ocean. This runoff is a dominant feature of the Arctic Ocean with respect to water column structure and circulation. Yet understanding of the chemical characteristics of runoff from the pan-Arctic watershed is surprisingly limited. The Pan- Arctic River Transport of Nutrients, Organic Matter, and Suspended Sediments ( PARTNERS) project was initiated in 2002 to help remedy this deficit, and an extraordinary data set has emerged over the past few years as a result of the effort. This data set is publicly available through the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). Details about data access are provided below.

  20. Pan-Domain Analysis of ZIP Zinc Transporters

    Laura E. Lehtovirta-Morley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZIP (Zrt/Irt-like protein family of zinc transporters is found in all three domains of life. However, little is known about the phylogenetic relationship amongst ZIP transporters, their distribution, or their origin. Here we employed phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolution of ZIP transporters, with a focus on the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Pan-domain analysis of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and human proteins revealed a complex relationship amongst the ZIP family members. Here we report (i a eukaryote-wide group of cellular zinc importers, (ii a fungal-specific group of zinc importers having genetic association with the fungal zincophore, and, (iii a pan-kingdom supercluster made up of two distinct subgroups with orthologues in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic phyla.

  1. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    Bazinet, Adam L

    2017-08-02

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis), and quantify the degree to which taxa sharing common attributes are phylogenetically clustered. A rapid k-mer based approach (Mash) was used to create reduced representations of selected Bacillus genomes, and a fast distance-based phylogenetic analysis of this data (FastME) was performed to determine which species should be included in B. cereus s. l. The complete genomes of eight B. cereus s. l. species were annotated de novo with Prokka, and these annotations were used by Roary to produce the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome. Scoary was used to associate gene presence and absence patterns with various phenotypes. The orthologous protein sequence clusters produced by Roary were filtered and used to build HaMStR databases of gene models that were used in turn to construct phylogenetic data matrices. Phylogenetic analyses used RAxML, DendroPy, ClonalFrameML, PAUP*, and SplitsTree. Bayesian model-based population genetic analysis assigned taxa to clusters using hierBAPS. The genealogical sorting index was used to quantify the phylogenetic clustering of taxa sharing common attributes. The B. cereus s. l. pan-genome currently consists of ≈60,000 genes, ≈600 of which are "core" (common to at least 99% of taxa sampled). Pan-GWAS analysis revealed genes associated with phenotypes such as isolation source, oxygen requirement, and ability to cause diseases such as anthrax or food poisoning. Extensive phylogenetic analyses using an unprecedented amount of data

  2. determination of some haematological parameters in malaria

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 8(1): 80 – 83. Received: April ... INFECTED SUBJECTS IN USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY TEACHING. HOSPITAL ... genus contains over 125 species that cause malaria.

  3. Approach to malaria in rural hospitals

    Jency Maria Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most common parasitic infections in the developing countries. In Rural India, most patients would be treated by primary and secondary care physicians. This article is aimed at providing a feasible approach to the cases of malaria in mission hospitals and other rural hospitals taking into account all the resource limitations. A study done over one year on patients detected to have malaria at Jiwan Jyoti Christian Hospital in Sonbhadra district has helped the authors to identify the various challenges faced by doctors working in the rural hospitals. The article has looked at the various complications associated with malaria and their management. It has also stressed upon the increasing incidence of chloroquine resistance.

  4. Health promotion: From malaria control to elimination

    2011 - 2014 of the National Department of Health (NDoH) lists key objectives in achieving malaria .... message' through industrial theatre or comedy shows for schools, workplaces with the ... Health Care Re-engineering. Pretoria: NDoH, 2011.

  5. Gluconeogenesis and fasting in cerebral malaria

    van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Dang Vinh, T.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects after an overnight fast, glucose production is for approximately 50% derived from glycogenolysis. If the fast is prolonged, glucose production decreases due to a decline in glycogenolysis, while gluconeogenesis remains stable. In cerebral malaria, glucose production

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity

    Rogerson, Stephen J; Hviid, Lars; Duffy, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the biological basis for susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy was recently advanced by the discovery that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum accumulate in the placenta through adhesion to molecules such as chondroitin sulphate A. Antibody recognition of placental...... infected erythrocytes is dependent on sex and gravidity, and could protect from malaria complications. Moreover, a conserved parasite gene-var2csa-has been associated with placental malaria, suggesting that its product might be an appropriate vaccine candidate. By contrast, our understanding of placental...... immunopathology and how this contributes to anaemia and low birthweight remains restricted, although inflammatory cytokines produced by T cells, macrophages, and other cells are clearly important. Studies that unravel the role of host response to malaria in pathology and protection in the placenta...

  9. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  10. Predicting Malaria's Changing Course | IDRC - International ...

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... James Sang of the Kenyan government's Malaria Control Unit says the disease hits ... During the 1998 epidemic, almost four times more school-aged children caught ... This gave birth to the current phase of the project.

  11. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  12. HEALTH INITIATIVES IN NATIONAL PAN-AMERICAN SWIMMING FEDERATIONS

    Clarence Perez Diaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: National Swimming Federations (NFs supervise a large number of athletes and have the duty to protect their health that implies also the opportunity to improve public health. Objective: 1 To determine if the health professionals, the priorities, activities, and researches of the Pan-American NFs are focused on protecting athletes’ health and promoting the health of the population in general. 2 To determine if the FINA rules, projects and programs are applied. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among the 45 Pan-American NFs requesting information on the profile of the health professionals (dimension 1; D1, on programs, activities and research to promote health measures (dimension 2; D2, and on the importance of Pan-American NFs for the health of athletes and for the promotion of health in society in general (dimension 3; D3. We performed a similarity study according to the Rogers-Tanimoto coefficient (D1 and D2 and the chi-squared test (χ² (D3. Results: Thirty NFs answered the survey (response rate: 66.6%. For each dimension, the NFs were classified into five groups (A, B, C, D, E. Among the NFs, 33.3% have physicians and 33.3% have physical therapists. In each of the dimensions, Group A accounted for the majority of NFs but their results were lower. The groups with the highest rates in each dimension contained a maximum of two NFs. The health of the elite athletes was ranked as the fourth most important issue. The health of the recreational athletes and the health of the general population had the lowest priority. Drowning prevention programs were the most common. Conclusions: Pan-American NFs have few medical resources and only a few have injury prevention programs for elite athletes. There is a need to improve health promotion programs to achieve relevant social outcomes.

  13. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    Bazinet, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic tra...

  14. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants

    2015-11-01

    was inspected to ensure completion of the process. When the handles on the bonnet were cool enough to touch , the bonnet was removed, the ash... problems were encountered by shorter individuals removing the bonnet from the base of the pan. This and the weight issue will be addressed in a final...Analytes Only charges 6 and 7 were available for the tests. Using component data from MIDAS , charge 6 weighs 255 g, 250 g of which is M1 single base

  15. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Gun Propellants

    2016-11-01

    industrial suppliers. There should be no problems for most installations to fabricate or contract out the fabrication of a burn pan. ERDC/CRREL MP...2012). Measuring ener- getic contaminant deposition rates on snow. Water Air Soil Pollut (2012) 223:3689–3699. [25] Rasemann, W (2000) Industrial ...elevates the system off the ground, providing both clearance from most combustible materials or snow that may lie beneath it while partially

  16. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants

    2016-11-01

    Measuring ener- getic contaminant deposition rates on snow. Water Air Soil Pollut (2012) 223:3689–3699. [25] Rasemann, W (2000) Industrial waste...the system off the ground, providing both clearance from most combustible materials or snow that may lie beneath it while partially containing the...ergetic compounds in the propellant charges. This mass was measured outside the pan, as the most important component of the residues is what is

  17. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Nilsson, P; Stewart, G

    2011-01-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  18. Culture Prefigures Cognition in Pan/Homo Bonobos

    Sue SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions traditional approaches to the study of primate cognition. Because of a widespread assumption that cognition in non-human primates is genetically encoded, these approaches neglect how profoundly apes’ cultural rearing experiences affect test results. We describe how three advanced cognitive abilities – imitation, theory of mind and language – emerged in bonobos maturing in a Pan/Homo culture.

  19. Pambzuka News : building a progressive pan-Africa movement

    Manji, Firoze

    2008-01-01

    Pambzuka News is described variously as an e-newsletter or platform of website about social justice in Africa. There are some that see it as an example innovative use of information communications technology. Yet it is both all of these and none of them. Pambzuka News is an attempt to nurture and encourage the building of a progressive pan Africa movement within Africa and amongst what is popularly described as the African diaspora.

  20. Coexistence of Malaria and Thalassemia in Malaria Endemic Areas of Thailand

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, W.; Rungsihirunrat, K.; Pongjantharasatien, K.; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathy and malaria are commonly found worldwide particularly in malaria endemic areas. Thalassemia, the alteration of globin chain synthesis, has been reported to confer resistance against malaria. The prevalence of thalassemia was investigated in 101 malaria patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax along the Thai-Myanmar border to examine protective effect of thalassemia against severe malaria. Hemoglobin typing was performed using low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and α-thalassemia was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Five types of thalassemia were observed in malaria patients. The 2 major types of thalassemia were Hb E (18.8%) and α-thalassemia-2 (11.9%). There was no association between thalassemia hemoglobinopathy and malaria parasitemia, an indicator of malaria disease severity. Thalassemia had no significant association with P. vivax infection, but the parasitemia in patients with coexistence of P. vivax and thalassemia was about 2-3 times lower than those with coexistence of P. falciparum and thalassemia and malaria without thalassemia. Furthermore, the parasitemia of P. vivax in patients with coexistence of Hb E showed lower value than coexistence with other types of thalassemia and malaria without coexistence. Parasitemia, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in patients with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E were significantly lower than those without coexistence of thalassemia. Furthermore, parasitemia with coexistence of Hb E were 2 times lower than those with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E. In conclusion, the results may, at least in part, support the protective effect of thalassemia on the development of hyperparasitemia and severe anemia in malaria patients. PMID:26174819

  1. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA I: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Ouagadougou

    Convelbo Natalie

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. While much is known about malaria in rural areas in Burkina Faso, the urban situation is less well understood. Methods An assessment of urban malaria was carried out in Ouagadougou in November -December, 2002 during which a rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA was applied. Results The school parasitaemia prevalence was relatively high (48.3% at the cold and dry season 2002. Routine malaria statistics indicated that seasonality of malaria transmission was marked. In the health facilities, the number of clinical cases diminished quickly at the start of the cold and dry season and the prevalence of parasitaemia detected in febrile and non-febrile cases was 21.1% and 22.0%, respectively. The health facilities were likely to overestimate the malaria incidence and the age-specific fractions of malaria-attributable fevers were low (0–0.13. Peak prevalence tended to occur in older children (aged 6–15 years. Mapping of Anopheles sp. breeding sites indicated a gradient of endemicity between the urban centre and the periphery of Ouagadougou. A remarkable link was found between urban agriculture activities, seasonal availability of water supply and the occurrence of malaria infections in this semi-arid area. The study also demonstrated that the usage of insecticide-treated nets and the education level of family caretakers played a key role in reducing malaria infection rates. Conclusion These findings show that determining local endemicity and the rate of clinical malaria cases are urgently required in order to target control activities and avoid over-treatment with antimalarials. The case management needs to be tailored to the level of the prevailing endemicity.

  2. An electronic pan/tilt/magnify and rotate camera system

    Zimmermann, S.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new camera system has been developed for omnidirectional image-viewing applications that provides pan, tilt, magnify, and rotational orientation within a hemispherical field of view (FOV) without any moving parts. The imaging device is based on the fact that the image from a fish-eye lens, which produces a circular image of an entire hemispherical FOV, can be mathematically corrected using high-speed electronic circuitry. More specifically, an incoming fish-eye image from any image acquisition source is captured in the memory of the device, a transformation is performed for the viewing region of interest and viewing direction, and a corrected image is output as a video image signal for viewing, recording, or analysis. The image transformation device can provide corrected images at frame rates compatible with RS-170 standard video equipment. As a result, this device can accomplish the functions of pan, tilt, rotation, and magnification throughout a hemispherical FOV without the need for any mechanical devices. Multiple images, each with different image magnifications and pan-tilt-rotate parameters, can be obtained from a single camera

  3. ATLAS WORLD-cloud and networking in PanDA

    Barreiro Megino, F.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Maeno, T.; Walker, R.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centres, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites’ network bandwidth has increased at 0(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. PanDA dynamically pairs nuclei and satellite sites for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and network connectivity. This contribution will introduce the conceptual changes for World-cloud, the development necessary in PanDA, an insight into the network model and the first half-year of operational experience.

  4. Improvements for PanDA and intermediate layers

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Nadal, Jordi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis system is handling the ATLAS workload management for production and distributed analysis processing. It was designed for analysis as well as production for High Energy Physics. One of the advantages of this pilot based system is, that it has its own integrated monitoring solution. Monitoring is a method used in computing, it means that a certain process is observed and overseen and is usually also protocolled. In the case of a process or system failure, a responsible person should be notified and countermeasures taken. Since PanDA is very versatile, it can also be used to process jobs on a computing Cloud, instead of just using the Grid(WLCG). Cloud computing resources can be provided by private companies, that bill the resources that are actually being used, for example CPU power over time. The advantage of this is obvious if one looks at the cost. They are basically the same, whether a huge task is done on little CPU power over a long time or on plenty of CPU power in a short time. For these reasons, a close monitoring, for example by the PanDA system for the usage of Cloud resources is important.

  5. A Peptide-Fc Opsonin with Pan-Amyloid Reactivity

    James S. Foster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing need for therapeutic interventions for patients with the protein misfolding disorders that result in systemic amyloidosis. Recently, specific antibodies have been employed to treat AL amyloidosis by opsonizing tissue amyloid deposits thereby inducing cell-mediated dissolution and organ improvement. To develop a pan-amyloid therapeutic agent, we have produced an Fc-fusion product incorporating a peptide, p5, which binds many if not all forms of amyloid. This protein, designated Fcp5, expressed in mammalian cells, forms the desired bivalent dimer structure and retains pan-amyloid reactivity similar to the p5 peptide as measured by immunosorbent assays, immunohistochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and pulldown assays using radioiodinated Fcp5. Additionally, Fcp5 was capable of opsonizing amyloid fibrils in vitro using a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay of phagocytosis. In mice,125 I-labeled Fcp5 exhibited an extended serum circulation time, relative to the p5 peptide. It specifically bound AA amyloid deposits in diseased mice, as evidenced by biodistribution and microautoradiographic methods, which coincided with an increase in active, Iba-1-positive macrophages in the liver at 48 h postinjection of Fcp5. In healthy mice, no specific tissue accumulation was observed. The data indicate that polybasic, pan-amyloid-targeting peptides, in the context of an Fc fusion, can yield amyloid reactive, opsonizing reagents that may serve as next-generation immunotherapeutics.

  6. Using Of Learning Vector Quantization Network for Pan Evaporation Estimation

    Kamil7 A. Abdulmohsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A modern technique is presented to study the evaporation process which is considered as an important component of the hydrological cycle. The Pan Evaporation depth is estimated depending upon four metrological factors viz. (temperature, relative humidity, sunshine, and wind speed. Unsupervised Artificial Neural Network has been proposed to accomplish the study goal, specifically, a type called Linear Vector Quantitization, (LVQ.  A step by step method is used to cope with difficulties that usually associated with computation procedures inherent in these kind of networks. Such systematic approach may close the gap between the hesitation of the user to make use of the capabilities of these type of neural networks and the relative complexity involving the computations procedures. The results reveal the possibility of using LVQ for of Pan Evaporation depth estimation where a good agreement has been noticed between the outputs of the proposed network and the observed values of the Pan Evaporation depth with a correlation coefficient of 0.986. 

  7. Present status of preparation to the Pan-Orthodox Council

    Biskup Jerzy Pańkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article begins from explanation of the meaning (from the point of view of the Orthodox Church of the word „catholic” as one of the ontological attributes of the Church. Than the author presents the examples of the different kinds of meetings of Church hierarchs on the highest level and its titles/names.Than the article gives a short presentation of the initiative and history of the convene of Pan-Orthodox Council. The idea of that kind of meeting was born in the beginning of XX century on Ecumenical Patriarchate.The preparation to the Pan-Orthodox Council lasts many yearsand contains of many different kind of meetings. Meetings of the special commission that consists of representatives of each Autocephaly Orthodox Church concentrate on the different topics. During last meetings several important topics were discussed, as: Orthodox Diaspora, Autonomy and the methods of its granting, Autocephaly and the methods of its grantingand Diptychs. The author, who took part in some of these meeting,explains the positions of the various Churches in these matters as well asshares his opinions on them.In conclusion the author presents the opinion that despite many different problems on the way to prepare the Pan-Orthodox Council, this idea can be realized even in the near future.

  8. Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying.

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Graham, C

    2006-12-01

    To enumerate Campylobacter spp. on the external surface and internal portions of chicken livers, and to assess the cooking required to inactivate naturally present cells. Of 30 livers tested all yielded Campylobacter spp. on their surfaces and 90% were found to contain the organism in internal tissue. Four (13%) livers contained >10(4) MPN campylobacters, and an additional seven (23%) contained >10(3) MPN campylobacters per liver. The internal temperature of pan-fried livers under the conditions used reached a maximum of 70-80 degrees C, and maintaining this temperature for 2-3 min was necessary to inactivate naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. All isolates identified were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Chicken livers represent a potential source of human campylobacteriosis as they contained >10(4) MPN per liver in 13% of the samples tested. Pan-frying can produce an acceptable product that is safe to eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The data provided can be used in exposure assessments of Campylobacter in poultry products in terms of both quantitative data and assessing pan-frying and its ability to destroy campylobacters.

  9. Pan-Am seeks to salvage premature well investment

    1965-01-18

    Whether accelerated oil production should be permitted when a waterflood project has been delayed came up in a rare ''show cause'' hearing before the Alberta Oil and Gas Conservation Board, January 12. The Board ordered Pan American Petroleum Corp. to show cause why an order giving it 80-acre instead of 160-acre spacing in a 2,040-acre sector of the Pembina Oil Field should not be rescinded because of extensive delays in getting a related water flood scheme into operation. Pan Am has $750,000 tied up in infill wells drilled in November and December, following the new spacing unit order issued Sept. 29, 1964, said G.J. Last. Pan Am applied Nov. 24 for deferment of injection to July 1, 1965, because of delays in getting the unit agreement completed and ordering equipment. However it wants to produce the new wells, which are expected to average 20 bbl per day each in this marginal area. The board granted the deferment Dec. 29, but instituted the hearing on the question of interim producing rates.

  10. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  11. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis. Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacte...

  12. Steady progress toward a malaria vaccine.

    Lyke, Kirsten E

    2017-10-01

    Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection. Novel vaccines such as RTS,S/AS01E are on the edge of licensure, but old techniques have resurged with the ability to deliver vialed, whole organism vaccines. Novel adjuvants, multistage/multiantigen approaches and transmission blocking vaccines all contribute to a multipronged battle plan to conquer malaria. Vaccines are the most cost-effective tools to control infectious diseases, yet the complexity of malaria has frustrated all attempts to develop an effective product. This review concentrates on recent advances in malaria vaccine development that lend hope that a vaccine can be produced and malaria eradicated.

  13. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  14. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  15. The use of a GIS-based malaria information system for malaria research and control in South Africa.

    Martin, Carrin; Curtis, Bronwyn; Fraser, Colleen; Sharp, Brian

    2002-12-01

    The paper aims to outline the innovative development and application of a Geographical Information System based Malaria Information System for malaria research and control in South Africa. This system is a product of collaboration between the Malaria Control Programmes and the Malaria Research Programme of the Medical Research Council of South Africa. The ability of such a system to process data timeously into a usable format is discussed, as well as its relevance to malaria research, appropriate malaria control measures, tourism, and social and economic development.

  16. Targeting the breeding sites of malaria mosquitoes: biological and physical control of malaria mosquito larvae

    Bukhari, S.T.

    2011-01-01


    Malaria causes an estimated 225 million cases and 781,000 deaths every year. About 85% of the deaths are in children under five years of age. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite which is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito vector. Mainly two methods of intervention are used for

  17. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. The Gates Malaria Partnership: a consortium approach to malaria research and capacity development.

    Greenwood, Brian; Bhasin, Amit; Targett, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    Recently, there has been a major increase in financial support for malaria control. Most of these funds have, appropriately, been spent on the tools needed for effective prevention and treatment of malaria such as insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and artemisinin combination therapy. There has been less investment in the training of the scientists from malaria-endemic countries needed to support these large and increasingly complex malaria control programmes, especially in Africa. In 2000, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Gates Malaria Partnership was established to support postgraduate training of African scientists wishing to pursue a career in malaria research. The programme had three research capacity development components: a PhD fellowship programme, a postdoctoral fellowship programme and a laboratory infrastructure programme. During an 8-year period, 36 African PhD students and six postdoctoral fellows were supported, and two research laboratories were built in Tanzania. Some of the lessons learnt during this project--such as the need to improve PhD supervision in African universities and to provide better support for postdoctoral fellows--are now being applied to a successor malaria research capacity development programme, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, and may be of interest to other groups involved in improving postgraduate training in health sciences in African universities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  20. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  1. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region.

    Faruk, Jamilu Abdullahi; Ogunrinde, Gboye Olufemi; Mamman, Aisha Indo

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out. Blood donor units and patients' blood samples were obtained, for the determination of malaria parasites (MPs). Giemsa staining technique was used to determine the presence of malaria parasitaemia. Malaria parasites were detected in 7% of donor blood and in 8.3% of the recipients' pretransfusion blood. The incidence of posttransfusion MPs was 3%, but none of these were consistent with blood transfusion-induced malaria, as no child with posttransfusion parasitaemia was transfused with parasitized donor blood. Majority of the blood transfusions (89.4%) had no MPs in either donors or recipients, while 6.8% had MPs in both donors and recipients, with the remaining 3.8% showing MPs in recipients alone. In conclusion, the incidence of posttransfusion malaria parasitaemia appears low under the prevailing circumstances.

  2. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  3. Reduction in malaria prevalence and increase in malaria awareness in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Kabir, Mohammad Moktadir; Hossain, Mohammad Sharif; Naher, Shamsun; Ferdous, Nur E Naznin; Khan, Wasif Ali; Mondal, Dinesh; Karim, Jahirul; Shamsuzzaman, A K M; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-11-11

    Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh. A baseline malaria prevalence survey across the endemic districts of Bangladesh was conducted in 2007, when the prevalence was reported around 39.7 per 1000 population. After two rounds of Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)-funded intervention by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and a BRAC-led NGO consortium, a follow-up survey was conducted across the malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh to measure the change in prevalence rate and in people's knowledge of malaria. The survey was carried out from August to November 2013 in 70 upazilas (sub-districts) of 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh, following the same multi-stage cluster sampling design and the same number of households enrolled during the baseline prevalence survey in 2007, to collect 9750 randomly selected blood samples. For on-the-spot diagnosis of malaria, a rapid diagnostic test was used. The household head or eldest person available was interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire to collect data on the knowledge and awareness of malaria in the household. Based on a weighted calculation, the overall malaria prevalence was found to be 1.41 per 1000 population. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection was 77.78% while both Plasmodium vivax mono-infection and mixed infection of the two species were found to be 11.11%. Bandarban had the highest prevalence (6.67 per 1000 population). Knowledge of malaria signs, symptoms and mode of transmission were higher in the follow-up survey (97.26%) than the baseline survey. Use of bed nets for prevention of malaria was found to be high (90.15%) at respondent level. People's knowledge of selected parameters increased significantly during the follow-up survey compared to the baseline survey conducted in 2007. A reduced prevalence rate of malaria and increased level of knowledge were observed in the present malaria prevalence survey in Bangladesh.

  4. Malaria and World War II: German malaria experiments 1939-45.

    Eckart, W U; Vondra, H

    2000-06-01

    The epidemiological and pharmacological fight against malaria and German malaria research during the Nazi dictatorship were completely under the spell of war. The Oberkommando des Heeres (German supreme command of the army) suffered the bitter experience of unexpected high losses caused by malaria especially at the Greek front (Metaxes line) but also in southern Russia and in the Ukraine. Hastily raised anti-malaria units tried to teach soldiers how to use the synthetic malaria drugs (Plasmochine, Atebrine) properly. Overdoses of these drugs were numerous during the first half of the war whereas in the second half it soon became clear that it would not be possible to support the army due to insufficient quantities of plasmochine and atebrine. During both running fights and troop withdrawals at all southern and southeastern fronts there was hardly any malaria prophylaxis or treatment. After war and captivity many soldiers returned home to endure heavy malaria attacks. In German industrial (Bayer, IG-Farben) and military malaria laboratories of the Heeres-Sanitäts-Akademie (Army Medical Academy) the situation was characterised by a hasty search for proper dosages of anti-malaria drugs, adequate mechanical and chemical prophylaxis (Petroleum, DDT, and other insecticides) as well as an anti-malaria vaccine. Most importantly, large scale research for proper atebrine and plasmochine dosages was conducted in German concentration camps and mental homes. In Dachau Professor Claus Schilling tested synthetic malaria drugs and injected helpless prisoners with high and sometimes lethal doses. Since the 1920s he had been furiously looking for an anti-malaria vaccine in Italian mental homes and from 1939 he continued his experiments in Dachau. Similar experiments were also performed in Buchenwald and in a psychiatric clinic in Thuringia, where Professor Gerhard Rose tested malaria drugs with mentally ill Russian prisoners of war. Schilling was put to death for his criminal

  5. Malaria problem in Afghanistan: malaria scanning results of the Turkish medical aid group after the war.

    Oner, Yaşar Ali; Okutan, Salih Erkan; Artinyan, Elizabeth; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-04-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the infection in Afghanistan, which is an endemic place for malaria and had severe socio-economical lost after the war. We also compared these data with the ones that were recorded before the war. Blood samples were taken from 376 malaria suspected patients who come to the health center, established by the medical group of Istanbul Medical Faculty in 2002, Afghanistan. Blood samples were screened using the OPTIMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. In 95 (25.3%) patients diagnosis was malaria. In 65 patients (17.3%) the agent of the infection was P. falciparum and in 30 patients (8%) agents were other Plasmodium species.

  6. Bedside diagnosis of imported malaria using the Binax Now malaria antigen detection test

    Wiese, Lothar; Bruun, Brita; Baek, Leif

    2006-01-01

    Malaria may be misdiagnosed in non-endemic countries when the necessary experience for rapid expert microscopy is lacking. Rapid diagnostic tests may improve the diagnosis and may play a role as a bedside diagnostic tool. In a multicentre study we recruited patients suspected of malaria over...... a period of 14 months. The Binax Now Malaria rapid test was used at the bedside and in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The training of clinical staff was monitored and their experience with the use of the test was recorded. 542 patients were included, 80 of whom had malaria diagnosed by microscopy...... be useful for the diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria when used by routine laboratory staff, but could lead to misdiagnoses when used at the bedside. Microscopy is still essential in order to identify the few missed diagnoses, to determine the degree of parasitaemia, and to ensure species diagnosis...

  7. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  8. Influence Of Demographic Factors And History Of Malaria With The Incidence Malaria In MORU PHC

    Sudirman Manumpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria morbidity in Moru health center, with parameter Annual Parasite Incident (API, amounted to 16.9% in 2014. This figure was still high when compared to the target of eliminating malaria in Indonesia about <1% in 2030. Incidence of malaria is more common in children aged 5 months - <12 years. This high rates of malaria leads to poverty, low level of learning achievement of children and in pregnant women causing low birth weight in babies and death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence the incidence of tertian and Tropikana malaria or combined Tropikana and tertian (mix in Moru PHC in sub-district Alor Southwestern, Alor Regency.This study used a cross-sectional design, the population of study were all patients undergoing peripheral blood examination in Moru PHC’s laboratory from June to October 2015. The number of samples in this study was 173 respondents. The sampling technique was Simple Random Sampling. Instruments of data collection were a questionnaire and observation sheet.Results of the study by Chi-Square test showed that the factors influencing the incidence of malaria were socioeconomic status (sig 0,000, education level (sig 0.001. By using multivariate analysis with logistic regression test, results were obtained the age of 5 months - <12 value (sig 0.025 and socioeconomic status (sig 0,000 influencing the incidence of malaria.Variables that affect the incidence of malaria were demographic factors such as age, education level, socioeconomic status. It is advisable to harness swamp thus improving the economic status of society and build permanent house. Keywords: incidence malaria, demographic factors, history of malaria

  9. Shape of Key Malaria Protein Could Help Improve Vaccine Efficacy

    ... Featured Diseases & Conditions Food Allergy HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find ... To Volunteer for Vaccine Research Studies Volunteer for Malaria Vaccine Research Volunteer Profiles Q&A: Vaccine Clinical ...

  10. Malaria and pneumonia occurrence in Lagos, Nigeria: Role of ...

    EJIRO

    profound influence on both malaria and pneumonia occurrence and are responsible directly for ... Key words: Malaria occurrence, change points, climate- disease, pneumonia. ..... formation of tall clouds and onset of rainy season, we observe ...

  11. Original Article Social Aspects of Malaria among Students in Two ...

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... (2001) similarly found a relationship between level. *Corresponding author: Tel: +234 ..... Response of Students to Malaria and Therapy in a. University in ... Implementation of Pre-travel Advice. Good for. Malaria; Bad for ...

  12. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural ... especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural ... through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of ...

  13. Imported childhood malaria: the Dublin experience, 1999-2006.

    Leahy, T R

    2009-09-01

    Imported childhood malaria has never been studied in Ireland. We aimed to document the incidence and species of malaria in children presenting to paediatric hospitals in Dublin and to examine management and outcome measures.

  14. Case report Malaria: A cerebral approach | Court | Continuing ...

    An increasing number of patients with severe complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are presenting to South African hospitals, having travelled through malariaendemic countries from Central and East Africa. This report concerns an immigrant from Pakistan who developed severe cerebral malaria.

  15. A Safer Way to Fight Malaria in Mexico | IDRC - International ...

    2010-10-18

    supported malaria-control strategy in Mexico. The key is working together. Scientists pinpoint sources of malaria; communities destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such as algae in rivers, and spray homes with a safer pesticide.

  16. diagnosis of malaria and typhoid fevers using basic tools

    userpc

    retrospective analysis was conducted on the positivity rate for malaria parasite and typhoid fever among .... the size of the data, using a statistical software .... The frequency of the request for Malaria .... parameters vary with the change in the.

  17. Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    public health interventions against malaria, such as insecticide spraying or ... prepared, air dried, stained and examined ... Port Harcourt metropolis is presented in Table 1. It showed that more ..... of effective vaccine for malaria prevention and.

  18. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.

  19. Prevalence of sickle cell, malaria and glucose-6-phosphate ...

    PD) deficiency are relatively common genetic disorders in population exposed to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of these two genetic disorders differs between different malaria transmission areas. Objectives: This cross ...

  20. Haptoglobin gene polymorphism influences the effect of malaria ...

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... ... to detect parasitemia. Higher plasma haptoglobin level tended to be associated ... malaria in pregnant mothers and children up to five years of age. Participants were .... complications of malaria disease. Elagib et al. (1998).

  1. Prevalence and Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in Edo State ...

    Erah

    Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be ... This acquired anti- malarial immunity ... her family by reducing malaria related ... complications arising during pregnancy,.

  2. Laboratory indicators of the diagnosis and course of imported malaria

    Gjørup, Ida E; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    When travellers return from malaria-endemic areas and present to hospital with fever, microscopy of blood smears remains the leading method to verify a suspected diagnosis of malaria. Additional laboratory abnormalities may, however, also be indicative of acute malaria infection. We monitored....... For comparison, admission values of a group of febrile patients with suspected malaria, but with negative blood slides, were also assessed (n=66). The thrombocyte, leucocyte counts and coagulation factor II-VII-X were significantly lower in the malaria group compared to the non-malaria group, whereas the C......-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were significantly higher in the malaria group. The differences were particularly strong with falciparum malaria. By contrast, haemoglobin levels were not affected. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the role of a few commonly analysed laboratory parameters...

  3. Influence of plasmodium Falciparum malaria on sickle cell Vaso ...

    . Malaria infection is thought to influence the occurrence and severity of crisis in sickle cell patients. Objective To investigate the relationship between malaria infection and vasoocclusive crisis in sickle cell disease patients. Methods In order to ...

  4. Health education and caregivers' management of Malaria among ...

    Health education and caregivers' management of Malaria among under fives in Ede North L.G.A., Osun State of Nigeria. ... about the dose and regimen of chloroquine drug and (e) had a better attitude towards the management of malaria.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of malaria parasitaemia among under-five ...

    2015-08-07

    Aug 7, 2015 ... malaria control programs while ensuring proper ... cent of global infectious diseases burden.1 According to the World Malaria ... Maiduguri Teaching Hospital is a centre of excellence ... 100 oil-immersion fields. For positive ...

  6. Physiological adaption to maternal malaria and other adverse exposure

    Christensen, Dirk L; Kapur, Anil; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    of the world, malaria infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of anemia and LBW. By causing disruption to nutrient supply, as well as hypoxia, placental malaria and anemia negatively impact intrauterine fetal development. Thus, in utero exposure to placental malaria and consequent LBW may impart......, including type 2 diabetes; this potential link also opens an opportunity for early prevention of future metabolic diseases by paying greater attention to malaria during pregnancy....

  7. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2)), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease malaria toll in the region while preserving these

  8. A Real-Time Semiautonomous Audio Panning System for Music Mixing

    Perez_Gonzalez Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time semiautonomous stereo panning system for music mixing has been implemented. The system uses spectral decomposition, constraint rules, and cross-adaptive algorithms to perform real-time placement of sources in a stereo mix. A subjective evaluation test was devised to evaluate its quality against human panning. It was shown that the automatic panning technique performed better than a nonexpert and showed no significant statistical difference to the performance of a professional mixing engineer.

  9. Trends in pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration across the conterminous U.S.: paradoxical or complementary?

    Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2004-01-01

    Pan evaporation (ETpan) has decreased at 64% of pans in the conterminous U.S. over the past half-century. Comparing trends in ETpan and water budget-derived actual evapotranspiration (ET*a), we observe the so-called ‘‘Pan Evaporation Paradox,’’ which we confirm is no more than a...

  10. The indicative map of the pan-European ecological network in Western Europe : technical background report

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Bouwma, I.M.; Doorn, van, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Pan European Ecological Network for Western Europe is the third project in developing the Pan European Ecological Network The objective of the Pan-European Ecological Network is to develop a vision for a coherent network of high value areas for biodiversity, as internationally and nationally protected areas in combination with other suitable habitat areas for long term favourable conservation of Europe’s key ecosystems, habitats and species

  11. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting.

    Matthys, Barbara; Sherkanov, Tohir; Karimov, Saifudin S; Khabirov, Zamonidin; Mostowlansky, Till; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2008-10-26

    Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007) in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%). The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%). Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against malaria in the face of population movements and inadequate

  12. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

    Utzinger Jürg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007 in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%. The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%. Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against

  13. The ¿/d T-cell response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a population in which malaria is endemic

    Hviid, L; Kurtzhals, J A; Dodoo, D

    1996-01-01

    Frequencies and absolute numbers of peripheral gamma/delta T cells have been reported to increase after episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults with limited or no previous malaria exposure. In contrast, little is known about the gamma/delta T-cell response to malaria in children from...... areas where malaria is endemic, who bear the burden of malaria-related morbidity and mortality. We investigated the gamma/delta T-cell response in 19 Ghanaian children from an area of hyperendemic, seasonal malaria transmission. The children presented with cerebral malaria (n = 7), severe malarial...... anemia (n = 5), or uncomplicated malaria (n = 7) and were monitored from admission until 4 weeks later. We found no evidence of increased frequencies of gamma/delta T cells in any of the patient groups, whereas one adult expatriate studied in Ghana and three adults admitted to the hospital in Copenhagen...

  14. Impact of El Nino and malaria on birthweight in two areas of Tanzania with different malaria transmission patterns

    Wort, Ulrika Uddenfeldt; Hastings, Ian M.; Carlstedt, Anders; Mutabingwa, T. K.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria infection increases low birthweight especially in primigravidae. Malaria epidemics occur when weather conditions favour this vector borne disease. Forecasting using the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may assist in anticipating epidemics and reducing the impact of a disease

  15. Assessment Of Renal Function In Malaria Patients In Minna, North ...

    Data obtained were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance to compare variation among malaria patients and individuals without malaria, Duncan multiple range test to compare variation among means, and correlation matrix to evaluate correlation between the parameters measured. Proteinuria in malaria cases ...

  16. Predictors of childhood severe malaria in a densely populated area ...

    Coma, convulsions and unconsciousness were more indicative of cerebral malaria. Hemoglobin and blood glucose levels decreased significantly in severe malaria patients compared with uncomplicated malaria patients or controls (P < 0.001). On the contrary, blood transaminases and CRP levels increased significantly in ...

  17. Knowledge and Practice of Drug Retailers in Malaria Management ...

    The aim of the study was to evaluate what drug sellers know about malaria and how they can manage their clients. ... All respondent knew that malaria was caused by the bite of an infected mosquito,but malaria was also attributed to various other causes such as:other infected people 7 (11.7%) eating too many mangoes ...

  18. Malaria prevention in pregnancy among traditional birth attendants ...

    Background: Malaria accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually and about 300,000 deaths in Nigeria alone. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to adverse consequences of malaria. The National Malaria Policy has adopted the use of Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Net for ...

  19. 3. barriers to prompt malaria treatment among under five children

    Esem

    strategy need to be established. Therefore, this study aimed at determining barriers to prompt malaria treatment among this vulnerable age group in Mpika district. Objective: To determine the barriers to prompt malaria treatment among children under five years of age with malaria in Mpika district. Study design: This was an ...

  20. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Homan, Tobias; Mweresa, Collins K.; Maire, Nicolas; Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Masiga, Daniel; Oria, Prisca A.; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Takken, Willem; Smith, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria

  1. Low plasma bicarbonate predicts poor outcome of cerebral malaria ...

    Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many sub Saharan countries and cerebral malaria is widely recognised as one of its most fatal forms. We studied the predictive value of routine biochemical laboratory indices in predicting the outcome of cerebral malaria in 50 Nigerian children ages 9 months to 6 ...

  2. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  3. The epidemiology of postpartum malaria: a systematic review

    Boel, Machteld E.; Rijken, Marcus J.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria than their non-pregnant counterparts. Less is known about the risk of malaria in the postpartum period. The epidemiology of postpartum malaria was systematically reviewed. Eleven articles fitted the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies that compared

  4. slide positivity rate of malaria among patients attending two ...

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: malaria, slide positivity rate, Kano metropolis. INTRODUCTION. Malaria has a worldwide distribution, affecting people of all ages, with an enormous burden amounting to. 300-500 million clinical cases per year, 80% of which occur in Africa (Lucas & Gills, 2003). Globally ten (10) new cases of malaria occur every ...

  5. Adaptation is.... Predicting malaria's changing course in East Africa

    IDRC

    Health experts say controlling malaria is crucial if the three East African nations are to achieve the UN Millennium. Development Goal of halving the incidence of infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS by 2015. Looking ahead:Prevention and treatment. Improved malaria prediction will be an.

  6. Malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: Analysis of characteristics of ...

    Malaria in pregnancy poses a very serious risk to both the woman and her unborn child. Many factors may moderate the occurrence of malaria. This study seeks to assess the intrinsic factors associated with malaria in pregnancy.This was a retrospective study of 880 women who attended antenatal clinic at Olabisi Onabanjo ...

  7. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  8. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  9. Knowledge and Perceptions on Malaria and Its Association with ...

    Background: Malaria remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Kenya. About 70 percent of the population is at risk of infection, and roughly 34,000 young children die of malaria-related causes annually. Objective: To investigate the knowledge and perceptions of the local people for malaria in ...

  10. changing trends in the diagnosis of malaria and typhoid fever

    A vast proportion of malaria morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, (SSA). However, there is substantial evidence that the intensity of malaria transmission in Africa is declining (Snow et al. 2012, Graz et al. 2011), and rapid malaria parasitemia tests are well distributed in endemic countries and easy to use (Graz et al. 2011) ...

  11. Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control

    Homan, T.

    2016-01-01

    The parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium are the cause of the second deadliest infectious disease in the world, malaria. Sub Saharan Africa harbours more than 90% of malaria attributable mortality and morbidity, and most deaths occur in children under 18 years old. Malaria is transmitted

  12. Prevalence of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy in Ibadan, South ...

    The study investigated the episode of malaria infection and anaemia in pregnancy of 226 women. The overall prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women was 23.08%, while only 7.1% of non-pregnant women were malaria positive. The mean parasite density was significantly higher in the primigravidae than in ...

  13. Efficacy of Artemether in Unresolving Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

    The emergence of possible resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to artemisinin known for its immense benefit in malaria chemotherapy is worrisome. We report a case of unresolving Plasmodium falciparum malaria to Artesunate treatment in a 29- year old man in Enugu Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum count of Giemsa ...

  14. Susceptibility to malaria with a focus on the postpartum period

    Boel, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria in het kraambed is een afspiegeling van het succes waarmee malaria tijdens de zwangerschap is behandeld. Aan de Thais-Birmese grens is een zwangerschapscontrole opgezet met wekelijkse screening voor malaria. Dit heeft de afgelopen 25 jaar geleid tot een enorme afname in moedersterfte.

  15. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  16. Predisposition of Nigerian children with severe malaria to urinary ...

    The predisposition of children with severe malaria to urinary tract infection was investigated in a group of 112 clinically diagnosed and para sitologically confirmed severe malaria patients (test) and in another subset of 114 apparently physically healthy non-malaria infected subjects (control). Standard bacteriological and ...

  17. Odyssean malaria outbreaks in Gauteng Province, South Africa ...

    Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces. It is likely that many cases are missed, owing to the rare and sporadic nature of the condition. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of ...

  18. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in Nigeria, with significant records of mortality and morbidity. Adequate community involvement is central to a successful implementation of malaria control programs. This study assessed the effects of a training programme on knowledge of malaria ...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among ...

    Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated ...

  20. International Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases (IJMTD)

    The International Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases (IJMTD) (formally known was the Journal of Malaria in Africa and the Tropics (JMAT) is a publication of the malariologists and researchers in tropical diseases. Its aim is to educate, improved the practice of malaria treatment, stimulate research, encourage academic ...

  1. Knowledge, Perception and Control Practices of Malaria Vector ...

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating public health scourges especially in the tropics. Several studies have documented the prevalence of malaria among different vulnerable groups; however, an understanding of the communities' knowledge, perceptions and practices relating to malaria is crucial to the success of ...

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Urban malaria in Dodoma and Iringa ...

    Cross sectional malaria parasitaemia and entomological surveys were carried out in urban Iringa and Dodoma in Tanzania. A total of 395 and 392 schoolchildren (age range= 6-15 years) were screened for malaria parasites in Iringa and Dodoma, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant malaria parasite ...

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    Maeno, T; De, K; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of othe...

  4. Estrategias mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan

    Mónica Valverde Guillén; Jennifer Picado Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Proporcionar información sobre las acciones mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan para generar datos útiles en la implementación de estrategias que busquen la disminución del consumo de sal/sodio a partir de productos panificados. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos de Binass, PubMed, Scielo e instituciones gubernamentales. Las palabras claves fueron: contenido de sodio en el pan, menos sodio en pan, acciones para reducir sal en el pan, co...

  5. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    Maeno, T; Klimentov, A; Panitkin, S; Schovancova, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  6. Microstructural characterization of PAN based carbon fiber reinforced nylon 6 polymer composites

    Munirathnamma, L. M.; Ningaraju, S.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    Microstructural characterization of nylon 6/polyacrolonitrile based carbon fibers (PAN-CFs) of 10 to 40 wt% has been performed by positron lifetime technique (PLT). The positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3), o-Ps intensity (I3) and fractional free volume (Fv) of nylon 6/PAN-CF composites are correlated with the mechanical properties viz., Tensile strength and Young's modulus. The Fv show negative deviation with the reinforcement of 10 to 40 wt% of PAN-CF from the linear additivity relation. The negative deviation in nylon 6/PAN-CF composite suggests the induced molecular packing due to the chemical interaction between the polymeric chains of nylon 6 and PAN-CF. This is evident from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) studies. The FTIR results suggests that observed negative deviation in PALS results of nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to the induced chemical interaction at N-H-O sites. The improved tensile strength (TS) and Young's modulus (YM) in nylon 6/PAN-CF reinforced polymer composites is due to AS4C (surface treated and epoxy coated) PAN-CF has shown highest adhesion level due to better stress transfer between nylon 6 and PAN-CF.

  7. Evaluation of chemopreventive effects of betel leaf on the genotoxicity of pan masala.

    Trivedi, A H; Patel, R K; Rawal, U M; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1994-01-01

    The antigenotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of betel leaf (BL-ext.) against the pan masala was tested with the help of cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) utilizing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Compared to the cultures treated with aqueous extract of pan masala alone, a reduction in CA and SCE frequencies in CHO cells was observed following a combined treatment with pan masala (with or without tobacco) extract and BL-ext. The protective effect of BL-ext. against the genomic damage caused by pan masala was statistically significant only after treating the cells for a longer period.

  8. Preparation of Ag/HBP/PAN Nanofiber Web and Its Antimicrobial and Filtration Property

    Li-Rong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To widen the application of nanofibers web in the field of medical health materials, a new Ag/amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP/polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofiber web with excellent antimicrobial activity and filtration property was produced with Ag/HBP dispersion solution and PAN nanofiber. Ag/HBP dispersion solution was prepared with HBP as reducer and stabilizer, and Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber was prepared by modifying electrospun PAN nanofiber with Ag/HBP aqueous solution. The characterization results showed that spherical Ag nanoparticles were prepared and they had a narrow distribution in HBP aqueous solution. The results of Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber characterized with SEM and EDS showed that the content of silver nanoparticles on the surface of PAN nanofiber was on the increase when the treating temperature rose. The bacterial reduction rates of HBP-treated PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were about 89%, while those of the Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were 99.9% and 99.96%, respectively, due to the cooperative effects from the amino groups in HBP and Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the small pores and high porosity in Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber web resulted in high filtration efficiency (99.9% for removing smaller particles (0.1 μm~0.7 μm, which was much higher than that of the gauze mask.

  9. The Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST)

    Huber, Mark; Carter Chambers, Kenneth; Flewelling, Heather; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Science Consortium finished the 3Pi survey of the whole sky north of -30 degrees between 2010-2014 in grizy (PS1 specific filters) and the PS1 telescope has been running a wide-field survey for near earth objects, funded by NASA through the NEO Observation Program. This survey takes data in a w-band (wide-band filter spanning g,r,i) in dark time, and combinations of r, i, z and y during bright time. We are now processing these data through the Pan-STARRS IPP difference imaging pipeline and recovering stationary transients. Effectively the 3Pi survey for transients that started during the PS1 Science Consortium is being continued under the new NEO optimized operations mode. The observing procedure in this case is to take a quad of exposures, typically 30-45 seconds separated by 10-20 minutes each, typically revealing high confidence transients (greater than 5-sigma) to depths of i~ 20.7, y~18.3 (AB mags). This cadence may be repeated on subsequent nights in a return pointing.Continuing the public release of the first 880 transients from the PS1 3Pi survey during the search period September 2013 - January 2014, beginning February 2015, the transient events using the data from the the Pan-STARRS NEO Science Consortium are now regularly added. These are mostly supernova candidates, but the list also contains some variable stars, AGN, and nuclear transients. The light curves are too sparsely sampled to be of standalone use, but they may be of use to the community in combining with existing data (e.g. Fraser et al. 2013, ApJ, 779, L8), constraining explosion and rise times (e.g. Nicholl et al. 2013, Nature, 502, 346) as well as many being new discoveries.For additional details visit http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/

  10. Evidence from a natural experiment that malaria parasitemia is pathogenic in retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria.

    Small, Dylan S; Taylor, Terrie E; Postels, Douglas G; Beare, Nicholas Av; Cheng, Jing; MacCormick, Ian Jc; Seydel, Karl B

    2017-06-07

    Cerebral malaria (CM) can be classified as retinopathy-positive or retinopathy-negative, based on the presence or absence of characteristic retinal features. While malaria parasites are considered central to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-positive CM, their contribution to retinopathy-negative CM is largely unknown. One theory is that malaria parasites are innocent bystanders in retinopathy-negative CM and the etiology of the coma is entirely non-malarial. Because hospitals in malaria-endemic areas often lack diagnostic facilities to identify non-malarial causes of coma, it has not been possible to evaluate the contribution of malaria infection to retinopathy-negative CM. To overcome this barrier, we studied a natural experiment involving genetically inherited traits, and find evidence that malaria parasitemia does contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-negative CM. A lower bound for the fraction of retinopathy-negative CM that would be prevented if malaria parasitemia were to be eliminated is estimated to be 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 1).

  11. Malaria vaccines and their potential role in the elimination of malaria

    Greenwood Brian M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on malaria vaccines is currently directed primarily towards the development of vaccines that prevent clinical malaria. Malaria elimination, now being considered seriously in some epidemiological situations, requires a different vaccine strategy, since success will depend on killing all parasites in the community in order to stop transmission completely. The feature of the life-cycles of human malarias that presents the greatest challenge to an elimination programme is the persistence of parasites as asymptomatic infections. These are an important source from which transmission to mosquitoes can occur. Consequently, an elimination strategy requires a community-based approach covering all individuals and not just those who are susceptible to clinical malaria. The progress that has been made in development of candidate malaria vaccines is reviewed. It is unlikely that many of these will have the efficacy required for complete elimination of parasites, though they may have an important role to play as part of future integrated control programmes. Vaccines for elimination must have a high level of efficacy in order to stop transmission to mosquitoes. This might be achieved with some pre-erythrocytic stage candidate vaccines or by targeting the sexual stages directly with transmission-blocking vaccines. An expanded malaria vaccine programme with such objectives is now a priority.

  12. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria.

    Nwonwu, E U; Ibekwe, P C; Ugwu, J I; Obarezi, H C; Nwagbara, O C

    2009-06-01

    Malaria currently is regarded as the most common and potentially the most serious infection occurring in pregnancy in many sub Saharan African countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted in two tertiary health institutions in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria (Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital And Federal Medical Centre). Using systematic sampling method, 193 pregnant women were selected from the health institutions for the study. Their blood were analysed for haemoglobin status and malaria parasite. Data were also collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. All the data were analysed using Epi info version 6 statistical software. Response rate was 100%. Twenty nine percent prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was detected, more common among primigravidae. Women with higher parity had higher frequency of anaemia in pregnancy. More than half of the pregnant women (51%) were in their second trimester at the time of booking. There was no case of severe anaemia requiring blood transfusion. Our pregnant women register late for antenatal care. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia is high in our environment as well as anaemia in pregnancy, using the standard WHO definition. It is suggested that effort should be intensified to make our women register early for antenatal care in order to identify complications early. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria should be incorporated into routine drugs for antenatal women.

  13. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  14. A Stochastic Model for Malaria Transmission Dynamics

    Rachel Waema Mbogo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the three most dangerous infectious diseases worldwide (along with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. In this paper we compare the disease dynamics of the deterministic and stochastic models in order to determine the effect of randomness in malaria transmission dynamics. Relationships between the basic reproduction number for malaria transmission dynamics between humans and mosquitoes and the extinction thresholds of corresponding continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under certain assumptions. The stochastic model is formulated using the continuous-time discrete state Galton-Watson branching process (CTDSGWbp. The reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or die out. Thresholds for disease extinction from stochastic models contribute crucial knowledge on disease control and elimination and mitigation of infectious diseases. Analytical and numerical results show some significant differences in model predictions between the stochastic and deterministic models. In particular, we find that malaria outbreak is more likely if the disease is introduced by infected mosquitoes as opposed to infected humans. These insights demonstrate the importance of a policy or intervention focusing on controlling the infected mosquito population if the control of malaria is to be realized.

  15. Malaria in Children, Prospects and Challenges

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the number one killer especially among the young children and is responsible for one death per minute in the world. Overall, between 250-500 million cases of the disease occur worldwide causing more than one million deaths annually about 90% of which in children under five years of age. Although the spread of the disease is worldwide but it is seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of all continents and is more so in sub-Saharan Africa. Five parasite species transmitted by more than 70 potent Anopheles mosquito vectors are responsible for the occurrence of the disease and its spread. There have beenseveral approaches for malaria diagnosis, management and prevention as a whole and in children (as the most vulnerable group in particular with various degrees of success. In this context works undertaken by international organizations such as Roll Back Malaria, Global Fund, UNICEF, as well as None for Profit international agencies and also at the national levels are promising in malaria control. However, drug and insecticide resistance, constraints in access to health care, poverty and the like are among the main challenges ahead. In this review paper the situation of malaria and its management measures with especial reference to children are discussed

  16. Imported malaria in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan

    2012-11-09

    To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.

  17. Pregnancy malaria: cryptic disease, apparent solution

    Patrick Emmet Duffy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria during pregnancy can be severe in non-immune women, but in areas of stable transmission, where women are semi-immune and often asymptomatic during infection, malaria is an insidious cause of disease and death for mothers and their offspring. Sequelae, such as severe anaemia and hypertension in the mother and low birth weight and infant mortality in the offspring, are often not recognised as consequences of infection. Pregnancy malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is mediated by infected erythrocytes (IEs that bind to chondroitin sulphate A and are sequestered in the placenta. These parasites have a unique adhesion phenotype and distinct antigenicity, which indicates that novel targets may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Women become resistant to malaria as they acquire antibodies against placental IE, which leads to higher haemoglobin levels and heavier babies. Proteins exported from the placental parasites have been identified, including both variant and conserved antigens, and some of these are in preclinical development for vaccines. A vaccine that prevents P. falciparum malaria in pregnant mothers is feasible and would potentially save hundreds of thousands of lives each year.

  18. Old model Nd ages in Namibian Pan-African rocks

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Kramers, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Nd-isotope analytical technique has been used to study the Damara high-temperature belt of Namibia formed during the widespread orogenic event categorized as Pan African. The results are presented of an investigation by Nd and Sr isotopes of the range in age and geochemical characteristics of rock sequences and provinces within both the upper mantle and the pre-existing crust which were sampled during the orogeny, and hence provided the major components of what is now a stable segment of continental crust. (U.K.)

  19. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  20. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  1. Evidence of leopard predation on bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    D'Amour, Danielle E; Hohmann, Gottfried; Fruth, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Current models of social organization assume that predation is one of the major forces that promotes group living in diurnal primates. As large body size renders some protection against predators, gregariousness of great apes and other large primate species is usually related to other parameters. The low frequency of observed cases of nonhuman predation on great apes seems to support this assumption. However, recent efforts to study potential predator species have increasingly accumulated direct and indirect evidence of predation by leopards (Panthera pardus) on chimpanzees and gorillas. The following report provides the first evidence of predation by a leopard on bonobos (Pan paniscus). Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    Leonard, A.; Decat, G.; Leonard, E.D.; Mortelmans, J.

    1977-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a hominoid ape phylogenically and chromosomally closely related to man. In agreement with the similarity of the chromosome characteristics, no significant difference was observed between man and chimpanzee with respect to the incidence of dicentrics and fragments. It is obvious that the nuclear area, which apparently constitutes the most evident difference between the nuclei of man and chimpanzee lymphocytes, did not play an important role in the yields of aberrations

  3. THE PHOTOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION SERVER FOR Pan-STARRS1

    Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Snigula, J.; Phleps, S.; Wilman, D.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Greisel, N.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K.; Green, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is obtaining multi-epoch imaging in five bands (g P1 r P1 i P1 z P1 y P1 ) over the entire sky north of declination –30 deg. We describe here the implementation of the Photometric Classification Server (PCS) for Pan-STARRS1. PCS will allow the automatic classification of objects into star/galaxy/quasar classes based on colors and the measurement of photometric redshifts for extragalactic objects, and will constrain stellar parameters for stellar objects, working at the catalog level. We present tests of the system based on high signal-to-noise photometry derived from the Medium-Deep Fields of Pan-STARRS1, using available spectroscopic surveys as training and/or verification sets. We show that the Pan-STARRS1 photometry delivers classifications and photometric redshifts as good as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry to the same magnitude limits. In particular, our preliminary results, based on this relatively limited data set down to the SDSS spectroscopic limits, and therefore potentially improvable, show that stars are correctly classified as such in 85% of cases, galaxies in 97%, and QSOs in 84%. False positives are less than 1% for galaxies, ≈19% for stars, and ≈28% for QSOs. Moreover, photometric redshifts for 1000 luminous red galaxies up to redshift 0.5 are determined to 2.4% precision (defined as 1.48 × Median|z phot – z spec |/(1 + z)) with just 0.4% catastrophic outliers and small (–0.5%) residual bias. For bluer galaxies up to the same redshift, the residual bias (on average –0.5%) trend, percentage of catastrophic failures (1.2%), and precision (4.2%) are higher, but still interestingly small for many science applications. Good photometric redshifts (to 5%) can be obtained for at most 60% of the QSOs of the sample. PCS will create a value-added catalog with classifications and photometric redshifts for eventually many millions of sources.

  4. Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference : foreword

    Editorial Office

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.

  5. Remotely Sensed Environmental Conditions and Malaria Mortality in Three Malaria Endemic Regions in Western Kenya.

    Maquins Odhiambo Sewe

    Full Text Available Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria endemic countries. The malaria mosquito vectors depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, for reproduction and survival. To investigate the potential for weather driven early warning systems to prevent disease occurrence, the disease relationship to weather conditions need to be carefully investigated. Where meteorological observations are scarce, satellite derived products provide new opportunities to study the disease patterns depending on remotely sensed variables. In this study, we explored the lagged association of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI, day Land Surface Temperature (LST and precipitation on malaria mortality in three areas in Western Kenya.The lagged effect of each environmental variable on weekly malaria mortality was modeled using a Distributed Lag Non Linear Modeling approach. For each variable we constructed a natural spline basis with 3 degrees of freedom for both the lag dimension and the variable. Lag periods up to 12 weeks were considered. The effect of day LST varied between the areas with longer lags. In all the three areas, malaria mortality was associated with precipitation. The risk increased with increasing weekly total precipitation above 20 mm and peaking at 80 mm. The NDVI threshold for increased mortality risk was between 0.3 and 0.4 at shorter lags.This study identified lag patterns and association of remote- sensing environmental factors and malaria mortality in three malaria endemic regions in Western Kenya. Our results show that rainfall has the most consistent predictive pattern to malaria transmission in the endemic study area. Results highlight a potential for development of locally based early warning forecasts that could potentially reduce the disease burden by enabling timely control actions.

  6. Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Rulisa, Alexis; van Kempen, Luuk; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; van den Borne, Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering the

  7. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    Polrat Wilairatana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytopenia similar to dengue infection. We retrospectively studied atypical lymphocytes (AL and atypical lymphocytosis (ALO, defined as AL > 5% of total white blood cells in 1310 uncomplicated malaria patients. In 718 falciparum malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 53.2% and 5.7% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–10%, whereas in 592 vivax malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 55.4% and 9.5% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–14%. After antimalarial treatment, AL and ALO declined in both falciparum and vivax malaria. However, AL and ALO remained in falciparum malaria on days 7, 14, and 21, whereas AL and ALO remained in vivax malaria on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In both falciparum and vivax malaria patients, there was a positive correlation between AL and total lymphocytes, but a negative correlation between AL and highest fever on admission, white blood cells, and neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, AL or ALO may be found in uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria mimicking dengue infection. In tropical countries where both dengue and malaria are endemic, presence of AL or ALO in any acute febrile patients with thrombocytopenia (similar to the findings in dengue malaria could not be excluded. Particularly if the patients have risk of malaria infection, confirmative microscopic examination for malaria should be carried out

  8. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  9. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. [Pulmonary complications of malaria: An update].

    Cabezón Estévanez, Itxasne; Górgolas Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-04-15

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, being a public health challenge in more than 90 countries. The incidence of pulmonary manifestations has increased in recent years. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most severe form within the pulmonary complications of malaria, with high mortality despite proper management. This syndrome manifests with sudden dyspnoea, cough and refractory hypoxaemia. Patients should be admitted to intensive care units and treated with parenteral antimalarial drug treatment and ventilatory and haemodynamic support without delay. Therefore, dyspnoea in patients with malaria should alert clinicians, as the development of respiratory distress is a poor prognostic factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN MALARIA RESEARCH

    J. Kevin Baird

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU, in collaboration with National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD and many other Indonesian government agencies and universities, has conducted studies of malaria throughout Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Flores, Timor, and Irian Jaya. Most studies have characterized the disease epidemiologically by defining the parasitologic distribution of the disease in the population, and by defining the entomologic parameters of local transmission. Studies of patterns of resistance to antimalarials have also been done at many field sites. Several studies on the clinical management of malaria occurred in Rumah Sakit Umum Propinsi in Jayapura. In addition to these studies which impact upon local public health planning policy, immunologic studies routinely occurred in support of the global effort to develop a vaccine against malaria. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas of research during the first 20 years of NAMRU in Indonesia.

  12. Somatosensory discrimination deficits following pediatric cerebral malaria.

    Dugbartey, A T; Spellacy, F J; Dugbartey, M T

    1998-09-01

    Pathologic studies of central nervous system damage in human falciparum malaria indicate primary localization in the cerebral white matter. We report a sensory-perceptual investigation of 20 Ghanaian children with a recent history of cerebral malaria who were age-, gender-, and education-matched with 20 healthy control subjects. Somatosensory examinations failed to show any evidence of hemianesthesia, pseudohemianesthesia, or extinction to double simultaneous tactile stimulation. While unilateral upper limb testing revealed intact unimanual tactile roughness discrimination, bimanual tactile discrimination, however, was significantly impaired in the cerebral malaria group. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.72) between coma duration and the bimanual tactile roughness discrimination test was also found. An inefficiency in the integrity of callosal fibers appear to account for our findings, although alternative subcortical mechanisms known to be involved in information transfer across the cerebral hemispheres may be compromised as well.

  13. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Fischer, Emily V.; Zhu, Liye; Payne, Vivienne H.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe; Kulawik, Susan S.; Brey, Steven; Hecobian, Arsineh; Gombos, Daniel; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Flocke, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (˜ 750 hPa) even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15-32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF) > 0.6) overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO) > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  14. Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN and MPAN above a Ponderosa pine forest

    G. M. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007, we observed eddy covariance (EC fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs, including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN, above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of −0.3 cm s−1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake can account for 25 to 50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15% is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil. Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer – fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. Depositional loss of APNs can be 3–21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition represents approximately 4–19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

  15. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    E. V. Fischer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (∼ 750 hPa even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF > 0.6 overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  16. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  17. Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe

    Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe...... malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self...... of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure....

  18. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  19. Current strategies to avoid misdiagnosis of malaria.

    Hänscheid, T

    2003-06-01

    Malaria remains the most important parasitic disease, and tens of thousands of cases are imported into non-endemic countries annually. However, any single institution may see only a very few cases-this is probably the reason why laboratory and clinical misdiagnosis may not be uncommon. In the laboratory, unfamiliarity with microscopic diagnosis may be the main reason, considering the large number of laboratory staff who provide on-call services, often without expert help at hand, as well as the difficulty in detecting cases with low-level parasitemia. Staff should therefore be provided with continuing microscopic training to maintain proficiency. The complementary use of immunochromatographic rapid detection tests (RDTs) may be useful, especially during on-call hours, although, in order to ensure correct interpretation, their inherent limitations have to be well known. Diagnosis based on the polymerase chain reaction is still unsuitable for routine use, due to its long turnaround time, its cost, and its unavailability outside regular hours, although it may be helpful in selected cases. Once the alert clinician has considered the possibility of malaria, and suspicion continues to be high, malaria can be excluded by repeat smears or RDTs. However, the absence of clinical suspicion may not be infrequent, and may have more serious consequences. Depending on the local number of malaria cases seen, laboratory staff should have a low threshold for the decision to perform unsolicited malaria diagnostic tests on suspicious samples, especially if other laboratory tests are abnormal (e.g. thrombocytopenia, presence of atypical lymphocytes, or raised lactate dehydrogenase). The detection of intraleukocytic hemozoin during automated full blood counts is a promising new way to avoid misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected malaria.

  20. Charge Diffusion Variations in Pan-STARRS1 CCDs

    Magnier, Eugene A.; Tonry, J. L.; Finkbeiner, D.; Schlafly, E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H. A.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. Z.

    2018-06-01

    Thick back-illuminated deep-depletion CCDs have superior quantum efficiency over previous generations of thinned and traditional thick CCDs. As a result, they are being used for wide-field imaging cameras in several major projects. We use observations from the Pan-STARRS 3π survey to characterize the behavior of the deep-depletion devices used in the Pan-STARRS 1 Gigapixel Camera. We have identified systematic spatial variations in the photometric measurements and stellar profiles that are similar in pattern to the so-called “tree rings” identified in devices used by other wide-field cameras (e.g., DECam and Hypersuprime Camera). The tree-ring features identified in these other cameras result from lateral electric fields that displace the electrons as they are transported in the silicon to the pixel location. In contrast, we show that the photometric and morphological modifications observed in the GPC1 detectors are caused by variations in the vertical charge transportation rate and resulting charge diffusion variations.

  1. Detectability of Chelyabinsk-like impactors with Pan-STARRS

    Micheli, Marco; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present the results of our analysis of the detectability of an object in the size range of the recent Chelyabinsk impactor under the current discovery and follow-up capabilities, using the specific observational strategy of the Pan-STARRS survey as a reference point. We first discuss the observability of real-life cases inspired by the impact trajectories of 2008 TC3, 2014 AA, the past Earth encounters with 2014 RC and 2015 TB145, the upcoming fly-by of 2012 TC4 and the Chelyabinsk event. We then expand our analysis with the investigation of synthetic impactors with realistic orbital distributions. Among the various conclusions of our analysis, we discuss how the time of first detectability of an object does not necessarily correspond to the moment when that same object can be recognized as an impactor. We also point out how objects discovered only a few days before impact can be immediately identified as impactors, partly thanks to the good astrometric quality that telescopes like Pan-STARRS currently achieve.

  2. Pan-oral dose assessment: a comparative report of methodologies

    Shafford, J.; Pryor, M.; Hollaway, P.; Peet, D.; Oduko, J.

    2015-01-01

    National guidance from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM Report 91) currently recommends that the patient dose for a pan-oral X-ray unit is measured as dose area product (DAP) replacing dose width product described in earlier guidance. An investigation identifying different methods available to carry out this measurement has been undertaken and errors in the methodologies analysed. It has been shown that there may be up to a 30 % variation in DAP measurement between methods. This paper recommends that where possible a DAP meter is used to measure the dose-area product from a pan-oral X-ray unit to give a direct DAP measurement. However, by using a solid-state dose measurement and film/ruler to calculate DAP the authors have established a conversion factor of 1.4. It is strongly recommended that wherever a DAP value is quoted the methodology used to obtain that value is also reported. (authors)

  3. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Predicting and Mapping Daily Pan Evaporation

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.; Sharma, Kirty

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT) and Genetic Programming (GP) are used to develop daily pan evaporation time-series (TS) prediction and cause-effect (CE) mapping models. Ten years of observed daily meteorological data such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and pan evaporation are used for developing the models. For each technique, several models are developed by changing the number of inputs and other model parameters. The performance of each model is evaluated using standard statistical measures such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error, Normalized Mean Square Error and correlation coefficient (R). The results showed that daily TS-GP (4) model predicted better with a correlation coefficient of 0.959 than other TS models. Among various CE models, CE-ANN (6-10-1) resulted better than MT and GP models with a correlation coefficient of 0.881. Because of the complex non-linear inter-relationship among various meteorological variables, CE mapping models could not achieve the performance of TS models. From this study, it was found that GP performs better for recognizing single pattern (time series modelling), whereas ANN is better for modelling multiple patterns (cause-effect modelling) in the data.

  4. Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae

    Jones, David; Scolnic, Daniel; Riess, Adam; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert; Berger, Edo; Kessler, Rick; Pan, Yen-Chen; Foley, Ryan; Chornock, Ryan; Ortega, Carolyn; Challis, Peter; Burgett, William; Chambers, Kenneth; Draper, Peter; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Chris; Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Smartt, Stephen; Smith, Ken

    2018-01-01

    We use nearly 1,200 supernovae (SNe) from Pan-STARRS and ~200 low-z (z energy equation of state parameter w to be -0.986±0.058 (stat+sys). If we allow w to evolve with redshift as w(a) = w0 + wa(1-a), we find w0 = -0.923±0.148 and wa = -0.404±0.797. These results are consistent with measurements of cosmological parameters from the JLA and from a new analysis of 1049 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia (Scolnic et al. 2017). We try four different photometric classification priors for Pan-STARRS SNe and two alternate ways of modeling the CC SN contamination, finding that none of these variants gives a w that differs by more than 1% from the baseline measurement. The systematic uncertainty on w due to marginalizing over the CC SN contamination, σwCC = 0.019, is approximately equal to the photometric calibration uncertainty and is lower than the systematic uncertainty in the SN\\,Ia dispersion model (σwdisp = 0.024). Our data provide one of the best current constraints on w, demonstrating that samples with ~5% CC SN contamination can give competitive cosmological constraints when the contaminating distribution is marginalized over in a Bayesian framework.

  5. ATLAS World-cloud and networking in PanDA

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Walker, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centers, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites' network bandwidth has increased at O(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. Nuclei and satellite sites are dynamically paired by PanDA for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and...

  6. ATLAS WORLD-cloud and networking in PanDA

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Maeno, Tadashi; Walker, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds (usually national or geographical groupings of sites) around the Tier 1 centres, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. Since those early days, the sites' network bandwidth has increased at 0(1000) and the difference in functionalities between Tier 1s and Tier 2s has reduced. After years of manual, intermediate solutions, we have now ramped up to full usage of World-cloud, the latest step in the PanDA Workload Management System to increase resource utilization on the ATLAS Grid, for all workflows (MC production, data (re)processing, etc.). We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus. PanDA dynamically pairs nuclei and satellite sites for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and network...

  7. Modelling homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda.

    Bizimana, Jean Pierre; Kienberger, Stefan; Hagenlocher, Michael; Twarabamenye, Emmanuel

    2016-03-31

    Despite the decline in malaria incidence due to intense interventions, potentials for malaria transmission persist in Rwanda. To eradicate malaria in Rwanda, strategies need to expand beyond approaches that focus solely on malaria epidemiology and also consider the socioeconomic, demographic and biological/disease-related factors that determine the vulnerability of potentially exposed populations. This paper analyses current levels of social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda by integrating a set of weighted vulnerability indicators. The paper uses regionalisation techniques as a spatially explicit approach for delineating homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria. This overcomes the limitations of administrative boundaries for modelling the trans-boundary social vulnerability to malaria. The utilised approach revealed high levels of social vulnerability to malaria in the highland areas of Rwanda, as well as in remote areas where populations are more susceptible. Susceptibility may be due to the populations' lacking the capacity to anticipate mosquito bites, or lacking resilience to cope with or recover from malaria infection. By highlighting the most influential indicators of social vulnerability to malaria, the applied approach indicates which vulnerability domains need to be addressed, and where appropriate interventions are most required. Interventions to improve the socioeconomic development in highly vulnerable areas could prove highly effective, and provide sustainable outcomes against malaria in Rwanda. This would ultimately increase the resilience of the population and their capacity to better anticipate, cope with, and recover from possible infection.

  8. Malaria or kalimbe: how to choose?

    Carme Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Should the Kalimbe (a traditional Amerindian loincloth be banned, based on its association with an increased risk of malaria? Studies on malaria conducted on Amerindian children in the Oyapock region, French Guiana suggest that there is an argument for replacing the Kalimbe with a modern alternative. However, the wider issue of how the positive (risk reduction and related benefits and negative effects (exacerbation of acculturation processes and associated consequences should be assessed needs to be considered before suggesting a change in ancestral behaviour for medical purposes. A multidisciplinary approach is needed, together with caution and humility from epidemiologists.

  9. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria: A Review

    2005-06-01

    4.92% 0% 100% [25] France** 557 15.5% 1.3%*** 100% 14.3% 1.3%*** 100% [26] Kuwait** 240 0% - 75.4% - - - [27] Peru 72 - - - 7.7% 0% 100% [28...expression of aldolase isoenzymes in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 52, 15-27. [21] Cloonan, N., Fischer...R. L. (2003). Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil. Rev. Saude Publica, 37, 390-392. [69

  10. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    L. Berrang-Ford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change.

  11. Malaria in the Republic of Djibouti, 1998–2009

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Nevin, Remington L.; Darar, Houssein Y.; Bougère, Jacques; Saleh, Moustapha; Gidenne, Stéphane; Maslin, Jérôme; Anders, Dietmar; Decam, Christophe; Todesco, Alain; Khaireh, Bouh A.; Ahmed, Ammar A.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, native populations in the Republic of Djibouti have experienced only low and unstable malaria transmission and intermittent epidemics. In recent years, efforts at malaria control have been aggressively pursued. This study was performed to inform revised malaria prevention recommendations for military service members and international travelers to the country. Laboratory-confirmed cases of malaria documented at large medical facilities and within military and civilian health care systems in the Republic of Djibouti from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. In recent years, fewer than 5% of febrile cases among the three largest passive surveillance systems were laboratory-confirmed as malaria, and incidence of confirmed malaria was well below 1/1,000 persons/year. As efforts in the Republic of Djibouti progress toward elimination, and in conjunction with continued efforts at surveillance, emphasizing mosquito-avoidance measures and standby emergency treatment will become reasonable recommendations for malaria prevention. PMID:21896822

  12. Malaria in the Republic of Djibouti, 1998-2009.

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Nevin, Remington L; Darar, Houssein Y; Bougère, Jacques; Saleh, Moustapha; Gidenne, Stéphane; Maslin, Jérôme; Anders, Dietmar; Decam, Christophe; Todesco, Alain; Khaireh, Bouh A; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2011-09-01

    Historically, native populations in the Republic of Djibouti have experienced only low and unstable malaria transmission and intermittent epidemics. In recent years, efforts at malaria control have been aggressively pursued. This study was performed to inform revised malaria prevention recommendations for military service members and international travelers to the country. Laboratory-confirmed cases of malaria documented at large medical facilities and within military and civilian health care systems in the Republic of Djibouti from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. In recent years, fewer than 5% of febrile cases among the three largest passive surveillance systems were laboratory-confirmed as malaria, and incidence of confirmed malaria was well below 1/1,000 persons/year. As efforts in the Republic of Djibouti progress toward elimination, and in conjunction with continued efforts at surveillance, emphasizing mosquito-avoidance measures and standby emergency treatment will become reasonable recommendations for malaria prevention.

  13. Spatial modelling of malaria risk factors in Ruhuha sector in the east ...

    Spatial clusters of malaria occurrence were subsequently determined using Getis and Ord spatial statistics. This cluster analysis showed that malaria distribution is characterized by zones with high malaria risk, so called hot spots, zones with moderate malaria risk known as not significant spots and zones of low malaria risk ...

  14. Imported malaria in children: A national surveillance in the Netherlands and a review of European studies

    Driessen, G.J.; Pereira, R.R.; Brabin, B.J.; Hartwig, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Falciparum malaria or malaria tropica is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality worldwide. Malaria-related deaths occur mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 365 million clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occur each year. In Europe, imported malaria

  15. Salivary Secretion and Composition in Malaria: A Case-control Study

    Summary: No previous studies have documented changes in salivary secretion in patients with malaria. This study aimed to compare salivary secretion and composition in malaria positive and malaria negative individuals. Ninety participants composed of 40 malaria parasite positive and 50 malaria parasite negative ...

  16. File list: His.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 hg19 Histone Pancreas PANC-1 SRX825369,SRX101484,SRX101485,...SRX825383,SRX152077,SRX190044,SRX825376,SRX825390 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 hg19 TFs and others Pancreas PANC-1 SRX100415,SRX190241,SRX...100942,SRX644410,SRX825399,SRX1026679,SRX1026680,SRX1026681,SRX1026678,SRX190248,SRX190315 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1 hg19 All antigens Pancreas PANC-1 SRX825369,SRX101484,SRX19...29,SRX190252,SRX825390,SRX644404,SRX825376,SRX101485 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1 hg19 Input control Pancreas PANC-1 SRX190309,SRX150696,SRX1...99860,SRX101486,SRX190029,SRX190252,SRX644404 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.50.AllAg.PANC-1.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1 hg19 Input control Pancreas PANC-1 SRX101486,SRX190309,SRX1...50696,SRX190252,SRX644404,SRX199860,SRX190029 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.20.AllAg.PANC-1.bed ...