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Sample records for maladaptive social cognition

  1. Cognitive schemas among mental health professionals: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    Sahoo Saddichha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.

  2. Social Cognition, Child Neglect, and Child Injury Risk: The Contribution of Maternal Social Information Processing to Maladaptive Injury Prevention Beliefs Within a High-Risk Sample.

    Azar, Sandra T; Miller, Elizabeth A; Stevenson, Michael T; Johnson, David R

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate supervision has been linked to children's injuries. Parental injury prevention beliefs may play a role in supervision, yet little theory has examined the origins of such beliefs. This study examined whether mothers who perpetrated child neglect, who as a group provide inadequate supervision, have more maladaptive beliefs. Then, it tested a social information processing (SIP) model for explaining these beliefs. SIP and injury prevention beliefs were assessed in disadvantaged mothers of preschoolers (N  =  145), half with child neglect histories. The neglect group exhibited significantly more maladaptive injury prevention beliefs than comparisons. As predicted, SIP was linked to beliefs that may increase injury risk, even after accounting for relevant sociodemographic variables. Findings support the link of beliefs to injury risk and suggest that specific cognitive problems may underlie these beliefs. Future work should further validate this model, which may inform enhancements to prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Psychosocial Factors, Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas, and Depression in Young Adults: An Integration

    Cankaya, Banu

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined a psychosocial-cognitive model that integrates recent findings on the independent effects of early maladaptive cognitive schemas (EMSs; Young, 1994) and psychosocial factors/stressors; viz., social support, expressed emotion, stressful life events and daily hassles, on level of depressive symptoms in young adults. Consistent with Beck's theory of depression, the expectation was that individuals with the EMSs would be more likely to respond to psychosocial stressors...

  4. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  5. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Julia Asbrand

    Full Text Available Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER. As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed.Children (aged 9 to 13 years with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 26 as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate.SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age.Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  6. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maladaptive social behaviour of students in secondary vocational education

    Koerhuis, Marie-José

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: Firstly to create a reliable and valid new instrument to measure maladaptive social behaviour (MSB) of students in secondary vocational education, and secondly to assess which school context variables could predict MSB at school. Three data-waves were conducted

  8. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  9. Identity formation and social maladaptation in foster adolescents.

    Yancey, A K

    1992-01-01

    The literature on identity formation in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups in the United States is summarized. Implications are discussed for a particular segment of at-risk adolescents--those in foster care residential group homes--who have received little published attention. The majority, in large urban centers, are African-American or Latino. These young people bear a disproportionate burden of such societal problems as unintended pregnancy and childbearing, academic underachievement and early educational discontinuation, substance abuse, and, ultimately, homelessness and more individually and socially costly forms of dependency (criminal justice, welfare, or mental health systems). It is postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization.

  10. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maladaptive social information processing in childhood predicts young men's atypical amygdala reactivity to threat.

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-05-01

    Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social-cognitive

  12. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  13. Comparison of Maladaptive Meta Cognition Beliefs among Substance Dependents and Non-Dependents

    Omid Saed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present research was the comparison of maladaptive meta cognition beliefs among substance abusers and non abusers. Methods: For this purpose 70 substance abusers and 70 individuals from the general population by purposive sampling participated in this research and responded to meta cognition questionnaire. For analysis data multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA and discriminant analysis were run. Results: MANOVA revealed that there was significant difference in linier combination of dependent variables (meta cognitive beliefs among two groups also, analysis of dependent variables lonely showed that two groups were significantly different in Positive meta cognitive beliefs, "Negative meta cognitive beliefs", "lack of cognitive confidence", "need to control of thoughts", and "cognitive self-consciousness". Also, the discriminant analysis indicated that three meta-cognitive factors included “negative meta cognitive beliefs", "need to control of thoughts" and "cognitive self-consciousness" were significant predictors to discriminate substance abusers. Conclusion: With consideration of the results it can be concluded that substance abusers have more maladaptive beliefs and these maladaptive beliefs can lead to susceptibility toward substance abuse and staying in this disorder. It is hoped that psychotherapists can be more useful in treating and staying in this research.

  14. Co-rumination, anxiety, and maladaptive cognitive schemas: when friendship can hurt

    Carlucci L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Carlucci, Ines D’Ambrosio, Marco Innamorati, Aristide Saggino, Michela Balsamo Department of Psychological Sciences, Health and Territory, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy Background: This study investigated maladaptive cognitive schemas as mediators of the relationship between co-rumination and anxiety. Methods: Self-report measures of co-rumination, trait cognitive and somatic anxiety, and early maladaptive cognitive schemas were provided to a nonclinical sample of 461 young adults. Mediation of co-rumination and trait somatic and cognitive anxiety by each early maladaptive schema domain was tested using nonparametric, bootstrap-based resampling. Results: Significant associations between co-rumination and trait and cognitive anxiety were mediated by schema domains related to Rejection and Disconnection, Overvigilance and Inhibition, and Impaired Autonomy. The association between co-rumination and somatic anxiety was mediated by domains related to Rejection and Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that those who engage in co-rumination, potentially resulting in clinical levels of anxiety, might benefit from treatment that focuses on themes of rejection sensitivity and belonging, beliefs about autonomy, and when the anxiety is more cognitive, treatment that focuses on hypercriticalness and emotional inhibition too. Keywords: anxiety, communication, domain, mediation, adults

  15. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2018-01-01

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A novel cognitive intervention for compulsive checking: Targeting maladaptive beliefs about memory.

    Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in Maladaptive Cognitive Schema in Orphans in Dakahlia, Egypt

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the gender differences of maladaptive cognitive schema among orphans in Dakahlia governorate orphanages. A cross-sectional comparative study included 152 orphan boys and 48 orphan girls in all orphanages homes in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Data collection tools included a structured interview questionnaire for personal data; early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form (EMSQ-SF. The mean score of the total YSQ and all the subscales, except self-sacrifice and unrelenting standards, are significantly higher among females than males. Attention should be given to the psychological care of the orphans especially security, trust, confidence, and autonomy with more attention to orphan girls.

  18. Cognitive structures in women with sexual dysfunction: the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive schemas are often related to psychological problems. However, the role of these structures within sexual problems is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and importance of early maladaptive schemas on women's sexual functioning and cognitive schemas activated in response to negative sexual events. A total of 228 women participated in the study: a control sample of 167 women without sexual problems, a subclinical sample of 37 women with low sexual functioning, and a clinical sample of 24 women with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed several self-reported measures: the Schema Questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings indicated that women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly more early maladaptive schemas from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, particularly failure (P depreciation (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05), and difference/loneliness (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05) schemas. Results supported differences between women with and without sexual problems regarding cognitive factors. This may have implications for the knowledge, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children A psychofysiological study of the cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding reaction time tasks demonstrated that children with a lesser variant of the pervasive developmental disorder (DSM-IV: PDDNOS) exhibit less

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    Felipe Q. da Luz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  1. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  2. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Perceived Social Support from Family and Friends and Early Maladaptive Schemas among Female and Male Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency.This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female delinquent and non-delinquent.Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD. and analytic methods such as independent T-test.Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls.              Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.

  4. Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study.

    Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, M age =26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders.Materials and methods: This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females living in Sicily (Italy aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42. The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns.Results: Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and

  6. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  7. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Students: A Pilot Study.

    Arana, Fernán G; Miracco, Mariana C; Galarregui, Marina S; Keegan, Eduardo G

    2017-09-01

    Researchers focused on developing therapeutic strategies for perfectionism given its well-established link to the onset and maintenance of several mental disorders. Meta-analytical findings provided support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches. However, most studies have focused on the efficacy of interventions, without analysing their efficiency. To explore the feasibility of a brief (five weekly sessions) CB group intervention focused on reducing perfectionistic concerns in Argentine students. We also aimed to identify participants who benefited from the intervention and to explore their differences with non-respondents. A third aim was to explore the potential merits of the intervention in a different cultural context as this is the first attempt to adapt an English-spoken protocol to the Spanish language. A quasi-experimental design with two time points was used. Twenty-four out of 84 participants (mean age = 27.75 years, SD = 8.3) were classified as maladaptive perfectionists. Paired t-tests and reliable change index comparisons revealed that most students (75%) statistically and clinically reduced their levels of perfectionistic concerns as well as their perfectionistic strivings. General distress, operationalized as anxious and depressive symptoms, was also decreased. Students who completed and responded to the intervention were more dysfunctional in academic and psychological measures at baseline than non-completers and non-improvers. Findings support the feasibility, preliminary efficacy and efficiency of this five weekly session intervention when applied to a sample of Argentine university students.

  8. Maladaptive Schemas and Affective Control in Students with Learning Disability: Benefits of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

    Nasrollah Vaisi; Mohammad Rostami; Zohreh Zangooei; Mohammad-Ali Khaksar-Beldachi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who  were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013). The sample included 40 female students suffering from learn...

  9. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  10. Maladaptive Schemas and Affective Control in Students with Learning Disability: Benefits of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

    Nasrollah Vaisi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who  were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013. The sample included 40 female students suffering from learning disabilities who had been randomly selected out of Koohdasht's middle school students after identification and a structured clinical interview and  they were put into experimental  and control groups (20 students each group. For data collection, Affective Control Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were used. Results: The results of multivariate covariance analysis showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly decreased maladaptive schemas, depression, anxiety, and anger in subjects (P<0.001. Discussion: This finding represents important implications regarding education and mental health improvement in exceptional students. Therefore, it is recommended to use this  therapeutic  package in schools and clinics as a supplement to other therapies in order to decrease negative emotions and to prevent formation of maladaptive schemas in these students.

  11. Embodied social cognition

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  12. Social cognition in humans

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  13. Social cognitive radio networks

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  14. The social life of cognition.

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms Predict Children's Low Social Competence in First Grade: Mediation by Children's Social Cognition

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether social-cognitive processes in children mediate relations between mothers' depressive symptoms across the first 3 years and children's first-grade social competence. Three maladaptive cognitions were examined: self-perceived social inadequacy, hostile attribution, and aggressive response generation.…

  16. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  17. Narratives of Self-Neglect: Patterns of Traumatic Personal Experiences and Maladaptive Behaviors in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.

    Lien, Cynthia; Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Abrams, Robert C; Pavlou, Maria; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69). Interviews included a comprehensive psychiatric assessment using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis-I and II Disorders and an unstructured interview that allowed subjects to describe important elements of their life stories. Content analysis was used to identify personal experiences and behavior patterns in each subject's narrative. Four types of traumatic personal experiences (psychologically traumatic loss, separation or abandonment (29%); violent victimization, physical trauma, or sexual abuse (19%); exposure to war or political violence (9%); prolonged mourning (7%)) and five behavior patterns (significant financial instability (23%), severe lifelong mental illness (16%), mistrust of people or paranoia (13%), distrust and avoidance of the medical establishment (13%), substance abuse or dependence (13%)) were identified in the life stories. Patterns of traumatic personal experiences and maladaptive behaviors that self-neglecters frequently report were identified. Experiences, perceptions, and behaviors developed over a lifetime may contribute to elder self-neglect. Further exploration and better understanding of these patterns may identify potential risk factors and areas for future targeted screening, intervention, and prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestural coupling and social cognition

    Michael, John; Krueger, Joel William

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition researchers have become increasingly interested in the ways that behavioral, physiological, and neural coupling facilitate social interaction and interpersonal understanding. We distinguish two ways of conceptualizing the role of such coupling processes in social cognition: strong...... an essential enabling feature for social interaction and interpersonal understanding more generally and thus ought to exhibit severe deficits in these areas. We challenge SI's prediction and show how MS cases offer compelling reasons for instead adopting MI's pluralistic model of social interaction...... and interpersonal understanding. We conclude that investigations of coupling processes within social interaction should inform rather than marginalize or eliminate investigation of higher-level individual cognition...

  20. The mediating role of state maladaptive emotion regulation in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and self-evaluation bias.

    Sarfan, Laurel D; Cody, Meghan W; Clerkin, Elise M

    2018-03-16

    Although social anxiety symptoms are robustly linked to biased self-evaluations across time, the mechanisms of this relation remain unclear. The present study tested three maladaptive emotion regulation strategies - state post-event processing, state experiential avoidance, and state expressive suppression - as potential mediators of this relation. Undergraduate participants (N = 88; 61.4% Female) rated their social skill in an impromptu conversation task and then returned to the laboratory approximately two days later to evaluate their social skill in the conversation again. Consistent with expectations, state post-event processing and state experiential avoidance mediated the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluations of social skill (controlling for research assistant evaluations), particularly for positive qualities (e.g. appeared confident, demonstrated social skill). State expressive suppression did not mediate the relation between social anxiety symptoms and changes in self-evaluation bias across time. These findings highlight the role that spontaneous, state experiential avoidance and state post-event processing may play in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluation biases of social skill across time.

  1. Creative Cognition in Social Innovation

    Jiang, Mingming; Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Social innovations are creative products and changes that are motivated by social needs and bring value to society by meeting those needs. This article uses case studies to investigate the cognitive and social processes that contribute to creativity in social innovation. The cases are: Wendy Kopp with Teach For America in education, Cicely…

  2. Social Institutions as Tools in Normative Cognition

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology......Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology...

  3. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...

  4. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Pellerone,Monica; Iacolino,Calogero; Mannino,Giuseppe; Formica,Ivan; Zabbara,Simona

    2017-01-01

    Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal exp...

  5. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  6. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  7. Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups.

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-05-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Do Multiple Forms of Social Capital Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Violence and Children's Maladaptive Behaviors?

    Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Yanghee

    2018-03-01

    Many things can harm children's well-being. Among them, exposure to parental violence makes children vulnerable and often leads to aggression and/or depression. However, not all children who have suffered parental violence show aggressive behavior or depressive mood. Social capital, defined as resources accruing from interpersonal relationships, was proposed to significantly mediate the relationships among adverse experiences and their negative impacts. In previous studies, social capital accrued from parents played a positive role for children in violent situations, but children exposed to parental violence need alternative sources of social capital. This study targeted fourth-grade Korean children and aimed to identify and test the role of various forms of social capital to help children overcome negative consequences from parental violence. Siblings, friends, teachers, neighbors, and online acquaintances were sources of social capital, and the results showed that social capital from siblings, teachers, neighbors, or online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and aggressive behavior. In addition, social capital from siblings and online acquaintances mediated in the relationships between parental violence and depressive mood. The findings have implications in terms of intervention. It is suggested that multiple forms of social capital from children's immediate environments are helpful in their adaptation from exposure to parental violence, and thus, relationship-based interventions are recommended.

  9. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social cognition and psychosis

    Janssen, I.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on psychological mechanisms and associated social risk factors for the onset of psychotic symptoms. In the first part, studies are described that examined psychological mechanisms of psychosis at the level of the individual, such as changes in theory of mind and

  11. Socially Extended Cognition and Shared Intentionality

    Holger Lyre

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the intersection of extended cognition and social cognition. The central claim is that the mechanisms of shared intentionality can equally be considered as coupling mechanisms of cognitive extension into the social domain. This claim will be demonstrated by investigating a detailed example of cooperative action, and it will be argued that such cases imply that socially extended cognition is not only about cognitive vehicles, but that content must additionally be taken into account. It is finally outlined how social content externalism can in principle be grounded in socially extended cognition.

  12. Neuro-cognition and social cognition elements of social functioning and social quality of life.

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Wassenaar, Moniek J. E.; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with psychopathology, personality changes, and cognitive dysfunction. It is unknown whether, and to what extent, these effects are present after long-term cure of acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathology, personality traits, and cognitive

  14. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults.

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years ( M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Data show that being a younger adult male with mother's parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development.

  15. Early Social Cognition in Three Cultural Contexts

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a…

  16. A Metaphor-Enriched Social Cognition

    Landau, Mark J.; Meier, Brian P.; Keefer, Lucas A.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognition is the scientific study of the cognitive events underlying social thought and attitudes. Currently, the field's prevailing theoretical perspectives are the traditional schema view and embodied cognition theories. Despite important differences, these perspectives share the seemingly uncontroversial notion that people interpret and…

  17. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

  18. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  20. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  1. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  2. Increased functional connectivity in the default mode network in mild cognitive impairment: a maladaptive compensatory mechanism associated with poor semantic memory performance.

    Gardini, Simona; Venneri, Annalena; Sambataro, Fabio; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Marchi, Massimo; Crisi, Girolamo; Caffarra, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Semantic memory decline and changes of default mode network (DMN) connectivity have been reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Only a few studies, however, have investigated the role of changes of activity in the DMN on semantic memory in this clinical condition. The present study aimed to investigate more extensively the relationship between semantic memory impairment and DMN intrinsic connectivity in MCI. Twenty-one MCI patients and 21 healthy elderly controls matched for demographic variables took part in this study. All participants underwent a comprehensive semantic battery including tasks of category fluency, visual naming and naming from definition for objects, actions and famous people, word-association for early and late acquired words and reading. A subgroup of the original sample (16 MCI patients and 20 healthy elderly controls) was also scanned with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and DMN connectivity was estimated using a seed-based approach. Compared with healthy elderly, patients showed an extensive semantic memory decline in category fluency, visual naming, naming from definition, words-association, and reading tasks. Patients presented increased DMN connectivity between the medial prefrontal regions and the posterior cingulate and between the posterior cingulate and the parahippocampus and anterior hippocampus. MCI patients also showed a significant negative correlation of medial prefrontal gyrus connectivity with parahippocampus and posterior hippocampus and visual naming performance. Our findings suggest that increasing DMN connectivity may contribute to semantic memory deficits in MCI, specifically in visual naming. Increased DMN connectivity with posterior cingulate and medio-temporal regions seems to represent a maladaptive reorganization of brain functions in MCI, which detrimentally contributes to cognitive impairment in this clinical population.

  3. The impact of cocaine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Potential neurobiological mechanisms and contributions to maladaptive cognition in cocaine addiction disorder.

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2017-10-01

    After discovering that addictive drugs alter adult neurogenesis, the potential role of adult-born hippocampal neurons in drug addiction has become a promising research field, in which cocaine is the most frequently investigated drug. Although a substantial amount of pre-clinical evidence has accumulated, additional studies are required to reveal the mechanisms by which cocaine modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and determine whether these adult-born neurons have a role in cocaine-related behaviors, such as cocaine-mediated cognitive symptoms. First, this review will summarize the cocaine-induced alterations in a number of neurobiological factors (neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, glucocorticoids, inflammatory mediators) that likely regulate both hippocampal-dependent learning and adult hippocampal neurogenesis after cocaine exposure. A separate section will provide a detailed review of the available literature that challenges the common view that cocaine reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In fact, cocaine has a short-term anti-proliferative role, but the young adult-born neurons are apparently spared, or even enhanced, following certain cocaine protocols. Thus, we will try to reconcile this evidence with the hippocampal-dependent cognitive symptoms that are typically observed in cocaine addicts, and we will propose new directions for future studies to test the relevant hypothesis. Based on the evidence presented here, the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of the many mechanisms by which cocaine sculpts hippocampus-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contextualising culture and social cognition.

    Vogeley, Kai; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive neurosciencists have recently begun to study self-consiousness and intersubjectivity but have not yet taken into account adequately the influence of culture on these phenomena. Here, we argue against the naïve inclusion of 'culture' as an additional independent factor that can be empirically addressed adequately merely by considering mother tongue or nationality. Instead, we propose that culture needs to be considered as a dynamical system of individuals; that culture is in continous dialectic interaction and exchange with the individuals that constitute it; and that cultural classifications feed back into social practices and identity processes, hence exhibiting a 'looping effect'. These proposals have important implications for the development of cultural neuroscience.

  5. Relationships between Social Cognition and Sibling Constellations.

    Goebel, Barbara L.

    1985-01-01

    First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…

  6. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  7. Neuroticism and maladaptive coping in patients with functional somatic syndromes

    Pedersen, Heidi Frølund; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The cognitive-behavioural model of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) proposes a multifactorial aetiology consisting of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. In this study, we sought to investigate three questions that can be drawn from this model: (1) Do patients...... with FSS show high levels of neuroticism? (2) Does neuroticism affect physical health and social functioning, either directly or indirectly through maladaptive coping? (3) Does more adaptive coping mediate the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) on outcome? Design. Secondary analysis....... Reduction in symptom catastrophizing during group CBT partially mediated its long-term effect. Conclusions. The results give support to a generic cognitive-behavioural model of FSS. Targeting symptom catastrophizing may be an essential component in CBT for patients with FSS, regardless of their specific...

  8. Adaptive associations between social cognition and emotion regulation are absent in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Jesseca Elise Rowland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM. These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophising and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophising and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  10. New social tasks for cognitive psychology; or, new cognitive tasks for social psychology.

    Wettersten, John

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance.

  11. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  12. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Continuous formation of liturgy through social cognition

    Ferdi Kruger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article researches two focal points, namely liturgical formation and the influence that social cognition has on liturgical formation. Within a South African context it is evident that Western liturgical traditions encounter African traditions and vice versa. This encounter is challenging because it creates new questions. The process of enculturation is prominent in recent research. The article refers to the process of social cognition as the manner in which people observe each other and try to make sense of other cultures and the people of those cultures. People’s cognition can be wrong, leading to distortions. The main research question for this investigation emanates from this possibility, namely: How does social cognition influence the process of liturgical formation? The authors first of all offer a descriptive– empirical vantage point to investigate this matter. Two local congregations were visited. The authors reflect on their own cognition, but also examine the cognition of the leaders through interviews. Based on the findings of this endeavour, normative perspectives are formulated from Acts 17:16–35 to highlight the role of cognition in liturgical formation. Throughout, the article includes consideration of the hermeneutic interaction between the various elements of this research and provides hermeneutic guidelines.

  14. Social cognition and revictimization risk.

    DePrince, Anne P

    2005-01-01

    The ability to accurately detect violations in social contracts likely helps people to avoid or to withdraw from relationships in which they are at risk of being cheated or harmed. Betrayal trauma theory argues that detecting violations of social contracts may be counter-productive to survival under certain conditions, such as when a victim is dependent on a perpetrator. When dependent on a perpetrator (as in the case of child abuse perpetrated by a caregiver), the victim may be better able to preserve the necessary attachment with the caregiver by remaining unaware of the abuse. Thus, the victim may develop a compromised capacity to detect violations of social contracts in the caregiving relationship. Over time, the victim may develop more generalized problems detecting violations in social exchange rules; in turn, generalized problems in detecting violations of social contracts may increase risk for later victimization. Participants in the current study were asked to detect violations in three types of conditional (if-then) rules: abstract, social contract (rules involving a social exchange), and precautionary (rules involving safety). Young adults who reported experiences of revictimization made more errors on social contract and precautionary problems than a no revictimization group; group performance did not differ for abstract problems, suggesting these findings are not explained by general deficits in conditional reasoning. Pathological dissociation significantly predicted errors on social contract and precautionary problems.

  15. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  16. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-12-25

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.

  17. Early social cognition in three cultural contexts.

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a series of eight studies in which we systematically assessed the social-cognitive skills of 1- to 3-year-old children in three diverse cultural settings. One group of children was from a Western, middle-class cultural setting in rural Canada and the other two groups were from traditional, small-scale cultural settings in rural Peru and India.In a first group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's most basic social-cognitive skills for understanding the intentions and attention of others: imitation, helping, gaze following, and communicative pointing.Children's performance in these tasks was mostly similar across cultural settings. In a second group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's skills in participating in interactive episodes of collaboration and joint attention.Again in these studies the general finding was one of cross-cultural similarity. In a final pair of studies, we assessed 2- to 3-year-old children's skills within two symbolic systems (pretense and pictorial). Here we found that the Canadian children who had much more experience with such symbols showed skills at an earlier age.Our overall conclusion is that young children in all cultural settings get sufficient amounts of the right kinds of social experience to develop their most basic social-cognitive skills for interacting with others and participating in culture at around the same age. In contrast, children's acquisition of more culturally specific skills for use in practices involving artifacts and symbols is more dependent on specific learning experiences.

  18. How Social Cognition Can Inform Social Decision Making

    Victoria eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social versus nonsocial contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g. mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.

  19. Cognitive underpinnings of social interaction.

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-01-01

    Human social interaction is part of what defines us. Here I present an overview of recent studies of imitation, a subdomain of social interaction that can be dissected and examined in a scientific fashion. I use these studies to test two core claims: (a) that there is more than one copying mechanism in the human brain and (b) that mimicry (a form of copying) is particularly relevant for understanding social behaviour. Evidence in favour of the first claim comes from neuroimaging studies that show distinct brain systems for understanding action kinematics, action goals, and irrational actions. Further studies of participants with autism show abnormal copying of irrational actions. Evidence in favour of the second claim comes from behavioural studies of the social cues that prime mimicry and from neuroimaging studies of the pathways involved in this priming. These studies suggest that medial prefrontal cortex has a core role in controlling mimicry responses and support the STORM (social top-down response modulation) model. Future work should determine what organizing principles govern the control of social responses and how these critical mechanisms for interpersonal connection differ in autism.

  20. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self esteem, and, for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs. PMID:20423545

  1. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizop...... are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions.......BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first...

  2. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E.; Ikezawa, Satoru; Bell, Morris D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and...

  3. White Matter Pathways and Social Cognition.

    Wang, Yin; Metoki, Athanasia; Alm, Kylie H; Olson, Ingrid R

    2018-04-20

    There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition. We pay particular attention to three key social processes: face processing, embodied cognition, and theory of mind, and their respective underlying neural networks. To fully identify and characterize the anatomical architecture of these networks, we further implement probabilistic tractography on a large sample of diffusion-weighted imaging data. The combination of an in-depth literature review and the empirical investigation gives us an unprecedented, well-defined landscape of white matter pathways underlying major social brain networks. Finally, we discuss current problems in the field, outline suggestions for best practice in diffusion-imaging data collection and analysis, and offer new directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  5. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  6. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  7. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: Insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    Sonya Violet Troller-Renfree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, highly socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  8. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  9. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  10. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  12. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  13. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  15. Intercorporeality as a theory of social cognition.

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this article is to revisit Merleau-Ponty's notion of intercorporeality (intercorporéité) and elaborate it as a new theory of social cognition. As is well known, theory of mind has been the central issue in the field of social cognition for more than two decades. In reviewing the basic concepts involved in two major theories (theory theory and simulation theory), I make clear that both theories have been missing the embodied dimension because of their mind-body dualistic supposition. The notion of intercorporeality, in accordance with the recent interaction theory, stresses the role of embodied interactions between the self and the other in the process of social understanding. I develop this notion into two directions and describe the related process of social cognition: one is behavior matching and primordial empathy, the other is interactional synchrony and the sense of mutual understanding. Through these embodied interactions, intersubjective meanings are created and directly shared between the self and the other, without being mediated by mental representations.

  16. Socialization, Social Cognitive Factors and the Sibling Relationship.

    Howe, Nina

    Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…

  17. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Middle School Student Career Exploration

    Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…

  18. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  19. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Henrik Nordahl

    Full Text Available The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT. CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours arise from (e.g. correlate with cognitive beliefs (schemas whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505 participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge

  20. Testing the metacognitive model against the benchmark CBT model of social anxiety disorder: Is it time to move beyond cognition?

    Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas) as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs) are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology. Comparing the relative importance of these disparate underlying belief systems has the potential to advance conceptualization and treatment for SAD. In the cognitive model, unhelpful self-regulatory processes (self-attention and safety behaviours) arise from (e.g. correlate with) cognitive beliefs (schemas) whilst the metacognitive model proposes that such processes arise from metacognitive beliefs. In the present study we therefore set out to evaluate the absolute and relative fit of the cognitive and metacognitive models in a longitudinal data-set, using structural equation modelling. Five-hundred and five (505) participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires at two time points approximately 8 weeks apart. We found that both models fitted the data, but that the metacognitive model was a better fit to the data than the cognitive model. Further, a specified metacognitive model, emphasising negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and cognitive confidence improved the model fit further and was significantly better than the cognitive model. It would seem that advances in understanding and treating social anxiety could benefit from moving to a full metacognitive theory that includes negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and judgements of cognitive confidence. These findings challenge a core

  1. Social Cognitive Theory in Mobile Banking Innovations

    Vanessa Ratten

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior Australian youths have toward mobile banking. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical framework in which a conceptual model is empirically tested. The conceptual model includes five constructs (media, modeling, outcome expectancy, learning orientation and entrepreneurial orientation), which are proposed to influence an individual’s intention to adopt mobile banking. The conceptual model is tested in a sample of Australian youths and the analysis supports ...

  2. The cultural evolution of socially situated cognition

    Gabora, Dr. Liane M.

    2008-01-01

    Because human cognition is creative and socially situated, knowledge accumulates, diffuses, and gets applied in new contexts, generating cultural analogs of phenomena observed in population genetics such as adaptation and drift. It is therefore commonly thought that elements of culture evolve through natural selection. However, natural selection was proposed to explain how change accumulates despite lack of inheritance of acquired traits, as occurs with template-mediated replication. It canno...

  3. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting.

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice.

  4. Review of Pütz et al., eds: Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)......Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)...

  5. Review of Pütz et al., eds: Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'.......Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'....

  6. Social inclusion and its interrelationships with social cognition and social functioning in first-episode psychosis.

    Gardner, Andrew; Cotton, Sue M; Allott, Kelly; Filia, Kate M; Hester, Robert; Killackey, Eóin

    2017-10-27

    People with psychosis are at risk of social exclusion. Research is needed in this area due to the lack of direct measurement of social inclusion, which becomes salient in adolescence and is relevant to first-episode psychosis (FEP; the onset of which typically occurs during or shortly after adolescence). Social inclusion may be impacted by impaired social cognition and social functioning, which are related features observed in psychosis. The aim of this study was to explore interrelationship(s) between social cognition, social functioning and social inclusion in FEP while controlling for symptomatology (positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and demographic characteristics. A series of cross-sectional hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to examine whether: social cognition (theory of mind, emotion recognition) predicted social functioning; social functioning predicted social inclusion, and whether social functioning mediated the relationship between social cognition and social inclusion in people aged 15 to 25 (M = 20.49, SD = 2.41) with FEP (N = 146). Age, sex, premorbid IQ, positive and negative psychotic symptoms and depression were control variables. Poor facial emotion recognition (β = -.22, P social functioning. Role-specific social functioning (ie, current employment) predicted greater social inclusion (β = .17, P social inclusion (β = -.43, P Social functioning did not mediate the relationship between social cognition and inclusion. Psychotic symptoms were unrelated to social inclusion. Employment and depression may influence social inclusion somewhat independently of psychotic symptomatology in FEP. Inferences should be viewed with caution given this study did not involve longitudinal data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. SOCIAL VIGILANCE OF SCHOOL JOURNALISTS: COGNITIVE ASPECT

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Sidorova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the stages and results of an ascertaining experiment aimed at identification of the level of high school students’ social vigilance formation are described. The scientific novelty of this work is to implement the pedagogical interpretation of the concept "social vigilance", and also in the selection and creation of valid methods for studying the phenomenon. Ascertaining experiment on cognitive criteria included a test on facts of social reality knowledge, the methods developed by the author "The analysis of the communicative situation," and “Continue the report”, content analysis of texts. The results show that teenagers’ social vigilance largely developed in respect of the microprocesses, but it’s low in respect of macroprocesses. The young journalists have little knowledge about the various social groups, social stratum. The obtained data show the directions of teaching activities to develop students’ social vigilance. Experimental results, methods and forms of research can be extrapolated to other types of educational activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-49

  8. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  9. Assessment of maladaptiveness: a core issue in the diagnosing of personality disorders.

    Svanborg, P; Gustavsson, P J; Mattila-Evenden, M; Asberg, M

    1999-01-01

    Although an operationalized and commonly accepted definition of maladaptiveness is lacking, the delineation of personality traits as being adaptive or maladaptive is essential in diagnosing personality disorders (PDs). A way to explore the meaning of maladaptiveness is to compare how patients from all DSM-III-R PDs relate to different traits and dimensions of various dimensional models of personality. In the present study, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used in a sample of 94 psychiatric outpatients who were assessed according to severity of maladaption and according to type of predominant cluster type of deviant traits. Only one of four factors of the scores of the KSP subscales, "Interpersonal Aversiveness," was related to degree of maladaption, indicating high detachment, suspicion, irritability, dysphoria, and low socialization as core features of maladaptiveness. Three subscales of the KSP Socialization were all associated with maladaptiveness. However, one subscale, "Childhood Adjustment," was also related to the predominant cluster type of personality pathology.

  10. Social Competence among Low-Income Preschoolers: Emotion Socialization Practices and Social Cognitive Correlates.

    Garner, Pamela W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between emotion socialization variables, social cognitive knowledge, and children's social competence in preschoolers from low-income families. Found that mothers' self-reported emotion socialization practices were related to children's emotional knowledge and sibling caregiving behavior. (MDM)

  11. Social cognition and neurocognition as independent domains in psychosis.

    van Hooren, S; Versmissen, D; Janssen, I; Myin-Germeys, I; à Campo, J; Mengelers, R; van Os, J; Krabbendam, L

    2008-08-01

    Patients with psychosis display alterations in social cognition as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is unclear, however, to what degree these cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions of liability or the pleiotropic expression of a single deficit. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (i) to what extent alterations in social cognition represent an independent area of vulnerability to psychosis, separate from neurocognitive deficits and (ii) whether social cognition is one construct or can be divided into several subcomponents. Five social cognition and three neurocognitive tasks were completed by 186 participants with different levels of vulnerability for psychosis: 44 patients with psychotic disorder; 47 subjects at familial risk; 41 subjects at psychometric risk and 54 control subjects. The social cognition tasks covered important basic subcomponents of social cognition, i.e. mentalisation (or theory of mind), data gathering bias (jumping to conclusions), source monitoring and attribution style. Neurocognitive tasks assessed speed of information processing, inhibition, cognitive shifting and strategy-driven retrieval from semantic memory. The results of factor analysis suggested that neurocognition and social cognition are two separate areas of vulnerability in psychosis. Furthermore, the social cognition measures lacked significant overlap, suggesting a multidimensional construct. Cognitive liabilities to psychosis are manifold, and include key processes underlying basic person-environment interactions in daily life, independent of cognition quantified by neuropsychological tests.

  12. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  13. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  14. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  15. Features of Social Cognition in Late Adulthood

    Melehin A.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of researches on the central component of social cognition — theory of mind in late adulthood. The outcomes show that, in normal aging, in advanced adulthood (55—74 years as well as in old age (75—90 years there are several qualitative changes in the affective (understanding and differentiation of emotions and cognitive (understanding irony and deceit components of theory of mind. Also, at these ages individuals may develop various forms of theory of mind deficits. They may encounter difficulties with reading facial expressions and recognizing other people’s emotions. It becomes harder for them to recognize negative emotions (such as sorrow, fear, anger than positive ones (joy. The paper describes features of pragmatic interpretation of events and understanding of deceit and irony in late adulthood.

  16. Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

    Pablo eBilleke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.

  17. Developmental Pathways for Social Understanding: Linking Social Cognition to Social Contexts

    Kimberly eBrink

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms.

  18. A geographical history of social cognitive neuroscience.

    Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-06-01

    The history of social cognitive neuroscience (SCN) began with isolated islands of research in Europe and the United States in the 1990s. In the decade between 1995 and 2004 most of the major areas of current SCN research were identified in a series of high profile first studies. This paper reviews the timeline as well as the geography of important moments in the short history of this field. Of note is the different focus seen in European contributions (theory of mind, mirror neurons, and empathy) and the more self-focused U.S. contributions (self-knowledge, emotion regulation, implicit attitudes). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  20. Social cognitive interventions for people with schizophrenia: A systematic review.

    Tan, Bhing-Leet; Lee, Sara-Ann; Lee, Jimmy

    2016-07-27

    Social cognition is the mental process which underpins social interactions. Increasingly, it has been recognized to be impaired in people with schizophrenia, resulting in functional problems. Correspondingly, the past ten years have seen huge developments in the study of interventions to ameliorate social cognitive deficits among people with schizophrenia. In the present review, we systematically reviewed published studies on social cognitive interventions from 2005 to 2015. Of the 61 studies included in this review, 20 were on broad-based social cognitive interventions, which incorporated neurocognitive training, specialized learning technique or virtual reality social skills training. On the other hand, 31 studies on targeted interventions either focused on specific social cognitive domains, or a range of domains. Improvements in emotion processing and theory of mind were often reported, while social perception and attributional style were less frequently measured. Both broad-based and targeted interventions achieved gains in social functioning, albeit inconsistently. Lastly, nine studies on the use of oxytocin and one study on transcranial direct current stimulation reported positive preliminary results in higher-order cognition and facial affect recognition respectively. This review revealed that a wide range of social cognitive interventions is currently available and most have shown some promise in improving social cognition outcomes. However, there is a need to use a common battery of measurements for better comparisons across interventions. Future research should examine combination therapies and the sustainability of gains beyond the intervention period. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of social cognition in parasite and pathogen avoidance.

    Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2018-07-19

    The acquisition and use of social information are integral to social behaviour and parasite/pathogen avoidance. This involves social cognition which encompasses mechanisms for acquiring, processing, retaining and acting on social information. Social cognition entails the acquisition of social information about others (i.e. social recognition) and from others (i.e. social learning). Social cognition involves assessing other individuals and their infection status and the pathogen and parasite threat they pose and deciding about when and how to interact with them. Social cognition provides a framework for examining pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours and their associated neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we briefly consider the relationships between social cognition and olfactory-mediated pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours. We briefly discuss aspects of (i) social recognition of actual and potentially infected individuals and the impact of parasite/pathogen threat on mate and social partner choice; (ii) the roles of 'out-groups' (strangers, unfamiliar individuals) and 'in-groups' (familiar individuals) in the expression of parasite/pathogen avoidance behaviours; (iii) individual and social learning, i.e. the utilization of the pathogen recognition and avoidance responses of others; and (iv) the neurobiological mechanisms, in particular the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin and steroid hormones (oestrogens) associated with social cognition and parasite/pathogen avoidance.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social cognitive training in schizophrenia.

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 h (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 min/day] plus social cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5-15 min per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social cognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training in schizophrenia

    Hooker, Christine I.; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C.; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social-cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 hour (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social-cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 minutes/day] plus social-cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5–15 minutes per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. FMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social-cognition skills. PMID:22695257

  5. The Obstacle to Happiness: Early Maladaptive Schemas

    S. Barbaros YALCIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether individuals’ early maladaptive schemas predict their happiness levels or not and to find out what early maladaptive schemas prevent individuals’ happiness. Method: Relational screening model was used in the study. The study group consisted of the 253 university students; 198 (%78.3 females and 55 (%21.7 males. “The Qxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form”, developed by Hills and Argyle (2002 and adapted into Turkish by Dogan and Cotok (2011, and “Young Schema Scale-Short Form 3”, developed by Young et al. (2003 and adapted into Turkish by Soygut, Karaosmanoglu, and Cakir (2009 were used to gather the data for the study. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, it was found out that there is a significantly negative relation between happiness and Vulnerability to Harm & Illness, Pessimism/Negativity, Failure, Social Isolation, Emotional Inhibition, Approval-Seeking and Insufficient Self-Control. Moreover, university students’ Pessimism/Negativity and Failure schemas were found to be the predictors of their happiness levels. Conclusion: Families, teachers and mental health workers should work together to resolve the Pessimism/Negativity and Failure early maladaptive schemas of university students’. It is considered as a preventive measure that the education system must be reviewed. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 7-13

  6. Social resources and cognitive ageing across 30 years

    Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... a negative association. Marital status (at ages 50 and 60) and loneliness at age 70 were the only social resources associated with cognitive change; married individuals and those not feeling lonely experienced less cognitive decline. When the social resources showing significant associations were considered...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  8. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  9. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  10. Promoting Cognitive and Social Aspects of Inquiry through Classroom Discourse

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…

  11. Prefrontal Cortex and Social Cognition in Mouse and Man

    Bicks, Lucy K.; Koike, Hiroyuki; Akbarian, Schahram; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio) within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain. PMID:26635701

  12. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  13. A conceptual linkage between cognitive architectures and social interaction

    Zoethout, K.; Jager, W.

    Cognitive representations are being shaped and determined by interaction with the environment. The social environment constitutes an important part of this environment. Yet in formal models of cognition, there is little attention for processes resulting from social interaction. On the other hand, in

  14. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  15. The role of the hippocampus in flexible cognition and social behavior

    Rachael D Rubin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior. There is mounting evidence that damage to the hippocampus can produce inflexible and maladaptive behavior when such behavior places high demands on the generation, recombination, and flexible use of information. This is seen in abilities as diverse as memory, navigation, exploration, imagination, creativity, decision-making, character judgments, establishing and maintaining social bonds, empathy, social discourse, and language use. Thus, the hippocampus, together with its extensive interconnections with other neural systems, supports the flexible use of information in general. Further, we suggest that this understanding has important clinical implications. Hippocampal abnormalities can produce profound deficits in real-world situations, which typically place high demands on the flexible use of information, but are not always obvious on diagnostic tools tuned to frontal lobe function. This review documents the role of the hippocampus in supporting flexible representations and aims to expand our understanding of the dynamic networks that operate as we move through and create meaning of our world.

  16. The role of the hippocampus in flexible cognition and social behavior.

    Rubin, Rachael D; Watson, Patrick D; Duff, Melissa C; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior. There is mounting evidence that damage to the hippocampus can produce inflexible and maladaptive behavior when such behavior places high demands on the generation, recombination, and flexible use of information. This is seen in abilities as diverse as memory, navigation, exploration, imagination, creativity, decision-making, character judgments, establishing and maintaining social bonds, empathy, social discourse, and language use. Thus, the hippocampus, together with its extensive interconnections with other neural systems, supports the flexible use of information in general. Further, we suggest that this understanding has important clinical implications. Hippocampal abnormalities can produce profound deficits in real-world situations, which typically place high demands on the flexible use of information, but are not always obvious on diagnostic tools tuned to frontal lobe function. This review documents the role of the hippocampus in supporting flexible representations and aims to expand our understanding of the dynamic networks that operate as we move through and create meaning of our world.

  17. A social-cognitive framework of multidisciplinary team innovation.

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2010-01-01

    The psychology of science typically lacks integration between cognitive and social variables. We present a new framework of team innovation in multidisciplinary science and engineering groups that ties factors from both literatures together. We focus on the effects of a particularly challenging social factor, knowledge diversity, which has a history of mixed effects on creativity, most likely because those effects are mediated and moderated by cognitive and additional social variables. In addition, we highlight the distinction between team innovative processes that are primarily divergent versus convergent; we propose that the social and cognitive implications are different for each, providing a possible explanation for knowledge diversity's mixed results on team outcomes. Social variables mapped out include formal roles, communication norms, sufficient participation and information sharing, and task conflict; cognitive variables include analogy, information search, and evaluation. This framework provides a roadmap for research that aims to harness the power of multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Enabling Robotic Social Intelligence by Engineering Human Social-Cognitive Mechanisms

    Wiltshire, Travis; Warta, Samantha F.; Barber, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    for artificial cognitive systems. We discuss a recent integrative perspective of social cognition to provide a systematic theoretical underpinning for computational instantiations of these mechanisms. We highlight several commitments of our approach that we refer to as Engineering Human Social Cognition. We...... then provide a series of recommendations to facilitate the development of the perceptual, motor, and cognitive architecture for this proposed artificial cognitive system in future work. For each recommendation, we highlight their relation to the discussed social-cognitive mechanisms, provide the rationale...

  19. Integrating Moral and Social Development within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach

    Nucci, Larry; Creane, Michael W.; Powers, Deborah W.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students' moral…

  20. Beyond "Facebook Addiction": The Role of Cognitive-Related Factors and Psychiatric Distress in Social Networking Site Addiction.

    Pontes, Halley M; Taylor, Megan; Stavropoulos, Vasileios

    2018-04-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) is rapidly increasing as billions of individuals use SNS platforms regularly to communicate with other users, follow the news, and play browser games. Given the widespread use of SNS platforms, investigating the potential predictors of addictive SNS use beyond Facebook use has become paramount given that most studies so far focused on "Facebook addiction." In this study, a total of 511 English-speaking SNS users (58.1% young adults aged 20-35 years; 64.6% female) were recruited online and asked to complete a battery of standardized psychometric tools assessing participants' sociodemographic characteristics, SNS preferences and patterns of use, SNS addiction, preference for online social interaction, maladaptive cognitions, fear of missing out (FoMo), dysfunctional emotion regulation, and general psychiatric distress. Overall, about 4.9% (n = 25) of all participants could be classed as having a high SNS addiction risk profile. Moreover, the results further indicated that FoMo (β = 0.38), maladaptive cognitions (β = 0.25), and psychiatric distress (β = 0.12) significantly predicted SNS addiction (i.e., p < 0.0001) and accounted for about 61% of the total variance in SNS addiction, with FoMo providing the strongest predictive contribution over and above the effects of sociodemographic variables and patterns of SNS use. The implications of the present findings were discussed in light of extant literature on behavioral addictions and Facebook addiction and further considerations were provided regarding the potential clinical implications for cognitive-based psychological treatment approaches to SNS addiction.

  1. Social Cognition in the Mirrors of «Cognitive Revolutions»

    Khoroshilov D.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of the social determination of cognition from the point of view of «cognitive revolutions» (R. Harré in dialogue between psychology, social theory and history, neurobiology and aesthetics. The research inquiry is the cultural-historical analysis of the social representations of the everyday life. The «aesthetic paradigm» (T.D. Martsinkovskaya uses the art-based methods to study the cultural forms of social cognition. Theoretical discussions are illustrated by the social psychological, clinical and contemporary art research of the mass consciousness of the Russian society at the beginning of the 21st century. The article presents the experience of the genre analysis of the tragedy of culture (G. Simmel, personal drama (L.S. Vygotsky and comedy of social life (A.P. Chekhov. The final result is a new aesthetic concept of social cognition.

  2. Conjugated equine estrogen enhances rats' cognitive, anxiety, and social behavior

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The ovarian hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the body and brain, and can influence cognitive, affective, and social behavior. However, functional effects of commonly prescribed E2-based hormone therapies are less known. The effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on middle-aged female rats for cognitive (object recognition), anxiety (open field, plus maze), and social (social interaction, lordosis) behavior were compared-with vehicle. Our hypothesis that CEE would enha...

  3. How social cognition deficits affect psychopathology: A neuroscientific approach

    Andrić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are substantially a social species. Effective mental treatment cannot be obtained without addressing social behavior. Social cognition refers to the mental processes underlying social interactions, which allow individuals to make sense of the other peoples' behavior, to decipher emotions on their faces, and to draw conclusions about their intentions. The core domains of this multifaceted concept are theory of mind, social cue perception, attributional style and emotion perception/ processing. The amygdala, orbital frontal cortex and temporal cortex areas are typically activated during the processing of information within social-emotional context. The aforementioned brain areas are recognized as the major components of the so-called 'social brain'- specialized for the social interactions in humans. Adequate perceiving and processing of the social information is essential for an effective social functioning, which becomes obvious when it goes awry. Various psychiatric disorders are characterized by social cognitive deficits, among which schizophrenias, depression-anxiety and autism spectrum disorders were most broadly studied to date. Growing evidence suggest that these deficits underlie poor functional outcomes in patients with mental health impairments and have an important role in the initiation and maintenance of the disorders' symptoms. One of the most important goals of social neuroscience research is to provide a treatment intervention that will improve patients' social cognitive skills and the functional outcome. All together, the present review aims to provide a contemporary overview of the concept of social cognition, to outline its relation to psychopathology, and to discuss the implications for clinical practice and treatment.

  4. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the relation to social skills and functioning?

    Louise B. Glenthøj

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

  5. Social cognition in autism: Face tuning.

    Pavlova, Marina A; Guerreschi, Michele; Tagliavento, Lucia; Gitti, Filippo; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Fazzi, Elisa

    2017-05-26

    Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing. In a spontaneous recognition task, adolescents with autism and typically developing matched controls were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The set of images was shown in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Thresholds for recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face in ASD individuals were substantially higher than in typically developing controls: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which controls easily recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This outcome not only lends support to atypical face tuning, but provides novel insights into the origin of face encoding deficits in autism.

  6. Mental exercising through simple socializing: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning.

    Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel

    2008-02-01

    Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives.

  7. On the relationships between DSM-5 dysfunctional personality traits and social cognition deficits: A study in a sample of consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients.

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) traits may be significantly associated with deficits on 2 different social cognition tasks, namely, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, in a sample of consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients. The sample was composed of 181 consecutively admitted participants (57.5% women; mean age = 38.58 years). Correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients were computed in order to assess the associations among social cognition tasks, DSM-5 AMPD traits, and dimensionally assessed DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. Specific maladaptive traits listed in the DSM-5 AMPD were significantly associated with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test scores and Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition scores, even when the effect of selected DSM-5 Section II personality disorders was controlled for. Our results support the relevance of studying social cognitive functioning in subjects suffering from personality disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Using Cognitive Dissonance to Manipulate Social Preferences

    Oxoby, Robert J.; Smith, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We explore the role of cognitive dissonance in dictator and public goods games. Specifically, we motivate cognitive dissonance between one's perception of “fair treatment” and self-interested behaviour by having participants answer a question about fairness. Utilizing two manipulations (reminding participants about their answer to the fairness question and publicly reporting aggregate answers to the question), we find that there is greater cognitive dissonance and behavioural change when ther...

  9. Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis.

    Van Overwalle, Frank

    2009-03-01

    This meta-analysis explores the location and function of brain areas involved in social cognition, or the capacity to understand people's behavioral intentions, social beliefs, and personality traits. On the basis of over 200 fMRI studies, it tests alternative theoretical proposals that attempt to explain how several brain areas process information relevant for social cognition. The results suggest that inferring temporary states such as goals, intentions, and desires of other people-even when they are false and unjust from our own perspective--strongly engages the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Inferring more enduring dispositions of others and the self, or interpersonal norms and scripts, engages the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), although temporal states can also activate the mPFC. Other candidate tasks reflecting general-purpose brain processes that may potentially subserve social cognition are briefly reviewed, such as sequence learning, causality detection, emotion processing, and executive functioning (action monitoring, attention, dual task monitoring, episodic memory retrieval), but none of them overlaps uniquely with the regions activated during social cognition. Hence, it appears that social cognition particularly engages the TPJ and mPFC regions. The available evidence is consistent with the role of a TPJ-related mirror system for inferring temporary goals and intentions at a relatively perceptual level of representation, and the mPFC as a module that integrates social information across time and allows reflection and representation of traits and norms, and presumably also of intentionality, at a more abstract cognitive level.

  10. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition.

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Crockett, Molly J; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects. Additionally, subjective, autonomic, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and adverse drug effects were measured. MDMA enhanced emotional empathy for positive emotionally charged situations in the MET and tended to reduce the recognition of sad faces in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task. MDMA had no effects on cognitive empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test or social cognitive inferences in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. MDMA produced subjective 'empathogenic' effects, such as drug liking, closeness to others, openness and trust. In contrast, methylphenidate lacked such subjective effects and did not alter emotional processing, empathy or mental perspective-taking. MDMA but not methylphenidate increased the plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin. None of the drugs influenced moral judgment. Effects on emotion recognition and emotional empathy were evident at a low dose of MDMA and likely contribute to the popularity of the drug. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Effects of Cognitive Behaviour and Social Learning Therapies On ...

    This study investigated the effects of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Social Learning ... After exposure to intervention therapies, the results showed that there was significant difference in the post-test aggression scores of participants.

  13. Superior temporal sulcus and social cognition in dangerous drivers

    Zelinková, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Mareček, R.; Mikl, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Peterková, L.; Zámečník, P.; Brázdil, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, December (2013), s. 1024-1030 ISSN 1053-8119 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fMRI * antisocial behavior * social cognition * STS Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.132, year: 2013

  14. Applications of Social Cognitive Theory to Gifted Education

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2008-01-01

    Social cognitive theory emphasizes a dynamic interactive process to explain human functioning. This theory ascribes a central role to cognitive processes in which the individual can observe others and the environment, reflect on that in combination with his or her own thoughts and behaviors, and alter his or her own self-regulatory functions…

  15. What is the relationship between the recognition of emotions and core beliefs: Associations between the recognition of emotions in facial expressions and the maladaptive schemas in depressed patients.

    Csukly, Gábor; Telek, Rita; Filipovits, Dóra; Takács, Barnabás; Unoka, Zsolt; Simon, Lajos

    2011-03-01

    Depressed patients are both characterized by social reality distorting maladaptive schemas and facial expression recognition impairments. The aim of the present study was to identify specific associations among symptom severity of depression, early maladaptive schemas and recognition patterns of facially expressed emotions. The subjects were inpatients, diagnosed with depression. We used 2 virtual humans for presenting the basic emotions to assess emotion recognition. The Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90) was used as a self-report measure of psychiatric symptoms and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was applied to assess symptoms of depression. The Young Schema Questionnaire Long Form (YSQ-L) was used to assess the presence of early maladaptive schemas. The recognition rate for happiness showed significant associations with both the BDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90. After performing the second order factor analysis of the YSQ-L, we found statistically significant associations between the recognition indices of specific emotions and the main factors of the YSQ-L. In this study we found correlations between maladaptive schemas and emotion recognition impairments. While both domains likely contribute to the symptoms of depression, we believe that the results will help us to better understand the social cognitive deficits of depressed patients at the schema level and at the emotion recognition level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fundamental Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0565 TITLE: Fundamental Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Foxe, Ph.D...Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0565 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... vertical line) adaptation trials are started. This involves moving the target in by 3 degrees of visual angle while the participants eyes are “in

  18. From movement kinematics to social cognition: the case of autism

    2016-01-01

    The way in which we move influences our ability to perceive, interpret and predict the actions of others. Thus movements play an important role in social cognition. This review article will appraise the literature concerning movement kinematics and motor control in individuals with autism, and will argue that movement differences between typical and autistic individuals may contribute to bilateral difficulties in reciprocal social cognition. PMID:27069049

  19. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attenti...

  20. Effects of cognitive factors on social anxiousness among undergraduate students

    Kouno, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive factors and social anxiousness. Preliminary survey was administrated to 104 undergraduates to construct the responsibility scale. Twelve items were selected on the basis of item-total correlation analyses, and reliability and validity of the scale were examined. The main survey was conducted to 159 undergraduates using the responsibility scale to find out the correlation between social anxiousness and cognitive variables such as public se...

  1. Strategic Cognition of Social Media in Business-Customer Interaction

    Rydén, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the strategic cognition research by exploring how managers’ cognitive representations of an emerging, but potentially disruptive technology, influence their identification of strategic options. Managers tend to talk of social media as technology that changes customer behavior and disrupts industries, however, this attitude is not reflected in their strategic framing and implementation of social media. As behavioral theory seems inadequate to acc...

  2. On the relationship of online and offline social cognition

    Leonhard eSchilbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social neuroscience studies the neurobiological underpinnings of people making sense of people. Due to both conceptual and methodological constraints, the majority of studies in this field of research, however, has employed experimental paradigms that focus on social cognition from an observer's rather than from an interactor's point of view (offline vs. online social cognition. This calls for an increased effort to systematically investigate the neural bases of participation in real-time social interaction. In light of the ontogenetic primacy of social interaction over observation and the idea that neural networks established during social interaction may be ‘re-used’ during observation, other important objectives of the field will be to relate new findings into the neural bases of social interaction to previous work investigating the neural bases of social observation as well as to find ways to directly compare the two.

  3. Social theory and the cognitive-emotional brain.

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Pessoa's (2013) arguments imply that various leading approaches in the social sciences have not adequately conceptualized how emotion and cognition influence human decision making and social behavior. This is particularly unfortunate, as these approaches have been central to the efforts to build bridges between neuroscience and the social sciences. We argue that it would be better to base these efforts on other social theories that appear more compatible with Pessoa's analysis of the brain.

  4. Social context modulates cognitive markers in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Santamaría-García, Hernando; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Burgaleta, Miguel; Ayneto, Alba; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcis; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria

    2017-08-03

    Error monitoring, cognitive control and motor inhibition control are proposed as cognitive alterations disrupted in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has also been associated with an increased sensitivity to social evaluations. The effect of a social simulation over electrophysiological indices of cognitive alterations in OCD was examined. A case-control cross-sectional study measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for error monitoring (Error-Related Negativity), cognitive control (N2) and motor control (LRP) was conducted. We analyzed twenty OCD patients and twenty control participants. ERP were recorded during a social game consisting of a visual discrimination task, which was performed in the presence of a simulated superior or an inferior player. Significant social effects (different ERP amplitudes in Superior vs. Inferior player conditions) were found for OCD patients, but not for controls, in all ERP components. Performing the task against a simulated inferior player reduced abnormal ERP responses in OCD to levels observed in controls. The hierarchy-induced ERP effects were accompanied effects over reaction times in OCD patients. Social context modulates signatures of abnormal cognitive functioning in OCD, therefore experiencing a social superiority position impacts over cognitive processes in OCD such as error monitoring mechanisms. These results open the door for the research of new therapeutic choices.

  5. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    Evelyn eVera-Estay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have

  6. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  7. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cognition about Cognition: Metacognitive Therapy and Change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia

    Wells, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…

  9. Example-based learning: Integrating cognitive and social-cognitive research perspectives

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); N. Rummel (Nikol)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExample-based learning has been studied from different perspectives. Cognitive research has mainly focused on worked examples, which typically provide students with a written worked-out didactical solution to a problem to study. Social-cognitive research has mostly focused on modeling

  10. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations Between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

    Faye eVan der Fluit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.

  11. Psychometrics of social cognitive measures for psychosis treatment research.

    Davidson, Charlie A; Lesser, Rebecca; Parente, Lori T; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2018-03-01

    Social cognition represents an important treatment target, closely linked to everyday social function. While a number of social cognitive interventions have recently been developed, measures used to evaluate these treatments are only beginning to receive psychometric scrutiny. Study goals were to replicate recently-published psychometrics for several social cognitive measures, and to provide information for additional social cognitive measures not included in recent reports. Forty-eight outpatients with psychotic-spectrum disorders completed measures of emotion perception, theory of mind, and attributional bias on two occasions, one month apart. Measures were tested for distributional characteristics, test-retest reliability, utility as a repeated measure, and relationship to symptoms and functioning. For a subgroup of participants, information about sensitivity to social cognitive treatment was also available. We replicated aspects of prior work, including largely favorable psychometric characteristics for the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and promising but weaker characteristics for The Awareness of Social Inferences Test subscales and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. The Hinting Task had adequate test-retest statistics but a more pronounced ceiling effect. Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire data showed evidence of validity but were limited by inconsistency over time. Our results strongly support the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale for future evaluation as a social cognitive treatment outcome measure. Its scores were adequately distributed, consistent over time, related to symptoms and functioning, and sensitive to treatment effects. Other relatively novel assessments of attributional bias and theory of mind showed some promise, although more work is needed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  13. Meta-analysis of social cognition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Bora, Emre

    2017-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with executive dysfunction and behavioural impairment. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive deficits might also be a prominent feature of ALS. Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in social cognition including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in ALS. In this meta-analysis of 15 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 389 patients with ALS and 471 healthy controls were compared. ALS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = .65) and facial emotion recognition (d = .69). Among individual emotions recognition of disgust and surprise were particularly impaired. Deficits in perspective taking (d = .73) aspects of ToM (ToM-PT) was more pronounced in comparison to decoding (d = .28) aspects of ToM (ToM-decoding). The severity of social cognitive impairment was similar to level of executive dysfunction and there was a significant relationship between social cognition and executive dysfunction. Deficits in social cognition are part of the cognitive phenotype of ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Social cognition disorders in Klinefelter syndrome: A specific phenotype? (KS)].

    Babinet, M-N; Rigard, C; Peyroux, É; Dragomir, A-R; Plotton, I; Lejeune, H; Demily, C

    2017-10-01

    The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms. Our study aims to characterize of the various components of social cognition in the SK: facial emotional recognition, theory of mind and attributional style. For this two groups (SK group versus control group) of participants (n=16) matched for age and sociocultural level were recruited. Participants with intellectual disabilities, psychiatric or neurological disorders were excluded. Three social cognition tests were available: the TREF, the MASC, the AIHQ. Neurocognitive functions were assessed by the fNart, the subtest "logical memory" of the MEM-III, the subtests of the two VOSP battery, the d2, the TMT and the Stroop test. The SK group had specific social cognition disorders in comparison to the control group. Two emotions in particular were less well recognized: fear and contempt. In addition, the SK group had significantly lower results in theory of mind. Regarding the hostile attribution bias, no significant difference was found. Finally, the results showed correlations between specific attentional disorders and facial emotional recognition. Our study emphasizes social cognition disorders in SK. These disorders could be considered as a phenotypic trait in the syndrome. The interest of better characterizing the cognitive phenotype of genetic disorders that can affect the neurodevelopment is to offer specific cognitive remediation strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  16. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  17. [Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.

  18. Can Social Functioning in Schizophrenia Be Improved through Targeted Social Cognitive Intervention?

    David L. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to use cognitive remediation in psychosocial intervention for schizophrenia have increasingly incorporated social cognition as a treatment target. A distinction can be made in this work between “broad-based” interventions, which integrate social cognitive training within a multicomponent suite of intervention techniques and “targeted” interventions; which aim to enhance social cognition alone. Targeted interventions have the potential advantage of being more efficient than broad-based interventions; however, they also face difficult challenges. In particular, targeted interventions may be less likely to achieve maintenance and generalization of gains made in treatment. A novel potential solution to this problem is described which draws on the social psychological literature on social cognition.

  19. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  20. Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex

    Jenkins, L.M.; Andrewes, D.G.; Nicholas, C.L.; Drummond, K.J.; Moffat, B.A.; Phal, P.; Desmond, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We

  1. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  2. Social Cognition in Child and Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ipek Percinel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition represents the mental processes of social interaction between oneself and others. In recent years, the interest in social cognition skills has increased in cases with eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is associated with the multiple factors in etiology. Treatment of anorexia nervosa is still controversial. The youths diagnosed with anorexia nervosa are known to be as the most difficult group in eating disorders for building therapeutic relations. Studies, mostly suggests that there are difficulties in social cognitive functions in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, there are studies that reported different results. It seems that, the majority of studies which evaluate the social cognitive functions in patients with anorexia nervosa, are carried out with the adult age group. There are limited number of studies in child and adolescent age group. The purpose of this paper was to examinate the studies of social cognitive skills in children and adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and present the general characteristics. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 178-189

  3. Incubation environment impacts the social cognition of adult lizards.

    Siviter, Harry; Deeming, D Charles; van Giezen, M F T; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles ( Pogona vitticeps ). Incubation temperature did not influence the gaze following ability of the bearded dragons; however, lizards incubated at colder temperatures were quicker at learning a social task and faster at completing that task. These results are the first to show that egg incubation temperature influences the social cognitive abilities of an oviparous reptile species and that it does so differentially depending on the task. Further, the results show that the effect of incubation environment was not ephemeral but lasted long into adulthood. It could thus have potential long-term effects on fitness.

  4. Developing Cognitive Models for Social Simulation from Survey Data

    Alt, Jonathan K.; Lieberman, Stephen

    The representation of human behavior and cognition continues to challenge the modeling and simulation community. The use of survey and polling instruments to inform belief states, issue stances and action choice models provides a compelling means of developing models and simulations with empirical data. Using these types of data to population social simulations can greatly enhance the feasibility of validation efforts, the reusability of social and behavioral modeling frameworks, and the testable reliability of simulations. We provide a case study demonstrating these effects, document the use of survey data to develop cognitive models, and suggest future paths forward for social and behavioral modeling.

  5. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive processes in CBT

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  7. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Status, Cognition, and Social Relationships in Dyadic Perspective.

    Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning

    2017-03-28

    Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  10. Contextualizing Person Perception: Distributed Social Cognition

    Smith, Eliot R.; Collins, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on person perception typically emphasizes cognitive processes of information selection and interpretation within the individual perceiver and the nature of the resulting mental representations. The authors focus instead on the ways person perception processes create, and are influenced by, the patterns of impressions that are socially…

  11. Neural and cognitive correlates of social cognition. Findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition includes various components of information processing related to communication with other individuals. In this review, we have discussed 3 components of social cognitive function: face recognition, empathy, and decision making. Our social behavior involves recognition based on facial features and also involves empathizing with others; while making decisions, it is important to consider the social consequences of the course of action followed. Face recognition is divided into 2 routes for information processing: a route responsible for overt recognition of the face's identity and a route for emotional and orienting responses based on the face's personal affective significance. Two systems are possibly involved in empathy: a basic emotional contagion 'mirroring' system and a more advanced 'theory of mind' system that considers the cognitive perspective. Decision making is mediated by a widespread system that includes several cortical and subcortical components. Numerous lesion and neuroimaging studies have contributed to clarifying the neural correlates of social cognitive function, and greater information can be obtained on social cognitive function by combining these 2 approaches. (author)

  12. [Neural and cognitive correlates of social cognition: findings on neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies].

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-12-01

    Social cognition includes various components of information processing related to communication with other individuals. In this review, we have discussed 3 components of social cognitive function: face recognition, empathy, and decision making. Our social behavior involves recognition based on facial features and also involves empathizing with others; while making decisions, it is important to consider the social consequences of the course of action followed. Face recognition is divided into 2 routes for information processing: a route responsible for overt recognition of the face's identity and a route for emotional and orienting responses based on the face's personal affective significance. Two systems are possibly involved in empathy: a basic emotional contagion "mirroring" system and a more advanced "theory of mind" system that considers the cognitive perspective. Decision making is mediated by a widespread system that includes several cortical and subcortical components. Numerous lesion and neuroimaging studies have contributed to clarifying the neural correlates of social cognitive function, and greater information can be obtained on social cognitive function by combining these 2 approaches.

  13. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  14. A Social Model of Loneliness: The Roles of Disability, Social Resources, and Cognitive Impairment.

    Burholt, Vanessa; Windle, Gill; Morgan, Deborah J

    2017-11-10

    We consider the points at which cognitive impairment may impact on the pathway to loneliness for older people, through impeding social interaction with family and friends, or by interfering with judgments concerning satisfaction with relationships. We conceptualize a mediation model anticipating that social resources (LSNS-6) will mediate the pathway between disability (Townsend Disability Scale) and loneliness (De Jong Gierveld 6-item scale) and a moderated-mediation model in which we hypothesize that cognitive impairment (MMSE) will moderate the association between disability and social resources and between social resources and loneliness. To validate the hypothesized pathways, we draw on the CFAS Wales data set (N = 3,593) which is a nationally representative study of community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Wales. Disability had a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variable social resources. Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with social resources, but did not moderate the relationship between disability and social resources. Cognitive impairment had a significant impact on loneliness, and moderated the effect of social resources on loneliness. Social structures can (dis)empower people with cognitive impairment and lead to exclusion from social resources or impact on the social construction of aging, cognitive impairment, and dementia. The sense of self for an older person with cognitive impairment may be influenced by social norms and stereotypes, or through a temporal social comparison with an "earlier" sense of self. We conclude that loneliness interventions should be theoretically informed to identify key areas for modification. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  15. From social cognition to social epistemology (in memory of G.M. Andreeva

    Dmitry A. Khoroshilov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to scientific and literary heritage of Galina M. Andreeva. The methodology of social cognition, for more than half a century developed by Galina M. Andreeva as a tool of social analysis, is discussed. The problem of social cognition, first indicated by V. Turner, Z. Bauman and M. Mamardashvili, is analysed in terms of mentalization, interpersonal interaction and mass consciousness. Based on G. Andreeva’s theoretical research, the correlation between micro-processes of individual cognition construction and macro-processes of society in communication, dialogue and discourse is proved. The issue of finding the correct definition of a group, mass or public consciousness epistemological status is taken as a result of an old trend toward anthropomorphizing the collective cognition subject. This impedes the correlation between personality and society in psychology, meaning “agency” and “structure” in sociology. G.Andreeva discusses the last one, connecting cognitive psychology, social constructionism and activity theory. Theoretical assumptions of social cognition as the process of world image construction are formulated as follows: 1 presumption of general knowledge; 2 active constructive nature; 3 categorization and classification as the basic process; 4 the relationship between discourse and cognition; 5 emotionality; 6 critical orientation; 7 prospective for the clinical analysis of sociocultural realities. With respect to the abovementioned facts, it can be said that the ideas of scientific school founded by Galina М. Andreeva allow to innovatively define social psychology as a modern social and cultural epistemology.

  16. Precursors to language: Social cognition and pragmatic inference in primates.

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2017-02-01

    Despite their differences, human language and the vocal communication of nonhuman primates share many features. Both constitute forms of coordinated activity, rely on many shared neural mechanisms, and involve discrete, combinatorial cognition that includes rich pragmatic inference. These common features suggest that during evolution the ancestors of all modern primates faced similar social problems and responded with similar systems of communication and cognition. When language later evolved from this common foundation, many of its distinctive features were already present.

  17. Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence.

    Fiske, Susan T; Cuddy, Amy J C; Glick, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Promoting survival, these dimensions provide fundamental social structural answers about competition and status. People perceived as warm and competent elicit uniformly positive emotions and behavior, whereas those perceived as lacking warmth and competence elicit uniform negativity. People classified as high on one dimension and low on the other elicit predictable, ambivalent affective and behavioral reactions. These universal dimensions explain both interpersonal and intergroup social cognition.

  18. The face and person perception: insights from social cognition.

    Quinn, Kimberly A; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-11-01

    Social-cognitive investigations of face perception have tended to be motivated by different goals than cognitive and neuropsychological studies-namely, to understand the dynamics of social categorization rather than identity recognition-and the result has been a lack of cross-pollination of insights and ideas between the disciplines. We review the evidence from social cognition, with an eye to discussing how this work aligns with the Bruce and Young (1986) model of face recognition. Acknowledging the invaluable impact the model has exerted on our understanding of face recognition, we suggest that considering the bottom-up constraints of visual processing and the top-down influences of semantic knowledge will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of face perception. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Social Cognition in a Clinical Sample of Personality Disorder Patients

    Amparo eRuiz-Tagle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of Personality Disorder (PD stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N=17 and healthy matched controls (N=17 using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T=-2,602, p=0,014, eyes (T=-3,593, p=0,001, TOM stories (T=-4,706, p=0,000 and Faux pas (T=-2,227, p=0,035. In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and theory of mind.

  20. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  2. Self stigmatization, cognitive functions and social functioning in mood disorders

    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402

  3. Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents

    Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

    Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

  4. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  5. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  7. Appraisal of social concerns: A cognitive assessment instrument for social phobia

    Telch, M.J.; Lucas, R.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.; Heimberg, R.G.; Hart, T.

    2004-01-01

    The current study describes the validation of a new cognitive assessment measure for social phobia, entitled the Appraisal of Social Concerns (ASC). Item content is relevant to a range of social situations. The ASC can be used to tailor interventions to patients' idiosyncratic concerns. Data are

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia

    Priyamvada, Richa; Kumari, Sapna; Prakash, Jai; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning. PMID:21234166

  9. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  10. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  11. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion’s effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy.

  12. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA). Distinguishing these types of JA in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67%) than in a RJA (58%) condition, η2 = 0.57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of JA on adult social-cognition are discussed. PMID:22712011

  13. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    Kwanguk eKim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attention in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA. Distinguishing these types of joint attention in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67% than in a RJA (58% condition, η2 = .57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of joint attention on adult social-cognition are discussed.

  14. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reward Learning, Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Symptomatology in Psychosis.

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Whitton, Alexis E; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Norris, Lesley A; Ongur, Dost; Hall, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychosis spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social and neurocognition, as well as hallmark abnormalities in motivation and reward processing. Aspects of reward processing may overlap behaviorally and neurobiologically with some elements of cognitive functioning, and abnormalities in these processes may share partially overlapping etiologies in patients. However, whether reward processing and cognition are associated across the psychoses and linked to state and trait clinical symptomatology is unclear. The present study examined associations between cognitive functioning, reward learning, and clinical symptomatology in a cross-diagnostic sample. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ; n = 37), bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BD; n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 29) were assessed for clinical symptoms (patients only), neurocognitive functioning using the MATRICS Battery (MCCB) and reward learning using the probabilistic reward task (PRT). Groups were compared on neurocognition and PRT response bias, and associations between PRT response bias and neurocognition or clinical symptoms were examined controlling for demographic variables and PRT task difficulty (discriminability). Patients with SZ performed worse than controls on most measures of neurocognition; patients with BD exhibited deficits in some domains between the level of patients with SZ and controls. The SZ - but not BD - group exhibited deficits in social cognition compared to controls. Patients and controls did not differ on PRT response bias, but did differ on PRT discriminability. Better response bias across the sample was associated with poorer social cognition, but not neurocognition; conversely, discriminability was associated with neurocognition but not social cognition. Symptoms of psychosis, particularly negative symptoms, were associated with poorer response bias across patient groups. Reward learning was associated with symptoms of psychosis - in particular negative

  16. Intercorporeality and aida: Developing an interaction theory of social cognition.

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an interaction theory (IT) of social cognition. The central issue in the field of social cognition has been theory of mind (ToM), and there has been debate regarding its nature as either theory-theory or as simulation theory. Insights from phenomenology have brought a second-person perspective based on embodied interactions into the debate, thereby forming a third position known as IT. In this article, I examine how IT can be further elaborated by drawing on two phenomenological notions-Merleau-Ponty's intercorporeality and Kimura's aida . Both of these notions emphasize the sensory-motor, perceptual, and non-conceptual aspects of social understanding and describe a process of interpersonal coordination in which embodied interaction gains autonomy as an emergent system. From this perspective, detailed and nuanced social understanding is made possible through the embodied skill of synchronizing with others.

  17. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  18. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders with and without psychotic features

    George C. Nitzburg

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: MSCEIT deficits were found in SSD but not BD− or BD+, suggesting that social cognition may represent an underlying difference between SSD and BD. However, variance in MSCEIT performance among BD patients may also suggest latent BD subgroups characterized by social-cognitive deficits. Findings can help inform future investigations into how social cognition and social brain development differ between SSD and BD.

  19. Experimental Study of Middle-Term Training in Social Cognition in Preschoolers

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In an experimental design, we examined the effects of middle-term training in social information processing (SIP) and in Theory of Mind (ToM) on preschoolers' social cognition and social adjustment. 48 preschoolers took part in a pre-test and post-test session involving cognitive, socio-cognitive and social adjustment (direct and indirect)…

  20. Effects of Social Cognitive Impairment on Speech Disorder in Schizophrenia

    Docherty, Nancy M.; McCleery, Amanda; Divilbiss, Marielle; Schumann, Emily B.; Moe, Aubrey; Shakeel, Mohammed K.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered speech in schizophrenia impairs social functioning because it impedes communication with others. Treatment approaches targeting this symptom have been limited by an incomplete understanding of its causes. This study examined the process underpinnings of speech disorder, assessed in terms of communication failure. Contributions of impairments in 2 social cognitive abilities, emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), to speech disorder were assessed in 63 patients with schizophren...

  1. The Concept of Information Redundancy in Social Cognition.

    1983-12-20

    Craik , F. I* No, & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. ffnxna±I U1...34 , . .. • _. .. . .. . . . . , ,,,. . . . . .. • .’ .’..’. -.. Social Cognition 18 1981). This sort of analysis is at the heart of *depth of processing * notions ( Craik & Lockhart , 19721 Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker...psychologists have developed an interest in examining the structures people use in processing social information. Many of the conceptual models used in

  2. Delineating the maladaptive pathways of child maltreatment: a mediated moderation analysis of the roles of self-perception and social support.

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K

    2010-05-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self-perception (i.e., loneliness and self-esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0-6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6-8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Results of concurrent mediation and mediated moderation indicated that early maltreatment was significantly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6 indirectly both through age 6 loneliness and self-esteem for boys and through age 6 loneliness for girls. Significant moderation of the pathway from early maltreatment to self-esteem, and for boys, significant mediated moderation to emotional and behavioral problems were found, such that the mediated effect through self-esteem varied across levels of social support, though in an unexpected direction. No significant longitudinal mediation or mediated moderation was found, however, between the age 6 mediators and moderator and internalizing or externalizing problems at age 8. The roles of the hypothesized mediating and moderating mechanisms are discussed, with implications for designing intervention and prevention programs.

  3. Corporate Social Networking Platforms As Cognitive Factories

    Pereira, Lídia; Rasch, Miriam

    The day comes to an end. Tired of abiding to the rules of productivity you sit back, relax and prepare yourself for some hours of dolce fare niente on your social network of choice – you log into Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and are now ready to catch up with your friends, acquaintances, family et

  4. Cognitive Processes in Perceptions of Social Support.

    Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)

  5. The association between social phobia, social anxiety cognitions and paranoid symptoms.

    Schutters, S I J; Dominguez, M-d-G; Knappe, S; Lieb, R; van Os, J; Schruers, K R J; Wittchen, H-U

    2012-03-01

    Previous research suggests high levels of comorbidity between social phobia and paranoid symptoms, although the nature of this association remains unclear. Data were derived from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology study, a 10-year longitudinal study in a representative German community sample of 3021 participants aged 14-24 years at baseline. The Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess social phobia and paranoid symptoms, along with data on social phobia features. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Differential associations with environmental risk factors and temperamental traits were investigated. Lifetime social phobia and paranoid symptoms were associated with each other cross-sectionally (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.31-2.47). Lifetime paranoid symptoms were associated specifically with social anxiety cognitions. Lifetime cognitions of negative evaluation predicted later onset of paranoid symptoms, whereas onset of social phobia was predicted by cognitions of loss of control and fear/avoidance of social situations. Lifetime social phobia and paranoid symptoms shared temperamental traits of behavioural inhibition, but differed in environmental risks. The present study showed that paranoid symptoms and social phobia share similarities in cognitive profile and inhibited temperament. Avoidance appears to be important in the development of social phobia, whereas cannabis use and traumatic experiences may drive paranoid thinking in vulnerable individuals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.

  7. Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom

    Powell, Katherine C.; Kalina, Cody J.

    2009-01-01

    An effective classroom, where teachers and students are communicating optimally, is dependent on using constructivist strategies, tools and practices. There are two major types of constructivism in the classroom: (1) Cognitive or individual constructivism depending on Piaget's theory, and (2) Social constructivism depending on Vygotsky's theory.…

  8. Introducing MASC: A Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition

    Dziobek, Isabel; Fleck, Stefan; Kalbe, Elke; Rogers, Kimberley; Hassenstab, Jason; Brand, Matthias; Kessler, Josef; Woike, Jan K.; Wolf, Oliver T.; Convit, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we introduce a sensitive video-based test for the evaluation of subtle mindreading difficulties: the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). This new mindreading tool involves watching a short film and answering questions referring to the actors' mental states. A group of adults with Asperger syndrome (n = 19) and…

  9. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  10. Cognitive and social predictors of generalized anxiety disorder ...

    Cognitive and social predictors of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms among fresh undergraduates in Uganda. ... The prevalence of this common disorder and the associated factors in Ugandan students are unknown. ... Psychological interventions for undergraduate students may be needed to target these factors.

  11. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  12. Social cognition and quality of life in schizophrenia

    Maat, A.; Fett, A.J.; Kahn, R.S.; Linszen, D.H.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with poor quality of life (QOL). Whereas the effects of neurocognitive deficits and psychopathology on QOL of schizophrenia patients have recently been elucidated, little is known about social cognitive deficits in this regard. This study investigated the influence of

  13. Co-designing Social Robots With Cognitively Impaired Citizens

    Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias; Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2018-01-01

    This Work-in-Progress paper describes current work and future challenges of co-designing social robots with cognitively impaired residents. The project has in time of writing ran more than two years, which allows the reporting of both technical outcomes and methodological challenges....

  14. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…

  15. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  16. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  17. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  18. Cognitive therapy for depressed adults with comorbid social phobia.

    Smits, Jasper A J; Minhajuddin, Abu; Jarrett, Robin B

    2009-04-01

    Evidence suggests that comorbid depression influences the outcome of cognitive-behavioral treatment for patients presenting with social phobia. Little is known, however, about the influence of comorbid social phobia on the response to cognitive therapy (CT) for depression among adults presenting with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). These analyses seek to clarify this relationship. Patients (N=156) with recurrent DSM-IV MDD entered CT (20% also met DSM-IV criteria for social phobia). Every week during the course of CT, clinicians assessed depressive symptoms and patients completed self-report instruments measuring severity of depression and anxiety. At presentation, outpatients with comorbid social phobia reported greater levels of depressive symptoms and clinicians rated their impairment as more severe, compared to their counterparts without social phobia. Patients with or without comorbid social phobia did not differ significantly in (1) attrition rates; (2) response or sustained remission rates; (3) time to response or sustained remission; or (4) rate of improvement in symptoms of depression or anxiety. The lack of domain-specific measures limits inference with respect to the improvements in social anxiety that occur with CT of depression. These findings introduce the hypothesis that CT for depression may be flexible enough to treat the depressive symptoms of patients presenting with MDD who also suffer from social phobia.

  19. [Distorted cognition of bodily sensations in subtypes of social anxiety].

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.

  20. Emotions and Cognitions in Social Relationships: A Neurosociological Approach

    Yulia S. Shkurko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurosociology is a new approach aimed at integrating social and biologicalsciences. In this paper, first we used Alan Fiske’s theory (1992 of elementary forms of social relationships as a nexus between sociological studies of groups and group-based emotions and relevant neuroscientific findings. Then, we identified types of social situations that generate basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness, and fear within particular relationships. Individuals participate differently in these situations. Therefore, they are expected to differ in their emotions and cognitions, as well as in their underlying neural activity. Finally, we considered social affiliation and social hierarchy corresponding to communal sharing and authority ranking social relationships to demonstrate the logic of neurosociological research.

  1. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  2. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cognitive impact of social stress and coping strategy throughout development.

    Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.

  4. Social Cognition as Reinforcement Learning: Feedback Modulates Emotion Inference.

    Zaki, Jamil; Kallman, Seth; Wimmer, G Elliott; Ochsner, Kevin; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-09-01

    Neuroscientific studies of social cognition typically employ paradigms in which perceivers draw single-shot inferences about the internal states of strangers. Real-world social inference features much different parameters: People often encounter and learn about particular social targets (e.g., friends) over time and receive feedback about whether their inferences are correct or incorrect. Here, we examined this process and, more broadly, the intersection between social cognition and reinforcement learning. Perceivers were scanned using fMRI while repeatedly encountering three social targets who produced conflicting visual and verbal emotional cues. Perceivers guessed how targets felt and received feedback about whether they had guessed correctly. Visual cues reliably predicted one target's emotion, verbal cues predicted a second target's emotion, and neither reliably predicted the third target's emotion. Perceivers successfully used this information to update their judgments over time. Furthermore, trial-by-trial learning signals-estimated using two reinforcement learning models-tracked activity in ventral striatum and ventromedial pFC, structures associated with reinforcement learning, and regions associated with updating social impressions, including TPJ. These data suggest that learning about others' emotions, like other forms of feedback learning, relies on domain-general reinforcement mechanisms as well as domain-specific social information processing.

  5. Cognitive behavioural group treatment for social anxiety in schizophrenia.

    Kingsep, Patrick; Nathan, Paula; Castle, David

    2003-09-01

    Anxiety symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia have been traditionally seen as symptoms associated with the principal disorder and therefore not requiring special attention. The primary aim of this paper is to therapeutically target social anxiety symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in order to determine the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioural group treatment model as an intervention for social anxiety in this participant group. Thirty-three individuals with schizophrenia and co-morbid social anxiety were allocated to a group-based cognitive behaviour (CBGT) intervention or waitlist control (WLC). Baseline, completion and follow-up ratings consist of measures of social anxiety: the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (BFNE) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS); measures of general psychopathology: the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); and the Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ). Pre- and post-treatment measures were subjected to statistical evaluation. All outcome measures displayed statistical improvement in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group. These treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. CBGT for social anxiety in schizophrenia was demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment for this population.

  6. Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: a minimalist virtual reality experiment.

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-14

    Scientists have traditionally limited the mechanisms of social cognition to one brain, but recent approaches claim that interaction also realizes cognitive work. Experiments under constrained virtual settings revealed that interaction dynamics implicitly guide social cognition. Here we show that embodied social interaction can be constitutive of agency detection and of experiencing another's presence. Pairs of participants moved their "avatars" along an invisible virtual line and could make haptic contact with three identical objects, two of which embodied the other's motions, but only one, the other's avatar, also embodied the other's contact sensor and thereby enabled responsive interaction. Co-regulated interactions were significantly correlated with identifications of the other's avatar and reports of the clearest awareness of the other's presence. These results challenge folk psychological notions about the boundaries of mind, but make sense from evolutionary and developmental perspectives: an extendible mind can offload cognitive work into its environment.

  7. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.Th.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  8. Dynamical Cognitive Models of Social Issues in Russia

    Mitina, Olga; Abraham, Fred; Petrenko, Victor

    We examine and model dynamics in three areas of social cognition: (1) political transformations within Russia, (2) evaluation of political trends in other countries by Russians, and (3) evaluation of Russian stereotypes concerning women. We try to represent consciousness as vectorfields and trajectories in a cognitive state space. We use psychosemantic techniques that allow definition of the state space and the systematic construction of these vectorfields and trajectories and their portrait from research data. Then we construct models to fit them, using multiple regression methods to obtain linear differential equations. These dynamical models of social cognition fit the data quite well. (1) The political transformations were modeled by a spiral repellor in a two-dimensional space of a democratic-totalitarian factor and social depression-optimism factor. (2) The evaluation of alien political trends included a flow away from a saddle toward more stable and moderate political regimes in a 2D space, of democratic-totalitarian and unstable-stable cognitive dimensions. (3) The gender study showed expectations (attractors) for more liberated, emancipated roles for women in the future.

  9. The impact of social activities, social networks, social support and social relationships on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review.

    Kelly, Michelle E; Duff, Hollie; Kelly, Sara; McHugh Power, Joanna E; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian A; Loughrey, David G

    2017-12-19

    Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, and collated data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), genetic and observational studies. Independent variables of interest included subjective measures of social activities, social networks, and social support, and composite measures of social relationships (CMSR). The primary outcome of interest was cognitive function divided into domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, overall memory ability, working memory, verbal fluency, reasoning, attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, overall executive functioning and global cognition. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review; three RCTs, 34 observational studies, and two genetic studies. Evidence suggests a relationship between (1) social activity and global cognition and overall executive functioning, working memory, visuospatial abilities and processing speed but not episodic memory, verbal fluency, reasoning or attention; (2) social networks and global cognition but not episodic memory, attention or processing speed; (3) social support and global cognition and episodic memory but not attention or processing speed; and (4) CMSR and episodic memory and verbal fluency but not global cognition. The results support prior conclusions that there is an association between social relationships and cognitive function but the exact nature of this association remains unclear

  10. Social Constructivism: Does It Succeed in Reconciling Individual Cognition with Social Teaching and Learning Practices in Mathematics?

    Bozkurt, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the literature associated with social constructivism. It discusses whether social constructivism succeeds in reconciling individual cognition with social teaching and learning practices. After reviewing the meaning of individual cognition and social constructivism, two views--Piaget and Vygotsky's--accounting for learning…

  11. Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament

    Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…

  12. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  13. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  14. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  15. Social cognition, the male brain and the autism spectrum.

    Jeremy Hall

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies have shown that, at a population level, women perform better on tests of social cognition and empathy than men. Furthermore Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social functioning and empathy, occur more commonly in males than females. These findings have led to the hypothesis that differences in the functioning of the social brain between males and females contribute to the greater vulnerability of males to ASD and the suggestion that ASD may represent an extreme form of the male brain. Here we sought to investigate this hypothesis by determining: (i whether males and females differ in social brain function, and (ii whether any sex differences in social brain function are exaggerated in individuals with ASD. Using fMRI we show that males and females differ markedly in social brain function when making social decisions from faces (compared to simple sex judgements especially when making decisions of an affective nature, with the greatest sex differences in social brain activation being in the inferior frontal cortex (IFC. We also demonstrate that this difference is exaggerated in individuals with ASD, who show an extreme male pattern of IFC function. These results show that males and females differ significantly in social brain function and support the view that sex differences in the social brain contribute to the greater vulnerability of males to ASDs.

  16. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  17. Effects of social cognitive impairment on speech disorder in schizophrenia.

    Docherty, Nancy M; McCleery, Amanda; Divilbiss, Marielle; Schumann, Emily B; Moe, Aubrey; Shakeel, Mohammed K

    2013-05-01

    Disordered speech in schizophrenia impairs social functioning because it impedes communication with others. Treatment approaches targeting this symptom have been limited by an incomplete understanding of its causes. This study examined the process underpinnings of speech disorder, assessed in terms of communication failure. Contributions of impairments in 2 social cognitive abilities, emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), to speech disorder were assessed in 63 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 21 nonpsychiatric participants, after controlling for the effects of verbal intelligence and impairments in basic language-related neurocognitive abilities. After removal of the effects of the neurocognitive variables, impairments in emotion perception and ToM each explained additional variance in speech disorder in the patients but not the controls. The neurocognitive and social cognitive variables, taken together, explained 51% of the variance in speech disorder in the patients. Schizophrenic disordered speech may be less a concomitant of "positive" psychotic process than of illness-related limitations in neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning.

  18. Social cognition in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Charvet, L E; Cleary, R E; Vazquez, K; Belman, A L; Krupp, L B

    2014-10-01

    Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients represent a subpopulation who are diagnosed during the course of development. Social cognitive deficits have recently been recognized in adults with MS. It is critical to identify whether these youngest patients with the disorder are also at risk. To determine whether pediatric-onset MS is associated with social cognitive deficits. Consecutively-recruited participants with pediatric-onset MS were compared to a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls on Theory of Mind (ToM) task performance. Tasks measured facial affect recognition (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), detecting social faux pas (Faux Pas Test), and understanding the perspective of another (False Beliefs Task). Twenty-eight (28) pediatric-onset MS participants (median age 17 years) and 32 healthy controls (median age 16 years) completed the study. The MS participants performed worse than controls on all three ToM tasks: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (p = 0.008), the Faux Pas Test (p = 0.009), and the False Beliefs Task (p = 0.06). While more MS than control participants were impaired on a measure of information processing speed (the Symbol Digit Modalities Test; 38% versus 6%), it did not account for the differences in ToM performance. Social cognition may represent an area of cognitive functioning affected by MS in the pediatric-onset population. These processes are especially important to study in younger patients as they may have long range implications for social adjustment, employment, and well-being. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The influence of social support on cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Abdul Rashid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of social support on cognitive impairment among elderly Malaysians. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted using a representative sample for Penang, Malaysia. The Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ was used to screen for cognitive impairment and Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3 was used to measure social support.

  20. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  1. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Self-efficacy at work : Social, emotional, and cognitive dimensions

    Loeb, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, research on working life has mainly focused on a cognitive and task-oriented dimension of self-efficacy representing employees’ perceptions of their capacity to successfully complete work tasks. Thus, little is known about the influence that believing in one’s social and emotional competence could have. This thesis aims to expand previous theory regarding self-efficacy in the wo...

  3. Brain network: social media and the cognitive scientist.

    Stafford, Tom; Bell, Vaughan

    2012-10-01

    Cognitive scientists are increasingly using online social media, such as blogging and Twitter, to gather information and disseminate opinion, while linking to primary articles and data. Because of this, internet tools are driving a change in the scientific process, where communication is characterised by rapid scientific discussion, wider access to specialist debates, and increased cross-disciplinary interaction. This article serves as an introduction to and overview of this transformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Building blocks of social cognition: Mirror, mentalize, share?

    Alcalá-López, Daniel; Vogeley, Kai; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Bzdok, Danilo

    2018-05-14

    During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields. We finally retrace differential impairments in social capacities as a means to re-conceptualize psychopathological disturbance in psychiatry, including schizophrenia, borderline personality, and autism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization.

    Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas; Cacioppo, John T

    2010-02-01

    People conceive of wrathful gods, fickle computers, and selfish genes, attributing human characteristics to a variety of supernatural, technological, and biological agents. This tendency to anthropomorphize nonhuman agents figures prominently in domains ranging from religion to marketing to computer science. Perceiving an agent to be humanlike has important implications for whether the agent is capable of social influence, accountable for its actions, and worthy of moral care and consideration. Three primary factors-elicited agent knowledge, sociality motivation, and effectance motivation-appear to account for a significant amount of variability in anthropomorphism. Identifying these factors that lead people to see nonhuman agents as humanlike also sheds light on the inverse process of dehumanization, whereby people treat human agents as animals or objects. Understanding anthropomorphism can contribute to a more expansive view of social cognition that applies social psychological theory to a wide variety of both human and nonhuman agents.

  6. Social cognitive mediators of parent-child sexual communication.

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Davis, Kevin C

    2011-07-01

    To test a social cognitive behavior change model and identify mediators of the effects of the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) on parent-child sexual communication. Investigators used 5 waves of data from an online randomized controlled trial. Latent variables were developed based on item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. Outcome expectations mediated effects of social norms and self-efficacy on sexual communication. Other hypothesized mediators were not confirmed. Interventions to promote parent-child sexual communication should target outcome expectations. Future research should investigate parents' health information seeking.

  7. Social Cognition in a Clinical Sample of Personality Disorder Patients

    Amparo eRuiz-Tagle; Elsa eCostanzo; Delfina eDe Achával; Salvador eGuinjoan

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = −2.602, p = 0.0...

  8. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and ...

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1) encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2) garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3) cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people’s decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people’s fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement) and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance. Social-ecological stressors place significant pressure on major societal systems, triggering adaptive reforms in human governance and environmental law. Though potentially benefici

  9. Still lonely: Social adjustment of youth with and without social anxiety disorder following cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Suveg, Cynthia; Kingery, Julie Newman; Davis, Molly; Jones, Anna; Whitehead, Monica; Jacob, Marni L

    2017-12-01

    Social experiences are an integral part of normative development for youth and social functioning difficulties are related to poor outcomes. Youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly social anxiety disorder, experience difficulties across many aspects of social functioning that may place them at risk for maladjustment. The goal of this paper was to compare social experiences of youth across anxiety diagnoses and examine whether treatment is helpful in improving social functioning. Ninety-two children (age 7-12 years; 58% male; 87.0% White) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder participated in cognitive behavioral therapy. At both pre- and post-treatment, children with social anxiety disorder self-reported greater loneliness than youth without social anxiety disorder, though levels of peer victimization and receipt of prosocial behavior were similar across groups. Parents reported greater social problems for youth with social anxiety disorder compared to those without social anxiety disorder. All youth experienced improved social functioning following treatment per child- and parent-reports. The results call for an increased focus on the social experiences of youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly loneliness, for children with social anxiety disorder. The results document ways that evidenced-based practice can improve social functioning for youth with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder.

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has received nomenclatural recognition as a potential mental health disorder, despite evident variability in its core psychopathology and psychometric assessment. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered an efficacious treatment for IGD, the underlying cognitions of the disorder are not well understood. This review aimed to synthesise research evidence on Internet gaming cognition toward identification of cognitive factors underlying IGD. A systematic review of 29 quantitative studies on Internet gaming cognition and 7 treatment studies employing cognitive therapy for IGD was conducted. Four cognitive factors underlying IGD were identified. Factors included (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. It is proposed that IGD-related cognition may be more complex than "preoccupation" (i.e., criterion A of IGD). IGD cognition may involve the persistent overvaluation of video gaming rewards, activities, and identities, combined with a need to adhere to maladaptive rules governing use and completion of video games. Greater understanding of the proposed cognitive factors may advance clinical research agendas on identification of individuals with IGD, as well as the expansion and improvement of cognitive therapies for the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  12. Immune markers of social cognitive bias in schizophrenia.

    Dunne, Patrick W; Roberts, David L; Quinones, Marlon P; Velligan, Dawn I; Paredes, Madelaine; Walss-Bass, Consuelo

    2017-05-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia, is relatively independent of purely neurocognitive domains such as attention and executive functioning, and may be the strongest predictor of functional outcome in this disease. Within a motivated reasoning framework, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory Th2-associated cytokines, IL-10 and MDC, would be correlated with behavioral measures of social cognitive threat-detection bias (self-referential gaze detection bias and theory of mind (ToM) bias) in delusional versus non-delusional patients. We administered to schizophrenia patients with delusions (n=21), non-delusional patients (n=39) and controls (n=20) a social cognitive task designed to be sensitive to psychosocial stress response (the Waiting Room Task) and collected plasma levels of inflammatory markers using a bead-based flow immunoassay. Results partially supported our hypothesis. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was associated with self-referential ToM bias in the delusional cohort as predicted, and not with non-delusional patients or healthy controls. This bias reflects a documented tendency of schizophrenia patients with delusions to excessively attribute hostile intentions to people in their environment. Since this cytokine correlated only with ToM bias and only in delusional patients, elevated levels of this cytokine in the blood may eventually serve as a useful biomarker distinguishing delusional patients from both non-delusional patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  14. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and social cognition.

    Kitayama, Shinobu

    2017-03-01

    In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ( JPSP )addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is her hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that she feel honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, she would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social Cognitive-behavioral therapy in social phobia

    Lígia M Ito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessiva. Tanto o diagnóstico como o tratamento desse transtorno são comumente determinados pelo nível de incômodo e pelo prejuízo funcional. Estudos populacionais indicam taxas de prevalência ao longo da vida para a fobia social entre 2,5 e 13,3%. As principais técnicas utilizadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental para a fobia social são descritas e exemplificadas em um relato de caso. CONCLUSÕES: Há consenso geral na literatura de que a terapia cognitivo-comportamental é eficaz tanto para o tratamento de jovens como de adultos com fobia social. Uma vez que a fobia social com freqüência tem início precoce, a identificação de crianças com risco acentuado para o desenvolvimento de fobia social deve ser priorizada em investigações futuras.OBJECTIVE: This article reviews relevant aspects of social phobia and the stages of treatment within cognitive-behavioral therapy in children and adolescents, as well as in adults. METHOD: A review of the literature published on the treatment of social phobia using cognitive-behavioral treatments was performed using the Medline database. RESULTS: A review of the literature suggests that social phobia is a chronic and prevalent condition, characterized by social inhibition and excessive shyness. Diagnosis and treatment of the disorder are usually determined by distress level and functional impairment. Population studies indicate that lifetime prevalence rates for social phobia range from 2.5 to 13

  17. Infant joint attention, neural networks and social cognition.

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). In this paper we argue that a neural network approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one's own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one's own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and an organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances the depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development, joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive load does not affect the behavioral and cognitive foundations of social cooperation

    Laura Mieth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners’ cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias towards guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants’ positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect—that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners—depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.□

  19. Cognitive Load Does Not Affect the Behavioral and Cognitive Foundations of Social Cooperation.

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias toward guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants' positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect-that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners-depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  1. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  2. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  3. Social Cognition in Tourette's Syndrome: Intact Theory of Mind and Impaired Inhibitory Functioning

    Channon, Shelley; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Waller, Denise; Healey, Louise; Robertson, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Although associations between social cognition involving theory of mind and non-social executive skills have frequently been reported, dissociations in performance have also been found. The present study was designed to examine social and non-social cognition in uncomplicated Tourette Syndrome (TS). Adult TS participants without comorbid diagnoses…

  4. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  5. Predictors of outcome in residential cognitive and interpersonal treatment for social phobia: do cognitive and social dysfunction moderate treatment outcome?

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2010-09-01

    The predictors of residential cognitive (RCT) and residential interpersonal Treatment (RIPT) for social phobia were explored. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) found differential effects of CT and IPT for depression, suggesting that the level of cognitive or social dysfunction predicted differential outcome. We examined whether an analogous effect could be demonstrated in 10 weeks of residential treatment of 80 social phobia subjects. (2) We also included expectations, age of onset, severity of illness, concurrent anxiety, mood, avoidant personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder as predictors in this exploratory study. Main outcome was the social phobia subscale of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI SP). DSM-IV axis I and II interviews were completed. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) findings were not reproduced. However, RIPT subjects with poor general functioning were less improved following treatment. Subjects with concurrent agoraphobia responded better with RCT than subjects without agoraphobia. (2) Age of onset and expectations were the most powerful predictors of post treatment outcome. Some patient characteristics appear to impact outcome with RIPT and RCT differentially. The findings are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotion discourse, social cognition, and social skills in children with and without developmental delays.

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Bruce L; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children's independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children's emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning and problem solving) was coded in the context of parent-child conversations about emotion, and children were interviewed separately to assess social problem solving. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children's social skills. The proposed strengths-based model partially accounted for social skills differences between typically developing children and children with delays. A multigroup analysis of the model linking emotion discourse to social skills through children's prosocial problem solving suggested that processes operated similarly for the two groups. Implications for ecologically focused prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users

    Zahra Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

  9. Cognitive and social cognitive predictors of change in objective versus subjective quality-of-life in rehabilitation for schizophrenia.

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Bronfeld, Melanie; Rose, Jennifer

    2012-12-30

    A small but growing body of work has studied the role of cognitive skills in predicting response to integrated programs of rehabilitation in schizophrenia. No studies however, have directly compared the roles and interrelationships of cognition, social cognition and other disease factors in predicting improvements in the separate domains of objective quality-of-life (QOL) and subjective satisfaction with life (SWL) in response to rehabilitation in schizophrenia. Forty-four outpatients with schizophrenia were administered measures of cognition, social cognition, and symptoms at entry to a psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation program. Change in objective QOL and subjective SWL before and after treatment were measured as outcome variables. Cognitive measures of verbal memory and social cognitive measures of facial affect recognition were linked to improvements in objective QOL, while verbal memory and crystallized verbal skill was linked to improvements in SWL. Facial affect recognition partially mediated the relationship between verbal memory and improvements in objective QOL. The implications of these findings for understanding interrelationships between cognition and social cognition and their role in predicting change in different domains of outcome as a function of behavioral treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxytocin, Dopamine, and the Amygdala: A Neurofunctional Model of Social Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    Rosenfeld, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Jarskog, L. Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia has been underappreciated and remains essentially untreated. Deficits in emotional processing, social perception and knowledge, theory of mind, and attributional bias may contribute to functional social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The amygdala has been implicated as a key component of social cognitive circuitry in both animal and human studies. In addition, structural and functional studies of schizophrenia reproduci...

  11. Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators.

    Yun, Anthony J; Doux, John D; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the oldest human drugs. Their pervasive integration into the modern human diet may reflect behavioral attempts to correct maladaptations induced by evolutionary displacement of the autonomic system. The dietary adoption of caffeine may parallel the emergence of cognition as an independent basis of competition. Enhancement of the cognitive ability to gather and process information likely evolved as a valuable adjunct to physical behavior in prehistoric fight-or-flight encounters. Caffeine effectively exploits this pre-existing association between adrenergic activity and cognitive readiness, leading to its use in the modern environment where success in competition increasingly depends on cognitive, rather than physical, prowess. Ethanol may have emerged as a dietary means to buffer the maladaptive chronic sympathetic activation and fear response associated with stressful lifestyles and the social phobias associated with the dissolution of kin networks. We explore the health implications of ethanol and caffeine use, with particular attention to their acute and chronic effects on the autonomic axis. The putative protective effects of ethanol in surviving major trauma or reducing inflammation and heart disease may relate to tempering the behavioral and cardiovascular consequences of catastrophic or chronic sympathetic activation. Acute or chronic abuse of ethanol manifests paradoxical pro-adrenergic effects such as tremors and insomnia that may partly represent compensatory responses. Compensatory remodeling may also explain why confirmation of detrimental effects related to caffeine-induced sympathetic activation has proven elusive; indeed, paradoxical pro-vagal benefits may eventually be recognized. Ethanol and caffeine are potential agents that may beneficially expand the dynamic range of the autonomic system. In an environment where the Darwinian value of knowledge has increasingly supplanted that of physical traits, the consumption

  12. Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social behaviors.

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2017-08-18

    Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills-particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty-in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement Invariance and Relations to Anxiety and Depression across 10 Countries

    Hong, Ryan; Riskind, John; Cheung, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diver...

  14. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. © 2013.

  15. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  16. Social cognitive role of schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2.

    Shui Ying Tsang

    Full Text Available The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for quantitative trait analyses and population-based association studies. Psychosis was measured by either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS or antipsychotics dosage, and altruism was based on a self-report altruism scale. The minor alleles of SNPs rs6556547, rs1816071 and rs187269 in GABRB2 were correlated with high PANSS score for positive symptoms in a Han Chinese schizophrenic cohort, whereas those of rs1816071 and rs1816072 were associated with high antipsychotics dosage in a US Caucasian schizophrenic cohort. Moreover, strongly significant GABRB2-disease associations were found among schizophrenics with severe psychosis based on high PANSS positive score, but no significant association was observed for schizophrenics with only mild psychosis. Interestingly, in addition to association with psychosis in schizophrenics, rs187269 was also associated with altruism in healthy Han Chinese. Furthermore, parallel to correlation with severe psychosis, its minor allele was correlated with high altruism scores. These findings revealed that GABRB2 is associated with psychosis, the core symptom and an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Importantly, the association was found across the breadth of the psychiatric (psychosis to psychological (altruism spectrum of social cognition suggesting GABRB2 involvement in human cognition.

  17. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  18. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Angela M. Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  19. The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees.

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2005-01-01

    We report a series of 10 studies on the social-cognitive abilities of three young chimpanzees. The studies were all ones previously conducted with human infants. The chimpanzees were 1-5 years of age, had been raised mostly by humans, and were tested mostly directly by a familiar human experimenter. First, in a longitudinal investigation with repeated measurements from a social-cognitive test battery, the three young chimpanzees were similar in many ways to human infants; the major difference was a total lack of attempts to share attention with others either in joint attentional interactions or through declarative gestures. Second, in imitation-based tests of the understanding of intentional action, the chimpanzees, like human infants, showed an understanding of failed attempts and accidents; but they did not pay attention to the behavioral style of the actor or the actor's reasons for choosing a particular behavioral means. Third, in tests of their understanding of visual perception, the chimpanzees followed the gaze direction of a human to an out-of-sight location behind a barrier and gestured more to a human who could see them than to one who could not; but they showed no understanding that perceivers can focus their attention on one thing, or one aspect of a thing, within their perceptual fields for a reason. Finally, in tests of joint intentions and joint attention, the chimpanzees showed no ability to either reverse roles with a partner in a collaborative interaction or to set up a joint attentional framework for understanding the communicative intentions behind a pointing gesture. Taken together, these findings support the idea that the early ontogeny of human social cognition comprises two distinct trajectories, each with its own evolutionary history: one for understanding the basics of goal-directed action and perception, common to all apes, and another for sharing psychological states with others in collaborative acts involving joint intentions and

  20. Insight change in psychosis: Relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    P.J. Quee (P.); L. van der Meer (Lisette); L. Krabbendam (Lydia); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); W. Cahn (Wiepke); D. Wiersma (Durk); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); G.H.M. Pijnenborg (G. H M); C.L. Mulder (Niels); R. Bruggeman (Richard); A. Aleman (André)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and

  1. Social Cognition Impairments in Relation to General Cognitive Deficits, Injury Severity, and Prefrontal Lesions in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be

  2. A conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intention based on the social cognitive career theory

    Anh T.P. Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Entrepreneurial intention plays a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. However, little is known about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social area of venture creation. This paper aims to formulate a well-organized model of social entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on intention models in entrepreneurship literature in general and social entrepreneurship in particular to identify gaps. Based on these findings, a new conceptual model is formulated. Findings - There is no research to be found which uses the social cognitive career theory (SCCT to explain about an individual’s intention to become a social entrepreneur, although this theory is recently suggested as an inclusive framework for entrepreneurial intention (Doan Winkel et al., 2011. It is also supportive by the empirical research of Segal et al. (2002. Therefore, a conceptual model of entrepreneurial intention in the field of social entrepreneurship is formulated based on adapting and extending the SCCT. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the social entrepreneurship literature by providing new insights about social entrepreneurial intention. The result has important implications for theory and practice. In theory, it is the first model offering the SCCT as the background of formation for social entrepreneurial intention, with a distinct perspective of social entrepreneurship as a career. It raises a future direction for researchers to test this model. In practice, this framework provides a broad view of factors that could contribute to the success of the would-be a social entrepreneur.

  3. Cognitive spectrum of the social mission of the rehabilitation park

    E. G. Pozdnyakova-Kirbyateva

    2017-08-01

    It is emphasized that reflection on these requests exceeds the social rehabilitation of the park’s mission within cognitive umbrellas. Six peaks of logically combining achieve the same number of subjects or groups of the latter. Continuous and dashed bar side, combining the top chimney in the middle to form eight triangles. Four of the past, for example, continuous parties combine discipline with which to achieve the main objectives of the study. This position caused the author to include rationale for the creation and operation of the pilot facility for Ukraine as rehabilitation park scientific and practical achievements of social, medical, educational, architectural, psychological disciplines and ethics. Accordingly, the principles of anthropocentrism, humanism, behaviorism conceptual definition of the publication.

  4. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Sandra eBaez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS. Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adults diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. Executive functions did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome.

  5. iGeneration: The Social Cognitive Effects of Digital Technology on Teenagers

    Ives, Eugenia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and better understand the social cognitive effects of digital technology on teenagers' brains and their socialization processes, as well as to learn best practices with regard to digital technology consumption. An extensive literature review was conducted on the social cognitive effects of digital…

  6. Longitudinal Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…

  7. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Baez, Sandra; Rattazzi, Alexia; Gonzalez-Gadea, María L.; Torralva, Teresa; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adult's diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge, and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. EF did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome. PMID:23162450

  8. Bridging Social Circles: Need for Cognition, Prejudicial Judgments, and Personal Social Network Characteristics

    Petru L. Curşeu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one’s personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC on egocentric network characteristics. We used the data available in the LISS panel, in which a probabilistic sample of Dutch participants were asked to fill in surveys annually. We tested our model on data collected in three successive years and our results show that people scoring high in NFC tend to revolve in information-rich egocentric networks, characterized by high demographic diversity, high interpersonal dissimilarity, and high average education. The results also show that the effect of NFC on social network characteristics is mediated by non-prejudicial judgments.

  9. A comparison of the effectiveness of problem solving training and of cognitive-emotional rehabilitation on neurocognition, social cognition and social functioning in people with schizophrenia.

    Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.

  10. Aspects of alcohol use disorder affecting social cognition as assessed using the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA).

    Cox, Sharon; Bertoux, Maxime; Turner, John J D; Moss, Antony; Locker, Kirsty; Riggs, Kevin

    2018-04-10

    Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). The mini-SEA was used to evaluate social and emotional understanding through a facial emotional recognition task and by utilising a series of social scenes some of which contain a faux pas (social error). Eighty-five participants (individuals with AUD and controls) completed demographic questions and a general cognitive and social cognitive test battery over three consecutive days. Between group analyses revealed that the participants with AUD performed less well on the faux pas test, and differences were also revealed in the emotional facial recognition task. Years of problematic alcohol consumption was the strongest predictor of poor ToM reasoning. These results suggest a strong link between AUD chronicity and social cognition, though the direction of this relationship needs further elucidation. This may be of clinical relevance to abstinence and relapse management, as basic social cognition skills and ability to maintain interpersonal relationships are likely to be crucial to recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Preferences and Cognitive Reflection: Evidence from Dictator Game Experiment

    Giovanni Benedetto Ponti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental evidence on the relationship between social preferences and cognitive abilities, which we measure using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. We elicit social preferences by way of 24 dictatorial situations, in which the Dictator’s choice sets include i standard Dictator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff yields a loss for the Recipient, ii efficient Dicator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff also increases that the Recipient’s; as well as other situations in which iii either the Dictator’s or iv the Recipient’s monetary payoff is held constant. We partition our subject pool in three groups: reflective (scoring 2 or more in the CRT, impulsive (opting twice or more for the intuitive but wrong answers in the CRT and the remainder. We find that impulsive Dictators show a marked inequity aversion attitude, especially in standard Dictator Games. By contrast, reflective Dictators show lower distributional concerns, except for the situations in which the Dictators’ payoff is held constant. In this case, reflective Dictators give significantly more.

  12. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social

  13. The Role of Social Support Seeking and Social Constraints on Psychological Outcomes After Trauma: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective.

    Donlon, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) posits that survivors of a traumatic event have the ability to influence their own outcomes and do so most aptly when they perceive they can exert control over their outcomes. Posttraumatic growth outcomes are associated with a greater perception of controllability, while posttraumatic stress outcomes can be related to the lack of perceived control. In the context of the Virginia Tech shootings, several social factors were examined three months after the trauma ...

  14. Local connectome phenotypes predict social, health, and cognitive factors

    Michael A. Powell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain. This fingerprinting approach was applied to a large sample (N = 841 of subjects from the Human Connectome Project, revealing a reliable degree of between-subject correlation in the local connectome fingerprints, with a relatively complex, low-dimensional substructure. Using a cross-validated, high-dimensional regression analysis approach, we derived local connectome phenotype (LCP maps that could reliably predict a subset of subject attributes measured, including demographic, health, and cognitive measures. These LCP maps were highly specific to the attribute being predicted but also sensitive to correlations between attributes. Collectively, these results indicate that the local architecture of white matter fascicles reflects a meaningful portion of the variability shared between subjects along several dimensions. The local connectome is the pattern of fiber systems (i.e., number of fibers, orientation, and size within a voxel, and it reflects the proximal characteristics of white matter fascicles distributed throughout the brain. Here we show how variability in the local connectome is correlated in a principled way across individuals. This intersubject correlation is reliable enough that unique phenotype maps can be learned to predict between-subject variability in a range of social, health, and cognitive attributes. This work shows, for the first time, how the local connectome has both the sensitivity and the specificity to

  15. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  16. Social facilitation of cognition in rhesus monkeys: audience vs. coaction

    Amélie J. Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  17. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  18. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  19. Overview of Social Cognitive Dysfunctions in Rare Developmental Syndromes With Psychiatric Phenotype

    Aurore Morel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rare neurodevelopmental syndromes often present social cognitive deficits that may underlie difficulties in social interactions and increase the risk of psychosis or autism spectrum disorders. However, little is known regarding the specificities of social cognitive impairment across syndromes while it remains a major challenge for the care. Our review provides an overview of social cognitive dysfunctions in rare diseases associated with psychiatric symptoms (with a prevalence estimated between 1 in 1,200 and 1 in 25,000 live births: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Rett syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Williams syndrome and shed some light on the specific mechanisms that may underlie these skills in each clinical presentation. We first detail the different processes included in the generic expression “social cognition” before summarizing the genotype, psychiatric phenotype, and non-social cognitive profile in each syndrome. Then, we offer a systematic review of the social cognitive abilities and the disturbed mechanisms they are likely associated with. We followed the PRISMA process, including the definition of the relevant search terms, the selection of studies based on clear inclusion, and exclusion criteria and the quality appraisal of papers. We finally provide insights that may have considerable influence on the development of adapted therapeutic interventions such as social cognitive training (SCT therapies specifically designed to target the psychiatric phenotype. The results of this review suggest that social cognition impairments share some similarities across syndromes. We propose that social cognitive impairments are strongly involved in behavioral symptoms regardless of the overall cognitive level measured by intelligence quotient. Better understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired social cognition may lead to adapt

  20. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  1. The co-construction of entrepreneurial sensemaking : an empirical examination of socially situated cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurial cognitive development

    Kaffka, Gabi Anja

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the topic of entrepreneurial cognitive development during business opportunity development. Business opportunity development takes place in a social context and is affected by the entrepreneur’s (inter)action with relevant stakeholders (Clarke & Cornelissen, 2011).

  2. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  3. Atypical development of spontaneous social cognition in autism spectrum disorders.

    Senju, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have profound impairment in the development of social interaction and communication. However, it is also known that some 'high-functioning' individuals with ASD show apparently typical capacity to process social information in a controlled experimental settings, despite their difficulties in daily life. The current paper overviews the spontaneous social cognition, spontaneous processing of social information in the absence of explicit instruction or task demand, in individuals with ASD. Three areas of the researches, false belief attribution, imitation/mimicry, and eye gaze processing, have been reviewed. The literatures suggest that high-functioning individuals with ASD (a) do not spontaneously attribute false belief to others, even though they can easily do so when explicitly instructed, (b) can imitate others' goal-directed actions under explicit instruction and show spontaneous mimicry of others' actions when they attend to the action, but are less likely to show spontaneous mimicry without the task structure to navigate attention to others' action and (c) can process others' gaze direction and shift attention to others' gaze directions, but fail to spontaneously attend to another person's eyes in social and communicative context, and less likely to be prompted to respond in response to perceived eye contact. These results are consistent with the claim that individuals with ASD do not spontaneously attend to socially relevant information, even though they can easily process the same information when their attention is navigated towards it. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: An NIMH Workshop on Definitions, Assessment, and Research Opportunities

    Green, Michael F.; Penn, David L.; Bentall, Richard; Carpenter, William T.; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Gur, Ruben C.; Kring, Ann M.; Park, Sohee; Silverstein, Steven M.; Heinssen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Social cognition has become a high priority area for the study of schizophrenia. However, despite developments in this area, progress remains limited by inconsistent terminology and differences in the way social cognition is measured. To address these obstacles, a consensus-building meeting on social cognition in schizophrenia was held at the National Institute of Mental Health in March 2006. Agreement was reached on several points, including definitions of terms, the significance of social cognition for schizophrenia research, and suggestions for future research directions. The importance of translational interdisciplinary research teams was emphasized. The current article presents a summary of these discussions. PMID:18184635

  5. Cognitive Social Capital and Formal Volunteering Among Older Adults in Urban China: Does Gender Matter?

    Lu, Nan; Peng, Changmin; Jiang, Nan; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between cognitive social capital and formal volunteering among older adults in urban China. Cognitive social capital refers to individuals' perceptions of their social relationships in local communities. We used quota sampling to recruit 456 older adults aged 60 years and older from 16 communities of Gusu district, Suzhou city, in late 2015. Multiple group analysis was used to examine the proposed model. Gender had a moderating effect on the relationship between cognitive social capital and volunteering. The associations between cognitive social capital and volunteering were higher among older men than older women. The findings highlight the important role of cognitive social capital in influencing formal volunteering among older adults in urban Chinese contexts. The findings are particularly important for enhancing volunteering among older adults across different social and economic backgrounds. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.

  6. Social-cognitive predictors of vocational outcomes in transition youth with epilepsy: Application of social cognitive career theory.

    Sung, Connie; Connor, Annemarie

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the utility of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) as a framework to investigate career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, and contextual supports and barriers as predictors of choice actions among transition-age individuals with epilepsy. Moreover, these SCCT constructs are offered as an operational definition of work participation in this population. Using a quantitative descriptive research design and hierarchical regression analysis (HRA), 90 transition-age individuals with epilepsy, age 18-25, were recruited from affiliates of the Epilepsy Foundation and invited to complete an online survey comprised of a series of self-report social-cognitive measures. The HRA findings indicated that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and environmental supports were significant predictors of work participation in youth and young adults with epilepsy. The final model accounted for 58% of the variance in work participation, which is considered a large effect size. The research findings provide support for the use of the SCCT framework to identify predictors of work participation and to provide guidance for designing customized vocational rehabilitation services and career development interventions for individuals with epilepsy in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: The substance dependents scored significantly higher than the control group in nine out of fourteen early maladaptive schemas. In terms of coping strategies, the substance dependents scored significantly lower than the control group in positive reinterpretation and growth, seeking social support for instrumental reasons, active coping, and seeking social support for emotional reasons, and significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and alcohol-drug disengagement subscales. Moreover, alcohol-drug disengagement type of coping style was significantly predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, emotional inhibition, enmeshment/dependence, entitlement/ insufficient self-control, abandonment/instability, punitiveness, defectiveness/shame, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness. Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependence problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies.

  8. PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA SHOW GREATER SOCIAL COGNITIVE BIAS AND WORSE SOCIAL FUNCTIONING THAN NON-PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L

    2016-03-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

  9. Reward and Cognition: Integrating Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Drinking Behavior.

    Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.

  10. Electricity saving in households. A social cognitive approach

    Thoegersen, John; Groenhoej, Alice [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. (author)

  11. Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome: a comparison with autism spectrum disorder.

    van Rijn, S; Stockmann, L; van Buggenhout, G; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C; Swaab, H

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome. Forty-six children with an extra X chromosome (29 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 17 girls with Trisomy X), 56 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 88 non-clinical controls, aged 9-18 years, were included. Similar to children with ASD, children with an extra X chromosome showed significant impairments in social cognition. Regression analyses showed that different cognitive functions predicted social cognitive skills in the extra X and ASD groups. The social cognitive deficits were similar for boys and girls with an extra X chromosome, and not specific for a subgroup with high Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised autism scores. Thus, children with an extra X chromosome show social cognitive deficits, which may contribute to social dysfunction, not only in children showing a developmental pattern that is 'typical' for autism but also in those showing mild or late presenting autism symptoms. Our findings may also help explain variance in type of social deficit: children may show similar social difficulties, but these may arise as a consequence of different underlying information processing deficits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance...

  13. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  14. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

    Amy E. Pinkham; Philip D. Harvey; David L. Penn

    2016-01-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...

  15. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the relation to social skills and functioning?

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens R M; Bak, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Tina D; Wenneberg, Christina; Krakauer, Kristine; Roberts, David L; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-09-01

    Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical symptoms are associated with functioning and social skills. The study included 65 UHR patients and 30 healthy controls. Social cognitive function, social skills, and a broad range of functioning measures were assessed. The UHR patients demonstrated significant decrements on The Awareness of Social Inferences Task total score (p = .046, d  = .51), and on the CANTAB emotion recognition task total percent correct (p = .023, d  = .54) displaying particular difficulties in negative affect recognition. The patients exhibited significant impairments in social skills measured with the High Risk Social Challenge (p˂.001, d  = 1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms were associated with all measures of functioning (p ≤ .05). Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

  16. How Do I Feel about Feelings? Emotion Socialization in Families of Depressed and Healthy Adolescents

    Hunter, Erin C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Davis, Betsy; Leve, Craig; Allen, Nicholas B.; Sheeber, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents' behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children's emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children's emotions,…

  17. Cognitive poetics and biocultural (configurations of life, cognition and language. Towards a theory of socially integrated science

    Juani Guerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biocultural dynamics of Greek poiesis and autopoiesis as evolutionary processes of meaning evaluative (configuration, Cognitive Poetics proposes key methodological adjustments, mainly at the philological, ontological and cultural levels. The aim is to improve our understanding of cognitive and conceptual activity and the social foundations of individual language. From its new status as a fundamental metacognitive theory, it searches for a theory of socially integrated sciences from a new alliance as that discerned in current Cognitive Sciences: from Linguistics or Psychology, through Anthropology, Neurophilosophy or Literary Studies, to Neurobiology or Artificial Life Sciences. From a realist turn to a view of cognition as (social action, it provides new unforeseen accounts of the complex dynamics of human understanding processes studying and analyzing all form of texts as active data

  18. Imprinting can cause a maladaptive preference for infectious conspecifics.

    Stephenson, Jessica F; Reynolds, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing and associating with specific individuals, such as conspecifics or kin, brings many benefits. One mechanism underlying such recognition is imprinting: the long-term memory of cues encountered during development. Typically, juveniles imprint on cues of nearby individuals and may later associate with phenotypes matching their 'recognition template'. However, phenotype matching could lead to maladaptive social decisions if, for instance, individuals imprint on the cues of conspecifics infected with directly transmitted diseases. To investigate the role of imprinting in the sensory ecology of disease transmission, we exposed juvenile guppies,Poecilia reticulata, to the cues of healthy conspecifics, or to those experiencing disease caused by the directly transmitted parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli In a dichotomous choice test, adult 'disease-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with the chemical cues of G. turnbulli-infected conspecifics, whereas 'healthy-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with cues of uninfected conspecifics. These responses were only observed when stimulus fish were in late infection, suggesting imprinted fish responded to cues of disease, but not of infection alone. We discuss how maladaptive imprinting may promote disease transmission in natural populations of a social host. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  20. Social-Cognitive Biases in Simulated Airline Luggage Screening

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrated how social cognitive biases affect the decision making process of air1ine luggage screeners. Participants (n = 96) performed a computer simulated task to detect hidden weapons in 200 x-ray images of passenger luggage. Participants saw each image for two (high time pressure) or six seconds (low time pressure). Participants observed pictures of the "passenger" who owns the luggage . The "pre-anchor group" answered questions about the passenger before the luggage image appeared, the "post-snchor" group answered questions after the luggage appeared, and the "no-anchor group" answered no questions. Participants either stopped or did not stop the bag. and rated their confidence in their decision. Participants under high time pressure had lower hit rates and higher false alarms, Significant differences between the pre-, no-, and post-anchor groups were based on the gender and race of the passengers. Participants had higher false alarm rates in response to male than female passengers.

  1. Personality dynamics: insights from the personality social cognitive literature.

    Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2011-03-01

    Psychodynamic and social cognitive approaches to personality assessment converge now more so than at any time in the history of experimental psychology. This contribution seeks to make this point. First, the trait of neuroticism predisposes one to multiple adverse outcomes, a point not sufficiently captured by the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Second, though, self-reported levels of neuroticism are insufficient in understanding problematic outcomes for multiple reasons. Third, there are ways of experimentally modeling the many processes of interest to psychodynamic theorists such as unconscious affective biases, implicit representations of self and other, and underlying deficits in self- and emotion regulation. Implicit approaches to assessment also provide clues to interventions targeting the processes of interest, a point that will be made as well.

  2. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education.

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Prospects for direct social perception: A multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition

    Travis J. Wiltshire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others’ mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience.

  4. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition

    Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others’ mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25709572

  5. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition.

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Lobato, Emilio J C; McConnell, Daniel S; Fiore, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others' mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience.

  6. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study.

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J

    2016-05-01

    Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.

  7. Social cognition and individual effectiveness in interpersonal scenarios: A conceptual review

    Nilamadhab Kar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition, the ability to act wisely in social interaction, is being actively researched in various fields besides the clinical, behavioral, and psychological sciences. The objectives of this paper are to review the conceptual basis of social cognition and its applicability in the areas of social competence and effectiveness in interpersonal environments. Social cognitive skills enable understanding of social situations. The relationship between social cognitive skills and ability of emotional decoding of self and others has been explored. The paper discusses various processes that are operative in the interactional scenarios and have relevance in individual effectiveness. Concepts such as emotional intelligence, trait transference, person-perception, categorical thinking, and knowledge construction have been discussed in relation to social cognition and effectiveness. The role of thoughts, feelings, expectations, and relational schemas in interpersonal situations has been linked to performances. In addition, effectiveness is influenced by motivated social cognitions, ego-tasks, global, and context-specific goals. Various strategies such as cognitive and social problem-solving and proactive-coping have been elaborated which lead to better outcomes in interpersonal environments.

  8. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Cognition Deficits: Current Position and Future Directions for Neuropsychological Interventions in Cerebrovascular Disease

    Progress Njomboro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits. In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients’ performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments.

  10. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  11. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  12. General and social cognition in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients : a comparative study

    Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and

  13. Social Cognitive Predictors of Academic Interests and Goals in South Korean Engineering Students

    Kim, Min Sun; Seo, Young Seok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in a cross-cultural setting by examining the relationships between the social cognitive variables of South Korean engineering students and their engineering interests and major choice goals across university type and gender. Participants (N =…

  14. What Difference Does It Make? Implicit, Explicit and Complex Social Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Schaller, Ulrich M.; Rauh, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    We tested social cognition abilities of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurotypically developed peers (NTD). A multi-faceted test-battery including facial emotion categorization (FEC), classical false belief tasks (FBT), and complex social cognition (SC), yielded significantly lower accuracy rates for FEC and complex SC tasks…

  15. Applying Social Cognitive Theory in Coaching Athletes: The Power of Positive Role Models

    Connolly, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help coaches apply specific principles of psychology to the coaching process. More specifically, the work of Albert Bandura and his social cognitive theory form the basis for the article. This article begins with a brief overview of Bandura's social cognitive theory. It then examines four types of behaviors worthy…

  16. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  17. Social Cognitive Predictors of Adjustment to Engineering Majors across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.; Smith, Paige E.; Watford, Bevlee A.; Lim, Robert H.; Hui, Kayi; Morrison, M. Ashley; Wilkins, Gregory; Williams, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    We tested a social cognitive model of academic adjustment in a sample of 1377 students enrolled in engineering schools at two predominantly White and two historically Black state universities. The model brought together central elements of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) segmental models of educational/vocational satisfaction, interest,…

  18. Integrating Person and Situation Perspectives on Work Satisfaction: A Social-Cognitive View

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was originally designed to help explain interest development, choice, and performance in career and educational domains. These three aspects of career/academic development were presented in distinct but overlapping segmental models. This article presents a fourth social cognitive model…

  19. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  20. Contributions of cognitive inflexibility to eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms.

    Arlt, Jean; Yiu, Angelina; Eneva, Kalina; Taylor Dryman, M; Heimberg, Richard G; Chen, Eunice Y

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders and social anxiety are highly co-occurring. These disorders share fears of social evaluation, possibly maintained by similar cognitive content and styles, including an inability to adapt or flexibly respond to unexpected conditions. However, the role of cognitive inflexibility in eating disorders in relation to social anxiety has not been explored. In this study, the link between eating disorder symptoms and cognitive inflexibility, while accounting for social anxiety, is examined. Participants (N=461) were undergraduates who completed the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire 12-item Cognitive Rigidity subscale, the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Eating disorder symptoms and social anxiety were both positively correlated with cognitive inflexibility. After controlling for social anxiety, the relationship between eating disorder symptoms and cognitive inflexibility remained robust. Further examination of cognitive inflexibility in eating disorders and comorbid social anxiety in clinical samples is warranted. We suggest future directions for examining cognitive inflexibility as a trans-diagnostic construct important to eating disorders and frequently comorbid disorders, consistent with NIMH Research Domain Criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Factorial Equivalence of Social Cognitive Theory: Educational Levels × Time Differences

    Phan, Huy Phuong; Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The study of social cognitive theory has involved a number of inquiries, notably one of which concerns the formation and development of self-efficacy beliefs. Social cognitive theory indicates that we form our self-efficacy beliefs from four major sources of information: enactive performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal…

  2. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  3. Resident Wellness and Social Support: Development and Cognitive Validation of a Resident Social Capital Assessment Tool.

    Kaplan, Stephen J; Seabott, Heather M; Cunningham, Erika B; Helman, James D; Calderon, Alvin; Thirlby, Richard C; Schenarts, Kimberly D

    The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6. The initial resident-focused instrument underwent revision via Delphi process with 6 experts; 100% expert consensus was achieved after 4 cycles. Three focus groups were conducted with 19 total residents. Focus groups identified 6 of 11 instrument items with mean quality ratings ≤4.0 on a 1-5 scale. The composite instrument rating of the draft version was 4.1 ± 0.5. After refining the instrument, cognitive interviews with the final version were completed with 22 residents. All items in the final version had quality ratings >4.0; the composite instrument rating was 4.8 ± 0.1. Social capital may be an important factor in resident wellness as residents rely upon each other and external social support to withstand fatigue, burnout, and other negative sequelae of rigorous training. This instrument for assessment of social capital in residents may provide an avenue for data collection and potentially, identification of residents at-risk for wellness degradation. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The poetics of mourning and faith-based intervention in maladaptive grieving processes in Ethiopia.

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2018-08-01

    The paper is an inquiry into the poetics of mourning and faith-based intervention in maladaptive grieving processes in Ethiopia. The paper discusses the ways that loss is signified and analyzes the meanings of ethnocultural and psychospiritual practices employed to deal with maladaptive grief processes and their psychological and emotional after-effects. Hermeneutics provided the methodological framework and informed the analysis. The thesis of the paper is that the poetics of mourning and faith-based social interventions are interactionally based meaning making processes. The paper indicates the limitations of the study and their implications for further inquiry.

  5. Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder

    Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989

  8. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  9. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

    Proulx, Michael J.; Todorov, Orlin S.; Taylor Aiken, Amanda; de Sousa, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners. PMID:26903893

  11. Social cognitive markers of short-term clinical outcome in first-episode psychosis.

    Montreuil, Tina; Bodnar, Michael; Bertrand, Marie-Claude; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In psychotic disorders, impairments in cognition have been associated with both clinical and functional outcome, while deficits in social cognition have been associated with functional outcome. As an extension to a recent report on neurocognition and short-term clinical outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP), the current study explored whether social cognitive deficits could also identify poor short-term clinical outcome among FEP patients. We defined the social-cognition domain based on the scores from the Hinting Task and the Four Factor Tests of Social Intelligence. Data were collected in 45 FEP patients and 26 healthy controls. The patients were divided into good- and poor-outcome groups based on clinical data at six months following initiation of treatment. Social cognition was compared among 27 poor-outcome, 18 good-outcome, and 26 healthy-control participants. Outcome groups significantly differed in the social cognition domain (z-scores: poor outcome=-2.0 [SD=1.4]; good outcome=-1.0 [SD=1.0]; p=0.005), with both groups scoring significantly lower than the control group (psocial cognition appears to be compromised in all FEP patients compared to healthy controls. More interestingly, significant differences in social cognitive impairments exist between good and poor short-term clinical outcome groups, with the largest effect found in the Cartoon Predictions subtest.

  12. Maladaptive variants of conscientiousness and agreeableness.

    Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L

    2012-12-01

    Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder.

    Weightman, Michael James; Air, Tracy Michele; Baune, Bernhard Theodor

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition - the ability to identify, perceive, and interpret socially relevant information - is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognized to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterize the current understanding of: (i) the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii) the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance. Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review. Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalize following effective pharmacotherapy. The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in remission, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions.

  14. A Review of the Role of Social Cognition in Major Depressive Disorder

    Weightman, Michael James; Air, Tracy Michele; Baune, Bernhard Theodor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive, and interpret socially relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognized to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterize the current understanding of: (i) the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii) the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review. Results: Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalize following effective pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in remission, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions. PMID:25566100

  15. A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder

    Michael James Weightman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive and interpret socially-relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognised to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterise the current understanding of (i the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance.Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review.Results: Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalise following effective pharmacotherapy.Conclusions: The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in the remitted state, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions.

  16. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  17. Mind the fish: zebrafish as a model in cognitive social neuroscience

    Rui F Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain implements social behavior on one hand, and how social processes feedback on the brain to promote fine-tuning of behavioural output according to changes in the social environment is a major challenge in contemporary neuroscience. A critical step to take this challenge successfully is finding the appropriate level of analysis when relating social to biological phenomena. Given the enormous complexity of both the neural networks of the brain and social systems, the use of a cognitive level of analysis (in an information processing perspective is proposed here as an explanatory interface between brain and behavior. A conceptual framework for a cognitive approach to comparative social neuroscience is proposed, consisting of the following steps to be taken across different species with varying social systems: (1 identification of the functional building blocks of social skills; (2 identification of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the previously identified social skills; and (3 mapping these information processing mechanisms onto the brain. Teleost fish are presented here as a group of choice to develop this approach, given the diversity of social systems present in closely related species that allows for planned phylogenetic comparisons, and the availability of neurogenetic tools that allows the visualization and manipulation of selected neural circuits in model species such as the zebrafish. Finally, the state-of-the art of zebrafish social cognition and of the tools available to map social cognitive abilities to neural circuits in zebrafish are reviewed.

  18. [Social Cognition and its Contribution to the Rehabilitation of Behavioural Disorders in Traumatic Brain Injury].

    Quemada, José Ignacio; Rusu, Olga; Fonseca, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Social behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury are caused by the dysfunction of cognitive processes involved in social and interpersonal interaction. The concept of social cognition was introduced by authors studying schizophrenia, autism or mental retardation. The boundaries and the content of the concept have not yet been definitively defined, but theory of mind, empathy and emotional processing are included in all the models proposed. The strategies proposed to improve social behaviour focus on the restoration of cognitive processes such as working memory, emotional recognition and processing, and empathy, as well as social skills. To date, there is very little evidence on the efficacy of the aforementioned social cognition strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. The Importance of Social Cognition in Improving Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    Javed, Afzal; Charles, Asha

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs) and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have yielded more mixed

  20. The Importance of Social Cognition in Improving Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia

    Afzal Javed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have

  1. The Association Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Function With Considerations by Social Risk Status.

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.

  2. Social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers: a feasibility evaluation of the Social Fitness Programme

    Donkers, H.W.; Veen, D.J. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Graff, M.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We developed a tailor-made intervention aimed at improving social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers. This programme consists of an integration of healthcare and welfare interventions: occupational therapy, physiotherapy and guidance by a welfare

  3. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria : a PKU-COBESO study

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francinus; de Sonneville, Leonardus; van der Meere, Jacob; Huijbregts, S; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.

    OBJECTIVE: Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and

  4. The Impact Facebook and Twitter has on the Cognitive Social Capital of University Students

    Kevin A. Johnston; Chad Petersen

    2015-01-01

    The impact that Facebook and Twitter usage has on the creation and maintenance of university student’s cognitive social capital was investigated on students in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Facebook and Twitter were selected as part of the research context because both are popular online social network systems (SNSs), and few studies were found that investigated the impact that both Facebook and Twitter have on the cognitive social capital of South African university students. Da...

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition: a randomised wait-list control study

    Stadler Christina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although literature provides support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT as an efficacious intervention for social phobia, more research is needed to improve treatments for children. Methods Forty four Caucasian children (ages 8-14 meeting diagnostic criteria of social phobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; APA, 1994 were randomly allocated to either a newly developed CBT program focusing on cognition according to the model of Clark and Wells (n = 21 or a wait-list control group (n = 23. The primary outcome measure was clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included improvements in anxiety coping, dysfunctional cognitions, interaction frequency and comorbid symptoms. Outcome measures included child report and clinican completed measures as well as a diagnostic interview. Results Significant differences between treatment participants (4 dropouts and controls (2 dropouts were observed at post test on the German version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Furthermore, in the treatment group, significantly more children were free of diagnosis than in wait-list group at post-test. Additional child completed and clinician completed measures support the results. Discussion The study is a first step towards investigating whether CBT focusing on cognition is efficacious in treating children with social phobia. Future research will need to compare this treatment to an active treatment group. There remain the questions of whether the effect of the treatment is specific to the disorder and whether the underlying theoretical model is adequate. Conclusion Preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral treatment focusing on cognition in socially phobic children. Active comparators should be established with other evidence-based CBT programs for anxiety disorders, which differ significantly in their dosage and type of cognitive

  6. The effects of oxytocin on social cognition in borderline personality disorder.

    Servan, A; Brunelin, J; Poulet, E

    2018-02-01

    Deficits in social cognition and interpersonal difficulties are key features in borderline personality disorder. Social cognition refers to the function of perceiving and adequately dealing with social signals, leading to the establishment and maintenance of healthy and positive social relationships. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) may improve social cognition and human social behavior. Recently, several studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of oxytocin in several psychiatric conditions involving social cognition deficits such as schizophrenia, autism or social phobia. However, despite growing interest, the effects of oxytocin in patients with borderline personality disorder are far from being clearly demonstrated. The objective of this work was to review and discuss studies investigating the interest of oxytocin in alleviating social cognition deficits in patients with borderline personality disorder (recognition of emotion, trust and cooperation, affective and cognitive empathy, emotional expression and social problem-solving). A systematic review of the literature was conducted up to September 31, 2016 on the Pubmed, Science direct, Medline and Scopus databases using "borderline personality disorder" and "oxytocin" as keywords. To be included, studies were to include patients with borderline personality disorder; to investigate social cognition and to investigate the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in patients with TPB. The initial search yielded 52 articles. Among them, 11 studies were selected according to the PRISMA criteria. The effect of oxytocin on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder was mainly investigated in relation to recognition of emotions and trust and cooperation. We did not find any studies investigating the effect of oxytocin on affective and cognitive empathy, emotional expression or social problem-solving abilities. In patients with borderline personality disorder, oxytocin had a beneficial

  7. Patterns of rationality recurring inferences in science, social cognition and religious thinking

    Bertolotti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes an applied epistemological framework for investigating science, social cognition and religious thinking based on inferential patterns that recur in the different domains. It presents human rationality as a tool that allows us to make sense of our (physical or social) surroundings. It shows that the resulting cognitive activity produces a broad spectrum of outputs, such as scientific models and experimentation, gossip and social networks, but also ancient and contemporary deities. The book consists of three parts, the first of which addresses scientific modeling and experimentation, and their application to the analysis of scientific rationality. Thus, this part continues the tradition of eco-cognitive epistemology and abduction studies. The second part deals with the relationship between social cognition and cognitive niche construction, i.e. the evolutionarily relevant externalization of knowledge onto the environment, while the third part focuses on what is commonly defined as "irrational...

  8. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...

  9. Linking social cognition with social interaction: Non-verbal expressivity, social competence and "mentalising" in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Lehmkämper Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI. Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD.

  10. Self discovery enables robot social cognition: are you my teacher?

    Kaipa, Krishnanand N; Bongard, Josh C; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    Infants exploit the perception that others are 'like me' to bootstrap social cognition (Meltzoff, 2007a). This paper demonstrates how the above theory can be instantiated in a social robot that uses itself as a model to recognize structural similarities with other robots; this thereby enables the student to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate teachers. This is accomplished by the student robot first performing self-discovery, a phase in which it uses actuation-perception relationships to infer its own structure. Second, the student models a candidate teacher using a vision-based active learning approach to create an approximate physical simulation of the teacher. Third, the student determines that the teacher is structurally similar (but not necessarily visually similar) to itself if it can find a neural controller that allows its self model (created in the first phase) to reproduce the perceived motion of the teacher model (created in the second phase). Fourth, the student uses the neural controller (created in the third phase) to move, resulting in imitation of the teacher. Results with a physical student robot and two physical robot teachers demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The generalizability of the proposed model allows it to be used over variations in the demonstrator: The student robot would still be able to imitate teachers of different sizes and at different distances from itself, as well as different positions in its field of view, because change in the interrelations of the teacher's body parts are used for imitation, rather than absolute geometric properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing Social Cognition of Persons with Schizophrenia in a Chinese Population: A Pilot Study

    Panmi M. T. Lo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a core limiting factor of functional recovery among persons with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of standardized and culturally relevant assessment tools for evaluating social cognitive performance in Chinese persons with schizophrenia. The purposes of this study were to (1 develop and validate two social cognitive instruments, the Chinese Facial Emotion Identification Test (C-FEIT and the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ, that assess three key domains of social cognition and (2 to evaluate preliminary psychometric properties of the two assessments. The results demonstrated that the C-FEIT and the social cognitive subscales of C-SCSQ possess satisfactory content-related validity and test–retest reliability (ICC ranging from 0.76 to 0.85. Subscales of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ showed low to medium correlation with two concurrent neurocognitive measures (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.45 and concurrent measures of functional performance (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.46. Our findings generally support the use of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ as reliable and valid tools for assessing emotion perception, theory of mind (intention-inferencing, and hostile attributional style, which are the key outcome indicators of social cognitive interventions for persons with schizophrenia.

  12. Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.

  13. Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory.

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.

  14. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.

  15. Intact social cognitive processes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Kucharska, Katarzyna; Jeschke, Julia; Mafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess social cognition in community patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy controls. 25 women diagnosed with AN and 25 women matched for education level and age were involved in the study. Both subject groups were assessed using a set of validated experimental tasks, such as the facial expression recognition test, short recognition memory test for faces, 'Reading the mind in the eyes' test. Patients were assessed for symptoms of: eating disorder (the eating attitudes test-EAT-26), OCD (the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-Y-BOCS) and depression (Beck depression inventory-BDI). The research hypothesis indicated that patients suffering from anorexia represent no significant difference in social cognitive functioning in comparison to the healthy controls. These assessment scales were used to identify whether there are any problems according to social cognitive functioning especially emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM). The primary outcome assessment was to identify social cognitive deficits in anorexic outpatients and secondary outcome was to verify whether these problems in emotional functioning found in women in acute phase of AN are state or trait effects. Anorexic patients showed significantly higher scores on EAT-26, BDI and Y-BOCS. No significant differences were found in performance of social cognitive tests and facial perception test. No marked alterations were found in social cognitive functioning in community patients with average body mass index (BMI) of 17.6. This may indicate that social cognition is a very complex construct to be reliably measured in anorexia nervosa considering relatively limited psychometric data for many social cognitive tasks. Further longitudinal studies are needed to untangle ongoing controversy whether social cognitive deficits in AN could be state or trait related.

  16. The Role of Executive Functions in Social Cognition among Children with Down Syndrome: Relationship Patterns

    Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet; Vallès-Majoral, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show a link between social cognition, a set of cognitive and emotional abilities applied to social situations, and executive functions in typical developing children. Children with Down syndrome (DS) show deficits both in social cognition and in some subcomponents of executive functions. However this link has barely been studied in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the links between social cognition and executive functions among children with DS. We administered a battery of social cognition and executive function tasks (six theory of mind tasks, a test of emotion comprehension, and three executive function tasks) to a group of 30 participants with DS between 4 and 12 years of age. The same tasks were administered to a chronological-age control group and to a control group with the same linguistic development level. Results showed that apart from deficits in social cognition and executive function abilities, children with DS displayed a slight improvement with increasing chronological age and language development in those abilities. Correlational analysis suggested that working memory was the only component that remained constant in the relation patterns of the three groups of participants, being the relation patterns similar among participants with DS and the language development control group. A multiple linear regression showed that working memory explained above 50% of the variability of social cognition in DS participants and in language development control group, whereas in the chronological-age control group this component only explained 31% of the variability. These findings, and specifically the link between working memory and social cognition, are discussed on the basis of their theoretical and practical implications for children with DS. We discuss the possibility to use a working memory training to improve social cognition in this population. PMID:27679588

  17. Social cognition intervention in schizophrenia: Description of the training of affect recognition program - Indian version.

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Frommann, Nicole; Sharma, Psvn

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of social isolation and re-socialization on cognition and ADAR1 (p110) expression in mice.

    Chen, Wei; An, Dong; Xu, Hong; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Weizhi; Yu, Deqin; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yiping; Deng, Wuguo; Tang, Yiyuan; Yin, Shengming

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that social isolation stress could be a key factor that leads to cognitive deficit for both humans and rodent models. However, detailed mechanisms are not yet clear. ADAR1 (Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is an enzyme involved in RNA editing that has a close relation to cognitive function. We have hypothesized that social isolation stress may impact the expression of ADAR1 in the brain of mice with cognitive deficit. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the cognition ability of mice isolated for different durations (2, 4, and 8 weeks) using object recognition and object location tests; we also measured ADAR1 expression in hippocampus and cortex using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Our study showed that social isolation stress induced spatial and non-spatial cognition deficits of the tested mice. In addition, social isolation significantly increased both the immunoreactivity and protein expression of ADAR1 (p110) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, re-socialization could not only recover the cognition deficits, but also bring ADAR1 (p110) immunoreactivity of hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as ADAR1 (p110) protein expression of hippocampus back to the normal level for the isolated mice in adolescence. In conclusion, social isolation stress significantly increases ADAR1 (p110) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the mice with cognitive deficit. This finding may open a window to better understand the reasons (e.g., epigenetic change) that are responsible for social isolation-induced cognitive deficit and help the development of novel therapies for the resulted diseases.

  19. Social cognition and neural substrates of face perception: implications for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Lazar, Steven M; Evans, David W; Myers, Scott M; Moreno-De Luca, Andres; Moore, Gregory J

    2014-04-15

    Social cognition is an important aspect of social behavior in humans. Social cognitive deficits are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we examine the neural substrates of social cognition and face processing in a group of healthy young adults to examine the neural substrates of social cognition. Fifty-seven undergraduates completed a battery of social cognition tasks and were assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) during a face-perception task. A subset (N=22) were administered a face-perception task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Variance in the N170 EEG was predicted by social attribution performance and by a quantitative measure of empathy. Neurally, face processing was more bilateral in females than in males. Variance in fMRI voxel count in the face-sensitive fusiform gyrus was predicted by quantitative measures of social behavior, including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Empathizing Quotient. When measured as a quantitative trait, social behaviors in typical and pathological populations share common neural pathways. The results highlight the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders as spectrum phenomena that may be informed by studies of the normal distribution of relevant traits in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maladaptive Behaviours Associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Item Response Theory Analysis.

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    2018-03-19

    Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach. A large sample of adults commencing treatment for their symptoms of GAD (n = 537) completed the WBI in addition to measures of GAD and depression symptom severity. Patients with a probable diagnosis of GAD typically engaged in four or five maladaptive behaviours most or all of the time in an attempt to prevent, control or avoid worrying about everyday concerns. The two-factor structure of the WBI was confirmed, and the WBI scales demonstrated good reliability across a broad range of the respective scales. Together with previous findings, our results suggested that hypervigilance and checking behaviours, as well as avoidance of saying or doing things that are worrisome, were the most relevant maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD, and discriminated well between adults with low, moderate and high degrees of the respective WBI scales. Our results support the importance of maladaptive behaviours to GAD and the utility of the WBI to index these behaviours. Ramifications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization and treatment of GAD are discussed.

  1. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    Ubukata S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiho Ubukata,1,2 Rumi Tanemura,2 Miho Yoshizumi,1 Genichi Sugihara,1 Toshiya Murai,1 Keita Ueda1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan Abstract: Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. Keywords: Eyes test, social emotion perception, social function, social participation, theory of mind

  2. The Origin of Cultural Differences in Cognition: Evidence for the Social Orientation Hypothesis.

    Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research documents cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. Westerners tend to be more analytic and East Asians tend to be more holistic. These findings have often been explained as being due to corresponding differences in social orientation. Westerners are more independent and Easterners are more interdependent. However, comparisons of the cognitive tendencies of Westerners and East Asians do not allow us to rule out alternative explanations for the cognitive differences, such as linguistic and genetic differences, as well as cultural differences other than social orientation. In this review we summarize recent developments which provide stronger support for the social orientation hypothesis.

  3. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  4. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, and professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists.

    Robakowska, Marlena; Tyrańska-Fobke, Anna; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Małgorzata

    2018-05-22

    The goal of this paper is to verify the correlations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and the selected demographic and job characteristics vs. professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists in Poland. The study group consisted of 166 laboratory scientists. The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (Szczucka) was used for testing perfectionism. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used for examining burnout syndrome. Adaptive perfectionism was positively and maladaptive perfectionism was negatively correlated with both aspects of professional burnout: the disengagement from work and exhaustion. What is more, maladaptive perfectionism was correlated negatively with age and work experience. People in relationships have a higher level of disengagement and a higher level of exhaustion than single ones. The results of hierarchical regression analyses have revealed, after having controlled selected demographic and job factors, that a significant predictor of disengagement is the high level of adaptive perfectionism and low level of maladaptive perfectionism. In addition, a significant predictor of high level of exhaustion is the low level of maladaptive perfectionism. Professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists is of a specific nature. The "healthier" perfectionism they reveal, the higher level of burnout they present. In this profession, lower risk of burnout is represented by those who are characterized by the lack of confidence in the quality of their actions and a negative reaction to their own imperfections associated with imposed social obligation to be perfect. The individuals pursuing their internal high standards experience burnout faster. Med Pr 2018;69(3):253-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Which Aspects of Social Support Are Associated With Which Cognitive Abilities for Which People?

    La Fleur, Claire G; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the relations between 11 aspects of social support and five cognitive abilities (vocabulary, reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed of processing) and to determine whether these relations between social support and cognition are moderated by age or sex. A sample of 2,613 individuals between the ages of 18 and 99 years completed a battery of cognitive tests and a questionnaire assessing aspects of social support. A measure of general intelligence was computed using principal components analysis. Multiple regressions were used to evaluate whether each aspect of support and/or its interactions with age or sex predicted each cognitive ability and g. Several aspects of social support were significantly related to all five cognitive abilities and to g. When g was included as a predictor, there were few relations with specific cognitive abilities. Age and sex did not moderate any of the relations. These results suggest that contact with family and friends, emotional and informational support, anticipated support, and negative interactions are related to cognition, whereas satisfaction with and tangible support were not. In addition, these aspects of support were primarily related to g, with the exception of family contact. Social support- cognition relations are comparable across the life span and the sexes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  7. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  8. Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Ericsson, Malin; Lundholm, Cecilia; Fors, Stefan; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Zavala, Catalina; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-07-03

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  9. Social cognition deficits and the 'ultra high risk' for psychosis population: a review of literature.

    Thompson, Andrew D; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yung, Alison R

    2011-08-01

    A number of risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder have been investigated in the 'ultra high risk' (UHR) population, including neurocognitive abilities, social functioning and, more recently, social cognition. We aimed to review the literature on social cognition in the UHR population. Literature was restricted to English articles and identified using Pubmed, Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHLplus, as well as the reference lists of published studies and reviews. Search terms included social cognition, theory of mind, emotion recognition, attributional style, social knowledge, social perception, 'at risk mental state', psychosis prodrome 'clinical high risk' and 'ultra high risk'. Inclusion criteria were an outcome measure of a social cognition task and an UHR population defined by a structured validated instrument. Seven original research articles met the inclusion criteria, one of which was a conference abstract. One of the two studies that assessed theory of mind, two of the four studies that assessed emotion recognition and both the two studies that assessed social perception/knowledge found significant deficits in UHR patients. The single study that assessed attributional bias also reported differences in UHR patients compared with healthy controls. There is limited published literature on social cognitive performance in the UHR population. Despite this, deficits in certain social cognitive abilities do appear to be present, but further research with more reliable cross-cultural measures is needed. The characterization of social cognitive deficits in the UHR populations may aid in the identification of potential markers for development of a subsequent psychotic disorder, as well as targets for early intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Social Cognition in Children Born Preterm: A Perspective on Future Research Directions

    Norbert Zmyj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for children’s development. It affects children’s cognitive and intellectual development and is related to impairments in IQ, executive functions, and well-being, with these problems persisting into adulthood. While preterm children’s intellectual and cognitive development has been studied in detail, their social development and social-cognitive competencies have received less attention. Namely, preterm children show problems in interactions with others. These interaction problems are present in relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Parents’ behavior has been identified as a possible mediator of children’s social behavior. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness as well as absence of mental disorders foster children’s social development. In this article, we will report on the social side of impairments that preterm children face. The review of the literature revealed that preterm infants’ joint attention abilities are impaired: They are less likely to initiate joint attention with others and to respond to others’ efforts to engage in joint attention. These deficits in joint attention might contribute to later impairments in social cognition, which in turn might affect social interaction skills. Based on these three domains (i.e., problems in social interaction, parental behavior, and impairments in joint attention, we suggest that preterm children’s social cognitive abilities should be investigated more intensively.

  11. Social Media as a Communication Support for Persons with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment: A Social Network Analysis Study.

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted as a social network analysis of a Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain to address the lack of research examining social media and the potential value of on-line support for persons with mild acquired cognitive impairment.

  12. Social cognition in preschoolers: effects of early experience and individual differences

    Daniela Bulgarelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behaviour and that of others. Children’s social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind (ToM and Emotion Understanding (EU. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of type of early care (0-3 years of age, maternal education, parents’ country of birth, and child’s language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers. To our knowledge, the joint effect of these variables on social cognition has not previously been investigated in the literature. The measures used to collect social cognition and linguistic data were not parent- or teacher-reports, but based on direct assessment of the children through two standardized tests, the Test of Emotion Comprehension and the ToM Storybooks. Relationships among the variables showed a complex pattern. Overall, maternal education and linguistic competence showed a systematic effect on social cognition; the linguistic competence mediated the effect of maternal education. In children who had experienced centre-base care in the first three years of life, the effect of maternal education disappeared, supporting the protective role of centre-base care for children with less educated mothers. The children with native and foreign parents did not significantly differed on the social cognition tasks. Limits of the study, possible educational outcomes and future research lines were discussed.

  13. The Management of Social Phobia Ýn Residual-Type Schizophrenia with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Elif Þimþek Kaygusuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  14. Social cognition and levels of personality organization in patients with somatoform disorders: a case-control study.

    Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; van Broeckhuysen-Kloth, Saskia A M; Snellen, Wim M; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition and its association with level of personality organization (PO) were examined in 163 patients with severe somatoform disorders (SFDs) and 151 psychiatric (PSA) control patients. Social cognition was measured with the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale, which assessed both affective and cognitive facets of social cognition. Levels of PO were assessed using theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The SFD patients exhibited impairments in the cognitive facets of social cognition but not more so than the PSA controls. The results for the affective aspects indicated that the SFD patients exhibited lower levels of emotional investment yet higher affect tone in interactions than the PSA controls. In contrast to the control group, level of PO was not associated with social cognition in SFD. Together, the results indicated that impairments in complexity of mental representations are not specific to SFD patients, yet impairments in emotional investment may be specific to SFD.

  15. Pattern of social cognition deficits in individuals with borderline personality disorder.

    Anupama V; Bhola, Poornima; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan

    2018-03-01

    Social cognition deficits have been implicated in the affect regulation and interpersonal difficulties seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined patterns of social cognition abilities, using self-report and task-based measures, among individuals diagnosed with BPD. The sample included a clinical group of 20 patients diagnosed with BPD and 20 age and gender-matched control group participants from the community with no psychiatric diagnosis. The measures included the Mentalization Questionnaire, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Social Cognition Rating Tool in Indian Setting. Results indicated that the clinical group had lower self-reported mentalizing ability. Facial emotion recognition ability was significantly lower for the clinical group, particularly for photographs of the eye region with positive and neutral valences. The clinical group had significantly higher personalizing bias, and greater difficulties in social perception. The two groups did not differ on first and second order theory of mind, recognition of faux pas and externalizing bias. The results point to the links between social cognition deficits and interpersonal difficulties among persons with BPD. Implications include the need for pre-therapy assessment of the magnitude and patterns of social cognition difficulties in BPD, the development of culturally and ecologically valid assessments and the evaluation of interventions for social cognition vulnerabilities among individuals with BPD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Collective Dynamics of Belief Evolution under Cognitive Coherence and Social Conformity.

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics.

  17. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  18. An investigation of social class inequalities in general cognitive ability in two British birth cohorts

    Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon

    2018-01-01

    The ‘Flynn effect’ describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology’s standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive...

  19. Social cognition in bipolar disorder: Focus on emotional intelligence.

    Varo, C; Jimenez, E; Solé, B; Bonnín, C M; Torrent, C; Valls, E; Morilla, I; Lahera, G; Martínez-Arán, A; Vieta, E; Reinares, M

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to characterize emotional intelligence (EI) variability in a sample of euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) patients through the Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). A total of 134 euthymic BD outpatients were recruited and divided into three groups according to the total Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ) score of the MSCEIT, following a statistical criterion of scores 1.5SDs above/below the normative group mean, as follows: a low performance (LP) group (EIQ 115). Afterwards, main sociodemographic, clinical, functional and neurocognitive variables were compared between the groups. Three groups were identified: 1) LP group (n=16, 12%), 2) NP group (n=93, 69%) and 3) HP group (n=25, 19%). There were significant differences between the groups in premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) (p=0.010), axis II comorbidity (p=0.008), subthreshold depressive symptoms (p=0.027), general functioning (p=0.013) and in four specific functional domains: autonomy, occupation, interpersonal relations and leisure time. Significant differences in neurocognitive performance were found between groups with the LP group showing the lowest attainments. The cross-sectional design of the study. Our results suggest that EI variability among BD patients, assessed through MSCEIT, is lower than expected. EI could be associated with premorbid IQ, subthreshold depressive symptoms, neurocognitive performance and general functioning. The identification of different profiles of SC may help guide specific interventions for distinct patient subgroups aimed at improving social cognition, neurocognitive performance and psychosocial functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  1. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  2. Children's intervention strategies in situations of victimization by bullying: Social cognitions of outsiders versus defenderd.

    Pronk, J.; Goossens, F.A.; Olthof, T.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; Willemen, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the social cognitions of outsiders and defenders about intervening in situations of victimization by bullying. Do outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs, or because of a selectivity effect in

  3. The Impact of Social Pressure and Monetary Incentive on Cognitive Control.

    Ličen, Mina; Hartmann, Frank; Repovš, Grega; Slapničar, Sergeja

    2016-01-01

    We compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms-social pressure and monetary incentive-on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior by activating proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence of how social pressure affects cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under social pressure and monetary incentive beyond mere instructions to perform better. Our results indicate that instructing participants to improve their performance on its own leads to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and that both social pressure and monetary incentive further enhance performance.

  4. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  5. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Connecting the Dots: Social Network Structure, Conflict, and Group Cognitive Complexity

    Curseu, Petru L.; Janssen, Steffie E. A.; Raab, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The current paper combines arguments from the social capital and group cognition literature to explain two different processes through which communication network structures and intra group conflict influence groups' cognitive complexity (GCC). We test in a sample of 44 groups the mediating role of intra group conflict in the relationship between…

  7. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  8. Graduate Social Work Education and Cognitive Complexity: Does Prior Experience Really Matter?

    Simmons, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which age, education, and practice experience among social work graduate students (N = 184) predicted cognitive complexity, an essential aspect of critical thinking. In the regression analysis, education accounted for more of the variance associated with cognitive complexity than age and practice experience. When…

  9. The effect of cognitive load on social categorization in the category confusion paradigm

    Spears, R; Haslam, SA; Jansen, R

    1999-01-01

    The category confusion paradigm (Taylor, Fiske, Etcoff & Ruderman, 1978) was used to examine the relationship between cognitive load and the extent of social categorization. The original prediction made by Taylor et al. (1978; Experiment 2) and inferences from the cognitive miser model suggest that

  10. Insight change in psychosis : relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    Quee, P. J.; van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four

  11. Influence of Mother, Father, and Child Risk on Parenting and Children's Cognitive and Social Behaviors

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Fagan, Jay; Wight, Vanessa; Schadler, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    The association among mothers', fathers', and infants' risk and cognitive and social behaviors at 24 months was examined using structual equation modeling and data on 4,200 on toddlers and their parents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. There were 3 main findings. First, for cognitive outcomes, maternal risk was directly…

  12. Social priming improves cognitive control in elderly adults--evidence from the Simon task.

    Daniela Aisenberg

    Full Text Available We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task, which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person: 1 negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2 neutral--characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3 positive--excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities.

  13. Social priming improves cognitive control in elderly adults--evidence from the Simon task.

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral--characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive--excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities.

  14. Cognition in Domestic Dogs: Object Permanence & Social Cueing

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Hollis, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Cognition is a general term describing the mental capacities of an animal, and often includes the ability to categorize, remember, and communicate about objects in the environment. Numerous regions of the telencephalon (cerebral cortex and limbic system) are responsible for these cognitive functions. Although many researchers have used traditional…

  15. The association between social support and cognitive function in Mexican adults aged 50 and older.

    Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin

    Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study effective factors on customer compliance in high contact services based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory

    zahra asadi; bahman hajipour

    2014-01-01

    In today's competitive world, all market participants ranging from individuals, organizations should be looking for ways to success in the market. The secret to success high contact service providers as important part of market participants is, compliance and follow customers of high contact service providers the instructions and guidance. In this paper, a model based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory has Provided to customer compliance . According Bandura social - Cognitive theory and t...

  17. Social Cognitions that Normalise Sexual Harassment of Women at Work: The Role of Moral Disengagement

    Page, Thomas Edward

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment against women represents aggressive behaviour that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity (cf. Maass & Cadinu, 2006). To date, however, empirical and theoretical attention to the social-cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. Drawing on Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986), the current thesis utilises the theoretical concept of moral disengagement in order to address this important gap i...

  18. A new computerized cognitive and social cognition training specifically designed for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in early stages of illness: A pilot study.

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Jodar, Merce; Pousa, Esther; Hernandez Rambla, Carla; García, Rebeca; Palao, Diego

    2015-08-30

    People with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders at early stages of the illness present cognitive and social cognition deficits that have a great impact in functional outcomes. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) has demonstrated consistent effect in cognitive performance, symptoms and psychosocial functioning. However, any CRT intervention or social cognition training have been specifically designed for patients in the early stages of psychosis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of a new computerized cognitive and social cognition program for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with recent diagnosis. A comprehensive assessment of clinical, social and non-social cognitive and functional measures was carried out in 53 randomized participants before and after the 4-months treatment. Significant results were observed in Spatial Span Forwards, Immediate Logical Memory and Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) total score. None of these results were explained by medication, premorbid social functioning or psychopathological symptoms. No impact of the intervention was observed in other cognitive and social cognition outcome neither in clinical and functional outcomes. This new computerized intervention may result effective ameliorating visual attention, logical memory and emotional processing in patients in the early stages of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size.

    Dunbar, R I M

    2012-08-05

    The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members' behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction.

  20. Exploratory analysis of social cognition and neurocognition in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Yong, Emma; Barbato, Mariapaola; Penn, David L; Keefe, Richard S E; Woods, Scott W; Perkins, Diana O; Addington, Jean

    2014-08-15

    Neurocognition and social cognition are separate but related constructs known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to extend the current knowledge of the relationship between social cognition and neurocognition in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis by examining, in a large sample, the associations between a wide range of neurocognitive tasks and social cognition. Participants included 136 young people at CHR. Specific domains within neurocognition and social cognition were compared using Spearman correlations. Results showed that poor theory of mind correlated with low ratings on a wide range of neurocognitive tasks. Facial affect was more often associated with low ratings on spatial working memory and attention. These results support a link between neurocognition and social cognition even at this early stage of potential psychosis, with indication that poorer performance on social cognition may be associated with deficits in attention and working memory. Understanding these early associations may have implications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Association Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Function With Considerations by Social Risk Status

    Emily Frith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001. In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99 or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12. In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.

  2. Systematic review of the neural basis of social cognition in patients with mood disorders.

    Cusi, Andrée M; Nazarov, Anthony; Holshausen, Katherine; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2012-05-01

    This review integrates neuroimaging studies of 2 domains of social cognition--emotion comprehension and theory of mind (ToM)--in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The influence of key clinical and method variables on patterns of neural activation during social cognitive processing is also examined. Studies were identified using PsycINFO and PubMed (January 1967 to May 2011). The search terms were "fMRI," "emotion comprehension," "emotion perception," "affect comprehension," "affect perception," "facial expression," "prosody," "theory of mind," "mentalizing" and "empathy" in combination with "major depressive disorder," "bipolar disorder," "major depression," "unipolar depression," "clinical depression" and "mania." Taken together, neuroimaging studies of social cognition in patients with mood disorders reveal enhanced activation in limbic and emotion-related structures and attenuated activity within frontal regions associated with emotion regulation and higher cognitive functions. These results reveal an overall lack of inhibition by higher-order cognitive structures on limbic and emotion-related structures during social cognitive processing in patients with mood disorders. Critically, key variables, including illness burden, symptom severity, comorbidity, medication status and cognitive load may moderate this pattern of neural activation. Studies that did not include control tasks or a comparator group were included in this review. Further work is needed to examine the contribution of key moderator variables and to further elucidate the neural networks underlying altered social cognition in patients with mood disorders. The neural networks under lying higher-order social cognitive processes, including empathy, remain unexplored in patients with mood disorders.

  3. Supported employment among veterans with serious mental illness: the role of cognition and social cognition on work outcome

    L. Felice Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. Neurocognitive functioning is widely acknowledged to be a determinant of work outcome; however, effect sizes tend to be in the small to medium range. The present study sought to further understand the determinants of work outcome among a sample of 104 veterans with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. A small percentage of veterans in the study got competitive jobs; 53% who secured jobs maintained employment for longer than 6 months. Cognition, social cognition, and symptoms were unrelated to job attainment. However, speed of processing and social cognition were significant predictors of work outcomes such as wages and tenure. These findings suggest that cognitive abilities including processing speed and the ability to accurately interpret and respond to social cues are significant determinants of whether individuals with schizophrenia remain employed. The results are discussed in light of current available treatment options and domains to target in synergy with work rehabilitation efforts.

  4. Fit in the Body: Matching Embodied Cognition with Social-Ecological Systems

    Janne I. Hukkinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fit has focused on the macrolevel fit between social institutions and ecosystems, and bypassed the microlevel fit between individual cognition and its socio-material environment. I argue that the conceptualizations we develop about social-ecological systems and our position in them should be understood as ways for a fundamentally cognitive organism to adapt to particular social and ecological situations. Since at issue is our survival as a species, we need to better understand the structure and dynamics of fit between human cognition and its social-ecological environment. I suggest that the embodied cognition perspective opens up possibilities for "nudging" evolution through the conceptual integration of the cognitively attractive but ecologically unrealistic neoclassical economics, and the cognitively less attractive but ecologically more realistic adaptive cycle theory (panarchy. The result is a conceptually integrated model, the Roller Coaster Blend, which expresses in metaphorical terms why competitive individuals are better off cooperating than competing with each other in the face of absolute resource limits. The blend enables the reframing of messages about the limits of the social-ecological system in terms of growth rather than degrowth. This is cognitively appealing, as upward growth fires in our minds the neural connections of "more," "control", and "happy." The blend's potential for nudging behavior arises from its autopoietic characteristic: it can be both an account of the social-ecological system as an emergent structure that is capable of renewing itself, and a cognitive attractor of individuals whose recruitment reinforces the integrity of the social-ecological system.

  5. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective cohort study of the relationship between neuro-cognition, social cognition and violence in forensic patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    O'Reilly, Ken

    2015-07-10

    There is a broad literature suggesting that cognitive difficulties are associated with violence across a variety of groups. Although neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, evidence of a relationship between cognitive impairments and violence within this patient population has been mixed.

  7. An arms race between producers and scroungers can drive the evolution of social cognition

    2014-01-01

    The “social intelligence hypothesis” states that the need to cope with complexities of social life has driven the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities. It is usually invoked in the context of challenges arising from complex intragroup structures, hierarchies, and alliances. However, a fundamental aspect of group living remains largely unexplored as a driving force in cognitive evolution: the competition between individuals searching for resources (producers) and conspecifics that parasitize their findings (scroungers). In populations of social foragers, abilities that enable scroungers to steal by outsmarting producers, and those allowing producers to prevent theft by outsmarting scroungers, are likely to be beneficial and may fuel a cognitive arms race. Using analytical theory and agent-based simulations, we present a general model for such a race that is driven by the producer–scrounger game and show that the race’s plausibility is dramatically affected by the nature of the evolving abilities. If scrounging and scrounging avoidance rely on separate, strategy-specific cognitive abilities, arms races are short-lived and have a limited effect on cognition. However, general cognitive abilities that facilitate both scrounging and scrounging avoidance undergo stable, long-lasting arms races. Thus, ubiquitous foraging interactions may lead to the evolution of general cognitive abilities in social animals, without the requirement of complex intragroup structures. PMID:24822021

  8. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Herrmann, Esther; Call, Josep; Hernàndez-Lloreda, Maráa Victoria; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-09-07

    Humans have many cognitive skills not possessed by their nearest primate relatives. The cultural intelligence hypothesis argues that this is mainly due to a species-specific set of social-cognitive skills, emerging early in ontogeny, for participating and exchanging knowledge in cultural groups. We tested this hypothesis by giving a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests to large numbers of two of humans' closest primate relatives, chimpanzees and orangutans, as well as to 2.5-year-old human children before literacy and schooling. Supporting the cultural intelligence hypothesis and contradicting the hypothesis that humans simply have more "general intelligence," we found that the children and chimpanzees had very similar cognitive skills for dealing with the physical world but that the children had more sophisticated cognitive skills than either of the ape species for dealing with the social world.

  9. Social Cognition: David Elkind's Theory of Adolescent Egocentrism.

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the concept of egocentrism and its relation to cognitive development. Describes the major stages of egocentrism: sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and adolescent egocentrism. Focuses on research support for the theory of adolescent egocentrism. Discusses educational implications. (RC)

  10. How culture shapes social cognition deficits in mental disorders: A review.

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Jiro; Kret, Mariska Esther

    2017-04-01

    Social cognitive skills are indispensable for successful communication with others. Substantial research has determined deficits in these abilities in patients with mental disorders. In neurobiological development and continuing into adulthood, cross-cultural differences in social cognition have been demonstrated. Moreover, symptomatic patterns in mental disorders may vary according to the cultural background of an individual. Cross-cultural studies can thus help in understanding underlying (biological) mechanisms and factors that influence behavior in health and disease. In addition, studies that apply novel paradigms assessing the impact of culture on cognition may benefit and advance neuroscience research. In this review, the authors give an overview of cross-cultural research in the field of social cognition in health and in mental disorders and provide an outlook on future research directions, taking a neuroscience perspective.

  11. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  12. Impact of social support on cognitive symptom burden in HIV/AIDS.

    Atkins, Jana H; Rubenstein, Sarah L; Sota, Teresa L; Rueda, Sergio; Fenta, Haile; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2010-07-01

    As many as 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS report cognitive difficulties, which can be associated with objective neuropsychological impairments and depression. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between higher social support and lower rates of depression. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the role social support may play in attenuating the effects of both neuropsychological status and depression on cognitive difficulties. A total of 357 participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, questionnaires about cognitive difficulties and depression, and an interview that included an assessment of perceived level of social support. A multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher levels of cognitive symptom burden were significantly associated with depression (Psocial support (Pinteraction between neuropsychological status and depression (Pinteraction between social support and depression (Psocial support was also associated with a lower cognitive symptom burden for non-depressed individuals living with HIV/AIDS. These findings have important clinical implications for promoting psychological well-being in persons living with HIV/AIDS. To improve quality of life, it is important to screen for and identify individuals with HIV/AIDS who may be depressed and to intervene appropriately. Further research should examine the potential role of social support interventions in modifying the effects of both depression and neuropsychological status on cognitive symptom burden.

  13. Social Cognition and Interaction in Chronic Users of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy").

    Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Treichler, Lorena; Zeller, Carmen; Dziobek, Isabel; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2018-04-01

    The empathogen 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the prototypical prosocial club drug inducing emotional openness to others. It has recently been shown that acutely applied 3,4-MDMA in fact enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior, while it simultaneously decreases cognitive empathy. However, the long-term effects of 3,4-MDMA use on socio-cognitive functions and social interactions have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we examined emotional and cognitive empathy, social decision-making, and oxytocin plasma levels in chronic 3,4-MDMA users. We tested 38 regular but recently abstinent 3,4-MDMA users and 56 3,4-MDMA-naïve controls with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test, and the Distribution Game and the Dictator Game. Drug use was objectively quantified by 6-month hair analyses. Furthermore, oxytocin plasma levels were determined in smaller subgroups (24 3,4-MDMA users, 9 controls). 3,4-MDMA users showed superior cognitive empathy compared with controls in the Multifaceted Empathy Test (Cohen's d=.39) and in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (d=.50), but they did not differ from controls in emotional empathy. Moreover, 3,4-MDMA users acted less self-serving in the Distribution Game. However, within 3,4-MDMA users, multiple regression analyses showed that higher 3,4-MDMA concentrations in hair were associated with lower cognitive empathy (βMDMA=-.34, t=-2.12, P<.05). Oxytocin plasma concentrations did not significantly differ between both groups. We conclude that people with high cognitive empathy abilities and pronounced social motivations might be more prone to 3,4-MDMA consumption. In contrast, long-term 3,4-MDMA use might nevertheless have a detrimental effect on cognitive empathy capacity.

  14. Selection to outsmart the germs: The evolution of disease recognition and social cognition.

    Kessler, Sharon E; Bonnell, Tyler R; Byrne, Richard W; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected. Because diseases may produce symptoms that are likely detectable via the perceptual-cognitive pathways integral to social cognition, we suggest that disease recognition and social cognition may have evolved together. Using agent-based modeling, we test 1) under what conditions disease can select for increasing disease recognition and care-giving among kin, 2) whether providing care produces greater selection for cognition than an avoidance strategy, and 3) whether care-giving alters the progression of the disease through the population. The greatest selection was produced by diseases with lower risks to the care-giver and prevalences low enough not to disrupt the kin networks. When care-giving and avoidance strategies were compared, only care-giving reduced the severity of the disease outbreaks and subsequent population crashes. The greatest selection for increased cognitive abilities occurred early in the model runs when the outbreaks and population crashes were most severe. Therefore, over the course of human evolution, repeated introductions of novel diseases into naïve populations could have produced sustained selection for increased disease recognition and care-giving behavior, leading to the evolution of increased cognition, social complexity, and, eventually, medical care in humans. Finally, we lay

  15. Aggressions, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims

    Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they

  16. Social cognition and self-other distinctions in neuropsychiatry: Insights from schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome.

    Eddy, Clare M

    2018-03-02

    Impairments in social cognition may reflect dysfunction of disorder specific or disorder general mechanisms. Although cross-disorder comparison may prove insightful, few studies have compared social cognition in different neuropsychiatric disorders. Parallel investigation of schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome (TS) is encouraged by similarities including the presence of problematic social behavior, echophenomena, emotional dysregulation and dopamine dysfunction. Focusing on tests of social cognition administered in both disorders, this review aims to summarize behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings, before exploring how these may contribute to clinical symptoms. Studies investigating social cognition (imitation, emotion recognition, and understanding of beliefs or intentions) in patients with schizophrenia or TS were identified through Web of Science and PubMed searches. Although findings indicate that social cognitive deficits are more apparent in schizophrenia, adults with TS can exhibit similar task performance to patients with paranoia. In both disorders, behavioral and neuroimaging findings raise the possibility of increased internal simulation of others' actions and emotions, in combination with a relative under-application of mentalizing. More specifically, dysfunction in neurobiological substrates such as temporo-parietal junction and inferior frontal gyrus may underlie problems with self-other distinctions in both schizophrenia and TS. Difficulties in distinguishing between actions and mental states linked to the self and other may contribute to a range of psychiatric symptoms, including emotional dysregulation, paranoia, social anhedonia and socially disruptive urges. Comparing different patient populations could therefore reveal common neuro-cognitive risk factors for the development of problematic social behaviors, in addition to markers of resilience, coping strategies and potential neuro-compensation mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  17. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  18. Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…

  19. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  20. A Social-Cognitive Intervention Program for Adolescents with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Cheung, Pui Pui Phoebe; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Brown, Ted; Yu, Mong-lin

    2018-01-01

    This pilot study explored the efficacy of a social-cognitive intervention program for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Seven adolescents with ASD (mean age = 12.57 years) attended a school-based 10-week program. Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), and Theory of Mind Inventory were…

  1. The Role of Personality in Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Glendon, A. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) recognises the importance of individual differences and contextual influences in the career decision-making process. In extending the SCCT choice model, this study tested the role of personality, social supports, and the SCCT variables of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and goals in explaining the career…

  2. A novel, online social cognitive training program for young adults with schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Mor Nahum

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.

  3. Correlations among Social-Cognitive Skills in Adolescents Involved in Acting or Arts Classes

    Goldstein, Thalia R.

    2011-01-01

    Empathy, theory of mind, and adaptive emotion regulation are critical skills for social functioning. However, the ways in which these skills may co- or differentially develop has thus far been understudied. We explored how these social-cognitive skills converge and diverge across a year of development in early adolescence, and with different kinds…

  4. Social relationships and cognitive decline : a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    Kuiper, Jisca S.; Zuidersma, Marij; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Smidt, Nynke

    Background: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  5. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    Kuiper, J.S.; Zuidersma, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Burgerhof, J.G.; Stolk, R.P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Smidt, N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  6. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  7. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  8. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  9. The Effect of Cognitive and Relational Social Capital on Structural Social Capital and Micro-Enterprise Performance

    Rajennd A/L Muniady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.

  10. Metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) in schizophrenia: a preliminary efficacy study.

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Queirós, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Psychosocial interventions have proven to be effective in treating social cognition in people with psychotic disorders. The current study aimed to determine the effects of a metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) program, designed to both remediate deficits and correct biases in social cognition. Thirty-five clinically stable outpatients were recruited and assigned to the MSCT program (n=19) for 10 weeks (18 sessions) or to the TAU group (n=16), and they all completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of social cognition, cognitive biases, functioning and symptoms. The MSCT group demonstrated a significant improvement in theory of mind, social perception, emotion recognition and social functioning. Additionally, the tendency to jump to conclusions was significantly reduced among the MSCT group after training. There were no differential benefits regarding clinical symptoms except for one trend group effect for general psychopathology. The results support the efficacy of the MSCT format, but further development of the training program is required to increase the benefits related to attributional style. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Public perceptions of personalised nutrition through the lens of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Rankin, Audrey; Kuznesof, Sharron; Frewer, Lynn J; Orr, Karen; Davison, Jenny; de Almeida, Maria Dv; Stewart-Knox, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Social Cognitive Theory has been used to explain findings derived from focus group discussions ( N = 4) held in the United Kingdom with the aim of informing best practice in personalised nutrition. Positive expectancies included weight loss and negative expectancies surrounded on-line security. Monitoring and feedback were crucial to goal setting and progress. Coaching by the service provider, family and friends was deemed important for self-efficacy. Paying for personalised nutrition symbolised commitment to behaviour change. The social context of eating, however, was perceived a problem and should be considered when designing personalised diets. Social Cognitive Theory could provide an effective framework through which to deliver personalised nutrition.

  12. How cognitive heuristics can explain social interactions in spatial movement.

    Seitz, Michael J; Bode, Nikolai W F; Köster, Gerta

    2016-08-01

    The movement of pedestrian crowds is a paradigmatic example of collective motion. The precise nature of individual-level behaviours underlying crowd movements has been subject to a lively debate. Here, we propose that pedestrians follow simple heuristics rooted in cognitive psychology, such as 'stop if another step would lead to a collision' or 'follow the person in front'. In other words, our paradigm explicitly models individual-level behaviour as a series of discrete decisions. We show that our cognitive heuristics produce realistic emergent crowd phenomena, such as lane formation and queuing behaviour. Based on our results, we suggest that pedestrians follow different cognitive heuristics that are selected depending on the context. This differs from the widely used approach of capturing changes in behaviour via model parameters and leads to testable hypotheses on changes in crowd behaviour for different motivation levels. For example, we expect that rushed individuals more often evade to the side and thus display distinct emergent queue formations in front of a bottleneck. Our heuristics can be ranked according to the cognitive effort that is required to follow them. Therefore, our model establishes a direct link between behavioural responses and cognitive effort and thus facilitates a novel perspective on collective behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.

    Happé, Francesca; Cook, Jennifer L; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-03

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

  14. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  15. Network-oriented modeling addressing complexity of cognitive, affective and social interactions

    Treur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including ...

  16. Social cognition in anorexia nervosa: evidence of preserved theory of mind and impaired emotional functioning.

    Adenzato, Mauro; Todisco, Patrizia; Ardito, Rita B

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the few studies that have to date investigated the way in which individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) navigate their social environment are somewhat contradictory. We undertook this study to shed new light on the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN, analysing Theory of Mind and emotional functioning. Starting from previous evidence on the role of the amygdala in the neurobiology of AN and in the social cognition, we hypothesise preserved Theory of Mind and impaired emotional functioning in patients with AN. Thirty women diagnosed with AN and thirty-two women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Theory of Mind and emotional functioning were assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. A measure of perceived social support was also used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of AN patients. The performance of patients with AN is significantly worse than that of healthy controls on tasks assessing emotional functioning, whereas patients' performance is comparable to that of healthy controls on the Theory of Mind task. Correlation analyses showed no relationship between scores on any of the social-cognition tasks and either age of onset or duration of illness. A correlation between social support and emotional functioning was found. This latter result seems to suggest a potential role of social support in the treatment and recovery of AN. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis. They may be useful to help us better understand the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN and to contribute to the development of effective interventions based on the ways in which patients with AN actually perceive their social environment.

  17. Cognitive performance and engagement in physical, social and intellectual activities in older adults: The FIBRA study

    Giovana Sposito

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging can negatively impact quality of life in the elderly. However, studies have shown that elderly engaged in advanced activities of daily living (AADLs can maintain or enhance global cognitive function or specific domains.Objective:To investigate the relationship between engagement in AADLs and domains of cognition in elderly from seven different locations in Brazil.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving 2,549 elderly without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia was conducted. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE by subdomain (orientation, memory, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis, and engagement in AADL grouped under physical, social and intellectual activities.Results:Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an association, albeit modest, between intellectual AADLs and the domains orientation, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis (R2=0.005, 0.008, 0.021, and 0.021 respectively. Social AADLs were correlated with memory (R2=0.002 and language (R2=0.004 domains. No association was found between physical AADLs and MMSE domains. Schooling and family income were the sociodemographic variables exhibiting the strongest relationship with cognitive domains.Conclusion:The study found associations between intellectual and social AADLs with higher cognitive performance, suggesting that active aging can provide opportunities to attenuate cognitive decline in aging.

  18. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.

  19. Social Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Controlled Research

    Kurtz, Matthew M.; Richardson, Christi L.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of evidence has revealed that deficits in social cognitive skills (including facial affect recognition (FAR), social cue perception, Theory of Mind (ToM), and attributional style) are evident in schizophrenia and are linked to a variety of domains of functional outcome. In light of these associations, a growing number of studies have attempted to ameliorate these deficits as a means of improving outcome in the disorder through the use of structured behavioral training. This study used quantitative methods of meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of behavioral training programs designed to improve social cognitive function. A total of 19 studies consisting of 692 clients were aggregated from relevant databases. Outcome measures were organized according to whether they were social cognitive tests proximal to the intervention or whether they represented measures of treatment generalization (symptoms, observer-rated community, and institutional function). With respect to social cognitive measures, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effects of social cognitive training procedures on FAR (identification, d = 0.71 and discrimination, d = 1.01) and small-moderate effects of training on ToM (d = 0.46), while effects on social cue perception and attributional style were not significant. For measures of generalization, weighted effect-size analysis revealed that there were moderate-large effect on total symptoms (d = 0.68) and observer-rated community and institutional function (d = 0.78). Effects of social cognitive training programs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were nonsignificant. Moderating variables and implications for future research and treatment development are discussed. PMID:21525166

  20. Structural social relations and cognitive ageing trajectories: evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2017-11-07

    Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the sub-tests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  1. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  2. Cognitive autonomy among adolescents with and without hearing loss: Associations with perceived social support.

    Michael, Rinat; Attias, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive autonomy is a skill which may help adolescents prepare for important decisions in adulthood. The current study examined the associations between cognitive autonomy and perceived social support among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Participants were 177 students: 55 were deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) and 122 were hearing. They completed the Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Evaluation Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and a demographic questionnaire. Significant positive correlations were found between some of the cognitive autonomy variables and some of the perceived social support variables. However, among the dhh group, they were fewer and weaker. Family support was found to be a significant predictor of three out of the five cognitive autonomy variables. In addition, significant differences were found between the dhh and hearing participants in some of the cognitive autonomy variables, but not in perceived social support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Plass, T; Mühlbacher, M; Welte, A-S; Fleischhacker, W W; Hofer, A

    2017-01-01

    The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.

  4. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    R J M van Donkersgoed

    Full Text Available Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR.A literature search (1970-July 2015 was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms 'social cognition', 'theory of mind', 'emotion recognition', 'attributional style', 'social knowledge', 'social perception', 'empathy', 'at risk mental state', 'clinical high risk', 'psychosis prodrome', and 'ultra high risk'. The pooled effect size (Cohen's D and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used.Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38-0.65. No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM. Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces for the transition into psychosis. More research is needed on

  5. Cognitive impacts of ambient air pollution in the National Social Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort.

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Salhi, Carmel; Suh, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM) for 3377 participants. Exposures to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) were estimated for each participant using GIS-based spatio-temporal models, and exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were obtained from the nearest EPA monitors. In adjusted linear regression models, IQR increases in 1 to 7year PM 2.5 exposures were associated with a 0.22 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.01) to a 0.25 (95% CI: -0.43, -0.06) point decrease in CCFM scores, equivalent to aging 1.6years, while exposures to NO 2 were equivalent to aging 1.9years. The impacts of PM 2.5 on cognition were modified by stroke, anxiety, and stress, and were mediated by depression. The impacts of NO 2 were mediated by stress and effect modification by impaired activities of daily living for NO 2 was found. Exposures to long-term PM 2.5 and NO 2 were associated with decreased cognitive function in our cohort of older Americans, and individuals who experienced a stroke or elevated anxiety were more susceptible to the effects of PM 2.5 on cognition. Additionally, mediation results suggest that PM 2.5 may impact cognition through pathways related to mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  7. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and social attention in children at high risk of criminal behaviour

    Van Goozen, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction\\ud exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to\\ud empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective\\ud empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Methods: Participants were 8-12 year-old children\\ud at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N=114, 80.7% boys) and typically developin...

  9. Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of bri...

  10. Relations Between Nonverbal and Verbal Social Cognitive Skills and Complex Social Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD.

  11. Social Cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence for Disturbed Recognition of the Emotions, Thoughts, and Intentions of Others

    Sandra Preißler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed relatedness is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD, and impaired social cognition or deficits in mentalization are hypothesized to underlie this feature. To date, only weak empirical evidence argues for impairment in the recognition of emotions, thoughts, or intentions in BPD. Data from facial emotion recognition research indicate that these abilities are altered in BPD only if tasks are complex. The present study aims to assess social cognitive abilities in BPD. Sixty-four women with BPD and 38 healthy controls watched the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC, a newly developed film displaying social interactions, and asking for an assessment of the intentions, emotions, and thoughts of the characters. In addition, participants completed an established but less ecologically valid measure of social cognition (Reading the Mind in the Eyes; RME. In the RME task, BPD patients did not display impairment in social cognition compared to healthy controls. By contrast, on the more sensitive MASC, women with BPD showed significantly impaired abilities in social cognition compared to healthy controls in their recognition of emotions, thoughts, and intentions. Comorbid PTSD, intrusions, and sexual trauma negatively predicted social cognitive abilities on the more sensitive MASC. Thus, our results suggest impaired social cognitive abilities in BPD. Especially for comorbid PTSD, intrusive symptoms and history of sexual trauma predicted poor outcomes on social cognition tasks.

  12. Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition.

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Hofer, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the "managing emotions" branch and thus in the "strategic" EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the "managing emotions" branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently, non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive-Emotional Conflict: Adversary Will and Social Resilience

    2017-12-21

    effectively with skilled adversaries in the realm of social media . This admit- tedly is a complex problem for any open, democratic society that does not... social media of the targeted populations. Rather than inciting a population to take a particular action, as the leak of the Zimmerman telegram did in...produced by the 24/7 news cycle, amplified and accelerated by social media . National Level Most Americans do not recognize the threats posed by

  14. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia.

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia.

  15. Gestural Coupling and Social Cognition: Möbius Syndrome as a Case Study

    Joel eKrueger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition researchers have become increasingly interested in the ways that behavioral, physiological and neural coupling facilitate social interaction and interpersonal understanding. Some researchers endorse strong interactionism (SI, which conceptualizes low-level coupling processes as alternatives to higher-level individual cognitive processes; the former at least sometimes render the latter superfluous. In contrast, we espouse moderate interactionism (MI, which is an integrative approach. Its guiding assumption is that higher-level cognitive processes are likely to have been shaped by the need to coordinate, modulate and extract information from low-level coupling processes. In this paper, we present a case study on Möbius Syndrome (MS in order to contrast SI and MI. We attempt to show how MS—a rare form of congenital bilateral facial paralysis—can be a fruitful source of insight for research exploring the relation between high-level cognition and low-level coupling. Lacking a capacity for facial expression, individuals with MS are deprived of a primary channel for gestural coupling. According to SI, they lack an essential enabling feature for social interaction and interpersonal understanding more generally and thus ought to exhibit severe deficits in these areas. We challenge SI’s prediction and show how MS cases offer compelling reasons for instead adopting MI’s pluralistic model of social interaction and interpersonal understanding. We conclude that investigations of coupling processes within social interaction should inform rather than marginalize or eliminate investigation of higher-level individual cognition.

  16. Dancer Perceptions of the Cognitive, Social, Emotional, and Physical Benefits of Modern Styles of Partnered Dancing

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Marvin, Shesha; Rowley, Jessica; Nicolas, Malia San; Arastoo, Sara; Viray, Leo; Orozco, Amanda; Jurnak, Fran

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study dancers’ perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of partnered dancing. Method 225 dancers (71% female) were recruited through a community ballroom dance center and completed an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of modern, partnered dance styles (swing, Lindy Hop, and ballroom dancing). Subgroups were formed for analyses. For one set of analyses, groups based on length of dance participation were formed: experienced (dancing for more than 2 years) or novice (dancing for less than a year) dancers. For another set of analyses, groups based on frequency of dance practice were formed: committed (dancing at least one or more times per week) or occasional (dancing two or fewer times per month). Results The majority of participants reported perceived benefits in physical fitness, cognition, affect, and social functioning. Experienced dancers reported significantly greater self-perceived physical, social, and cognitive benefits than novice dancers. Committed dancers were more likely than occasional dancers to report improvements in physical fitness, U = 6,942, z = 2.38, r = .16, p dance participation significantly predicted perceived physical benefits [X2 (1,6) = 35.463, p dance styles is associated with perceived improvements in physical fitness, cognitive functioning, social functioning, mood, and self-confidence, and that perceived benefits may increase as individuals dance more frequently and over longer periods of time. PMID:27261991

  17. Toward identifying a broader range of social cognitive determinants of dietary intentions and behaviors.

    Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Kinnunen, Marja; Haukkala, Ari; Jallinoja, Piia

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of social cognitive variables is often restricted to long-term and health-related outcomes. A more comprehensive measurement of cognitive determinants would enable evidence-based design of health behavior interventions with a focus on the most relevant targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different social cognitive determinants on fruit and vegetable (FV) and fast food consumption. Finnish male conscripts (N = 855, age M = 20) filled in questionnaires on social cognitive factors when entering the military service, and on food consumption frequency after two months. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Physical well-being expectation and bad taste expectation were most strongly related to both FV and fat avoidance intentions. Perceived weight gain risk predicted fat avoidance intention, whereas perceived risk for other health problems predicted FV intention. Social self-efficacy was associated with FV intention only. Consumption of both FV and fast food was predicted by action planning and intention. A more careful evaluation of subtypes of social cognitions sheds light on the specific content behind motivation. Such understanding might help in designing more effective intervention messages. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Reluctance to express emotion explains relation between cognitive distortions and social competence in anxious children.

    Scott, Brandon G; Pina, Armando A; Parker, Julia H

    2017-12-12

    Guided by social information processing and affective social competence models, the focal objective of this research was to examine the relations among anxious children's cognitive distortions, social skill competence, and reluctance to express emotion. In addition, we explored whether children's attention control played any meaningful role. Using a sample of 111 anxious children (M age  = 9.63, SD = 0.73; 75.7% girls; 56% Hispanic/Latino), we found that cognitive distortions were negatively related to social competence. In addition, tests of moderated mediation showed that the negative association between cognitive distortions and social skill competence was indirect via reluctance to express emotion, but this only was the case for anxious children with high attention control and for distortions in the academic domain. The findings of this study may set the stage for new ways to conceptualize the role of higher attention control among anxious youth. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive errors are prevalent in anxious youth Anxious children show socio-emotion deficits What does this study add? Cognitive errors are related to socio-emotion deficits in anxious youth Relations depend on attention control. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Deficits in social cognition and response flexibility in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    McClure, Erin B; Treland, Julia E; Snow, Joseph; Schmajuk, Mariana; Dickstein, Daniel P; Towbin, Kenneth E; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about neuropsychological and social-cognitive function in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder. Identification of specific deficits and strengths that characterize pediatric bipolar disorder would facilitate advances in diagnosis, treatment, and research on pathophysiology. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that youths with bipolar disorder would perform more poorly than matched healthy comparison subjects on measures of social cognition, motor inhibition, and response flexibility. Forty outpatients with pediatric bipolar disorder and 22 comparison subjects (no differences in age, gender, and IQ) completed measures of social cognition (the pragmatic judgment subtest of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language, facial expression recognition subtests of the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Scale, the oral expression subtest of the Test of Language Competence), inhibition and response flexibility (stop and stop-change tasks), and motor inhibition (continuous performance tasks). Pediatric bipolar disorder patients performed more poorly than comparison subjects on social-cognitive measures (pragmatic judgment of language, facial expression recognition) and on a task requiring response flexibility. These deficits were present in euthymic patients. Differences between patients and comparison subjects could not be attributed to comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Findings of impaired social cognition and response flexibility in youths with pediatric bipolar disorder suggest continuity between pediatric bipolar disorder and adult bipolar disorder. These findings provide a foundation for neurocognitive research designed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits.

  20. Structural and cognitive social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions.

    Forsman, A K; Nyqvist, F; Schierenbeck, I; Gustafson, Y; Wahlbeck, K

    2012-01-01

    To study the association between structural and cognitive aspects of social capital and depression among older adults in two Nordic regions. Data were retrieved from a postal survey targeting older adults aged 65, 70, 75 and 80 years (N=6 838, response rate=64%) residing in the Västerbotten region (Sweden), and the Österbotten region (Finland) in 2010. The associations between structural (measured by frequency of social contact with friends and neighbours) and cognitive (measured by experienced trust in friends and neighbours) aspects of social capital and depression (measured by Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS-4) were tested by logistic regression analyses. Both low structural and cognitive social capital as defined in the study showed statistically significant associations with depression in older adults. Only experienced trust in neighbours failed to show significant association with depression. In addition, being single and being 80 years of age indicated a higher risk of depression as defined by GDS-4. The findings underline the connection between adequate levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital and mental health in later life. They also suggest that the connection differs depending on various network types; the cognitive aspect of relationships between friends was connected to depression, while the connection was not found for neighbours. Further, the oldest age group in the sample (80 years of age) is pointed out as a population especially vulnerable for depression that should not be overlooked in mental health promotion and depression prevention.