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Sample records for makkah city saudi

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Al Thbiani Aziz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti from various sites in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was examined based on WHO standard procedures. Results: The larvae of Ae. aegypti were susceptible to all larvicides examined, but this susceptibility was more pronounced in wild populations, which tended to show tolerance to icon. Icon was the most effective larvicide with LC 50 values of 0.007 ppm and 0.012 ppm for the laboratory and field strains, respectively. Ae. aegypti adults exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin showed a low mortality rate in comparison with those exposed to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate differential susceptibility between field and laboratory larval populations. Wild larvae are less susceptible to insecticide treatments than their laboratory-bred counterparts. Taken together, these results suggest that tolerance and the tendency toward resistance to commonly used insecticides are present in Ae. aegypti populations throughout Makkah City, Saudi Arabia.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation monitoring in makkah city, Saudi Arabia, using thermoluminescence material CaF2:Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghorabie, F.H.; Natto, S.S.; AL-Lehyani, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of using Ca F2:Tm thermoluminescence material for measuring and monitoring of solar UV R in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Several laboratory experiments, prior to the field measurements, were performed included study of the effects of ultraviolet wavelengths on the response of the phosphor, study of the effect of increasing ultraviolet radiation dose on the intensity of thermoluminescence and study the effect of time factor on the thermoluminescence fading of Ca F 2 :Tm. The phosphor was then exposed directly for one hour to sunlight radiation on a daily basis for 90 days in an open field inside Umm Al-Qura university campus. The field measurements were performed during the months of June, July and August 2003 at 1:00 p.m. The laboratory and field results of this study showed that Ca F 2 :Tm can be used as a suitable dosimeter for solar UV R

  3. Mobile Phone Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed T. Simsim

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses telecominication market developments in Saudi Arabia. Empirical research was carried in the holy city of Makkah to study the customer's preference for mobile cellular service and the factor influencing their subscription of the mobile phone service. Results indicate that the financial factor sicnificantly influence the customer's selection of the service provider.

  4. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with Carbapenem Resistance, Isolated from King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Khan, Babar Khalid; Abdallah, Abdallah; Naeem, Raeece; Nikhat Sheerin, Shalam; Solovyev, Victor; Ahmed, Abdalla; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have been regarded as major challenges among health care-associated infections worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain isolated in 2014 from King Abdulla Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  5. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with Carbapenem Resistance, Isolated from King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2015-10-15

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have been regarded as major challenges among health care-associated infections worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain isolated in 2014 from King Abdulla Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  6. Helicobacter Pylori: Prevalence and relationship with abdominal pain in school children in makkah city, western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telmesani, Abdulwahab MA

    2009-01-01

    The published data on Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) prevalence and its relationship with abdominal pain in Saudi Arabia is scarce. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of H. pylori and its relationship with chronic recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among school students in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and fourteen school students, 103 at the intermediate level (grades 7-9) aged 12-15 years and 211 at the secondary level (grades 10-12) aged 15-18 years were tested for H. pylori. Urea breath test (UBT) was used for this purpose. Children with chronic RAP were identified as per the Apley criteria. Overall, the UBT was positive in 86/314 (27.4%) students. It was positive in 45/103 (43.7%) intermediate school students and 41/211 (19.4%) secondary students. Out of the 55 students with chronic RAP, 40 (73%) were positive for H. pylori . Further, 62.9% and 82.1% were positive among the intermediate and secondary school students with RAP, respectively. The overall and specific odds ratios of RAP were 12.35 [95% confidence interval (C.I.) 6.30-24.22] and 10.40 (95% C.I. 1.75-11.73) for the intermediate school students and 22.69 (95% C.I. 7.99-64.44) for the secondary school students. The prevalence of H. pylori among the school children in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, is relatively low compared with developing countries. The prevalence was found to be higher among the younger age group. Further, there was a significant relation between H. pylori infection and RAP among the school students. (author)

  7. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32 109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22 618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

  8. Association between body mass index and dental caries among special care female children in Makkah City.

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    Ashour, Nisreen Adnan; Ashour, Amal Adnan; Basha, Sakeena

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries and obesity are multifactorial diseases with diet being a common contributory factor. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among special care female school children in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Analytical cross-sectional study. Special schools in Makkah City. Schools were chosen by lottery and female children were ran.domly selected. Dental caries detection was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The medical evaluation assessed the body mass index (BMI). With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between dmft/DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth for deciduous and permanent dentition) and obesity were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. In 275 special care children, the prevalence of dental caries was 56.7 percent. The mean dmft and DMFT scores for the entire study population were 3.9 (4.8) and 3.2 (4.1), respectively. Forty percent of children were mentally retarded, 22.2% presented with deafness, blindness or both, 18.9% presented with Down syndrome and 14.9% were autistic. From the total sample, the mean BMI was 20.2 (2.8). When adjusted for covariates, the logistic regression model showed strong association between caries and obesity (adjusted odds ratio=2.9; 95% CI=1.2-4.9). This study demonstrated a significant association between caries frequency and overweight/obesity in special care school children. Since the data was cross-sectional, causal relationships cannot be established and the observed association could be due to other unexplored factors. Because of cultural and ethical consideration, including segregation of gender in Saudi Arabia, only female children were included in the present study, which limited the findings.

  9. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M.F. Mohammed; Essam A. Morsy; Turki M. Habeebullah; Said Munir

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO) was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3) of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3) and Egyptian...

  10. Primary pollutants and potential photochemical smog formation in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasralla, M.M.; Seroji, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in Mina Valley and the central district of the holy city, Makkah, during the pilgrimage (Hajj) season of 1424 Hijri (2004). During this season, more than 2.5 million people gathered in Makkah to perform the Hajj rituals. Two mobile air pollution laboratories were used to monitor NO, NO2, NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons and ozone (O3) in the atmosphere in Mina and Makkah. Instruments were calibrated periodically against standard gases. The present investigation showed clearly an ideal diurnal cycle of local ozone formation. Although the intensity of the incoming UV radiation was the lowest compared with other months of the year, recorded ozone levels approached the maximum allowable levels of 150 ug/m3 in Mina, and exceeded 160 ug/m3 in Makkah during the pilgrimage period. The problem was intensified by the high record levels NOx, sometimes reaching more than 800 ug/m3, 1h average, coupled with 1h average concentration of about 3 ppm non-methane hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the average maximum hourly ozone concentrations increased gradually from less than 60 ug/m3 during February to reach more than 200 ug/m3 (as an indication of smog formation) during some days of May. This coincides with the increase in the intensity of the incoming UV radiation reaching its maximum level in May. Consequently, it can be concluded that Makkah may face severe air pollution episodes when the pilgrimage season shifts to the summer months in the next few years. This may pose acute health problems for the elderly people and those with respiratory health problems. Good air quality and transportation management as well as the use of alternative clean fuel are highly recommended. (author)

  11. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

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    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 IN SAUDI WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE IN MAKKAH

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    Ghazi, Hani O.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries. PMID:23012138

  13. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Ashshi, A.M.; Mahomed, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia in Water Samples from Jeddah and Makkah Cities

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    Haytham Ahmed Zakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoea throughout the world.  A total of 161 and 84 samples were collected from Jeddah and Makkah cities, respectively.  Each sample was concentrated by double centrifugation and the sediment was examined as a wet smear and after staining with Trichrome and Kinyoun stains.  The results showed that 56 (35% and 1 (0.62 % samples of Jeddah were positive for the oocyst of Cryptosporidium and cyst of Giardia, whereas only 21 (25% and 2 (2.4 % samples of Makkah showed positivity for oocysts and cyst of these parasites. Overall Cryptosporidium contamination in bottled water and water from filling stations was 6.8% and 17.4%, respectively. Maximum contamination for Cryptosporidium was recorded in tap water which was 51% and 25% in Jeddah and Makkah, respectively.

  15. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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    Atef M.F. Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA. However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3 and Egyptian law 4/1994 (0.37 mg/m3. Spatial variations of HCHO concentrations most probably due to variations in local meteorology and traffic flow, which was considered the main source of emissions. Exposure doses for various age groups were estimated, which ranged from 0.000004 to 0.000259 mg/kg/day. Maximum exposure dose was recorded for boys (age 12-14 years and children (6-8 years and minimum for females (19-65 years.

  16. First report of environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other fungi from pigeon droppings in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and in vitro susceptibility testing

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    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans and other fungi in samples of pigeon droppings collected from Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: One hundred and twelve withered pigeon dropping samples were collected from 12 different districts. Using the dilution plate technique, samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and esculin agar. Colonies were examined microscopically and C. neoformans identification is confirmed by India ink preparation, observation of urease activity and brown pigmentation on esculin medium. Susceptibility patterns of five yeast species and four molds against five antifungal drugs were tested using agar disk diffusion method. Results: C. neoformans was recovered from 38 samples (34%. Na'aman valley was recorded to be the highest contaminated site (66.7% with C. neoformans, while the samples collected from Al Awaly district were considered as the lowest contaminated samples (6.7%. Also, twenty species related to sixteen genera of fungi other than C. neoformans were recovered from which, three yeast genera were recorded. The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that the nine tested fungal species were sensitive to Mycosat, while Fungican exerted inhibition zones of four species only. C. neoformans was moderately sensitive towards all tested compounds but it can resist Flucoral where no inhibition zone could be detected. Conclusions: Our results are considered to be the first report on the environmental prevalence of C. neoformans in pigeon feces in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The data indicated that pigeon droppings can be considered as a potential source of this basidiomycetous yeast in addition to other fungal species in this region.

  17. Pilgrimage Experience and Consumption of Travel to the City of Makkah for Hajj Ritual

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    Razaq Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern society which, by definition is increasingly secular and culturally motivated, the Hajj is considered the culmination of each Muslim's religious duty and aspiration. It is stated in the Holy Qur'an, that every physically and financially able Muslim should make the Hajj to the Holy City of Makkah once in his or her lifetime. This paper explores what people do during their pilgrimage, providing a brief description of the principle rites and experiences and their meaning to an individual participants travelling from the USA. The paper will draw upon previously published literature as well as an analysis of findings from a quantitative study in which steps within the pilgrimage process were explored. These findings include participants’ descriptions of the significance and value of the experience which individual pilgrims face during travel to the holy city of Makkah. The results from the quantitative study indicated that the main motivations to attend the annual pilgrimage of Hajj were to fulfil religious obligation, spiritual enhancement and to follow teachings of the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad.

  18. Removable partial dentures: Patient satisfaction and complaints in Makkah City, KSA

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    Mohsen K. Aljabri, BDS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the satisfaction level and complaints among patients using different types of removable partial dentures (RPDs in Makkah city, KSA. Methods: In this retrospective study, 551 patients who had received RPDs between February and December 2015 were contacted by telephone. One hundred patients responded, and 60 of them agreed to participate in the study. The participants were asked two questions to determine their satisfaction level and complaints with RPD usage, eating, communication, and aesthetics. Data were analysed statistically by chi-square, analysis of variance, and Scheffe's tests. Results: Of 60 patients, 35% were very satisfied, 21.7% were satisfied and 23.3% were nearly satisfied. However, only 20% were not satisfied. There were no significant differences in mean RPD satisfaction among different age groups and between sexes (P > 0.01. There was a significant difference in satisfaction among RPD type (P < 0.01. However, no significant differences were recorded between either metal and acrylic, or acrylic and flexible RPDs (P < 0.01. As many as 26.7% of respondents complained of aesthetic problems, 16.7% complained of pain during mastication, 10% complained of gag reflex, and 8.3% complained of phonetic problems. However, the majority of respondents (38.3% had no complaints. Conclusion: The majority of patients were satisfied with the quality of removable partial dentures treatment in Makkah city hospitals. Oral rehabilitation with RPDs should be applied with care when patients have high aesthetic demands. Keywords: Aesthetics, Dental prosthesis, Oral complaints, Patient satisfaction, Removable partial denture

  19. Subtyping of Blastocystis sp. isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

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    Mohamed, Raafat T; El-Bali, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Anhar A; Abdel-Fatah, Mona A; El-Malky, Mohamed A; Mowafy, Nawras M; Zaghlool, Dina A; Bakri, Rowaida A; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2017-04-07

    Blastocystis is a group of cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite of humans and a wide variety of animals. These anaerobic protozoans include more than 17 specific small-subunit ribosomal RNA subtypes, of which nine are found in humans with a variable geographical distribution. Until now, no study has described the Blastocystis subtypes present in Saudi Arabia. In total, 1,262 faecal samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal complaints and asymptomatic individuals visiting two major hospitals. All samples were analysed by F1/R1 diagnostic PCR, microscopy and culture methods. The subtypes of Blastocystis sp. isolates were determined by the sequenced-tagged site (STS)-based method. One-hundred-thirty-three positive cases were detected by F1/R1 diagnostic PCR, of which 122 were also positive by the culture method and 83 by direct microscopy. The sensitivities of direct microscopy and the culture method were 62% and 92%, respectively. Subtype (ST3) was the most prevalent (80.5%), followed by ST1 (14.5%) and ST2 (5%). ST4, ST5, ST6 and ST7 were not detected in this study. ST3 infections were significantly predominant (P city, revealing a rather moderate prevalence of 10.5% and the presence of three subtypes, ST1, ST2, and ST3. ST3 was the most predominant, particularly among symptomatic patients.

  20. Petrogenesis of the Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complex in the Makkah quadrangle, western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

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    Habtoor, Abdelmonem; Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Harbi, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    The Makkah quadrangle is a part of the Jeddah terrane in the Precambrian basement, Western Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia. Gabal Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex lies within the central part of the Makkah quadrangle. The Taftafan mafic-ultramafic complex is a well-differentiated rock association which comprises of dunite core, hornblende- and plagioclase-bearing peridotites, troctolite, clinopyroxenite and marginal gabbro, in a distinctive zonal structure. The bulk-rock geochemistry of the Taftafan mafic-ultramafic rocks is characterized by a tholeiitic/sub-alkaline affinity with high Mg in the ultramafic core (0.84) and is systematically decreased towards the marginal gabbro (0.60). The patterns of trace elements show enrichment in the fluid-mobile elements (Sr, Ba) and a pronounced negative Nb anomaly which reflect a hydrous parental magma generated in a subduction tectonic setting. The mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Taftafan complex have low total rare earth elements (REE) displaying sub-parallel patterns leading to the assumption that these rocks are comagmatic and are formed by fractional crystallization from a common magma type. The platinum-group elements (PGE) content of all rock types in the Taftafan complex is very low, with ∑ PPGE > ∑ IPGE; displaying slightly positive slopes of the PGE distribution patterns. The chemistry of ferromagnesian minerals is characterized by a high forsterite (Fo) olivine with wide range (Fo91-67), from ultramafic core to the marginal gabbro, Ca-rich diopsidic clinopyroxene, and calcic hornblende. Orthopyroxene is almost absent from all rock types, or very rare when present. Hornblende and Ca-plagioclase possess the longest crystallization history since they are present in almost all rock types of the complex. Spinels in the dunite and hornblende-bearing peridotite core show homogeneous composition with intermediate Cr# (0.53-0.67). Plagioclase-bearing peridotite and troctolite have two exsolved types of spinel; Al

  1. 75. King Abdulla Medical CityMakkah (KAMC echocardiography service experience & challenges during hajj season (pilgrimage

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    H.M. Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2–4 million Muslims attend Hajj each year over last 4–5 years. Umra visitors are seen all along most the year. This creates high demand on all services provided specially the medical. The majority of Hajjes are elderly with co morbidities. They are subject to intense emotional, spiritual & physical endurance during the short period of Hajj season. For the last 4 years King Abdulla Medical City (KAMC is the centre of care for almost all cardiac services provided in Makkah. Echocardiography is a pivotal & integral part of any cardiology service, providing important information about morphology, function & possible etiology in many cases. There is an increasing demand on echo service in KAMC especially during Hajj season. Our service model is unique to meet this increasing demand during Hajj season. To report: we report the service set up. The volume of cases done our experience & challenges met during last four years. The service is provided between first & 15th of Dhul Haja each year. The service is 24 h divided into 12 h shifts. The two shifts are adequately covered by well trained echocardiographers & experienced non-invasive consultant cardiologists. This staff is distributed within the various cardiology clinical areas, to insure rapid response. The studies are done Philips (i30, Epic7 machines. Data acquired is transmitted by special ports/WiFi to our echo lab (Xcelera system where the data is stored & available for viewing & reporting. Reports are created by the responsible consultants using a number of dedicated stations. Viewing stations are well distributed over the whole hospital. The results of this abstract are analyzed using simple Microsoft office tools. Between years 2011 and 2015 there is exponential increase of echo studies done in KAMC, with similar increase in the number of studies done among Hajjes. There was an increase in the number of echo machines, echocardiographers & consultants (See Tables and Graphs attached

  2. Mineralogy of the Tertiary Clay Deposits in Makkah and Rabigh Quadrangles, West Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

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    M.H. Basyoni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogy of the Tertiary clay deposits in Makkah and Rabigh quadrangles was thoroughly investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses in addition to other techniques. Results show that the investigated samples are predominantly composed of montmorillonite (Ca++ and/or Mg++ rich variety and kaolinite, associated with subordinate illite and minor chlorite. Mixed layer montmorillonite-illite is recorded only in two samples. The relative abundance of these minerals by X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the studied clay deposits are of three types. The first, which is the most common, is highly montmorillonitic, the second is made up of a mixture of montmorillonite followed by kaolinite and illite and the third is highly kaolinitic with some montmorillonite. Generally, kaolinite shows a southward increase in Makkah quadrangle while chlorite, as a minor component, shows a northward increase in Rabigh quadrangle.

  3. Atypical dengue meningitis in Makkah, Saudi Arabia with slow resolving, prominent migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia

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    Kalakatawi H Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dengue meningitis is a rare presentation of dengue infection, our aim is to focus on atypical presentation of dengue meningitis that may appear in dengue endemic area like the Makkah region. We report two cases of clinical meningitis with positive dengue virus (DENV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid, followed for minimal 3 months for their prominent attacks of migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia. With special consideration to attack time, type, severity, and respond to classical therapy, using regular ECG monitoring, visual analog pain score and neuropsychological assessments were done. Both cases showed resistant migraine like headaches to classic anti-migraine therapy except for strong NSAID and narcotics with tendency to have severe to extreme severe daily migraine like headache on early to late afternoon time, associated with non-fatal arrhythmias and extreme death phobia, that resolve slowly in a minimal 3 month period. In conclusion, dengue meningitis in the endemic area may present atypically.

  4. Psychological well-being status among medical and dental students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Aboalshamat, Khalid; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Strodl, Esben

    2015-04-01

    Medical and dental students experience poor psychological well-being relative to their peers. This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being among medical and dental students in Saudi Arabia, identify the high-risk groups and assess the association between the psychological well-being and the academic performance. In this cross-sectional study, 422 preclinical medical and dental students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia, were recruited to assess their depression, anxiety, stress, self-efficacy and satisfaction with life levels using 21-items Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Students' academic weighted grades were obtained later. Descriptive statistics and univariate general linear model were used to analyse data. High levels of depression (69.9%), anxiety (66.4%) and stress (70.9%) were indicated, whereas self-efficacy (mean = 27.22, sd = 4.85) and life satisfaction (mean = 23.60, sd = 6.37) were within the normal range. Female medical students had higher psychological distress in contrast to dental students. In general, third-year students were more depressed and stressed in comparison with second-year students, except for stress among dental students. Moreover, all females had higher self-efficacy than males. Life satisfaction was higher within the second-year and high family income students. Depression was the only psychological variable correlated with the academic performance. High levels of psychological distress were found. Female medical students had higher psychological distress than males, whereas male dental students had higher distress than female. Medical students at third year were more depressed and stressed. Dental students were more depressed in the third year, but more stressed in the second year. Attention should be directed towards reducing the alarming levels of depression, anxiety and stress among medical and dental students.

  5. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Najlaa Aljefree; Patricia Lee; Faruk Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using ...

  6. An Analysis of Air Pollution in Makkah - a View Point of Source Identification

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    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makkah is one of the busiest cities in Saudi Arabia and remains busy all year around, especially during the season of Hajj and the month of Ramadan when millions of people visit this city. This emphasizes the importance of clean air and of understanding the sources of various air pollutants, which is vital for the management and advanced modeling of air pollution. This study intends to identify the major sources of air pollutants in Makkah, near the Holy Mosque (Al-Haram using a graphical approach. Air pollutants considered in this study are nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10. Polar plots, time variation plots and correlation analysis are used to analyse the data and identify the major sources of emissions. Most of the pollutants demonstrate high concentrations during the morning traffic peak hours, suggesting road traffic as the main source of emission. The main sources of pollutant emissions identified in Makkahwere road traffic, re-suspended and windblown dust and sand particles. Further investigation on detailedsource apportionment is required, which is part of the ongoing project.

  7. Risk factors associated with multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections at a tertiary care hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia - a matched case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gethamy, Manal M; Faidah, Hani S; Adetunji, Hamed Ademola; Ashgar, Sami S; Mohanned, Tayeb K; Mohammed, Al-Haj; Khurram, Muhammad; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) nosocomial infections in intensive care units in a tertiary care hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methods We performed a hospital-based, matched case–control study in patients who were admitted to Al Noor Specialist Hospital between 1 January 2012 and 31 August 2012. The study included cases of A. baumannii nosocomial infection and controls without infection. Controls were matched to cases by age and ward of admission. Results The most frequent site of infection was the respiratory tract (77.3%). Susceptibility to antimicrobial MDR-AB was 92.0% for ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, while it was 83.3% for imipenem, 83.0% for trimethoprim, 79.0% for amikacin, and 72.7% for gentamicin. Multiple logistic regression of risk factors showed that immunosuppression (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.5–5.6; p = 0.002), clinical outcome (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.3–0.9; p = 0.01), invasive procedures (OR = 7.9; 95% CI 1.8–34.2; p = 0.002), a central venous catheter (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.5–5.6; p = 0.000), and an endotracheal tube (OR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.6–7.3; p = 0.001) were associated with MDR-AB. Conclusions Acinetobacter nosocomial infections are associated with admission to the ICU (Intensive care unit) and exposure to invasive procedures. PMID:28480813

  8. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-06-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

  9. Environmental and economic vision of plasma treatment of waste in Makkah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaly, Ahmed Rida; van Oost, Guido

    2017-10-01

    An environmental and economic assessment of the development of a plasma-chemical reactor equipped with plasma torches for the environmentally friendly treatment of waste streams by plasma is outlined with a view to the chemical and energetic valorization of the sustainability in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is especially applicable in the pilgrimage season in the city of Makkah, which is a major challenge since the amount of waste was estimated at about 750 thousand tons through Arabic Year 1435H (2015), and is growing at a rate of 3%-5% annually. According to statistics, the value of waste in Saudi Arabia ranges between 8 and 9 billion EUR. The Plasma-Treatment Project (PTP) encompasses the direct plasma treatment of all types of waste (from source and landfill), as well as an environmental vision and economic evaluation of the use of the gas produced for fuel and electricity production in KSA, especially in the pilgrimage season in the holy city Makkah. The electrical power required for the plasma-treatment process is estimated at 5000 kW (2000 kW used for the operation of the system and 3000 kW sold), taking into account the fact that: (1) the processing capacity of solid waste is 100 tons per day (2) and the sale of electricity amounts to 23.8 MW at 0.18 EUR per kWh. (3) The profit from the sale of electricity per year is estimated at 3.27 million EUR and the estimated profit of solid-waste treatment amounts to 6 million EUR per year and (4) the gross profit per ton of solid waste totals 8 million EUR per year. The present article introduces the first stage of the PTP, in Makkah in the pilgrimage season, which consists of five stages: (1) study and treatment of waste streams, (2) slaughterhouse waste treatment, (3) treatment of refuse-derived fuel, (4) treatment of car tires and (5) treatment of slag (the fifth stage associated with each stage from the four previous stages).

  10. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

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    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the

  11. Issues engulfed Saudi Arabia construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Emad, N. H.; Rahman, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study conducted in Makkah city to uncover issues faced by construction workers from the construction leaders’ perspective. Eleven construction leaders/experts were interviewed to unleash their experiences on handling the foreign workers working in Makkah construction projects. Most of the experts are senior management staffs with more than 10 years’ working experience in Saudi Arabia construction industry. The interviews were carried out in semi structured mode where all the information was captured manually and also electronically. The identified issues were sorted based on its commonality into 10 clusters. Hence in each cluster, the numbers of issue considered by the experts are reflecting the importance of that particular cluster. The result of the clusters according to the number of issues mentioned by the experts are safety issues, restricted government regulation, demotivated issues, lack of quality workers, poor living quality, communication barriers, adaption issues, poor attitudes, lack of logistical arrangements and lack of education. With these identified issues it will assist the construction players in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia in dealing with their workers.

  12. Nutritional status of low birth weight infants in Makkah region: Evaluation of anthropometric and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensara, Osama Adnan; Azzeh, Firas Sultan

    2016-04-01

    To assess the nutritional status of low birth weight infants from Makkah area immediately after birth. The prospective study was conducted between October and December 2012 at Al-Noor Speciality Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised low birth weight infants who were divided into three equal groups according to their birth weight: group A (low birthweight1501-2500gm), group B (very low birthweight1001-1500gm), and group C (extremely low birth weight 0.05). Normal serum phosphorus, potassium and magnesium levels and mild hypocalcaemia were observed in all infants. However, hypernatraemia was significantly evident (pnutritional status in terms of low anthropometric and abnormal biochemical measures. It was not possible to correlate the birth weight of the neonates to the parameters of the complete blood tests.

  13. 75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the trade mission. Proposed Mission Timetable... Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission Itinerary AGENCY: International Trade... expansion at Jubail Industrial City II with around 20 petrochemical and infrastructure projects worth more...

  14. Computer Literacy Improvement Needs: Physicians' Self Assessment in the Makkah Region

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    Hani Abdulsattar Shaker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A confidential inquiry by the Directorate General of health affairs, Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, found physicians were resistant to enter patient-related information in the electronic medical records system at different hospitals. This study aims to highlight their computer literacy needs.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on physicians using a structured questionnaire bearing nine questions/stems with dichotomous answers, (i.e., yes/no that was distributed among physicians at six different Ministry of Health hospitals in the Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia, between May and August 2009. The results for future needs in computer skills were categorized as "none" if the rate of answer "yes" to any stem was 0-25%, "little" if 26-50%, "some" if 51-75% and "substantial" if >75% rated "yes".Results: The response rate of 82% of determined sample size (n = 451 was attained. Computer literacy improvement elements (CLIE, i.e., "word processing software skills (MS Word", "presentation software skills (Power Point", "internet search skills", "medical database search skills", "spreadsheet software skills (Excel" and "advanced e-mail management skills" were in "substantial" need of improvement among the majority of settings and categories. All other computer literacy improvement elements were in "some" need of improvement.Conclusion: The overall outcome of this study indicates that physicians need further computer literacy improvements.

  15. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

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    Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

  16. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  17. Diversity of dengue virus-3 genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Anwar M; Sohrab, Sayed S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; El-Ela, Saeid Abo; Abujamel, Turki S; Hassan, Ahmed M; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Noura A; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I

    2018-07-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj

  18. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the eastern and western provinces of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-07-01

    The results of a first phase of an indoor survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province, Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia; therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 {+-} 23 and 523 {+-} 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m {sup -3}) was found in Khafji. (author)

  19. Characteristics of organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Dhahran city, Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed I. Rushdi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemical pollutants in atmospheric particulate matter (PM have a potential toxicity hazard resulting in human responses that vary from no discernible effect to premature death. The formation and sources of PM also affect air quality of metropolitan areas as well as climate change. The new developments and industrial activities in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia, are expected to contribute to the natural, regional, and anthropogenic input sources of organic matter (OM. Here we report the occurrence, concentrations and sources of organic tracers, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, plasticizers, and petroleum biomarkers, in ambient atmospheric PM from the city of Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The major compounds were unresolved complex mixtures (UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons (489 ± 296 ng m−3, plasticizers (131 ± 119 ng m−3 for phenyl phosphates, 87 ± 42 ng m−3 for phthalates, n-alkanes (73 ± 53 ng m−3, hopane biomarkers (11 ± 8 ng m−3, n-alkanones (6.7 ± 6.3 ng m−3, PAHs (2.0 ± 2.1 ng m−3, n-alkanols (1.2 ± 1.2 ng m−3, sterane biomarkers (0.4 ± 0.3 ng m−3, and sterols (0.5 ± 0.4 ng m−3. Obviously, UCM and plasticizers were the major components (56 ± 9% and 26 ± 10% of the total extracts, respectively in the PM of Dhahran, which might have adverse public health effects. The major sources of this OM are emissions from industrial factories north of the city, plastics and biomass burning, and petroleum product combustion (traffic/refining.

  20. Prevalence of diabetes and its relation with age and sex in Turaif city, northern Saudi Arabia in 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Nour Homoud; Alsharif, Mahmoud Mohammed; Rasool, Ghazala; Alruwaili, Ahmed Bin Hashash; Alrowaili, Asem Matrouk Zayed; Aldaghmi, Ahmed Saud; Al Shkra, Mohammad Khalil Dughaieum; Alrasheedi, Fatimah Awadh; Alenezi, Ghadah Saleem; Alanazi, Mona Theyab

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia has increased dramatically during the last decades. This increase has been attributed to significant changes in cultural and socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of diabetes and its relation with age and sex in Turaif city, northern Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study carried out during the academic year 2016-2017 over a period of 6 months (October 01, 2016 to March 30, 2017). A total of 1,287 Saudi national individuals of both sexes, aged from 1 year to more than 65 years were included in the study. Data were collected by a predesigned questionnaire covering medical history of diabetes, age and sex. Mean age (± SD) was 24.29 (±13.96) years with the minimum age at 1 year and the maximum age at 93 years, male to female ratio was 42.5% to 57.5%. The total prevalence of DM among the studied population was 5.8% and pre-diabetic cases were 6.8%. There were significant relationships between age/sex, and the occurrence of diabetes among the studied population (pSaudi Arabia was 5.8% and pre-diabetic cases were 6.8%. Awareness campaigns and prevention programs about diabetes should be instituted and the existing ones must be strengthened. Adequate commitment from the Ministry of Health is also advocated.

  1. Public Awareness regarding Common Eye Diseases among Saudi Adults in Riyadh City: A Quantitative Study

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    Waleed A. Al Rashed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.

  2. Innovative Information Systems in the Intensive Care Unit, King Saud Medical City in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Al Harthy, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the experience of implementing innovative information technology to improve the quality of services in one of the largest Intensive Care Units in Saudi Arabia. The Intensive Care Units in King Saud Medical City (ICU-KSMC) is the main ICU in the kingdom that represents the Ministry of Health. KSMC's ICU is also considered one of the largest ICU in the world as it consists of six units with 129 beds. Leaders in KSMC's ICU have introduced and integrated three information technologies to produce powerful, accurate, and timely information systems to overcome the challenges of the ICU nature and improve the quality of service to ensure patients' safety. By 2015, ICU in KSMC has noticed a remarkable improvement in: beds' occupation and utilization, staff communication, reduced medical errors, and improved departmental work flow, which created a healthy professional work environment. Yet, ICU in KSMC has ongoing improvement projects that include future plans for more innovative information technologies' implementation in the department.

  3. Perceptions and Attitudes of Primary Healthcare Providers in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia, towards the Promotion of Physical Activity

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    Sameer Al-Ghamdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity increases the risk of several chronic, non-communicable diseases which ultimately reduces life expectancy. Recently, major lifestyle changes in Saudi Arabia due to economic growth, globalization, and modernization resulted in physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness. Health care professionals can play an important role in developing awareness about physical fitness among people. However, little is known about the impact of current health promotion practices of Saudi healthcare providers. This cross-sectional study evaluates Saudi primary healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, and awareness associated with advising patients about physical activity during routine consultations. Methods: A quantitative survey on 803 respondents who comprised of general physicians, nurses, nurse assistants, dieticians and health educators in five districts of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia was conducted using convenience sampling method. Results: The data showed that most of the primary care staffs are quite enthusiastic in promoting physical activity among the patients and revealed that they routinely discussed and advised about the benefits of physical fitness. However, there are some factors acting as barriers for promoting physical activity, such as i lack of time, ii lack of educational materials for patients, iii lack of proper training and protocols for health care professionals, iv lack of patient cooperation, and v lack of financial incentive. Conclusion: Proper strategies should be developed to motivate primary health care professionals, so that they can effectively encourage the general population to be more active physically. Hence, there is an urgent need to integrate physical activity promotion in to practice consultation in Saudi Arabia. In addition, more efforts are required from the policy makers and health professionals to gather sufficient knowledge about current physical activity recommendations.

  4. Evaluation of TRMM satellite-based precipitation indexes for flood forecasting over Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  5. Control of type 2 diabetes in King Abdulaziz Housing City (Iskan population, Saudi Arabia

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    Thamer A Alsulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of control and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in King Abdulaziz Housing City (Iskan population of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in a primary-care setting. All Type 2 diabetics referred to our diabetes center between January 2011 and January 2015 were identified, and their computerized records reviewed. Glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, blood pressure (BP, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR were noted and the patients categorized accordingly. Demographic data (age and gender were also documented. Inactive patients (not seen for more than 2 years were excluded. Results: The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes for all age groups in ISKAN population was 3.25%. About 56% of the diabetics were female and 70% were aged between 18 and 59 years. The rate of uncontrolled diabetes was 59.3%. Males were more likely to have uncontrolled diabetes (odds ratio: 1.44, CI: 1.17-1.76, P = 0.0004. Forty percent of the diabetics had an LDL above target (≥2.6 mmol/l while 25.9% had uncontrolled hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Of those who had an ACR test done within the last year (59.3%, the rate of micro- and macro-albuminuria was 8.8% and 2.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes in our community seems lower than the previously reported national figures. An alarming number of diabetics in our population have an uncontrolled disease. More stringent diabetes annual review and recall program is needed to control diabetes and reduce complications.

  6. Mini Nutritional Assessment for Hospitalized Patients in King Khalid Hospital at Hail city in Saudi Arabia

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    Rafia Bano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA has been developed to assess malnutrition in elderly  and to filter those who might get benefited from early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the present study was to examine the nutritional profile of old age hospitalized individuals through the use of the MNA in King Khalid Hospital at Hail city of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Demographic data was gathered through a questionnaire and a modified version of MNA, which was translated into Arabic and applied to 100 elderly females aged ≥ 45 years to assess their nutritional status . The MNA version modified by  Nestle and translated into Arabic was used to evaluate the patients for this study. The descriptive analysis of variables is shown as the average ± one standard deviation. Results: Mean age of the participants was 61.12±12.4 years ranging from 45 to 92 years. The mean body mass index of total population was found to be 26.9±5.2 ranging from 18.3 to 46.5 kg/m2. The assessment scores and total malnutrition score was found to be decreasing with increasing age, showing a significant inverse correlation (P<0.01. Furthermore, the difference in the screening scores according to the age was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Because of the high prevalence of elderly patients that were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, a more detailed evaluation of nutritional status, along with a regular follow up and dietary intervention to reverse the situation, of these patients is recommended.

  7. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m 3 , 83.4±6.0 Bq/m 3 , 61.6±6.4 Bq/m 3 , 63.7±5.4 Bq/m 3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m 3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m 3 , 5.5 Bq/m 3 , 1.1 Bq/m 3 , 1.0 Bq/m 3 and 24 Bq/m 3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm -3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq

  8. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

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    Omar K.M. Ouda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  9. Study cast measurements in the assessment of incisor crowding among patients attending dental clinics in Abha city, Saudi Arabia

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    Ibrahim Al-Shahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Demand for orthodontic treatment is increasing in Saudi Arabia. An observational study was planned to assess the incisor crowding in maxillary and mandibular arch among Saudi males and females reporting to different dental clinics in Abha city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Five hundred and thirty-two study casts of males and females aged between 16 and 35 years without a previous history of extraction of permanent teeth were included in the study. Labiolingual linear displacement of anatomic contact points of each maxillary and mandibular incisor from the adjacent tooth was measured. Right canine mesial aspect to the left canine mesial aspect was examined for five displacements. Results: There was a high prevalence of incisor crowding observed in the study population. Sixty-four percent (342 out of 532 casts showed bi-maxillary crowding, 14% (75 out of 352 showed mandibular, and 8.1% (43 out of 532 showed maxillary crowding. About 13.6% (72 out of 532 of the study population had well-aligned maxillary and mandibular incisors while 86.4% (460 out of 532 had some degree of incisor crowding. Females had more incisor crowding (48.5%-258 out of 532 than males (37.9%-202 out of 532. Conclusion: High prevalence of incisor crowding in Abha region reported in this study necessitates long-term planning and preventive measures for the adolescent population and treatment of the adult population of the Abha city, KSA.

  10. Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rizaiza, Omar S.

    1991-05-01

    Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows that the residential water uses in houses supplied by a public pipe network are 1.4-2 times greater than the residential water uses in houses supplied by tankers. It also shows that the price elasticities are very similar to those estimated in the United States. Income elasticities, on the other hand, are lower than those typically found in more industrialized countries.

  11. Microbial Contamination of Date Rutab Collected from the Markets of Al-Hofuf City in Saudi Arabia

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    Siddig H. Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of 60 samples from six date cultivars in the rutab stage purchased from different retail outlets in AL-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia was studied. All samples were found contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria at loads in the order 102 to 105 cfu/cm2 with some significant differences among varieties that can be attributed to differences in the weather conditions during rutab season. Also all samples, except only one, were contaminated with molds and yeasts at loads in the order 102 to 103 cfu/cm2. Potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57 samples and A. flavus/parasiticus in 13 samples, while coliforms were detected in 39 samples.

  12. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  13. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  14. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

  15. Factors Associated with Consuming Junk Food among Saudi Adults in Jeddah City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandoura, Najlaa; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Abdulrashid, Ola; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Kassar, Sulaiman M; Adel Hawari, Abdul Rehman; Jahhaf, Jana M

    2017-12-31

    Introduction Junk food (JF) consumption trend is increasing in all parts of the world. The transition in lifestyle and dietary habits is leading to many non-communicable diseases. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) To examine the prevalence of junk food consumption and factors associated with consuming junk food among Saudi adults in Jeddah; and (2) to compare the trends of junk food consumption among males and females in Jeddah. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted in five different Primary Health Care centers (PHCCs) of Jeddah working under Ministry of Health. The subjects were men (n = 146) and women (n = 254) aged 18-67 years visiting these centers. Structured validated close ended questionnaire was filled by all the participants. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Chi-square was applied to analyze the difference between male and female JF consumption and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the risk factors. Results Overall the JF consumption in subjects with mean age 33.69 ± 12.29 years was highly prevalent in both genders (86.5%); (men = 85.6% and women = 87.4%). Controlling for some demographic and socioeconomic variables, increased junk food consumption was independently associated with education (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.088-5.605, p = 0.031), individuals who had limited time (OR = 3.82, 95% CI: 1.690-8.642, p junk food consumption among Saudi adults. Junk food has influence in the dietary patterns of Saudi adults and this trend is likely to rise. This growing widespread use of junk food is of concern which may cause obesity-related non-communicable diseases.

  16. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Mir Fa; Hakami, Bassam M; Hezam, Asma Aa; Hakami, Raed Y; Saadi, Fadwa A; Ageeli, Layla M; Alsagoor, Wafqah H; Faqeeh, Mohammad A; Dhae, Mohammed A

    2017-04-01

    To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m 2 ) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value Dental caries, fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p Dental caries was a strong predictor, and the analysis showed that children with untreated caries had 81% (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval = 0.65, 0.58) higher chance of suffering from low BMI. To conclude, this is the first study attempted to see the relationship between BMI-for-age and dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Negative relation between dental caries and BMI should warrant health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children. High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.

  18. Patterns of ophthalmic emergencies presenting to a referral hospital in Medina City, Saudi Arabia

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    Omar M. Alabbasi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data are required on ophthalmic cases that present to the emergency eye clinics in Madinah, Saudi Arabia for proper allocation of healthcare resources. Objectives: To determine the frequency and various diagnoses of patients presenting to the A&E at Ohud Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data was collected prospectively for all patients who presented to the A&E ophthalmology clinic from June 2014 to September 2014. The data was analyzed and presented using frequency of incidence and percentages. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the diagnoses based on age, sex and nationality. P ≤ 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: The study sample included 868 patients. The male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1.0. The main age categories included patients ≥45 years of age (256 patients and 251 patients between the ages of 15–30 years. Various types of Conjunctivitis was the most common diagnosis, reported in 282 patients (32.5%, and followed by dry eye syndrome in 156 (18% patients. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 156 patients (18%. Eyelid infections were detected in 102 patients (12%, corneal abrasion in 102 patients (9.3%. Various eye traumas was diagnosed in 30 patients (3.5%, increased intraocular pressure (IOP in 17 patients (2%, ruptured globe in 2 patients (0.2% and various other non-emergency pathologies in the remaining eyes. There were no significant differences in patient’s characteristics and categories of diagnoses. Conclusion: Non-emergent ophthalmic cases were the most common reason for the ophthalmology emergency room visits. It was observed that most cases could be referred to outpatient departments and potentially be managed by primary healthcare providers. This would be more cost effective and will also allow for better management of vision threatening ocular emergencies.

  19. Site response assessment at the city of Alkhobar, Eastern Saudi Arabia from microtremor and boring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fnais, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The AlKhobar City affected by distant earthquakes from Zagros fold-fault belt of subduction zone. These earthquakes produced great site effects on the sedimentary layers that in turn significantly influenced earthquake ground motions in the area. Mapping of site response using microtremor measurements compared with geological and borehole data of Alkhobar city is the main target of this work. The resonance frequency and their H/V values have been calculated using Nakamura technique through deployed of seismograph instruments at 113 sites in AlKhobar city for different time periods. The recording length was about one hour with sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Most of the measured sites present three peaks for the resonance frequency; the first peak ranges from 0.33 to 1.03 Hz, the second peak ranges from 1.03 to 1.23 Hz, while the third peak ranges from 1.23-1.73. Tests have been conducted to ensure that these peaks are natural in origin. The northern zones of AlKhobar City have lower values of resonance frequency indicating great thickness of sediments. In contrast, the southern parts of the city have higher values of resonance frequency illustrating shallow depths of the bedrock. Furthermore, twenty of boreholes have been conducted through AlKhobar City to different depth. Standard penetration test (SPT) data has been corrected and used to calculate the resonance frequency at their locations. Borehole results clarified that the resonance frequency values range from 0.27 to 1.95 Hz. These results are correlated well with that of the microtremor measurements. Accordingly, the first peak have been interpreted due to the impedance contrast between the limestone and the overlying sediments, while the third peak is originated from a boundary between the upper most surface layer and the underlying sediments. These results must be applied for earthquake risk mitigation in AlKhobar City.

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of food hygiene among schools students' in Majmaah city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Al-Rashedy, Oliyan Shoqer; Alsaab, Rayan Saad; Alfayez, Abdulrahman Saad; Almarri, Nawaf Rashed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (pstudents exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.

  1. Evaluation of radon related parameters in environmental samples from Jazan city, Saudi Arabia

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    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2018-01-01

    The overall weighted mean of areal exhalation rate (EA and effective Radium content (Raeff for soil samples collected from different 10 districts in Jazan city is 17.02 ± 2.06 Bq m−2d−1, 3.01 ± 0.37 Bq kg−1 respectively. For 20 Building materials samples, EA = 1.989 ± 1.056 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.351 ± 0.186 Bq kg−1. Finally, for decorative materials (23 samples, EA = 1.225 ± 0.136 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.427 ± 0.031 Bq kg−1. The maximum values of the measured parameters are found in the soil of scheme 5 and 6 district, red sand (building material and gypsum (decorative material. As the mass of the sample increase, more and more radon diffused back into the sample and the measured effective radium content is reduced. After correcting the results for back diffusion effect, all masses approximately get the same value of effective radium content and then reduced the uncertainty in the weighted mean.

  2. The Dental Solid Waste Management in Different Categories of Dental Laboratories in Abha City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali S.; Al-Qarni, Marie M.; Al-Homrany, Rami M.; Aboalkhair, Ayyob E.; Madalakote, Sujatha S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the awareness, attitude, practice and facilities among the different categories of dental laboratories in Abha city. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 dental technicians were surveyed in the study. The dental laboratories included in the study were teaching institute (Group I), Government Hospital (Group II), Private Dental Clinic (Group III) and Independent laboratory (Group IV). The pre-tested anonymous questionnaire was used to understand knowledge, attitude, facilities, practice and orientation regarding biomedical waste management. Results: The knowledge of biomedical waste categories, colour coding and segregation was better among Group I (55-65%) and Group II (65-75%). The lowest standard of waste disposal was practiced at Group IV (15-20%) and Group III (25-35%). The availability of disposal facilities was poor at Group IV. The continuous education on biomedical waste management lacked in all the Groups. Conclusion: The significant improvement in disposal facilities was required at Group III and Group IV laboratories. All dental technicians were in need of regular training of biomedical waste management. Clinical Significance: The dental laboratories are an integral part of dental practice. The dental laboratories are actively involved in the generation, handling and disposal of biomedical waste. Hence, it is important to assess the biomedical waste management knowledge, attitude, facilities and practice among different categories of dental laboratories. PMID:26962373

  3. Impact of a health education program for secondary school Saudi girls about menstruation at Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetohy, Ebtisam M

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.

  4. Pattern of cardiovascular diseases in pilgrims admitted in Al-Noor hospital Makkah during hajj 1429 H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafi, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The number of Hajj pilgrims is increasing every year, and has crossed the huge figure of 2 million. During Hajj period of 1428H (2007G), cardiac problems have been reported as one of the commonest causes of admissions in hospitals. However, the data regarding their Nationalities, age and gender is not available in the literature. This study was carried out to identify the cardiovascular diseases in Hajj pilgrims for the year 1429 H (2008G) classified on geographical, age and gender basis, and to suggest pre-Hajj measures for their home countries and their handling by concerned Ministry during Hajj. Methods: On retrospective basis, data of all patients belonging to different Nationalities of various regions of the world, their age and gender, was analysed, who were admitted in the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) and cardiology wards at Al- Noor Specialist Hospital Makkah, over a period of 15 days in Hajj season 1429H (2008G). Results: Out of 203 patients hospitalised, the majority (94%) were older, i.e., >45 years. The patients suffering from various cardiac diseases were in the following order: heart failure cases 67%; ischemic heart disease 21.7%; and valvular heart disease 11.3%. As an outcome of total admissions (hospitalisation), 84% patients were discharged in stable condition, 9% were discharged against medical advice, 4.5% were unable to perform Hajj and 2.5% patients died. Most common cardiac diseases were found in hospitalized patients for Hajj 1429 H, which belongs to different countries over the globe. It indicate loop holes in the health services of their home countries not verifying the physical fitness of their pilgrims before allowing them to proceed for Hajj. This study will also serve as a helping tool for the Ministry of Hajj in Saudi Arabia to take appropriate measures for demanding strictness for the physical fitness of Hajj pilgrims and anticipated health services for them. (author)

  5. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

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    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah

  6. New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial

  7. Influenza vaccination among Saudi Hajj pilgrims: Revealing the uptake and vaccination barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Barasheed, Osamah; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Bokhary, Hamid; Azeem, Mohammed I; Habeebullah, Turki; Bakarman, Marwan; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2018-04-12

    Hajj is the world's largest annual mass gathering that attracts two to three million Muslims from around the globe to a religious assemblage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of acquisition and transmission of influenza among Hajj pilgrims is high. Therefore, influenza vaccination is recommended, and was monitored frequently among pilgrims from different countries. However, the vaccination uptake among Saudi pilgrims has not been assessed in recent years. This analysis aims to evaluate influenza vaccine uptake among Saudi Hajj pilgrims, and identify the key barriers to vaccination. Data on influenza vaccination were obtained from Saudi pilgrims who took part in a large trial during the Hajj of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Pilgrims were met and recruited in Mina, Makkah during the peak period of Hajj and were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire that recorded their influenza vaccination history, including reason(s) for non-receipt of vaccine. A total of 6974 Saudi pilgrims aged between 18 and 95 (median 34) years were recruited; male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Of the total, 90.8% declared their influenza vaccination history, 51.3% of them reported receiving influenza vaccine before travel to Hajj. The vaccination rates for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 21.4%, 48.2% and 58.1%, respectively (P Saudi Hajj pilgrims is increasing over years but still needs further improvement. Lack of awareness and misperceptions are the main barriers. Education of Saudi pilgrims and health professionals is required to raise awareness about influenza vaccination. Further studies are needed to understand pilgrims' misperceptions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the frequency of the most immunogenic Rhesus antigens among Saudi donors in King Abdulaziz Medical City ? Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al Qahtani, Faris Saeed; Al Qarni, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Almajed, Faisal; Al Saqri, Faisal; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans, because of its immunogenicity along with ABO grouping, RhD antigen testing was made mandatory before issuing a compatible blood. At present, there are five major antigens, i.e., D, C, E, c, and e in Rh blood group system. Aims: The aim of this study is to provide essential data about the distribution of the major Rh antigens and the most common phenotype among the Saudi popul...

  9. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrukban, Mohammed O; Albadr, Badr O; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

    2014-05-01

    Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

  10. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task. PMID:24987276

  11. Technical feasibility of using gallery intakes for seawater RO facilities, northern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: The King Abdullah Economic City site

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-02-13

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is dependent on desalination of seawater to provide new water supplies for the future. Desalination is expensive and it is very important to reduce the cost and lower the energy consumption. Most seawater reverse osmosis facilities use open-ocean intakes, which require extensive pretreatment processes to remove particulate and biological materials that cause operating problems such as membrane fouling or shutdown during algal blooms. Subsurface systems, using the concept of riverbank filtration, can be used as intakes. These systems include wells of various designs and galleries that provide natural filtration and biological treatment to improve the quality of feed water before it enters the desalination plant. This reduces operating cost, lowers chemical and energy consumption, and reduces environmental impacts. Technical feasibility of gallery-type intakes, beach and seabed types, for use as intakes to seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities was evaluated along the northern Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia. The geological characteristics of the offshore ocean bottom were found to be favorable for the development of seabed gallery systems, but the shoreline geology was not adequate for the development of beach gallery intakes. One of the potentially favorable sites for a seabed gallery system was located in the nearshore area at King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC). Detailed investigation of the site hydrology (tides and wave action), sediment grain size characteristics, and sediment hydraulic conductivity, and access for construction were assessed. It was determined that seabed gallery development is favorable at the site. Based on the seawater that has a salinity of about 41,000 mg/L and a conversion rate of 40%, a conservatively designed gallery cell with dimensions of 100 by 50 m would produce about 25,000 m3/day of filtered seawater and seven cells (6 primary and 1 standby) could support a 60,000 m3/day (permeate) seawater RO plant

  12. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.

  13. Analysis on causes of flash flood in Jeddah city (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of 2009 and 2011 using multi-sensor remote sensing data and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Youssef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Jeddah city is located in a coastal plain area, in the middle of the western side of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bounded by the Red Sea to the west and mountains to the east. Jeddah city receives rainfall runoff from the foothills through different drainage pathways (wadis. During intense rainfall events, runoff flows westward from the hills and mountains towards the Red Sea, causing flash floods in the urban areas along the pathways of these wadis. Two major flash flood events occurred in Jeddah city during 20 November 2009 - January 2011. These events were characterized by rainfall precipitation values of 70 and 111 mm, respectively. Each flash flood event has duration of three hours. The impact of these two flood events have been disastrous causing extensive flooding that killed 113 people in 2009 and damaged infrastructure and property (more than 10,000 homes and 17,000 vehicles. This study deals with the analysis of the different factors that caused these flash flood events. The results indicate that the causes of these floods are related to a number of factors which play as a major contribution to the worsening of the flood disaster. These factors were classified into the following: geomorphological features, anthropogenic activities (urban changes, network and catchment factors, and rainfall and climatic changes factors. The climatic changes have a major impact on the rainfall intensity and will appear more in the future. Other factors related to the wadis tributaries are narrow passes, and high slope of the wadi has additional impacts in the flash floods in the area. The anthropogenic activities include the proliferation of slums and construction in the valleys coupled with the lack of suitable water streams to accommodate the amount of water flowing and the presence of dirt led to the direction of flow.

  14. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  15. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m 3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively.

  16. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.

  17. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  18. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Lee, Patricia; Ahmed, Faruk

    2017-10-16

    Abstract : Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants' knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on increasing awareness

  19. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa Aljefree

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on

  20. Caffeine Consumption among Medical Interns and Association with GPA in Makkah Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharif Mohammed H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vagarious amount of caffeine may become harmful in frequent use, it increased among medical interns in Makkah region. The caffeine becomes a daily routine for medical interns without attention for their side harmful effect. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the educational level of awareness of the harmful effect of caffeine consumption. This was a cross-sectional study from August to October 2016. A total number 437 of participants with GPA groups, Group I (GPA 1.5-2, Group II (GPA 2.1- 3 and Group III (GPA 3.1- 3.5. The higher percentages were the group II and female consumed caffeine frequently more than male.

  1. Some Reflections on Islamization of Education since 1977 Makkah Conference: Accomplishments, Failures and Tasks Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi Saqeb

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The revival of Islamic civilisation and culture is possible only by revitalising Islamic education and reorganising it on the basis of Islamic concepts. This opinion has been consistently voiced by leading 19th century Muslim reformers. In 1977 the First World Conference on Muslim Education was held at Makkah. The conference proved to be a major landmark in Muslim education. Over 350 Muslim scholars representing various academic fields and coming from Muslim as well as Western countries participated in this event, presented papers and approved crucial recommendations. This paper highlights the antecedents of this conference, reviews the progress achieved and failures experienced during the post-conference decades, and makes suggestions for concerted efforts to be undertaken in the 21st century towards fulfillment of the objectives of the conference.

  2. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambart, A.

    1998-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  3. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  4. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    . Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...

  5. Adalimumab impact on fatigue measured by FACIT-F: a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoudi N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nahed Janoudi,1 Narges Omran,2 Waleed Hussain,3 Hanan Al-osaimi,4 Matouqa Baamer,5 Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui,6 Omar Fathaldin,7 Hani Almoallim1,4,8 1Department of Medicine, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine, Alnoor General Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Heraa General Hospital, 4Alzaidi Chair of Research in Rheumatic Diseases, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 5Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital & Oncology Center, Jeddah, 6Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 8Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of adalimumab as a treatment for fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods: Fatigue was monitored in patients with RA who were already on an adalimumab treatment regimen. Fatigue, general well-being, comorbidities, and disease activity were measured at baseline and ~8, 16, and 24 weeks, thereafter. Results: Significant reductions in fatigue scores and disease activity were observed from baseline to 6 months after. A predictive regression model of fatigue severity was proposed and was found to be significant, with RA disease activity as the most significant predictor of fatigue severity. Conclusion: This quasi-experimental study is a good starting point for research on the efficacy of adalimumab in treating fatigue in RA patients. The results here suggest that a randomized controlled trial assessing adalimumab as a treatment option for RA patients suffering from fatigue is warranted. Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, fatigue, adalimumab, disease activity, Saudi Arabia, FACIT-F 

  6. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant

  7. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  8. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan. Priv...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030.......In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan...

  9. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the trade mission. Proposed Mission... (Sipchem) complex, which will produce synthetic fibers. The planned expansion at Jubail Industrial City II.... Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are as many as six ``economic cities,'' to be completed by the year...

  10. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and

  11. Mastery Motivation and Secure Attachment among Preschool Children in the Light of Depending on Domestic Workers in the Saudi Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulfattah, Azza Khalil; Badawood, Asma Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the impact of children's secure attachment to their mothers on their mastery motivation in the light of the dependence on domestic workers' phenomenon in the Saudi society. To achieve the goals of the study, a random sample of Saudi children was selected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia, whose favorable economic…

  12. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  13. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  14. Technical feasibility of using gallery intakes for seawater RO facilities, northern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: The King Abdullah Economic City site

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    intakes. One of the potentially favorable sites for a seabed gallery system was located in the nearshore area at King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC). Detailed investigation of the site hydrology (tides and wave action), sediment grain size characteristics

  15. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyami, Ali M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

  16. Prevalence of Self-Medication among Students of Pharmacy and Medicine Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Ali Albusalih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.

  17. Report and characterization of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler on avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh forests of industrial yanb'a city, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Huqail, A.A.; Allah, E.F.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ? linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization. (author)

  18. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  19. Surface water quality in a water run-off canal system: A case study in Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Mahmood Siddiqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in a run-off canal system in an industrial area was evaluated for a range of physical and chemical properties comprising trace metals (including mercury (Hg, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, salinity, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen. High concentrations of potassium (K (1.260–2.345 mg/l and calcium (Ca (19.170–35510 mg/l demonstrated that the salinity in the water was high, which indicates that industrial effluents from fertilizer manufacturing and Chlor-alkali units are being discharged into the canal system. Almost all the metal concentrations in water and sediment were within the thresholds established by the local regulatory body. Concentrations of Cr (0.0154–0.0184 mg/l, Mn (0.0608–0.199 mg/l, Fe (0.023–0.035 mg/l, COD (807–916 mg/l, and turbidity (633 ± 15–783 ± 22 NTU were high where the canal discharges into the Persian Gulf; these discharges may compromise the health of the aquatic ecosystem. There is concern about the levels of Hg in water (0.00135–0.0084 mg/l, suspended sediment (0.00308–0.0096 mg/l, and bed sediment (0.00172–0.00442 mg/l because of the bio-accumulative nature of Hg. We also compared the total Hg concentrations in fish from Jubail, and two nearby cities. Hg contents were highest in fish tissues from Jubail. This is the first time that heavy metal pollution has been assessed in this water run-off canal system; information about Hg is of particular interest and will form the basis of an Hg database for the area that will be useful for future investigations.

  20. Phytogeography of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlNafie, Abdulatif H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)

  1. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  2. Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing. PMID:24020917

  3. Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

    2013-09-01

    The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

  4. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  5. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  6. Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussan, K.A.; Al-Suliman, K.M.; Wafa, N.F.

    1993-01-01

    Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF 2 Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137 Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 μR h -1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 μR h -1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

  7. Buying success, Saudi style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.

  8. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.

    2006-01-01

    We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

  9. Saudi Arabia: the French nuclear sector mobilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikh-Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is preparing itself to replace half fossil energies by a mix of nuclear and renewable energies. Although the nuclear program is not yet well implemented, Saudi Arabia and France have signed an agreement to develop cooperation in the nuclear sector. A joint committee was created to give a frame to assess the best practices in terms of nuclear regulations, waste management, scientific cooperation and training. Concerning nuclear regulations, waste management and scientific cooperation the French contacts of KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy) are respectively IRSN, ANDRA and CEA. Concerning scholar and professional training, a cooperation involving I2EN (International Institute for Nuclear Energy), EDF and AREVA on one side and the King Saud University, the Prince Mohammad University, the EFFAT University and the Dar Al Hekma College on the other side, has been set to develop training in nuclear engineering in Saudi Arabia. In parallel, AREVA and EDF have developed a program to find and qualify local subcontractors. (A.C.)

  10. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  11. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  12. Wither Saudi Arabia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the foundational elements of the Saudi state: idea, governing institutions and physical basis. The author notes, that its supra-national ideas will be challenged by on-going reforms without attenuating tensions with its Shia minority population. Governing institutions of it...

  13. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  14. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir; Dehwah, Abdullah; Bin Bandar, Khaled; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract

  15. East African Medical Journal - Vol 82, No 9 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum lead levels in civil servicemen and public transport drivers in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. AH Sawas, ARM Eldeib. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v82i9.9333 · Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. C Gichuhi, E Obimbo, D Mbori-Ngacha, ...

  16. Reproductive disturbances among Saudi adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Braham, Rim; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Musallam, Maha Ali; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Swedan, Nawaf Bin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify reproductive disturbances among adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS This cross sectional study was conducted among 102 female with T1DM, (aged 13-29 years) who attended the Diabetes Clinic at Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia between April 2015 to March 2016. Clinical history, anthropometric characteristics and reproductive disturbance were collected through a questionnaire. R...

  17. Saudi Science Teachers' Views and Teaching Strategies of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Aziz S.

    Scientific developments such as cloning and nuclear energy have generated many controversial issues pertain to many political, social, environmental, ethical and cultural values in different societies around the globe. These controversies delimited and encircled the potential of including and teaching some important aspects of science in schools and therefore caused less consideration to the influence of these issues on enhancing the scientific literacy of people in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Saudi science teachers in the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia view and teach SSI in Saudi Arabia. This study employed semi-structured interviews with Saudi science teachers. Methodologically, this study used a constructivist grounded theory as a method for analysis to generate in-depth descriptive data about Saudi science teachers' views and teaching strategies of socio-scientific issues. Some direct and indirect benefits pertain to teaching science, understanding the relationship between science, religion, and society and some other topics are discussed in this study.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  19. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qudsi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  20. Surveillance of the Most Prevalent Medical Diseases among Pediatric Age Groups and Evaluation of the Control Measures Used At Tabuk Hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameinah Omar Al Tabbal

    2017-02-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory diseases and acute gastroenteritis constitute a significant burden of childhood illnesses in Tabuk City. Efforts are required to reduce the impact to achieve the Saudi ministry of health (SMOH Goal. Even though Rota vaccine is added to the national Saudi program of vaccination schedule, other causes should be looked for, and preventive measures are important as a part of public education.

  1. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  2. Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granata, V.; Palermo, M.

    1993-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market

  3. Technology Leadership in Saudi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of Saudi schools for technology leadership provided by Learning Resource Centres (LRCs) to enhance the formation of a technology-motivated educational environment. Using the grounded theory methodology and the CBAM stages of concern and levels of use this study sheds light on Saudi LRCs and their leadership…

  4. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  5. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  6. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  8. Level of Sedentary Behavior and Its Associated Factors among Saudi Women Working in Office-Based Jobs in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Albawardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541–870, with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360–780 on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.

  9. Level of Sedentary Behavior and Its Associated Factors among Saudi Women Working in Office-Based Jobs in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Almalki, Abdulla A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2017-06-19

    Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541-870), with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360-780) on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.

  10. Stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurban, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Khoja, Waleed A.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and

  11. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...

  12. Predictors of Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control among Saudi Hypertensive Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Khayyat

    Full Text Available To assess the level of medication adherence and to investigate predictors of medication adherence and blood pressure control among hypertensive patients attending primary healthcare clinics in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.Hypertensive patients meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from eight primary care clinics between January and May 2016 for this study. The patients completed Arabic version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8, an eight-item validated, self-reported measure to assess medication adherence. A structured data collection form was used to record patients' sociodemographic, medical and medication data.Two hundred and four patients, of which 71.6% were females, participated in the study. Patients' mean age was 59.1 (SD 12.2. The mean number of medication used by patients was 4.4 (SD 1.89. More than half (110; 54% of the patients were non-adherent to their medications (MMAS score 65 years (OR 2.0 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2; P = 0.04], and being diabetic (OR 0.25 [95% CI: 0.1-0.6; P = 0.04] were found to be independent predictors of medication adherence.Medication adherence is alarmingly low among hypertensive patients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia which may partly explain observed poor blood pressure control. There is a clear need to educate patients about the importance of medication adherence and its impact on improving clinical outcomes. Future research should identify barriers to medication adherence among Saudi hypertensive patients.

  13. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  14. Towards Understanding Listening Comprehension in EFL Classroom: The Case of the Saudi Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Farah

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at making a pedagogical exploration into listening comprehension skills and examining the problems faced by learners in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom situation at Jazan University, Jazan city, Saudi Arabia. To analyze the problems, two very important processes were considered; namely, top-down and…

  15. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  16. Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, M; Konbaz, M S; Almassad, A; Alsultan, A; Al Shubaili, M; AlShabanh, O

    2016-04-16

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence and address the attitudes and knowledge of using prohibited substances (doping) among sport players in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey carried out using systematic random sampling technique among Saudi players of variable sports attending the sport clubs, stadiums, and sport fields (70 sport clubs, 22 types of sports belong to 22 Saudi sport federations were visted in 18 cities from all regions of Saudi Arabia). A total of 1142 male sport players were interviewed with main age of 24. The prevalence of using prohibited substances (doping) was 4.3 %. The main reason for using prohibited substances was to improve performance (69 %). The prevalence of using food supplements (not prohibited) was 38.4 %. Among the players, 30 % of them believe that such behavior is against the spirit of sport while 70 % of the players are aware of punishment against doping. 65 % of players admitted that they received advice on prohibited substances. Higher rate of using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi players was associated with low education, age below 20 years, previous use of food supplements and lack of punishment awareness. Using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi sport players is common. Players believe that such use is against the spirit of the sport and they are aware about its punishment, despite this, they are still using prohibited substances.

  17. The proportion of expenditure on children to family’s income in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Banawi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.

  18. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first b...

  19. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Akram; Anthony, Peter John

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia's highest education industry…

  20. Awareness and Knowledge Towards Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bin Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia and it is a risk factor for many comorbid diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the awareness and knowledge towards type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM risk factors in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a crosssectional survey conducted in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Data of T2DM awareness was obtained from 1530 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail. Results: Out of the 1530 participants, around 59% were males and 41% were females. Out of 1530 participants 60.8% know nothing about DM and about 48% were not sure whether they know something about symptoms of DM. The lack of knowledge about the relationship between obesity and DM was statistically significant among this study group, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is low awareness and knowledge levels toward baseline DM related information among Northern Saudi Arabian population, which necessitates the need for comprehensive awareness program. Women are more in need to be targeted by DM prevention and control programs

  1. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  2. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  3. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Gelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

  4. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  5. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  6. Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

    1995-01-01

    The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia.

  7. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  8. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  10. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  11. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulaban A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had

  12. Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran

  13. Eating Disorders Among Female Students of Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia

    2018-03-01

    Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwat, Obaidallah Buraykan; Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Ahmad; Alzhrani, Mohammed Abdullah; Alkhathami, Ali Mesfer; Mahfouz, Mohammad Eid Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. The incidence is higher in Asian and Arab countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are few studies that have assessed the prevalence of GERD among some cities' communities. Hence, this study aims to study the prevalence of GERD among the general population of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of GERD among the community of Saudi Arabia. The sample was randomly gathered through self-administered validated GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) to diagnose GERD, during the period from November to December 2016. The sociodemographic data was assessed for all participants. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS); the t -test was used to assess the association of GERD and sociodemographic data. The sample was comprised of 2,043 participants. Female and male were 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Mean age was 29.6 years with the standard deviation of 10.5 years. The GERD prevalence was 28.7%. It was found statistically significant among divorced/widow (34.9%, P = 0.003). In contrast, there was no association between GERD's prevalence and gender, age, residence status, education level, occupation, and blood group (P > 0.05). The prevalence of GERD among Saudi population is higher than that in Western countries and East Asia. It affects divorced/widow, obese and those with a sedentary lifestyle. It is advocated that national programs and educational campaigns for prevention of this disease and its complications should be established.

  15. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  16. Efficacy of Insulin Pump Therapy on Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction and Glycemic Control Among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Braham, Rim B.; Goudeh, Hanouf S.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged 17?24?years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently se...

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  18. Backreef and beach carbonate sediments of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia: impacts of reef geometry and currents on sediment composition

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, T. M.; Almashharawi, Samir; Dehwah, Abdullah; Coulibaly, K.

    2017-01-01

    water depth in ancient carbonate rocks. The site located at the King Abdullah Economic City (Saudi Arabia) contains a fringing reef with the reef tract located very close to the beach at the north end, flaring to the south to produce a narrower backreef

  19. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  20. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Alqarawi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  1. Health ATMs in Saudi Arabia: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Bakheet

    2017-06-01

    Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients' electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization.

  2. DIVIDEND POLICY IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dialdin Osman; Elsaudi Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We examine dividend policy in a unique environment in Saudi Arabia, where (1) firms distribute almost 100% of their profits in dividends, (2) firms are highly levered mainly through bank loans, and (3) there are no income or capital gains taxes. Some common factors that affect dividend policy of both financial and non-financial firms, we found some factors that affect only non-financial firms. In particular, the common factors are profitability, size, and business risk. Government ownership, ...

  3. Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Bajaber; M. A. Taha

    2012-01-01

    Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few ...

  4. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1996-01-01

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  5. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  6. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  7. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulayyi, Marzouq Nasser

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents' speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by…

  8. Toward a Constructivist Approach in Saudi Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah

    2016-01-01

    In the way to develop the educational system in Saudi Arabia, the emphasis was only on the materials with no more attention for the role of the learner and the teacher in the learning process or even the external factors around them. However, there are many theories and approaches that may help the Saudi students in different levels to understand…

  9. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  10. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  11. Partial Immersion Program for Saudi Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah Qaed

    2017-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Although the government tries gradually to integrate teaching English in all grades: secondary, intermediate and elementary, learning English is still limited and need more developing. This essay is a brief review about bilingualism in Saudi education. This essay will be divided…

  12. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  13. Safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarfaj, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)

  14. “If It Is Written by Allah, There Is Nothing That Can Stop It”: Saudi women’s breast cancer narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Sinky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify cultural models of breast cancer held by Saudi women and to explore how these may influence early detection and treatment-seeking behaviors. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with breast cancer survivors (n=20 from two Western cities in Saudi Arabia. Respondents were recruited through social networking, using purposive, snowball sampling. Illness narratives elicited during interviews were transcribed, coded and then analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results suggest that fatalism, perceived threats to traditional role fulfillment, and a preference for traditional therapies commonly mark the breast cancer experiences of Saudi women, influencing their early detection and treatment-seeking behaviors. A more nuanced understanding of emic viewpoints could help to improve public health messaging and intervention strategies in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M

    1985-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...

  16. Saudi Arabia and Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and Kuwait to the north; by the Persian Gulf, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to the east; by Oman and Yemen to the South; and by the Red Sea...on both the east and west coasts, primary and secondary aquifers that may not be renewable, and a growing system of dams that attempt to capture the...water plants producing 230 million gallons of water per day. (1:1289) More than 20 deep aquifers have been discovered in Saudi Arabia with 340

  17. The effect of gender on transformational leadership and job satisfaction among Saudi nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed G; Topp, Robert; AlYami, Mansour S

    2018-01-01

    To compare nurses' job satisfaction and perceptions of transformational leadership style of their manager among four different nurse/manager gender dyads in Saudi Arabia. Women and men differ on many behavioural characteristics and are influenced by the cultural environment. Understanding these differences may have an impact on leadership behaviours and job satisfaction. A descriptive analysis of one-time survey data collected in 2011 from Saudi nurses employed in six general public hospitals located in three cities. Three hundred and eight (51.3%) of 600 Saudi nurses solicited to participate completed anonymous questionnaires that measured their job satisfaction and perceptions of transformational leadership style of their manager. Factorial ANOVA tested the main effects of gender of the nurse, gender of the manager and the interaction term on the nurse's job satisfaction, and perceived transformational leadership style of their manager. These analyses indicated a main effect of gender of the manager on both job satisfaction and perceived transformational leadership style of the manager (p transformational leadership style of their manager when their manager was male. These findings contrast with what other researchers have reported that nurse job satisfaction and perceived leadership characteristics of their manager are independent of the gender of the manager. These perceptions of Saudi nurses may be a result of "sex-role spillover" in a male-dominated, gender-segregated society. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  19. The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa A. Sait; Samia M. Al-Amoudi; Dalal A. Tawtai; Hassan S. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

  20. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  1. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  2. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice teachers toward teaching practices in science: The adequacy of preparation to use teaching strategies in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabber, Jabber M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful

  3. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  4. Saudi Vigilance Program: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharf, Adel; Alqahtani, Nasser; Saeed, Ghazi; Alshahrani, Ali; Alshahrani, Mubarak; Aljasser, Nasser; Alquwaizani, Mohammed; Bawazir, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance is vital to public health. Adopting a robust spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug events can counteract most hazards that arise from utilizing medicinal products. Prior to the establishment of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the number of pharmacovigilance-related activities in Saudi Arabia was limited. In 2009, the SFDA established the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center (Saudi Vigilance). The pharmacovigilance system has remarkably improved during the past few years. Several initiatives have been taken to improve the program's performance. These initiatives include initiation of pharmacovigilance guidelines, enhancement of communication and reporting tools, training sessions for concerned staff and healthcare providers, and compliance from stakeholders. This review article provides an overview of what the Saudi Vigilance program is, focusing on the scope, mission and vision, hierarchy, operational themes, and overall work processes. Additionally, we will shed light on the challenges we encountered during the early phase and on our future plans.

  5. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  6. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  7. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  8. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  9. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  10. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  11. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  12. Self-Directed Learning Readiness among Undergraduate Students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, Mousa S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia. Also, investigated were potential relationships between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender and specific college within the…

  13. Knowledge and attitude of health-care professionals in hospitals towards pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alamri, Khaled K; Ghawa, Yazeed A; Alohali, Noura F; Abualkol, Shaza A; Aljadhey, Hisham S

    2015-12-01

    Drug safety has major implications for patients' lives. However, this concept is still considered new to some healthcare professionals. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness of Saudi healthcare professionals to pharmacovigilance (PV). Setting Governmental and private hospitals at three main cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). A cross-sectional survey among healthcare professionals (pharmacists, physicians, and nurses) within 12 Saudi hospitals was conducted between November and December 2012. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions assessing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards science and the concept of PV. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS 9.3). Main outcome measure Knowledge, attitude and practice of HCPs toward pharmacovigilance. Three-hundred and thirty-two healthcare professionals completed the survey (response rate 72 %), 110 (34 %) physicians, 106 (33 %) pharmacists, and 104 (32 %) nurses. More than half of the participants (55 %) did not know the correct definition of PV. Two-thirds of the respondents, 207 (65.5 %), had knowledge of the aim of post-marketing surveillance, yet only 113 (36.9 %) were aware that the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center is the official body for monitoring adverse drug reaction in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 34.7 % agreed that lack of time could be a major barrier for reporting. The majority of the respondents (78.4 %) believed that reporting was a professional obligation and hospitals should have a drug safety department. There was a limited knowledge of pharmacovigilance that could have affected reporting incidence. Educational intervention and a practical training program need to be applied by the drug regulatory body as well as health authorities to enhance the pharmacovigilance and drug safety culture in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M

    1985-03-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site of injury was the knee. We believe that specialised Sports Injury Clinics, initially based at the University Hospitals should be established here, to give guidance and education concerning avoidance of injuries, and for the treatment and follow-up of those injured and enable them to return to sports early.

  15. Portfolios in Saudi medical colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Shamim, Muhammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, the use of portfolios in medical education has evolved, and is being applied in undergraduate and postgraduate programs worldwide. Portfolios, as a learning process and method of documenting and assessing learning, is supported as a valuable tool by adult learning theories that stress the need for learners to be self-directed and to engage in experiential learning. Thoughtfully implemented, a portfolio provides learning experiences unequaled by any single learning tool. The credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) of assessment through portfolios have been questioned owing to its subjective nature; however, methods to safeguard these features have been described in the literature. This paper discusses some of this literature, with particular attention to the role of portfolios in relation to self-reflective learning, provides an overview of current use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia, and proposes research-based guidelines for its implementation and other similar contexts. PMID:26905344

  16. Saudi sands, SCUDS, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, M P

    1993-01-01

    SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

  18. Noteworthy: oil markets: Saudis abandon WTI price as benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Thies

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's state-owned oil company no longer uses West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil as its pricing benchmark. Saudi Aramco, the third largest U.S. oil supplier, switched to the Argus Sour Crude Index (ASCI) in January.

  19. Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive finding. ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of SM on Saudi females. ... hence more effort should be undertaken to encourage more uptake of SM for ...

  20. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Abulfaraj, W.; Al-Johani, M.S.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdulfattah, A.F.; Abubakar, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice

  1. Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia: A seismic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljohani, M.S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.; Almarshad, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the selection criteria generally and seismic criteria specifically to select a suitable site in Saudi Arabia for a nuclear desalination plant. These criteria include geological, meteorological, cooling water supply discharge, transport infrastructure, population, electric grid, water network capacity, environmental impact and airport movement. The seismicity of the Arabian peninsula for the locations of seismic activity along the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastlines from 1973 to 2000 was studied carefully. This study included towns and locations along the east and west coastlines and their distances from the seismic event site. The results showed that Rabigh City along the west coast of Saudi Arabia is a good site to build a nuclear desalination plant. This is because of the following reasons: good seismic stability; good weather statistics; no flooding; mild wave conditions; good supply and discharge; good transportation infrastructure; low population area; very close to the huge electric grid. (author)

  2. Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

  3. 9th May 2008 - Members of Saudi government visiting ATLAS control room and cavern with Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and Adviser to the Director-General D. Blechschmidt.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    CERN-HI-0804043 05: from left to right 1st row Mrs. Ibtesam Badhrees, ATLAS Collaboration user Mr. Nadhmi Al-Nassr, Interim President, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST H.E. Dr. Khaled S. Al-Sultan, Rector, King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals Mr. Abdallah S. Jum’ah, President and Chief Executive Officer, Saudi Aramco H.E. Dr. Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf, Minister of Finance H.E. Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Tuwaijri, Chairman of Capital Markets Authority H.E. Dr. Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel, President, King Abdul Aziz City for Science & Technology KACST; 2nd row Mr. Salim S. Al-Aydh, Senior Vice President – Engineering & Project Management, Saudi Aramco Mr. Khalid A. Al-Falih, Executive Vice President – Operations, Saudi Aramco Mr. A. Othman, Saudi Aramco Mr. Peter Woicke, Member of the Saudi Aramco Board of Directors Mr. Abdulaziz F. Al-Khayyal, Senior Vice President – Industrial Relations, Saudi Aramco Mr. James W. Kinnear, Retired President & Chief Executive Office...

  4. Nedtur. Griske prinser svækker Saudi-Arabien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the ability of Saudi-Arabia to adjust to present low oil prices. I analyze the political foundations of the Saudi state and its weak autonomy in relation to its power bases: the avaricious princes and the fundamentalist religious Sheikhs. I am pessimistic as to the likelyhood of Saudi......-Arabia making the needed ajdustments due to current low oil prices. This is the second of two articles on Saudi-Arabia....

  5. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    influence of the Islamic State and Iran. 44 However, in conjunction with the government’s expanded efforts to dissuade Saudi citizens from supporting...Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant global influence through its administration of the birthplace...Administration has endorsed Saudi citizens ’ rights to free assembly and free expression. Saudi leaders reject foreign interference in the country’s internal

  6. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  7. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

  9. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  10. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  11. Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R W

    1994-08-01

    The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services.

  12. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  13. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: The Saudi experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubhi, Sarah; Alhashem, Amal; Faqeih, Eissa; Alfadhel, Majid; Alfaifi, Abdullah; Altuwaijri, Waleed; Alsahli, Saud; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Hundallah, Khalid; Mahmoud, Adel; Alasmari, Ali; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Abduraouf, Hanem; AlRasheed, Layan; Alshahwan, Saad; Tabarki, Brahim

    2017-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed Saudi patients who had a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Twenty-seven Saudi patients (14 males, 13 females) from 13 unrelated families were identified. Based on molecular studies, the 27 CDG patients were classified into different subtypes: ALG9-CDG (8 patients, 29.5%), ALG3-CDG (7 patients, 26%), COG6-CDG (7 patients, 26%), MGAT2-CDG (3 patients, 11%), SLC35A2-CDG (1 patient), and PMM2-CDG (1 patient). All the patients had homozygous gene mutations. The combined carrier frequency of CDG for the encountered founder mutations in the Saudi population is 11.5 per 10,000, which translates to a minimum disease burden of 14 patients per 1,000,000. Our study provides comprehensive epidemiologic information and prevalence figures for each of these CDG in a large cohort of congenital disorder of glycosylation patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Flood hazards in an urbanizing watershed in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim O. Sharif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has experienced unusual levels of urbanization in the past few decades, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the world. This paper examines flood hazards in the rapidly urbanizing catchment of Al-Aysen in Riyadh. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were employed to obtain and prepare input data for hydrologic and hydraulic models, with the former based on the very popular curve number approach. Due to the limited nature of the rainfall data, observations from two rain gauges in the vicinity of the catchment were used to estimate design storms. The hydrologic model was run in a semi-distributed mode by dividing the catchment into many sub-catchments. The impact of urbanization on run-off volume and peak discharge resulting from different storms was investigated, with various urbanization scenarios simulated. Flood hazard zones and affected streets were also identified through hydrologic/hydraulic model simulation. The mismatch between administrative and catchment boundaries can create problems in flood risk management for similar cities since hydrologic processes and flood hazards are based on the hydrologic connectivity. Since flooding events impact the road network and create driving hazards, governmental decision-makers must take the necessary precautions to protect drivers in these situations.

  15. Communication with the seriously ill: physicians' attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A

    1996-10-01

    To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal medicine and critical care in six hospitals in the above cities. A total of 249 physicians participated in the study. Less than half (47%) indicated they provided information on diagnosis and prognosis of serious illnesses all the time. Physicians who were more senior and those who spoke Arabic fared better than other groups. The majority (75%) preferred to discuss information with close relatives rather than patients, even when the patients were mentally competent. Most of the physicians (72%) felt patients had the right to refuse a specific treatment modality, and 68% denied patients the right to demand such a treatment if considered futile. Further analysis showed that physicians' attitudes varied along a spectrum from passive (25%) to paternalistic (21%) with the largest group (47%) in a balanced position. In traditional societies where physicians are regarded as figures of authority and family ties are important, there is a considerable shift of access to information and decision-making from patients to their physicians and relatives in a manner that threatens patients' autonomy. Ethical principles, wider availability of invasive medical technology and a rise in public awareness dictate an attitude change.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi A. Jamjoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. Methods Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939 and 37% (68/184 in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1% reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others

  17. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  18. Saudi Arabia’s National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-27

    A-A236 930 The views a--pressed ina dis papaer an or of the aaadkoe and do not necessauily Welset the view of the Depaju nt of Defense or any of its...Bandar 0. Nahil Al Harbi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT ( Year , Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Individual FROM TO 1991 March 27...festival introduces to the Saudi generation the past history of their forefathers and the way they used to live. It also educates the Saudi youth about

  19. The Royal Saudi Air Force and Long-Term Saudi National Defense: A Strategic Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al

    2002-01-01

    Technological advances employed in strategic offensive air operations during the Gulf War revolutionized war fighting in a desert environment and provides a basis for developing a new Saudi strategic...

  20. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Penergy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Pdrinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  2. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N

    2016-08-01

    To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse.  The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children.  The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.

  3. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; Alshahrani, Saeed M.; Kojan, Suleiman M.; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A.; Alamry, Ahmed A.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i® (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers. PMID:25630777

  5. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  6. Attitude of the Saudi community towards heart donation, transplantation, and artificial hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHabeeb, Waleed; AlAyoubi, Fakhr; Tash, Adel; AlAhmari, Leenah; AlHabib, Khalid F

    2017-07-01

    To understand the attitudes of the Saudi population towards heart donation and transplantation. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards organ transplantation and donation was conducted across 18 cities in Saudi Arabia between September 2015 and March 2016.  Results: A total of 1250 respondents participated in the survey. Of these, approximately 91% agree with the concept of organ transplantation but approximately 17% do not agree with the concept of heart transplantation; 42.4% of whom reject heart transplants for religious reasons. Only 43.6% of respondents expressed a willingness to donate their heart and approximately 58% would consent to the donation of a relative's organ after death. A total of 59.7% of respondents believe that organ donation is regulated and 31.8% fear that the doctors will not try hard enough to save their lives if they consent to organ donation. Approximately 77% believe the heart is removed while the donor is alive; although, the same proportion of respondents thought they knew what brain death meant. Conclusion: In general, the Saudi population seem to accept the concept of transplantation and are willing to donate, but still hold some reservations towards heart donation.

  7. Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. I.; Fazal ur, Rehman

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A total of 318 passive radon dosemeters were distributed randomly in the region and placed for a period of 1 y starting from April 2004 to April 2005. The results of indoor radon concentration measurement in 136 dwellings distributed in Al-Jauf region are presented. The remaining dosemeters were lost in the dwellings or mishandled. The results showed that the average, minimum, maximum radon concentrations and standard deviation were 35, 7, 168 and 30 Bq m -3 , respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon distribution were found to be 28 and 1.83, respectively. (authors)

  8. The effects of age and gender on the prevalence of insomnia in a sample of the Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar E; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Fatani, Abdulhamid; Al-Rouqi, Khalid; Al-Jahdali, Fares; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Baharoon, Salim; Ali, Yosra Z; Khan, Mohammad; Rumayyan, Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among the Saudi adult population. A cross-sectional insomnia survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The presence of insomnia was defined by difficulty initiating sleep, early morning awakening, or frequent awakening, in addition to the second-day effect in the form of fatigue, tiredness, or changes in the mode because of lack of sleep. The crude prevalence of insomnia was 77.7% (95% CI = 75.9-79.5%). The gender-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for females, 88.7% (95% CI = 86.4-90.7%) than for males, 70.4% (95% CI = 67.8-72.9%), p-value = .001. The age-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for the elderly, 93.7% (95% CI = 90.6-96.0%) than for the middle aged, 79.8% (95% CI = 77.4-82.1%), or for the young group, 64.2% (95% CI = 59.9-68.4%), p-value = .001. The Chi-square analyses revealed that (1) being elderly, widowed/divorced, females, or housewives, (2) having a lack of education, and (3) excessive tea consumption were significantly associated with elevated risks for insomnia (p-values Saudi females and the elderly Saudi population.

  9. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  10. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, Omar K.M.; Cekirge, Huseyin M.; Raza, Syed A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  11. Exploring CLT Practices in Saudi International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Saad

    2014-01-01

    This is a research study conducted on 17 teachers who teach English in Saudi international schools. It mainly aims at exploring teaching practices in these schools in terms of the principles of communicative language teaching (CLT). It also investigates the appropriateness of CLT in this context from the point of view of teachers. Two research…

  12. Health technology assessment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2018-05-16

    The Saudi government, similar to any other government, is committed to making public spending more efficient, using resources more effectively, and limiting waste. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool that informs policy and decision makers regarding the formulation of safe and effective policies that are patient-focused and help to achieve efficiency when allocating limited health-care resources. Areas covered: After a brief description of HTA in the international context, this review provides a brief introduction to Saudi Arabia's health-care system, followed by a delineation of the decision maker(s) and influencers and the decision-making process for pricing and reimbursement. The article then discusses the current status of HTA in Saudi Arabia and proposes four strategic objectives that can form the first step in the development of a formal HTA process. Expert commentary: In Saudi Arabia, facilitators for incorporating HTA into the decision-making process exist. Future local research is needed to guide the implementation of full HTA.

  13. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  14. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).

  15. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Aarts, P.; Wagemakers, J.; Kanie, M.; Geel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features

  16. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  17. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  18. Predictors of Saudi nursing students' attitudes towards environment and sustainability in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alshammari, F; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D

    2018-02-09

    This study aimed to investigate the predictors of Saudi nursing students' attitudes towards the environment and sustainability in health care. With rising temperature and decreasing annual rainfall, Saudi Arabia is threatened by the harmful effects of climate change on its population. In response to these threats, the Ministry of Health adapted sustainable development and environmental preservation in their National E-Health strategy. To implement these policies successfully, healthcare practitioners should be educated on how climate change could impact human health negatively. A secondary analysis of 280 questionnaires from baccalaureate nursing students of a university in Hail City, Saudi Arabia, was completed. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale and Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey 2 (SANS-2) were used to investigate the predictors of student attitudes towards the environment and sustainable development in health care. The NEP score indicated moderate pro-environment attitudes, whereas the SANS-2 mean score showed very positive attitudes towards sustainability in health care. Learning about the environment and related issues in the nursing programme, raising climate change awareness and attending environment-related seminars and training positively influenced the environmental and sustainability attitudes of nursing students. Saudi nursing students moderately manifested pro-environment attitudes but exhibited extremely positive attitudes towards sustainability in health care. The results support the need to strengthen the education of nursing students about environmental and sustainability concepts and the inclusion of these topics in the nursing curricula. The study underscores the critical role of enriching the awareness of nursing students on environmental issues and concerns and sustainability in health care. The findings of this study can support the inclusion of course contents, which deal specifically with environmental health and

  19. Molecular genetic studies in Saudi population; identified variants from GWAS and meta-analysis in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khalid Khalaf; Ali Khan, Imran; Alotaibi, Mohammad Abdullah; Saud Aloyaid, Abdullah; Al-Basheer, Haifa Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Naelah Abdullah; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Sulaiman, A M

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder, correlates with heritability and considered as one of the major diseases. The prior reports performed the variable models such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), replication, case-control, cross-sectional and meta-analysis studies and still, we lack diagnostic marker in the global world. There are limited studies were carried out in Saudi population, and we aim to investigate the molecular association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through GWAS and meta-analysis studies in stroke patients in the Saudi population. In this case-control study, we have opted gender equality of 207 cases and 207 controls from the capital city of Saudi Arabia in King Saud University Hospital. The peripheral blood (5 ml) sample will be collected in two different vacutainers, and three mL of the coagulated blood will be used for lipid analysis (biochemical tests) and two mL will be used for DNA analysis (molecular tests). Genomic DNA will be extracted with the collected blood samples, and specific primers will be designed for the opted SNPs ( SORT1 -rs646218 and OLR1 -rs11053646 polymorphisms) and PCR-RFLP will be performed and randomly DNA sequencing will be carried out to cross check the results. The rs646218 and rs11053646 polymorphisms were significantly associated with allele, genotype and dominant models with and without crude odds ratios (OR's) and Multiple logistic regression analysis (p Saudi population. The current results were in the association with the prior study results documented through GWAS and meta-analysis association. However, other ethnic population studies should be performed to rule out in the human hereditary diseases.

  20. Valorization of Bone Waste of Saudi Arabia by Synthesizing Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef

    2018-05-09

    At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds. The obtained hydroxyapatite powder was ascertained using physicochemical techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. These analyses clearly show that hydroxyapatite from native cow bone wastes is biologically and physicochemically comparable to standard hydroxyapatite, commonly used for biomedical functions. The cell viability and proliferation over the prepared hydroxyapatite was confirmed with CCk-8 colorimetric assay. The morphology of the cells growing over the nano-hydroxyapatite shows that natural hydroxyapatite promotes cellular attachment and proliferation. Hence, the as-prepared nano-hydroxyapatite can be considered as cost-effective source of bone precursor hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Taking into account the projected demand for reliable bone implants, the present research work suggested using environment friendly methods to convert waste of Albaha city into nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Therefore, besides being an initial step towards accomplishment of projected demands of bone implants in Saudi Arabia, our study will also help in reducing the environmental burden by recycling of bone wastes of Albaha city.

  1. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, Nahid Y; AlAjaji Norah; AlMozainy, Mayyadah; AlSourani, Rasha

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  2. Consanguineous marriage in an urban area of Saudi Arabia: rates and adverse health effects on the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Abdulkareem, A A; Ballal, S G

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the pattern and time trend of consanguineous marriage and its adverse health effects on the offspring in Dammam city, Eastern Province, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This city is known to attract Saudis from different parts of the country because it is in the heart of this industrial region. Five primary health care centers were randomly selected from different sectors of the city in addition to the city's only Maternity and Children's Hospital. For inclusion in the study a wife must have at least one pregnancy that terminated in either full term liveborn baby, still birth, or abortion. A total of 1307 ever-married Saudis completed a pre-structured questionnaire during an interview. The rate of consanguineous marriage was 52.0% with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.0312. First-cousin marriages were the commonest (39.3%) of all matings. The consanguineous groups had a significantly higher number of pregnancies. The mean birth weight of the offspring of consanguineous couples was not statistically significant being less than that of the non-consanguineous. However, within the consanguineous groups the more closely related couples had smaller babies on average. No significant differences were noted for the rates of inherited diseases and reproductive wastage. The rate of consanguineous marriage in this city was high and so was the inbreeding coefficient. These figures place this nation among the countries with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. A nationwide study to determine accurately the relationship between consanguinity and inherited diseases has much to commend it.

  3. EFL Secondary School Teachers' Views on Blended Learning in Tabuk City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfahadi, Abdulrahman M.; Alsalhi, Abdulrhman A.; Alshammari, Abdullah S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate EFL Secondary School Teachers' Views on Blended Learning. It also aims to investigate (a) the teachers' views on blended learning content and process, and (b) how blended learning is effective in developing teachers' performance. The study sample included 35 EFL Saudi teachers in Tabuk City, KSA. In order to…

  4. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  5. Blurry Vision: Institutional Impediments to Reform in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    24 Figure 7. Net Incomes of Listed Saudi Corporates by Sector ...................................25 Figure 8. Contribution to Non-oil Export... Corporation SAGIA Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority SAMA Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency SME Small and Medium Enterprises SOE Sate Owned...happens-overseas-necessarily-stay-overseas; “Ministry of Finance Appoints Mr. Alsayari to Lead the Debt Management Office,” Ministry of Finance

  6. Are the Saudi parents aware of antibiotic role in upper respiratory tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Alrafiaah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI is considered to be the most common reason for children’s visits to emergency departments or outpatient clinics. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics are currently major public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to assess Saudi parents’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding the use of antibiotics in URTIs in children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using a previously validated questionnaire, which was distributed using Twitter. A total of 385 individuals completed the questionnaire. For the majority of the participants (77%, physicians were the primary source of information regarding the use of antibiotics. Forty-four percent of parents agreed that most URTIs are caused by viruses, and 81% were aware that inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance. Fever was the primary symptom (27% that led parents to ask for prescriptions for antibiotics. Although women had a higher attitude score (p = 0.01, there was no difference between genders regarding knowledge and practice. Older participants (41 years or more had a lower attitude score (p = 0.02. Furthermore, participants with five children or more had lower attitude and practice scores (p = 0.006, 0.04, respectively. Participants who lived in large cities had greater knowledge compared to the inhabitants of small cities (p = 0.01. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that most of the participants were educated but lacked knowledge regarding antibiotic use in URTIs in children. This lack of knowledge led to inappropriate attitude and practice. Thus, launching public educational campaigns and encouraging physicians to educate parents regarding the proper use of antibiotics are recommended. Keywords: Upper respiratory tract infections, Parents, Children, Antibiotic, Saudi Arabia

  7. The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousef, Yousef; Stevens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: → How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? → How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? → What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? → What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

  8. Princes, priests, and people is Saudi Arabia the next Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Waltermire, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be "the next Iran"-that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riyadh. I test this theory through the lens of network analysis in order to measure the degree of state-society integration in Pahlavi Iran and Saudi Arabia. My analysis finds that a) the Saudi state is far more integrated in society through so...

  9. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  10. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  12. Awareness of holistic care practices by intensive care nurses in north-western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaqawi, Hamdan M; Butcon, Vincent R; Molina, Roger R

    2017-08-01

    To examine awareness of holistic patient care by staff nurses in the intensive care units of hospitals in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: A quantitative correlational study design was used to investigate relationships between intensive care nurse's awareness of holistic practices and nurses' latest performance review. Intensive care staff nurses (n=99) from 4 public sector hospitals in Hail were surveyed on their awareness of variables across 5 holistic domains: physiological, sociocultural, psychological, developmental, and spiritual. Data were collected between October and December 2015 using written survey, and performance evaluations obtained from the hospital administrations. Results were statistically analyzed and compared (numerical, percentage, Pearson's correlation, Chronbach's alpha). Results: The ICU staff nurses in Hail City were aware of the secular aspects of holistic care, and the majority had very good performance evaluations. There were no demographic trends regarding holistic awareness and nurse performance. Further, awareness of holistic care was not associated with nurse performance.  Conclusion: A caring-enhancement workshop and a mentoring program for non-Saudi nurses may increase holistic care awareness and enhance its practice in the ICUs.

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  14. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  15. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljubran, Ali; Abusamra, Ashraf; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Rabah, Danny; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkushi, Hussain; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Alharbi, Hulayel; Eltijani, Amin; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alsharm, Abdullah; Ahmad, Imran; Murshid, Esam

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence levels based on a comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Local factors, such as availability, logistic feasibility, and familiarity of various treatment modalities, have been taken into consideration. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  16. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)

  17. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Husson

    2014-01-01

    This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  18. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.; Wirtz, K.

    1980-11-01

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.) [de

  19. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  1. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  2. Communicating with cancer patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, D; Moreau, P; Ezzat, A; Gray, A

    1997-02-20

    The following factors are relevant to the communication problems that exist in this country: 1. The impression is that patients here cope better with terminal illness at home than do patients elsewhere. The extended family, with its strong ties, and the strong Islamic faith that encourages its members to provide for parents and children in case of need mean that any input by health professionals is magnified by the family in the care of the patient. At first, it was uncertain if foreign health professionals would be accepted into Saudi homes (which are intensely private and protected for the family) for the purpose of caring for patients. This has proved unfounded. Hospitality is a very important part of Saudi society; nurses and doctors are welcomed and respected. Much of this success is due to the use of Saudi men as drivers and translators. These people provide 24-hour service, act as social workers assessing the needs of the family, and are the link between the patient and family, the nurse, and the doctor. 2. "CURE" OR "PALLIATION": The emphasis for cancer patients in Saudi Arabia is still on "curative treatment," even after any realistic hope of a cure is gone. The problem this causes is compounded by many patients being excluded from the decision-making process. Decisions made by the family may not always reflect the patient's wishes. Greater communication is needed to guide treatment decisions. 3. TRUTH-TELLING: Denying information of the patient's illness is probably more a historical than a cultural phenomenon. Similar attitudes prevailed until very recently in practically all other countries. In this very conservative country, people are committed to preserving Islamic culture in the face of Western technology. As medicine continues to demonstrate its effectiveness as well as its limitations, people will come to realize that the right of patients to know and understand their illness allows them to cope much better, and is compatible with the

  3. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

  4. The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

    The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

  5. Characteristics of Neonatal Pneumothorax in Saudi Arabia: Three Years’ Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Matary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, morbidity, and mortality among hospitalized neonates with pneumothorax. Methods: The records of 2 204 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. All newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit with pneumothorax were included in the study. Participants were evaluated for baseline characteristics, predisposing factors of neonatal pneumothorax (NP, accompanying disorders, and mortality. Results: Pneumothorax was diagnosed in 86 patients, with an incidence of 3.9%. The most common predisposing factors of NP were bag mask ventilation, followed by hypoplastic lung disease, and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-five (29.1% newborns with pneumothorax died. The most common accompanying disorder was premature rupture of membrane. On multivariate analysis, pulmonary hemorrhage, a birth weight < 2 500 g, and low Apgar score (< 7 at one minute were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: This study highlights the extent of NP problems among hospitalized neonates and the most common predisposing factors of NP.

  6. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  7. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouq Nasser Alsulayyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents’ speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, the study employs a Discourse Completion Task (DCT that consists of 10 situations designed to test how the respondents would react if they imagine that they belong to different types of social status whether higher, lower or equal. In addition, social distance and power have been taken into consideration in designing the ten situations included in the test used in this study. The results reveal that Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID is the most used apology strategy by the Saudi respondents followed by downgrading responsibility (DR, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and then verbal redress. The results also reveal that gender has a great impact on the use of apology strategies in various ways. For instance, the IFID strategy and the upgrader strategy are used by males more than their female counterparts, whereas females use the DR strategy more than their male counterparts. It has been argued that some of the respondents’ answers to the test were influenced by their mother tongue, as reported in previous studies conducted on apology strategies. The study discusses the results elicited via the DCT and compares them with those of previous studies on apology strategies and other speech acts. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: pragmatics, apology strategies, Saudi EFL teachers, interlanguage pragmatics, target culture

  8. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  9. Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan

    2017-09-27

    Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the "Capacity to Aspire" and the "Capacity to Remember"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a…

  11. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  12. Learning English: Experiences and Needs of Saudi Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…

  13. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  14. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    rights. 21 Ambassador Chas Freeman, President of the Middle East Policy Council, served as U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1989 to 1992. Tabassum ...U.S. Policymakers Conference, Washington, DC, October 15, 2009. 24 Tabassum Zakaria, “Analysis—Saudi smile likely for Bush on oil plea, not more

  15. Willingness to Communicate in English among Saudi Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona Obaid Alrahman Ashik

    2016-01-01

    Since the English Language teaching system differs from public schools to private ones, it is presumed that this would have a great impact of students' willingness to communicate in English in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of private and public school education on WTC in English among Saudi Female…

  16. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  17. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  18. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions…

  19. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Abanmy

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  20. The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  1. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N

    2013-01-01

    Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the

  3. Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

  4. Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman Salih Hariri

    2006-01-01

    The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

  5. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  6. Attitude of Saudi Female Math Teachers toward Integrating E-Learning in Teaching Math at High Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Aishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in government and education have launched an extensive program to reform general education in Saudi Arabia. This initiative was designed to achieve many goals with a major emphasis being the enhancement of the Saudi curriculum to take advantage of the use of technology to improve education. A goal of this project was for e-learning to be a…

  7. The Educational Aspirations of Saudi Arabian Youth: Implications for Creating a New Framework to Explain Saudi Arabian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Woohyang

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Saudi Arabia has garnered immense praise for its rapid expansion and developments in both quantity and quality. In response to this, the tertiary school enrollment in Saudi Arabia is rapidly rising. These achievements can be explained by changes in educational policies. However, studies regarding youth's awareness are scarce.…

  8. The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. AlBaker

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

  9. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  10. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaqafi AO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart

  13. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  14. ABO blood groups and risk for obesity in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alanazi, Arwa R; Alanazi, Abdullah S; Alruwili, Asma N

    2016-12-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases. Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood group and risk for obesity. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and obesity in apparently healthy attendees of primary healthcare (PHC) centers in Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 401 participants aged 15 years and older attending three randomly selected PHC centers in Arar city. Data were collected by means of personal interview using a predesigned questionnaire. Anthropometric examination included height and weight measurements with calculation of BMI. ABO and Rh blood groups were determined. The majority of the participants were female (70.8%). The mean±SD age was 28.6±9.1 years. Only 5.7% were underweight. Both normal and overweight participants were equal in number and constituted 28.4%, whereas obese individuals constituted 37.4% with a mean BMI of 28.56±8.0. Blood group O was the most common (44.1%), followed by A (30.9%), B (18.7%), and AB (6.2%). Rh-positive cases constituted 87.0%. Blood group O was the most common type among the obese individuals (44.7%), followed by A, B, and AB groups (30, 20, and 5.3%, respectively). BMI was highest (28.8±9.2) in blood group O. There were no statistically significant differences between different ABO blood groups as regards BMI, Rh, and sex. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between Rh type and BMI. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is high in the population attending PHC centers of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. There is no association between overweight, obesity, and ABO blood groups or Rh.

  15. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacy consumers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.

  16. Flood analysis using HEC-RAS model: a case study for Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hafr Al-Batin is a Saudi Arabian city located in the northeastern part of the kingdom. The city lies in the dry valley of Wadi Al-Batin, part of Wadi Al-Rummah, which leads inland towards Medina and formerly emptied into the Arabian Gulf. Hafr Al-Batin is located in an area where three valleys meet, which makes the city under high risk of flooding, especially when intense rain occurs during short duration as in the case of arid and semi-arid regions. The yearly average rainfall intensity of Hafr Al-Baten is estimated to be 125 mm. Recently, extreme rainfall events occurred, generating flood water to flow from all valleys towards the city, causing serious damage to public and private properties. In this study, HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS models are used to simulate flood occurrence in the city. The results indicate that the average flow depths within the part of the main channel passing through Hafr Al-Batin city were 3.02 m, 3.26 m, 3.45 m, 3.76 m, 4.04 m and 4.34 m for the simulated 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100-year design floods, respectively. Flood hazard maps are also generated to identify the areas within the city with high risk of flooding.

  17. Violence against wives: a silent suffering in northern Saudi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elfetoh, Nagah M; Abd El-Mawgod, Mohamed M

    2015-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide epidemic. It may take different forms depending on history, culture, background, and experiences, but it causes great suffering for women, their families, and the communities in which they live. Despite its high prevalence, no previous studies that have been conducted in Arar, northern area of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), addressing this issue could be traced. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and determinants of violence experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centers in Arar city, Northern Border, KSA. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period from January to June 2014 in Arar city in the Northern Province of the KSA. Data were collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 208 wives (184 currently married, 16 divorced, and eight widowed) attending five randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Arar, KSA, were interviewed. Collected data provided information on both physical and emotional violence. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence in the studied group was 80.7 and 100.0% for physical and psychological violence, respectively. On studying the reasons for physical violence, half (50%) of the participants reported no clear cause, 19.2% reported failure to adequately care for children (such as cleaning, feeding, and dressing), and 7.8% reported causes related to poor scholastic achievement and couple conflict about appropriate approaches of upbringing of children. Suspicion on wife's fidelity was the most common form of psychological violence (21%). The perpetrator was the husband in 76.9% of cases and the husband's family was the perpetrator in 3.8% of cases. Physical violence was significantly higher during the first 10 years of marriage compared with other durations. University-educated husbands showed significantly lower percentage of physical violence against women compared with those of other

  18. Public awareness and perception toward Adverse Drug Reactions reporting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.

  19. Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty. PMID:24987645

  20. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  1. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  2. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  3. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  4. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  5. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  6. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our

  7. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  8. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

  9. Entrepreneurship ecosystem evolution strategy of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In majority of times when a potential start-up strikes a brilliant business idea, he/she has little knowledge of ‘how to move from there’. They lack information on the stakeholders of entrepreneurship ecosystem who can help and assist these startups in numerous ways and help them materialize their concepts. Availability of this information will help the ecosystem stakeholders to avoid replication and duplication of efforts. Similarly, knowledge of status quo helps identify opportunities and supports plan development to endeavor through right strategy for the start-up. Critical review of existing initiatives of Saudi Arabia for entrepreneurship growth and identification of the existing stakeholders of the entrepreneurship in the country is conducted. Similarly their work and potential for practicable interventions to further entrepreneurship reflecting country’s economic development process is examined. This paper benefits from a cross sectional basic study of Saudi Arabia that utilized primary and secondary sources to discover the initiatives, understand entrepreneurship growth and then map the national entrepreneurship ecosystem. A number of interviews from CEO’s, General Managers and other senior executives were carried out to know the role of the different organizations in entrepreneurship growth. It was coupled with a detailed secondary research from existing resources. It has been identified that the ecosystem is swiftly expanding but yet under development and infancy stage where the institutions are prospering. The research is based on country analysis. The paper also shows that the Saudi Arabian government has taken proactive stance in developing the entrepreneurship ecosystem and startup landscape and highlights the transformation of the ecosystem strategy.

  10. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M; Alshahrani, Saeed M; Kojan, Suleiman M; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Alamry, Ahmed A; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers.

  11. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating

  12. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  13. Factors that affect the job satisfaction of Saudi Arabian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Jazi; Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Valenzuela, Fredy-Roberto

    2016-04-01

    To determine factors that influence the job satisfaction of Saudi nurses. Saudi Arabia has a chronic shortage of Saudi national nurses. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how job satisfaction influences the recruitment and retention of Saudi nationals within the nursing profession. Qualitative data were gathered from Saudi nurses and content analysis was used to identify themes in the written responses. Four main themes emerged from the data: lack of educational opportunities and support and the poor image of the nursing profession, perceptions of favouritism, high workloads and stressful work environment and the effect of religion on job satisfaction. Saudi nurses would be more satisfied with their jobs if they had greater access to educational opportunities and if there was a reduction in workload and the perceived favouritism in the workplace was addressed. Religion was also found to play a significant role in supporting job satisfaction. These findings suggest the development of educational scholarships, as well as policies that better support equity in the workplace, to address Saudi nurses' level of job satisfaction. The generally positive impact of cultural and religious beliefs is also highlighted in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  15. Characterization of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons at Three Urban Sites in Western Saudi Arabia, in Lahore (Pakistan), and in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Zeb, J.; Yu, L. E.; Khwaja, H. A.; Farrukh, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Favorable conditions to tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are present over the Persian Gulf Region. Ozone is a well known pollutant affecting human health and natural ecosystems. Among the several factors contributing to the formation of the O3 hot spot over the Middle East, the presence of local emissions of its precursors needs to be considered. We report initial measurements of a suite of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), an important component of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which, coupled with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight, are key chemical precursors of tropospheric O3. We measured 63 speciated C2-C10 NMHCs, in addition to methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) in three cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Mecca, and Madina; October-November 2012 and April 2013) and in the city of Lahore (Pakistan; December 2012). To put these data into perspective, we compare our results to data collected in Singapore (August-November 2012). We observed enhanced levels in all three Saudi Arabian cities compared to the local background and to those measured in Singapore. However, the Saudi levels are much lower than those measured in Lahore, where the sum of quantified NMHCs is about six times higher. For Madina, enhanced levels of the alkenes, ethyne and CO indicated that vehicle exhaust was the dominant source. In Jeddah and Mecca, the most abundant NMHC were the alkanes (47-61% of total measured NMHCs), which are more closely associated with emissions from natural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and gasoline evaporation. In Lahore, the hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, used to evaluate the importance of the different measured species toward ozone production, is three to six times higher than for the Saudi cities, and more than 20 times higher than for Singapore. For all urban areas reported here, among the measured compounds, the alkenes (especially ethene and propene) dominate in terms of OH reactivity because of a combination of their great abundance and

  16. The merger of commercial companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange (Tadawul) and its impact on the rights of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Saudi system

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Saeed Alshamrani

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the rights of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Saudi Arabia when a merger occurs between two or more commercial companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange (Tadawul). This article aims to give a comprehensive and critical review of the new Saudi Arabia Companies Law 2015 and also the Foreign Investment Law 2000, and the extent to which these laws provide protection for foreign investors in Saudi Arabia. The article is divided into eight sections, as follows. The first...

  17. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris in adolescent male students in Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alenezi, Naif G; Alshamari, Nasser G; Alenezi, Omar G

    2016-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Small, noninflamed acne lesions may not be more than a slight nuisance, but, in individuals with more severe inflammatory disease, pain, social embarrassment, and both physical and psychological scarring can be life altering. Despite its high prevalence, no previous community-based studies have been conducted in Arar, northern border of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acne vulgaris, to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of cases, and to determine the aggravating factors and the psychological impact of acne vulgaris in a representative sample of secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage systematic random sampling technique was followed. A total of 400 male students during the academic year 2015-2016 were included in the study. Data were collected by means of personal interview and filling-in a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of acne vulgaris was 53.5%. The mean age of onset was 15.0±1.2 years. Positive family history of acne vulgaris was found in 46.7% of cases. The skin was greasy in 61.7% of cases. Acne site was the face in 67.3%, the back in 4.7%, and both in 28% of the cases. More than half (54.2%) of the cases had first-degree acne. Students mentioned several factors affecting the appearance of acne; 59.8% of cases reported a relation of increased acne appearance with the cleanliness of the skin, 35.5% reported relation with consumption of fatty meals, 24.2% with eating chocolate, 23.3% with consumption of spicy food, 12.1% with excess intake of cola drinks, 31.8% with heavy smoking, and 60.7% reported increased acne appearance in summer months. Acne was highly prevalent among secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several risk factors increased the appearance of acne, including

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqarni AM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayidh M Alqarni,1,2 Vishal Vennu,1 Sulaiman A Alshammari,3 Saad M Bindawas1 1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, King Abdullah Hospital, Bisha, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Older adults are the fastest growing population group worldwide. Regular physical activity (PA is reported to reduce the risk of health conditions and improve personal well-being. Few validated instruments can be used to measure the PA levels among older adults in Saudi Arabia. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE is used worldwide for evaluating the PA levels of the elderly in epidemiological studies. However, this scale has not been translated into Arabic. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the PASE into Arabic language and evaluate its reliability and validity among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional one following Beaton guidelines to translate and perform cultural adaptation, as well as test the reliability and validity of the PASE Arabic version (PASE-A. Elderly (N=74 people from both genders, who lived in a community dwelling in Riyadh city, were selected from several primary health care centers. The study used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess the internal consistency reliability, while intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1 was used for test–retest reliability and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r was used to evaluate the correlation among PASE-A and grip strength, Timed Up and Go test, body mass index, and fat percentage. Results: Out of 74 older adults, 59 (79.7% completed the PASE-A questionnaire twice. The internal consistency of the PASE-A components was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.70–0.75, and the reliability of the components

  19. Blood donors screening for malaria in non-endemic area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Is it necessary to introduce immunological testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al Gharawi, Ali; Alrasheed, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-02-01

    In Saudi Arabia, where malaria is not endemic, the incidence is very low. However, malaria transmission cases have been reported, mainly in Asir and Jazan provinces along the Southwestern border with Yemen. Imported cases also have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria in blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in the central area of Saudi Arabia and to assess the effectiveness of malaria screening methods used by transfusion services in Prince Sultan Military Medical City. This study was conducted on 180,000 people who donated blood during 2006-2015. All blood smears from blood donors were screened for malaria infection using Giemsa staining, low power and high power microscopic examinations, and using oil immersion lens. The data were analyzed and reported in descriptive statistics and prevalence. From the total of 180,000 blood donors who were screened for malaria, 156,000 (87%) and 23.400 (13%) were Saudi Arabia citizens and non-Saudi residents, respectively. The mean age of the blood donors was 32 (ranging from 18 to 65), 97% and 3% were male and female, respectively. Using our current method for malaria screening, the prevalence of malaria in the study population was zero. The current methods of malaria screening in blood donors is not suitable for screening low-level parasiotemia. Adding the immunoassay and molecular screening methods is suggested.

  20. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    its “ double standards” and general “inability to carry out its duties and assume its responsibilities.” Saudi officials have called for “profound and... doubling our gas production.” 97 In 2016, Saudi officials stated they are studying the prospect of a partial public offering of shares in Saudi Aramco...leaders could avoid the risks posed by this scenario by adopting “tough policy reforms in areas such as domestic pricing of energy and taxation , an

  1. Conservation in Saudi Arabia; moving from strategy to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichievy, Chris; Sheldon, Rob; Wacher, Tim; Llewellyn, Othman; Al-Mutairy, Mohammed; Alagaili, Abdulaziz

    2018-02-01

    Conservation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is relatively young, yet have made considerable gains in conservation through strategic proclamation and reintroductions. Changes in land use, illegal hunting and competition with domestic stock has decimated the native ungulates, meaning that the survival of the native ungulate species is now completely dependent on protected area network. The challenge is to sustain this network to make meaningful conservation impact into the future. We review the status of ungulate conservation in Saudi Arabia and highlight that the conservation strategy is well developed. The major challenge faced in conservation in Saudi Arabia now is to implement what has been sanctioned.

  2. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.; Huqail, A.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analysis were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A.gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations. (author)

  3. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobayel, Hana; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nanda A; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gender differences and predictors of leisure versus non-leisure time physical activities among Saudi adolescents aged 14-19 years. The multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. A sample of 1,388 males and 1,500 females enrolled in secondary schools in three major cities in Saudi Arabia was included. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Body Mass Index was calculated. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were measured using a self-reported validated questionnaire. The total time spent in leisure and non-leisure physical activity per week was 90 and 77 minutes, respectively. The males spent more time per week in leisure-time physical activities than females. Females in private schools spent more time during the week in leisure-time physical activities, compared to females in Stateschools. There was a significant difference between genders by obesity status interaction in leisure-time physical activity. Gender, and other factors, predicted total duration spent in leisure-time and non-leisure-time physical activity. The study showed that female adolescents are much less active than males, especially in leisure-time physical activities. Programmes to promote physical activity among adolescents are urgently needed, with consideration of gender differences.

  4. Outline of sport injuries in the V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, A H

    1998-10-01

    The V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup was held for the first time in Saudi Arabia from 16-2-89 till 3-3-89. Sports injuries at this competitions was reported from the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with eight matches taking place at different days. Out of 176 soccer players from group C (Brazil, Germany DR, Mali and USA) who participated in this competition, only six were injured and 7 injuries were noted with an incidence of 3.98% (n = 7/176). Lower limb injuries predominated (ankle sprain: 28.57%; tibia fracture: 14.29%), whereas head, facial, radius and rib injuries had equal rates (14.29%). Also, fractures predominated (42.86%) due to the aggressive attitudes. Concussion (14.29%) and cut wound (14.29%) were less common. High skills, good physical fitness, compliance of rules and regulations, strict surveillance of violence and misbehaviour by the FIFA cup organizing team and allied offices led to the well performance, safer environment and low incidence of sports injuries.

  5. Violence exposure among health care professionals in Saudi public hospitals. A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algwaiz, Waleed M; Alghanim, Saad A

    2012-01-01

    To identify the prevalence, causes, types, and sources of workplace violence among health professionals in public hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This exploratory cross-sectional survey employed self-administered questionnaires to collect data on aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Saudi hospitals. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 600 physicians and nurses, of which 383 (63.8%) completed the questionnaires at 2 public hospitals in Riyadh city between May and July 2011. More than two-thirds (67.4%) of respondents reported they were victims of violence in the previous 12 months. Nurses were more likely to be exposed to violent incidents than physicians (pviolence. Verbal abuse was the most common type encountered. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or friends, followed by the patients themselves. Reasons for not reporting violent events included: feel it is a part of the job, previous experience of no action, and fear of consequences. Physicians and nurses are at high risk of violent incidents. Health decision makers need to be aware of the potential consequences of such events. Appropriate preventive measures are needed to make hospitals safer environments.

  6. Antibiotic use and knowledge in the community of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Tatyana; Al Warafi, Abdullah; Hussein Eltom, Elhassan; Tadjieva, Nigora; Kubena, Ales; Vlcek, Jiri

    2014-04-15

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics has resulted in a dramatic increase of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. We examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of antibiotic use in three Asian countries. A nationwide cross-sectional study of teachers in large cities of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan was conducted. A random sample of 1,200 teachers was selected in each country. Data were collected through a questionnaire-based survey and then analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. The prevalence of non-prescription antibiotic use ranged from 48% in Saudi Arabia to 78% in Yemen and Uzbekistan. Pharmacies were the main source of non-prescribed antibiotics. The most common reasons for antibiotic use were cough (40%) and influenza (34%). Forty-nine percent of respondents discontinued antibiotics when they felt better. Although awareness of the dangers of antibiotic use correlated inversely with self-medication, understanding of the appropriate use of antibiotics was limited. The prevalence of antibiotic self-medication in the educated adult population in the studied countries was found to be alarmingly high. Effective strategies involving regulatory enforcement prohibiting sales of antibiotics without prescription should be implemented along with educational interventions for health professionals and the public.

  7. Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.

  8. Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: AN Analysis Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Data and SHANNON'S Entropy Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.

  9. Potential for the international spread of middle East respiratory syndrome in association with mass gatherings in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-07-17

    A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

  10. Does Saudi school furniture meet ergonomics requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Zaki

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the effect of adjustable imported desk and chair combinations available in the market on student performance. Six sets of chairs and tables within three different activities (reading, writing, and looking to the blackboard) were the independent variables. Evaluation of back force at 5th lumbar vertebrae and the 1st sacrum (L5/S1), subjective measures of discomfort, and the mismatch between student body dimension and classroom furniture analysis were measured. A total of 124 young male students (first through sixth-grade) participated in this experiment. The results revealed too low or too high chair and table heights relative to the students' body dimensions increased the stresses acting at L5/S1 as well as discomfort ratings. This study indicated there was a high level of body mismatch in desk-chair combinations even with the adjustable imported furniture available in the local market. Anthropometric data of Saudi students should be collected from different regions in the Kingdom and then design and development of desk-chair combinations could follow the development of a standard procedure to adapt to the needs of Saudi school children.

  11. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamjoom, Hana M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  12. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Hart, C.A.; Beeching, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with cancer in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazieh, Abdul Rahman; Al Sudairy, Reem; Abulkhair, Omalkhair; Alaskar, Ahmed; Al Safi, Faisal; Sheblaq, Nagham; Young, Susan; Issa, Maher; Tamim, Hani

    2012-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among patients with cancer. However, the issue is not well-studied among the Saudi patient population. Our study aimed at determining the patterns of CAM use among patients with cancer in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using interview-administered questionnaire was conducted in patients with cancer in the Oncology Department of King Abdulaziz Medical City for National Guards, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were asked about CAM use including dietary supplement (DS) and non-DS remedies. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predicting factors for CAM use. A total of 453 adult patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 53.5 years (14.7-94.6), and the ratio of females to males was 271/182 (59.8%/40.2%). Of those, 410 patients (90.5%) used some type of CAM remedy. Non-DS remedies were used by 399 patients (88%) and were mainly of a religious nature including reciting the Quran (74.8%), prayer (16%), supplication (13%), and others (3.7%). However, 386 patients (85.2%) used DS including: Zamzam water (59.8%), honey (54.3%), black seed (35.1%), water with the Quran recited over it (29.8%), and other remedies. The majority of patients (90%) used CAM as a cancer treatment and the rest used it for various reasons, such as symptom control or supportive treatment. Only 18% of the patients discussed CAM use with their physicians, compared to 68% discussing it with religious clergypeople (Sheikhs).The univariate analysis revealed that only female gender is a predictor of CAM use, which remained significant in a multivariate analysis, in addition to current employment. The use of complementary therapies among Saudi patients with cancer is highly prevalent, with a predominance of interventions of religious background, indicating the strong influence of religion on peoples' lives, especially when people are faced with life-threatening illnesses.

  14. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  15. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  16. The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Hassan; Khalil, Mohamed S; Al-Almaie, Sameeh M; Kurashi, Nabil Y; Wahas, Saeed

    2005-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (pRaven Matrices Test to be family income and height. Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dent...

  18. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Syed M

    2016-12-01

    Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words: Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia.

  19. Role of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Saudi Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Khalaf Alharthey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many researchers focus on the relocation of the government in the transformation of The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices in higher education of Saudi Arabia. The growing importance of CSR has made it necessary for every university to use international benchmarks as standard to devise their CSR practices accordingly. This realization has shifted focus of CSR practices of Saudi universities towards every dimension of CSR. The study collected secondary data through 120 advertisements published from 2012 to 2015 and found out that CSR practices of universities of Saudi Arabia remain focused on social dimension of CSR because Saudi culture and religion had profound impact on business laws and eventually on CSR practices.

  20. Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prados, Alfred B

    2005-01-01

    .... Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it has benefited from a stable political system based on a smooth process of succession to the throne and a prosperous economy dominated by the oil sector...

  1. Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prados, Alfred B

    2003-01-01

    .... Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it has benefited from a stable political system based on a smooth process of succession to the throne and a prosperous economy dominated by the oil sector...

  2. Population Pressure and the Future of Saudi State Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristo, Matthew M; Kovalcik, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    .... However, Saudi Arabia is also characterized by one of the fastest growing population rates in the world, and its economic and political capacity to absorb such rapid population growth is not so...

  3. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... rational breeding strategy for genetic improvement of goats in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The studied. Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and Asian populations seem to have ..... West Asia and North Africa, Vol. 2.

  4. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    .... Since 2005, King Abdullah bin Abd al Aziz Al Saud has sought to strengthen Saudi relations with European and Asian counterparts and has worked to build and lead an Arab consensus on regional security...

  5. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant political and economic influence as the birthplace of the Islamic faith and by virtue of its large energy reserves...

  7. Saudi Security: Challenges in the Post-Saddam Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, David

    2004-01-01

    Events at the beginning of the 2lst century have brought a fundamental change to the security environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of a significance not witnessed in the region since the Iranian Revolution in 1979...

  8. Gender inequities in health: an exploratory qualitative study of Saudi women's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health.

  9. Novel Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1: A Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2017-06-14

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1 is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to survive at temperatures ranging from 55 to 60∘C. The AK1 strain was isolated from the hot spring “Al-Ain Alhara” located at a distance of 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia. This study presents the morphological characterization of A. flavithermus AK1, including a detailed description of its complete genome sequence. A total of 50 contigs were used to produce a genome sequence of 2,630,664 bp that includes 2724 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA genes, 18 of which are rRNA genes. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strains that were previously submitted to NCBI revealed that the AK1 strain has the smallest genome size with the highest GC content. The strain can therefore be exploited for several biotechnological applications based on its high thermophilic potential.

  10. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  11. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  12. Cracking the walls of leadership : women in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the obstacles to women's advancement in Saudi Arabia. The paper addresses the question ‘what are women’s experiences of becoming leaders and what influences their leadership practice ?’ It does this by drawing on gender and Middle Eastern literature, as well as empirical evidence of the perceptions, experience and challenges of women in Saudi. Design/methodology/approach The study contributes a consideration of the academic literature,...

  13. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    23, 2013. 6 Background information on Saudi cabinet members is available at http://www.saudiembassy.net/about/ Biographies - of-Ministers.aspx. Saudi...territories it occupied in 1967, (2) agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem , and provide for the (3) “[a...compromise on Palestinian sovereignty in Jerusalem .” Elhanan Miller, “Arab ministers back Abbas in rejecting ‘Jewish’ Israel,” Times of Israel, January

  14. Urban Unrest and Non-Religious Radicalization in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Menoret , Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The expressions of dissent in contemporary Saudi Arabia, whether through violent action or ideological and theological constructions, are well documented today. The very contexts within which violence appears and develops are less well known. If it is essential to read and analyse the Islamic discourses and to observe and interpret the history of Islamic activism in Saudi Arabia, such an elitist focus may overlook more discrete events that might explain the way ordinary people refer to state ...

  15. Saudi security: challenges for the post-Saddam era

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Events at the beginning of the 21st century have brought a fundamental change to the security environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of a significance not witnessed in the region since the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003 eliminated the most significant external threat facing Saudi Arabia. At the same time, internal threats to the Kingdom appear to be increasing. The demographic and economic c...

  16. Saudi Arabia exporting Salafi education and radicalizing Indonesia's Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Salafis, who defend a very conservative, literal interpretation of Islam and treat Shia Muslims with hostility, are not just a phenomenon in the Middle East. They are increasingly pressuring Shias and other religious minorities in Indonesia, too. Saudi Arabia is the world’s main provider of Islamic education. In addition to promoting Salafism and maligning other religious communities, Saudi educational materials present the kingdom in a favorable light and can also exacerba...

  17. Characterizing sleeping habits and disturbances among Saudi adults

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tannir, Mohamad A.; Kobrosly, Samer Y.; Al-Badr, Ahmad H.; Salloum, Nourhan A.; Altannir, Youssef M.; Sakkijha, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variabl...

  18. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  19. Saudi Arabia’s Nuclear Posture: Is Hedging the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    can mandate their states to proliferate. Autocratic leader Kim Jung-il put North Korea on a nuclear trajectory that his son readily followed. F.W. de...Klerk brought his country back from its existence as an undeclared nuclear state. Though it appears in historical examples that autocratic leaders ...systems.20 Figures such as these demonstrate the robust nature of the U.S.–Saudi military relationship. Blanchard explains, “Saudi leaders remain skeptical

  20. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described

  1. Non oil exports finance and economic development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsakran, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Oil is an important part of the Saudi economy. With the volatility of oil prices and the pressing needs of economic growth and development, the Saudi Arabian government has planned to diversify its sources of income. To this end, the majority of effort has focused on developing the non-oil export sectors, particularly in manufacturing. Despite government efforts to enhance the ratio of non-...

  2. Profile of peptic ulcer disease and its risk factors in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaqawi, Afaf Shuaib Badi; El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed Abo; Alanazi, Reem Faleh Abdullah; Alanazi, Najah Salah Farhan; Alrayya, Sara Emad; Alanazi, Arwa Nughaymish Mulfi; Alenezi, Shoug Zeid Trad; Alanazi, Rehab Abdallah Alrkowi; Alshalan, Anfal Muaddi; Alenezi, Omar Tabaan; Ali, Wafaa Mohamed Bakr

    2017-11-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial health problem, and its prevalence and risk factors have changed considerably within the past century. To determine the prevalence of peptic ulcer among the population of Arar city and to identify risk factors for peptic ulcer and to estimate their relative impact on ulcer incidence. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia from November 01, 2016 to April 30, 2017. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistics, prevalence, and Chi-square test. Total prevalence of peptic ulcer among the studied respondents was thus: 21.9% had peptic ulcer; 16.2% gastric ulcer and 5.6% duodenal ulcer. In 19.7% of the cases, the pain was severe, 92.4% reported that pain was precipitated by certain food. In addition to heartburn, 78.8% reported loss of appetite, 71.2% indigestion, 66.7% regurgitation, 59.1% nausea and vomiting and 42.4% with chest pain. Regarding the risk factors, coffee drinking came in first place (81.8%) followed by physical stress in 77.3%, spicy food in 57.6%, prolonged use of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 33.3% and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in 24.2%. A further 22.7% reported melena as a complication while only 10.6% reported hematemesis. This is the first population-based study in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia reporting point prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. The rate of 16.2% for gastric ulcer and 5.6% for duodenal ulcers are substantially high. Coffee drinking, physical stress, spicy food, prolonged use of NSAID and H. pylori infection were the reported risk factors. Population-based endoscopic studies are recommended.

  3. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  4. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Alam, Mohammed S.; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources

  5. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  6. Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.

  7. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  8. Hypertension in Renal Transplantation: Saudi Arabian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk

  9. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  10. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  11. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  12. The Saudi electricity sector: pressing issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, Said; Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    With 266 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (16% of world total), Saudi Arabia holds the world's largest (conventional) crude oil reserves, was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013, and the second largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States. The Kingdom has the lion share of the global oil production spare capacity, which proved to be crucial for the oil market stability on many occasions in the past, allowing Saudi Arabia to replace missing barrels from any other oil producer in the world. In the same manner, Saudi Arabia's decision last November not to step-in and reverse the oil price decline thus, abandoning its historical role as a 'swing producer,' revived the old debate on the use of oil as a 'political weapon' on the international energy scene. In addition to its well-known predominant role in the oil markets and in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), several other features make the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a major player in the world economy and global geopolitics. - Although the Kingdom does not export nor import natural gas, Saudi Arabia is embodied with the 5. natural gas proved reserves (8.2 trillion cubic meters (tcm), 4.4% of world natural gas proved reserves), behind Russia, Iran, Qatar and United States. With a production of 103 billion cubic meters (bcm), Saudi Arabia is also a gas producer solely for its domestic demand. - Because the Kingdom relies heavily on hydrocarbons for its present and future prosperity, the country is very active in climate change negotiations, as mitigation measures resulting from such negotiations will impact global oil demand. In the international talks on climate change, Saudi Arabia has often been calling for the need to address the vulnerabilities of the economies dependent on a single resource. - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is member of G20 Group, putting up-front oil producers' interests in a forum which accounts for 85

  13. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses. Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  14. Genetic Characterization of the Gut Microbiome of Hajj Pilgrims

    KAUST Repository

    Beaudoin, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah, Saudi Arabia, is a unique mass gathering event that brings more than 2 million individuals from around the world. Several public health considerations, such as the spread of infectious diseases, must

  15. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S; Amin, Rubina

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims at presenting details of the application of assisted reproductive technology and the impact of the Islamic law (Sharia) on its practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Analysis of the data sourced from manual searches of bibliographies from key articles showed that this technology in KSA is practiced in a strictly religious manner and certain aspects of the technology are completely forbidden. It further showed that lack of an official government in-vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to gather information on the activities of IVF clinics has limited the data available for international comparisons. Sharing information internationally could allow religiously concerned infertile couples to have access to the reproductive services in the Kingdom. It would further improve the quality of care, enhance certain techniques like in-vitro maturation and experimentation on embryos, by providing resources that are currently unavailable, keeping in view the religious beliefs and avoiding conflicts.

  17. Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  20. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  1. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  2. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  3. The response of solar radiation in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, to smoke from oil field fires in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-09-01

    The relative monthly solar radiation in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia (300 km southeast of Kuwait City) was reduced to 75% of the recent 10-year mean value by the torching of the first 50 of many oil wells and production facilities in Kuwait in mid-January 1991. The value was reduced further when an additional 600 wells were ignited in late February. Solar radiation continued at 55 65% of normal levels during March to August, when 341 oil wells were still burning. Recovery was rapid as the fires in oil fields located directly upwind of Jubail were extinguished, with the solar radiation reaching 95% of the long-term mean in October.

  4. Agency, Expression, and the Virtual Sphere: Social Media in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of why so many Saudi Arabians use social media. Prior literature investigating social media usage in the Saudi Arabia is either too broad or too narrow. This necessitates academic inquiry that addresses the “middle ground”. Saudi Arabians' markedly high rates of social media usage appear incongruous with the traditional, highly restrictive nature of Saudi Arabian society. Given social media's status as a relatively new phenomenon, and its recognized ab...

  5. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  6. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  7. Saudi Arabian International Graduate Students' Lived Experiences at a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Enrollment of Saudi Arabian International students' in United States institutions of higher learning has increased substantially over the years since King Abdullah initially launched the Saudi scholarship program in 2005 that was renewed in 2010 and funded an outward flow of Saudi student, including females, to universities worldwide. A commitment…

  8. Child maltreatment between knowledge, attitude and beliefs among Saudi pediatricians, pediatric residency trainees and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossef Alnasser, MBBS

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Saudi medical students, pediatrics trainees and pediatricians have good basic knowledge, positive attitude and willingness to learn more to provide a safe environment for children in Saudi Arabia. However, knowledge in regards to reporting child maltreatment is a major observed defect. Still, further education and training are needed to combat CAN in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  10. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  11. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  12. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  13. Social Determinants of Domestic Violence Among Saudi Married Women in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies

  14. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  15. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  16. Saudi dental hygienists' opinions regarding establishing a professional association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joufi, A I; Wilder, R S; Curran, A E; Brame, J L

    2018-02-28

    To assess the opinions of dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia regarding the establishment of a professional association including the role it should have to meet their professional needs. A cross-sectional electronic survey using Qualtrics was utilized. IRB exemption was obtained prior to distribution. Although there are 298 licensed Saudi dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia, email addresses were only available for 101 respondents: those obtained previously by direct contact for the purpose of initiation of a professional association and those referred by the direct contacts. Subjects were emailed a link to the survey. Seventy-seven subjects responded fully to the survey yielding a response rate of 70.3%. Most 91.5% (n = 65) of the respondents favoured the establishment of a Saudi dental hygiene professional association. Eighty-eight per cent (n = 59) responded that such an association would promote development of the profession in the country at least somewhat and 86.6% (n = 58) agreed that their professional needs could be met by its establishment. Interestingly, half of those who did not support the creation of the professional association believed it would promote development of the profession and meet professional needs. A representative sample of dental hygienists in Saudi Arabia support the establishment of a professional association and feel that it would advocate and promote the dental hygiene profession in the country and meet their professional needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Mohamed S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

  18. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia : Urgent call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results: A total of 1,292 neurologyrelated publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67% and the university sector (≈47%. However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%. Conclusion: Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  19. Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P activity and the intake of milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.

  20. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  1. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A.F.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2001-01-01

    The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

  3. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia: Urgent call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah

    2017-08-01

    Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed ® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  4. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  5. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  6. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  9. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  10. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  11. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, M.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Turki, HaifaA.; Al-Mulhim, Fathma A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  12. Patient’s medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s and their medication(s which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  14. Histopathologic Patterns of Breast Lesions in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence rates of common types of breast cancer in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was carried out over a five-year period in two referral hospitals. In this study 257 files were retrieved from departments of Surgery from different hospitals in Hail region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Results: Of the 257 samples diagnosed using Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 158 patients. Of the 158 diagnosed samples, 46/158 (23.2% were ductal carcinoma, 7/158 (4.4% were lobular carcinoma, 3/158 (1.9% were mixed tumours, and 102/158 (64.6 were fibroadenoma. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma are the prevalent breast lesions in Hail Region of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Nursing work environment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the work environment as perceived by nurses in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The quality of patient care services has been associated with the quality of work environment of nurses. It is therefore important to assess the work environment in order to acquire baseline data and enable the institution to benchmark their status from established quality standards. This study used a descriptive survey with 1007 staff nurses across service units of a 1000-bed government-operated hospital. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Healthy Work Environment Assessment Questionnaire was used for data collection. Scores were aggregated and interpreted. Effective decision making, authentic leadership, appropriate staffing, true collaboration, skilled communication and meaningful recognition were rated as good (mean range 3.53-3.76). Healthy work environments mutually benefit patients, nurses, nurse managers, health care providers, the health team, administration, the institution and the community at large. Valuable baseline data on the status of the work environment in this setting were generated. This should allow administrators and staff to work together in improving weaknesses and strengthening further whatever gains that are attained to ensure consistent provision of safe and quality patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalloum, Abdullah A.; El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; AlHerbish, Abdullah S.; AlOmar, Ahmad A.; Qurashi, Mansour M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  17. Surface gene variants of hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudari, Ahmed Y; Amer, Haitham M; Abdo, Ayman A; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Hamoudi, Waleed; Alswat, Khalid; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S) protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the "a" determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 48 mutations (21 unique) were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique) changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in "a" determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Different substitutions, particularly in major hydrophilic region, may have a potential influence on disease diagnosis, vaccination strategy, and antiviral chemotherapy.

  18. Correlates of sexual violence among adolescent females in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.

  19. Elemental analysis and radiation hazards parameters of bauxite located in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashrah, S.; E Taher, A.

    2017-04-01

    Since Bauxite has been widely used in industry and in scientific investigations for producing Aluminum, it is important to measure the radionuclides concentrations to determine the health effect. The Bauxite mine is located in Az Zabirah city in Saudi Arabia. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the bauxite samples were measured using γ-ray spectrometer NaI (Tl). The average and range values of the concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 102.2 (141.1-62.7), 156.3 (202.8-102.8) and 116.8 (191.7- 48.9) Bq/kg respectively. These results were compared with the reported ranges in the literature from other locations around the world. The radiation hazard parameters; radium equivalent activity, annual dose, external hazard were also calculated and compared with the recommended levels by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) and united nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation UNSCEAR reports. There are no studies for the natural radioactivity in the bauxite mine in Az Zabirah city, so these results are a start to establishing a database in this location.

  20. Evaluation of solar thermal driven cooling system in office buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjawi, Majid T.; Talal, Qazi; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study solar driven absorption chiller is used to reduce the peak cooling load in office buildings in Saudi Arabia for different selected cities. The study is conducted for six cities of Abha, Dhahran, Hail, Jeddah, Nejran and Riyadh under three operating durations of 4, 6, and 8 hours using flat plate or evacuated tube collectors. The energy analysis concluded that flat plate collectors are better than evacuated tube collectors. However, the results from economic analysis suggest that while proposing a gas fired absorption chiller will reduce running costs, further reduction by using solar collectors is not feasible because of its high initial cost. At the best case scenario the Net Present Value of a 10 Ton Absorption chiller operated by natural gas boiler and two large flat plate collectors (12m2 each) running for 8 hours/day, 5days/week has a value of 117,000 and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 12%. Solar driven absorption chiller could be more feasible if the gas prices increases or the solar collector prices decreases significantly. Finally, government economic incentives and taxes are recommended to provide a boost for the feasibility of such projects.

  1. Impact of help-seeking behavior and partner support on postpartum depression among Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi,1,2 Mahmoud Salam,1,2 Samiyah Alanazi,1 Manal Alweldawi,1 Najad Alsomali,1 Najla Alotaibi1 1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, 2Science and Technology Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD, including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB and partner support (PS on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.Methods: Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ, and Partner Support Scale (PSS. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders.Results: The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063 and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038, were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively. Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082, were more likely to

  2. Survey of awareness of diabetes mellitus among the Arar population, Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Aseel Menwer; Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed; Alotaibi, Hanan Khalid; Alanazi, Khalid Ayed; Alotaibi, Banan Khalid; Alshammari, Sultan Majed; Alanazi, Saud Rteamy; Alhazmi, Meshari Dalaf; Alshammari, Yousef Talal; Alshammari, Zaid Qati

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was carried out on Saudi nationals from different age groups that were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected by means of personal interview with the participants using a pre-designed questionnaire which was administered by the medical students for each diabetic patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15, using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. A total of 702 participants were interviewed, among them 201 (28.6%) males and 501 (71.4%) females, and most of them (77.8%) had high educational level, 10.4% were diabetics, 78.9% did not have regular checkup visits to the doctor and 58.5% did not perform any regular exercises, including walking, 60% thought that DM was due to partial or total decrease in insulin secretion and 12.4% thought that it was due to excess sweet eating. Additionally, 48.7% of the respondents thought that lack of exercise and obesity were the major risk factors of DM, 33.2% thought that it was a genetic disease. The majority (86.3) of the participants believed that the treatment of DM was a combination of healthy diet, exercise and medication and more than half (63.1%) said that weight loss and modification of life style were the most important preventive measures of DM. Regarding participants' knowledge about DM complications, 24.5% knew about retinopathy and loss of vision, 8.3% knew about retinopathy, loss of vision, low sensation and numbness in

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  4. The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMahmoud, Mohammed J; Khalil, Mesbah H; Moustafa, Adel R

    2009-01-01

    Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

  5. Role of Saudi universities in achieving the solar potential 2030 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyahya, Sulaiman; Irfan, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, domestic consumption of fossil fuel is expected to grow from 3.4 MBOE (Million Barrels of Oil Equivalent) to 8.3 MBOE by 2028; peak power demand from 55 GW to 121 GW by 2030. About 61 GW of demand appears unmet by the output of planned projects. In response, KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy, the nation’s energy policy maker) has announced the target of installing 41 GW of solar capacity by 2030 (24 GW by 2020). Deployment of so much solar power requires a substantial, locally trained, technical workforce. A lower bound estimate of 8.9 persons/MW of Solar PV and 3.04 persons/MW of Solar Thermal can be taken for manufacturing, operations and maintenance. This conservative figure would mean employment for 218,650 workers by 2030. This would require the 24 local universities to graduate 14,577 technically qualified workers annually for the next 15 years (607 graduates per year per university). Even assuming a 50% import of technical manpower, the above estimate can be revised as 303 graduates per university per year. The need for so many technical workers makes it imperative for local universities to immediately ramp up their capacity to graduate technical workforce. - Highlights: •A review was made for manpower requirement of solar projects. •Manpower requirement was suggested for the Solar Target 2030 of 41 GW for Saudi Arabia. •Role of universities was elaborated in achieving tis manpower requirement.

  6. Reproductive disturbances among Saudi adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Rim; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Musallam, Maha Ali; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Swedan, Nawaf Bin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2017-11-15

    To identify reproductive disturbances among adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study was conducted among 102 female with T1DM, (aged 13-29 years) who attended the Diabetes Clinic at Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia between April 2015 to March 2016. Clinical history, anthropometric characteristics and reproductive disturbance were collected through a questionnaire. Of 102 patients included in this analysis, 26.5% (27/102) were reported that they experienced an irregular menses. Of these patients, when compared to whose diabetes was diagnosed before menarche (35.4%, 17/48), patients diagnosed with diabetes after menarche (18.5%, 10/54) showed significantly less irregular menses (difference 16.9%, P = 0.04). Similarly, compared to patients diagnosed with diabetes prior to menarche (mean age 12.9 years; n = 48), patients diagnosed with diabetes after menarche (mean age 12.26 years; n = 54) were found to have 0.64 years delay in the age of menarche ( P = 0.04). Among the studied patients, 15.7% (16/102) had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of these PCOS patients, 37.5% (6/16) had irregular menses, 6.3% (1/16) had Celiac disease, 37.5% (6/16) had Hashimoto thyroiditis and 18.7% (3/16) had acne. More than one fourth of the study population with T1DM experiencing an irregular menses. Adolescent girls and young women diagnosed with diabetes prior to menarche showed higher menstrual irregularity and a delay in the age of menarche.

  7. Physicians’ knowledge and attitudes in Saudi Arabia regarding implantable cardiac defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Alhogbani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate knowledge and attitude of physicians involved in the management of patients with heart failure regarding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Methods: We conducted personal interviews with physicians involved in treating patients with heart failure. Between October 2015 and February 2016, the study was conducted in hospitals in the Riyadh region where no cardiac electrophysiology service was available. Every participant was met in person and received an oral questionnaire that aimed to assess basic knowledge regarding ICD indications and benefits. Results: Sixty-three physicians were met from 13 hospitals (14 consultants and 49 specialists. Forty-one percent of participants use the recommended cut-off level of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is ≤35% as the LVEF criterion for ICD referral in patients with cardiomyopathy. Only 50% of the consultants use ≤35% as the LVEF criterion for ICD referral. Seventy percent of the participants thought that ICD may improve heart failure symptoms. Forty-eight percent of physicians have a defined channel to refer patients to higher centers for ICD implant. There was no statistically significant difference between physicians’ knowledge when we categorized them according to three different factors: (1 physician’s specialty (cardiology vs. internal medicine; (2 physician’s degree (consultant vs. specialist; and (3 physician’s location (inside vs. outside Riyadh city. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge of current clinical guidelines regarding ICD implantation for patients with heart failure at general hospitals in Saudi Arabia. This finding highlights the need to improve the dissemination of guidelines to practitioners involved in managing patients with heart failure in an effort to improve ICD utilization. Keywords: Cardiac defibrillator, Heart failure, Physicians’ knowledge, Saudi Arabia

  8. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  9. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  10. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alangari, Abdullah; AlHarbi, Abdullah; AlGhonaium Abdulaziz; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L) cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity. (author)

  11. Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First reported case in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, N.A.; Hamid, M.H.; Bokhari, E.; El-Tayeb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)

  12. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulayel Alharbi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical/surgical management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with their accompanying supporting evidence level, which is based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  13. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hulayel; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Murshid, Esam; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Abusamra, Ashraf; Rabah, Danny; Almansour, Mubarak; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Aljubran, Ali; Eltigani, Amin; Alkushi, Hussein; Ahmed, Imran; Alsharm, Abdullah; Bazarbashi, Shouki

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical/surgical management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with their accompanying supporting evidence level, which is based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  14. Detection of Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauhidur Rahman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While several studies examined land use and land cover changes in the central and western parts of Saudi Arabia, this study is the first to use remote sensing data to examine the decadal land cover changes in Saudi Arabia’s eastern coastal city of Al-Khobar between 1990 and 2013. Specifically, it utilized ISODATA classification method to classify Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI data collected from 1990, 2001, and 2013 and then detected changes in the land cover within the study area. It then measured urban sprawl by calculating the relative Shannon’s entropy index values for the three years. With overall classification accuracies greater than 85%, the results show that urban built-up areas increased by 117% between 1990 and 2001 and 43.51% from 2001 to 2013. Vegetation increased by 110% from 1990 to 2001 and by 52% between 2001 and 2013. The entropy index values of 0.700 (1990, 0.779 (2001, and 0.840 (2013 indicates a high rate of urban sprawl and the city dispersing near the outskirts and towards the neighboring cities of Dhahran and Dammam. Future studies should examine the current challenges faced by the city’s residents due to urban expansion and attempt to find ways to resolve them in the near future.

  15. Shear-wave velocities beneath the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia, using ambient seismic noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Mooney, W.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Zahran, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present seismic shear-velocities for Harrat Rahat, a Cenozoic bimodal alkaline volcanic field in west-central Saudi Arabia, using seismic tomography from natural ambient noise. This project is part of an overall effort by the Saudi Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey to describe the subsurface structure and assess hazards within the Saudi Arabian shield. Volcanism at Harrat Rahat began approximately 10 Ma, with at least three pulses around 10, 5, and 2 Ma, and at least several pulses in the Quaternary from 1.9 Ma to the present. This area is instrumented by 14 broadband Nanometrics Trillium T120 instruments across an array aperture of approximately 130 kilometers. We used a year of recorded natural ambient noise to determine group and phase velocity surface wave dispersion maps with a 0.1 decimal degree resolution for radial-radial, transverse-transverse, and vertical-vertical components of the empirical Green's function. A grid-search method was used to carry out 1D shear-velocity inversions at each latitude-longitude point and the results were interpolated to produce pseudo-3D shear velocity models. The dispersion maps resolved a zone of slow surface wave velocity south-east of the city of Medina spatially correlated with the 1256 CE eruption. A crustal layer interface at approximately 20 km depth was determined by the inversions for all components, matching the results of prior seismic-refraction studies. Cross-sections of the 3D shear velocity models were compared to gravity measurements obtained in the south-east edge of the field. We found that measurements of low gravity qualitatively correlate with low values of shear-velocity below 20 km along the cross-section profile. We apply these methods to obtain preliminary tomography results on the entire Arabian Shield.

  16. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  17. Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

  18. Attitudes of Saudi medical students toward the disclosure of information on cancer in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Amri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of future physicians regarding the disclosure of diagnosis, prognosis, benefits, and adverse effects of therapeutic intervention if they happen to have cancer. It also examined the differences if any between regions or gender. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 medical students from University of Dammam, in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions on the attitudes to disclosure of information on cancer. This self-administered questionnaire was completed by the students in the presence of an investigator. Results: The vast majority of Saudi medical students stated that they would like to know about diagnosis of cancer (92.8% and only 7.2% wanted information withheld from them. Further, 67% of the males and 74.1% of the females wanted family members to know (P = 0.01, but one-third (33% did not want their family to know. Only 24.1% of the male and 21.1% of female students wanted their friends to know. In addition, -97% of the males and 98.8% of the females wanted to know the diagnosis, and 97% and 95.8% of females and males, respectively, would like to know the side effects of the therapy. Almost 95% of male and 93.4% of female students wanted to know the prognosis. Also, 98% of medical students from the Eastern Region would want the diagnosis of cancer to be disclosed compared to 73.6% of those from other regions (P = 0.01. There is no difference between the genders in attitudes toward the disclosure of the diagnosis, 94.6% and 92.2% (P = 0.38. Conclusions: There was a consensus among Saudi medical students on the knowledge of the benefits of treatment, adverse effects of therapy, and prognosis. Female students significantly more than males would like their families to be informed. Significantly more medical students from the Eastern Region than those from other regions would like the diagnosis of

  19. Patterns of failure and survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maklad AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Marzouk Maklad,1,2 Yasser Bayoumi,2,3 Mohamed Abdalazez Senosy Hassan,2,4 AbuSaleh A Elawadi,5,6 Hussain AlHussain,2 Ashraf Elyamany,7,8 Saleh F Aldhahri,9 Khalid Hussain Al-Qahtani,10 Mubarak AlQahtani,11 Mutahir A Tunio12 1Clinical Oncology, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 2Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Radiation Oncology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, 4Radiation Oncology, Minia Oncology Center, Minia, 5Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 6Medical Physics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 7Medical Oncology, SECI-Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 8Medical Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, 9Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Saud University, 10Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, 11Department of ENT, King Fahad Medical City, 12Radiation Oncology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: We aimed to investigate the patterns of failure (locoregional and distant metastasis, associated factors, and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT combined with chemotherapy. Patients and methods: From April 2006 to December 2011, 68 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy at our hospital. Median radiation doses delivered to gross tumor volume and positive neck nodes were 66–70 Gy, 63 Gy to clinical target volume, and 50.4–56 Gy to clinically negative neck. The clinical toxicities, patterns of failures, locoregional control, distant metastasis control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were observed. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.2 months (range: 11–87 months. Epstein–Barr virus infection was positive in 63.2% of

  20. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and 137Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan island, southern red sea, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zahrany, A. A.; Farouk, M. A.; Al-yousef, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Thand 40 K and man-made radionuclides such as 137 Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137C s in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (authors)

  1. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of the related species from Arabian region. A key to Saudi Arabian ... only two of these subgenera viz., Bracotritoma Csiki and. Phanerotoma s.str. .... species is also closely related to P. (B.) ebneri Fahringer from Sudan but ...

  2. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  3. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  4. Professional Values Among Female Nursing Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.

  5. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  6. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  7. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  8. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  9. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  10. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  11. Metacognitive Listening Strategies Used by Saudi EFL Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaison, Eid

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the metacognitive listening strategies among Saudi EFL medical students. The participants were 104 males and females, randomly selected to fill in the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ), developed and validated Vandergrift Goh, Mareschal, and Tafaghodtari (2006). The results revealed that…

  12. Nursing in Saudi Arabia: Reflections on the experiences of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to describe and reflect on the lived experiences of the South African nurses residing and working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design with a phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected by means of individual ...

  13. Migration of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In boreal autumn 1995, we tracked a migrating adult Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen to near Cape Town, South Africa, a distance of 6 346 km. While on migration it covered 288 km d−1, on average. During its migration in Africa it migrated faster than any other ...

  14. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  15. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...) and communication products and services to potential buyers and allow them to explore new business... to discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies. Commercial Setting Saudi... key U.S. Government and corporate officials. Participants will also take part in business matchmaking...

  16. Senior-loken syndrome in a Saudi child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fadhel, M.; Al-Amir, A.

    2008-01-01

    Senior-loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephronophthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involvement, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11- year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from Arabian Peninsula. (author)

  17. Higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer in Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talha Bader

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... trum in CRC from developing countries like Saudi Arabia where epidemiological features of the ... Of these 51% and 23% of the tumors are from the left hemicolon and rectum respec- ... Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. .... include: age, date of diagnosis, gender, stage of disease as.

  18. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  19. The contribution of the Saudi woman in economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Elimam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyze the contribution of Saudi woman in economic development of the country. This report develops an understanding of women contributions towards economic development. The method used to analyze the data was Pearson correlation. Through correlation we can determine the relationship between the variables. The study was a quantitative study. The data for five years was taken. Hypotheses development proceeded by focusing on labor work force participation, literacy rate of adult females and GDP rate within Saudi Arabia. Analysis was done on the results and the findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. This study was of exploratory nature, it is recommended that this research be expanded to a statistically valid base within Saudi Arabia and then expand the study to additional countries. The findings showed that there was a high significant relationship between women labor work force participation and GDP. Whereas, there was moderate significant relationship between labor work force and literacy rate. Hence, there is a positive relationship between women contribution and economic development. The research is conducted within the context of Saudi Arabia and has certain limitation with further directions of conducting research in related field to get more accurate results.

  20. Preschool Education in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabreen, Haifa Hassan; Lash, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Despite differences in specific teaching styles, nations around the world are united in the belief that early education is essential for preparing children for success throughout their school life and beyond. This tenet is as applicable to the Saudi Arabian early childhood education (ECE) system as it is anywhere else. Yet, little is actually…

  1. Saudi Continuous Professional Development and Leadership Skills Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsughayyer, Arwa

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Saudi Arabia has undergone major reforms over the past decade. Investment in leadership development has received particular focus by policymakers. Little is known about leaders and their participations in professional development (PD) programs and effective leadership skills. Therefore, this study examined, using a quantitative…

  2. Saudis trust and confidence in information sources about chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of toxic chemicals in the environment has drawn increasing concern in Saudi Arabia in recent years. Public health officials recognize a direct link between health problems and exposure to these chemicals. To communicate information on chemical pollution health risks effectively, policy makers must know ...

  3. Academic Libraries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameem, Jamal A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the status of higher education and academic libraries in Saudi Arabia. Topics covered include the role of academic libraries, use patterns, library education, the availability of professional librarians and administrators, library automation, academic cooperation with the United States, and the impact of social influences on library…

  4. Higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer in Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied retrospectively tumor samples of 83 Saudi metastatic CRC patients for KRAS mutations in codon 12 and codon 13, to evaluate the relevance of KRAS mutation positive colorectal cancers with metastatic sites. KRAS mutation was observed in 42.2% (35/83) patients with CRC. The most common mutations were in ...

  5. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  6. Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Buallay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the impact of Corporate Governance on Firm performance of listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. The study methodology was a pooled data collected from the Saudi stock exchange (TADAUWL for the period from 2012 to 2014. The study sample is 171 listed companies. The study independent variable is Corporate Governance principals. The dependent variable is Firm performance which was measured using ROA, ROE and Tobin's Q. The study also utilized five control variables in order to help measuring the relationship between Corporate Governance and Firm Performance. In conclusion, the study found that the governance level was 61.4% in Saudi stock exchange which is considered high compared to previous studies. The results of the study test indicate that there is no significant impact for corporate governance adoption on firm's operational and financial performance in the listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. By testing the Tobin's Q model the study also concluded that there’s no significant impact for ownership of the largest shareholder and independency of Board of Directors on firm's market performance. Significant impact was found for the ownership and the size of the Board of Directors on firm's performance.

  7. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Soaring Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asirvatham Alwin Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is the largest country in the Middle East that occupies approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 33.3 million people, of whom 26% are under the age of 14 years. As per the Diabetes Atlas (8th edition, 35,000 children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia suffer from T1DM, which makes Saudi Arabia rank the 8th in terms of numbers of TIDM patients and 4th country in the world in terms of the incidence rate (33.5 per 100,000 individuals of TIDM. However, in comparison with that in the developed countries, the number of research interventions on the prevalence, incidence, and the sociodemographic aspects of T1DM is woefully inadequate. In this review we discuss different aspects of T1DM in Saudi Arabia drawing on the published literature currently available.

  8. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  9. Do Saudi EFL Teachers Promote Creativity in Their Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia, there is still much to be done in order to nourish creativity in schools. According to a number of studies, there is an urgent need to reconsider the role of creativity in the current educational programmes because there is an increasing gap between the reality of the…

  10. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856

  11. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  12. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  13. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  14. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  15. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2017-06-01

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  17. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  18. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahijri, Suhad M.; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Ferns, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. Materials and Methods A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM. Results Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5–10.5); 9.4% (7.1–11.8) in men and 8.6% (6.6–10.6) in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7–13.5); 12.9% (10.7–13.5) in men and 11.4% (9.5–13.3) in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes. Discussion Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10–15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27035920

  20. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia--A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad M Bahijri

    Full Text Available Type 2 (T2DM is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes.A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420. Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM.Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5-10.5; 9.4% (7.1-11.8 in men and 8.6% (6.6-10.6 in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7-13.5; 12.9% (10.7-13.5 in men and 11.4% (9.5-13.3 in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes.Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10-15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Saudi Intermediate School EFL Teachers' Views in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the Multiple Intelligences Theory as an Inclusive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher attempted to shed light on Saudi intermediate school EFL teachers' views of the multiple intelligences theory as an inclusive pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of multiple intelligences on Saudi intermediate students' learning of EFL. The study also tried to illustrate the main…

  2. Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

  3. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y Madanat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  5. Quality of gastroenterology research published in Saudi Arabian scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaghrabi, Majed M; Alamoudi, Abdullah S; Radi, Suhaib A; Merdad, Anas A; Makhdoum, Ahmad M; Batwa, Faisal A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has established itself in the field of gastroenterology. In this study we aim to assess the types of study designs of gastroenterology-related articles published in Saudi scientific journals. An online review using PubMed was carried out to review gastroenterology-related articles published in six Saudi medical journals in the time interval from 2003 to 2012. To classify the level of evidence in these articles we employed the Oxford's levels of evidence. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the levels of evidence between published articles. A total of 721 gastroenterology-related articles were reviewed, of which 591 articles met our inclusion criteria; 80.7% were level IV. The three most common types of studies we encountered were cross-sectional (33.9%), case reports (27.9%), and case series (18.8%). Forty-three percent of the published research was in the field of hepatobiliary and spleen. The total number of articles increased from 260 articles in the 1 st 5-year period (2003-2007) to 330 in the 2 nd period (2008-2012). However, no statistically significant difference in the level of evidence was noted. In Annals of Saudi Medicine Journal, articles with level II increased from 0 to 10% with a P value 0.02. In our review of gastroenterology-related published articles in Saudi scientific journals, we observed an increase in the quantity of articles with the quality and level of evidence remaining unchanged. Further research is recommended to explore different reasons affecting the volume and quality of gastroenterology-related research in Saudi scientific journals.

  6. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  7. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Jörg Matthias Determann, Historiography in Saudi Arabia: Globalization and the State in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Pétriat, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that Saudi Arabia’s history is recent, that its main elements are oil, Salafism and sectarianism, and that this recent history has been written mostly by non-Saudi scholars. In a stimulating in-depth analysis of Saudi historiography on Saudi Arabia, Jörg Matthias Determann delves into the very writing of history. He draws on an impressive range of written (including Saudi and non-Saudi historical works, dissertations, articles and textbooks) as well as oral sources. A...

  9. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  10. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  11. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  12. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  13. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  14. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  15. Development of Saudi e-health literacy scale for chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia: using integrated health literacy dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; AlFakhry, Ohoud; Matbuli, Abeer; Alzahrani, Asma; Arab, Noha Samir Sadiq; Madani, Alaa; Alshehri, Noura; Albarrak, Ahmed I

    2018-05-01

    Health literacy has become a global issue, and it is important that patients and individuals are able to use information technology to access health information and educational services. The research objective is to develop a Saudi e-health literacy scale (SeHL) for measuring e-health literacy among Saudis suffering from non-communicable diseases (NCD). Overall, 14 relevant papers in related interdisciplinary fields were reviewed to select the most useful literacy dimensions. From these articles, we extracted the most common dimensions used to measure e-health literacy across the disciplines. Multiple workshops with multidisciplinary team members reviewed and evaluated items for SeHL. Four key aspects of e-health literacy-use of technology/media, information-seeking, usefulness and confidence-were identified and integrated as e-health literacy dimensions. These will be used to measure e-health literacy among Saudi patients with NCDs. A translation from Arabic to English was performed in order to ensure that translation process was accurate. A SeHL scale was developed to measure e-health literacy among Saudi patients. By understanding e-health literacy levels, we will be able to create a patient-education system to be used by patients in Saudi Arabia. As information technology is increasingly used by people of all ages all over the world, e-health literacy has been identified as a key factor in determining health outcomes. To date, no comprehensive scale exists to assess e-health literacy levels among speakers of Arabic, particularly among people with NCD such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

  16. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  17. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qari, Faiza A.; Maimani, Abdulroaf A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated

  18. Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

  19. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  20. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    important part of city planning is also learning from other cities, e.g., through the bench-learning, defining ..... Integrated semantics service platform ...... order to provide the best services to customers, their different needs and preferences ...