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Sample records for making special efforts

  1. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  2. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  3. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making.

    Ignasi Cos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  4. Effort-Based Decision-Making in Schizophrenia.

    Culbreth, Adam J; Moran, Erin K; Barch, Deanna M

    2018-08-01

    Motivational impairment has long been associated with schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Recently, a small but growing literature has suggested that aberrant effort-based decision-making may be a potential contributory mechanism for motivational impairments in psychosis. Specifically, multiple reports have consistently demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia are less willing than healthy controls to expend effort to obtain rewards. Further, this effort-based decision-making deficit has been shown to correlate with severity of negative symptoms and level of functioning, in many but not all studies. In the current review, we summarize this literature and discuss several factors that may underlie aberrant effort-based decision-making in schizophrenia.

  5. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Pierre Morel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves. Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  6. Effort-Based Decision Making in Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Paradigms to Measure Motivational Deficits.

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P

    2015-09-01

    Effort-based decision making requires one to decide how much effort to expend for a certain amount of reward. As the amount of reward goes up most people are willing to exert more effort. This relationship between reward level and effort expenditure can be measured in specialized performance-based tasks that have only recently been applied to schizophrenia. Such tasks provide a way to measure objectively motivational deficits in schizophrenia, which now are only assessed with clinical interviews of negative symptoms. The articles in this theme provide reviews of the relevant animal and human literatures (first 2 articles), and then a psychometric evaluation of 5 effort-based decision making paradigms (last 2 articles). This theme section is intended to stimulate interest in this emerging area among basic scientists developing paradigms for preclinical studies, human experimentalists trying to disentangle factors that contribute to performance on effort-based tasks, and investigators looking for objective endpoints for clinical trials of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Special Operations can make a difference in integrated conflict prevention

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    The fifth brief in the series about special operations highlights the possible strategic role of special operations in connection with Denmark's revitalized vision of integration of the state's instruments to create security through preventive stabilization efforts. The brief offers suggestion...

  8. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    Diana Burk

    Full Text Available After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  9. Good Faith, Bad Faith? Making an Effort in Dispute Resolution

    Tania Sourdin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of those engaged in negotiation and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR processes that are undertaken or required before or after litigation is increasingly the subject of legislative regulation. Recent case law has also more clearly articulated the characteristics of good faith as well as other standards such as 'genuine effort' and explored to a limited extent the behavioural indicators and approaches that could be used to determine the meaning and scope of these types of concepts. Arguably, the growth in mandatory (rather than voluntary ADR may require the articulation of clearer conduct obligations as ADR participants may be disinclined to negotiate or may be relatively unsophisticated or unaware of their negotiation behaviour. This article explores the development of conduct obligations and notes that whilst the requirements need to be linked to the circumstances of each dispute, there are some clear differences in terms of how these requirements are more generally interpreted by lawyers and others.

  10. No Pain No Gain: The Beneficial Role of Consumer Effort in Decision-Making

    D. Tsekouras (Dimitrios)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe overarching goal of this dissertation is to study the role of consumer effort within the context of online decision making. We show that consumer effort may not be necessarily malevolent and that some sources and measures of greater consumer effort can lead to beneficial outcomes. A

  11. Making Space for Specialized Astronomy Resources

    MacMillan, D.

    2007-10-01

    With the growth of both free and subscription-based resources, articles on astronomy have never been easier to find. Locating the best and most current materials for any given search, however, now requires multiple tools and strategies dependent on the query. An analysis of the tools currently available shows that while astronomy is well-served by Google Scholar, Scopus and Inspec, its literature is best accessed through specialized resources such as ADS (Astrophysics Data System). While no surprise to astronomers, this has major implications for those of us who teach information literacy skills to astronomy students and work in academic settings where astronomy is just one of many subjects for which our non-specialist colleagues at the reference desk provide assistance. This paper will examine some of the implications of this analysis for library instruction, reference assistance and training, and library webpage development.

  12. Restructuring Vocational Special Needs Education through Interdisciplinary Team Effort: Local Motion in the Pacific Basin.

    Smith, Garnett J.; Stodden, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The Restructuring through Interdisciplinary Team Effort project focuses on changing the culture and structure of vocational special needs education in the Pacific Basin. Its three dimensions are cognitive core (best practices, outcome-focused design, strategic planning); team network of stakeholders; and systemic renewal (school-to-work…

  13. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making.

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-11-20

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs-such as physical effort or outcome risk-are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive-not physical-effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

  14. Activation of the cannabinoid system in the nucleus accumbens affects effort-based decision making.

    Fatahi, Zahra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-02-01

    Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits, and it has been previously shown that cannabis derivatives may affect such processes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to evaluate the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the entire NAc on effort-based decision making. Rats were trained in a T-maze cost-benefit decision making the task in which they could choose either to climb a barrier to obtain a large reward in one arm or run into the other arm without a barrier to obtaining a small reward. Following training, the animals were bilaterally implanted with guide cannulae in the NAc. On test day, rats received cannabinoid agonist (Win 55,212-2; 2, 10 and 50μM) and/or antagonist (AM251; 45μM), afterward percentage of large reward choice and latency of reward attainment were investigated. Results revealed that the administration of cannabinoid agonist led to decrease of large reward choice percentage such that the animals preferred to receive a small reward with low effort instead of receiving a large reward with high effort. The administration of antagonist solely did not affect effort-based decision making, but did attenuate the Win 55,212-2-induced impairments in effort allocation. In agonist-treated animals, the latency of reward collection increased. Moreover, when the effort was equated on both arms, the animals returned to choosing large reward showing that obtained results were not caused by spatial memory impairment. Our finding suggested that activation of the cannabinoid system in the NAc impaired effort-based decision making and led to rats were less willing to invest the physical effort to gain large reward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vicarious Effort-Based Decision-Making in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Mosner, Maya G.; Kinard, Jessica L.; McWeeny, Sean; Shah, Jasmine S.; Markiewitz, Nathan D.; Damiano-Goodwin, Cara R.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Greene, Rachel K.; Treadway, Michael T.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns…

  16. Virtual special issues: A new outreach effort from The Journal of Magnetic Resonance

    Frydman, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    The Journal of Magnetic Resonance (JMR) prides itself in the quality of its publications. JMR has seen ground-breaking concepts appear in its pages, and literally whole sub-fields have sprung up from ideas published in its articles, equations and data. The search for original papers arising from you, the magnetic resonance expert, user, contributor and reader, was and remains the Journal's raison d'etre. This bottom-up approach seeks to give an outlet to contributions from all areas of magnetic resonance, while keeping the vibrancy, depth and ingenuity that have characterized our field and our Journal for nearly fifty years. While our ambition to be a forum for all matters concerning NMR, MRI, EPR and NQR -principles and applications, science and engineering, solids and liquids, physics and chemistry- lies at the core of our editorial spirit, it also raises a paradoxical situation. The variety of topics that magnetic resonance has given origin to and that JMR intends to cover, coupled with the multiplication of journals and the diversification in publication media formats, pose severe challenges to the scientist trying to keep abreast of the latest developments in our field. In order to deal with such challenge we are hereby launching, in partnership with Elsevier, a new effort: the Virtual Special Issue (VSI). Convinced that our papers contain excellent science that may go under-noticed in the short term, VSIs seek to highlight recent original JMR publications within the context of a relatively focused area of magnetic resonance. To do so the editorial team -working together with the magnetic resonance community at large- seeks to identify a thematic goal represented by JMR, and compile on its basis a homogeneous monograph relying on papers that have been recently published or accepted in the Journal. In order to bring these VSIs to our constituency we have designed a special workflow for these selected papers: while these publications will keep their original doi

  17. Vicarious Effort-Based Decision-Making in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Mosner, Maya G; Kinard, Jessica L; McWeeny, Sean; Shah, Jasmine S; Markiewitz, Nathan D; Damiano-Goodwin, Cara R; Burchinal, Margaret R; Rutherford, Helena J V; Greene, Rachel K; Treadway, Michael T; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns of effort-based decision-making across reward parameters. However, when choosing for another person, the ASD group demonstrated relatively decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude, particularly in the high magnitude condition. Finally, patterns of responding in the ASD group were related to individual differences in consummatory pleasure capacity. These findings indicate atypical vicarious effort-based decision-making in ASD and more broadly add to the growing body of literature addressing social reward processing deficits in ASD.

  18. 28 CFR 30.10 - How does the Attorney General make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Attorney General make... the Attorney General make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process... form as the Attorney General in his or her discretion deems appropriate. The Attorney General may also...

  19. 49 CFR 17.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 17.10 Section 17.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.10 How does the Secretary make...

  20. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia.

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M

    2015-09-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Distinct effects of apathy and dopamine on effort-based decision-making in Parkinson's disease.

    Le Heron, Campbell; Plant, Olivia; Manohar, Sanjay; Ang, Yuen-Siang; Jackson, Matthew; Lennox, Graham; Hu, Michele T; Husain, Masud

    2018-05-01

    Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that disrupted effort-based decision-making underlies the syndrome of apathy in Parkinson's disease, and that this disruption may be modulated by the dopaminergic system. An effort-based decision-making task was administered to 39 patients with Parkinson's disease, with and without clinical apathy, ON and OFF their normal dopaminergic medications across two separate sessions, as well as 32 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants decided whether to accept or reject offers of monetary reward in return for exerting different levels of physical effort via handheld, individually calibrated dynamometers. Effort and reward were manipulated independently, such that offers spanned the full range of effort/reward combinations. Apathy was assessed using the Lille apathy rating scale. Motor effects of the dopamine manipulation were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part three motor score. The primary outcome variable was choice (accept/decline offer) analysed using a hierarchical generalized linear mixed effects model, and the vigour of squeeze (Newtons exerted above required force). Both apathy and dopamine depletion were associated with reduced acceptance of offers. However, these effects were driven by dissociable patterns of responding. While apathy was characterized by increased rejection of predominantly low reward offers, dopamine increased responding to

  2. Neural substrates of the impaired effort expenditure decision making in schizophrenia.

    Huang, Jia; Yang, Xin-Hua; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Qun; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-09-01

    Unwillingness to expend more effort to pursue high value rewards has been associated with motivational anhedonia in schizophrenia (SCZ) and abnormal dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The authors hypothesized that dysfunction of the NAcc and the associated forebrain regions are involved in the impaired effort expenditure decision-making of SCZ. A 2 (reward magnitude: low vs. high) × 3 (probability: 20% vs. 50% vs. 80%) event-related fMRI design in the effort-expenditure for reward task (EEfRT) was used to examine the neural response of 23 SCZ patients and 23 demographically matched control participants when the participants made effort expenditure decisions to pursue uncertain rewards. SCZ patients were significantly less likely to expend high level of effort in the medium (50%) and high (80%) probability conditions than healthy controls. The neural response in the NAcc, the posterior cingulate gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus in SCZ patients were weaker than healthy controls and did not linearly increase with an increase in reward magnitude and probability. Moreover, NAcc activity was positively correlated with the willingness to expend high-level effort and concrete consummatory pleasure experience. NAcc and posterior cingulate dysfunctions in SCZ patients may be involved in their impaired effort expenditure decision-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Animal Companions: Fostering Children's Effort-Making by Nurturing Virtual Pets

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Calvin; Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual character is a significant application in the research field of technology-enhanced learning. In this study, the concept of animal companions, "non-smart" virtual characters, is proposed as a way to encourage students to promote effort-making learning behaviours. The two underpinning design rationales are first discussed followed by the…

  4. 49 CFR 26.27 - What efforts must recipients make concerning DBE financial institutions?

    2010-10-01

    ... financial institutions? 26.27 Section 26.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... efforts must recipients make concerning DBE financial institutions? You must thoroughly investigate the full extent of services offered by financial institutions owned and controlled by socially and...

  5. Effortful semantic decision-making boosts memory performance in older adults.

    Fu, Li; Maes, Joseph H R; Varma, Samarth; Kessels, Roy P C; Daselaar, Sander M

    2017-04-01

    A major concern in age-related cognitive decline is episodic memory (EM). Previous studies indicate that both resource and binding deficits contribute to EM decline. Environmental support by task manipulations encouraging stronger cognitive effort and deeper levels of processing may facilitate compensation for these two deficits. To clarify factors that can counteract age-related EM decline, we assessed effects of cognitive effort (four levels) and level of processing (LoP, shallow/deep) during encoding on subsequent retrieval. Young (YAs, N = 23) and older (OAs, N = 23) adults performed two incidental encoding tasks, deep/semantic and shallow/perceptual. Cognitive effort was manipulated by varying decision-making demands. EM performance, indexed by d-prime, was later tested using a recognition task. Results showed that regardless of LoP, increased cognitive effort caused higher d-primes in both age groups. Compared to YAs, OAs showed a lower d-prime after shallow encoding across all cognitive effort levels, and after deep encoding with low cognitive effort. Deep encoding with higher levels of cognitive effort completely eliminated these age differences. Our findings support an environmental-compensatory account of cognitive ageing and can have important therapeutic implications.

  6. Incentive motivation deficits in schizophrenia reflect effort computation impairments during cost-benefit decision-making.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Motivational impairments are a core feature of schizophrenia and although there are numerous reports studying this feature using clinical rating scales, objective behavioural assessments are lacking. Here, we use a translational paradigm to measure incentive motivation in individuals with schizophrenia. Sixteen stable outpatients with schizophrenia and sixteen matched healthy controls completed a modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task that accounts for differences in motoric ability. Briefly, subjects were presented with a series of trials where they may choose to expend a greater amount of effort for a larger monetary reward versus less effort for a smaller reward. Additionally, the probability of receiving money for a given trial was varied at 12%, 50% and 88%. Clinical and other reward-related variables were also evaluated. Patients opted to expend greater effort significantly less than controls for trials of high, but uncertain (i.e. 50% and 88% probability) incentive value, which was related to amotivation and neurocognitive deficits. Other abnormalities were also noted but were related to different clinical variables such as impulsivity (low reward and 12% probability). These motivational deficits were not due to group differences in reward learning, reward valuation or hedonic capacity. Our findings offer novel support for incentive motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Clinical amotivation is associated with impairments in the computation of effort during cost-benefit decision-making. This objective translational paradigm may guide future investigations of the neural circuitry underlying these motivational impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.

    Lionel Rigoux

    Full Text Available Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure and benefits (e.g. food are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories. Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control.

  8. Simulation and Modeling Efforts to Support Decision Making in Healthcare Supply Chain Management

    Eman AbuKhousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM by improving the decision making pertaining processes’ efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  9. Simulation and modeling efforts to support decision making in healthcare supply chain management.

    AbuKhousa, Eman; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  10. Special education and occupational therapy: making the relationship work.

    Coutinho, M J; Hunter, D L

    1988-11-01

    Working as an occupational therapist in publicly funded schools requires a variety of skills. These skills include assessing the needs of children, serving as a member of the multidisciplinary team, developing individualized education program (IEP) goals and objectives in conjunction with other team members, providing services, and coordinating efforts with parents, teachers, and administrators. To fulfill these responsibilities, occupational therapists must have a comprehensive understanding of the complex federal and state laws that mandate the provision of special education and related services. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to describe the legal framework within which decisions are made to provide occupational therapy to students in publicly funded school programs and (b) to highlight the knowledge and skills occupational therapists need to work effectively in schools with teachers, administrators, and parents.

  11. Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making.

    Lee, Daeyeol; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Walton, Mark E; Watanabe, Masataka; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2007-08-01

    Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a given environment. In contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be primarily involved in encoding and updating the utilities associated with different sensory stimuli and alternative actions, respectively. These cortical areas are also likely to contribute to decision making in a social context.

  12. Quantifying motivation with effort-based decision-making paradigms in health and disease.

    Chong, T T-J; Bonnelle, V; Husain, M

    2016-01-01

    Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals. Here, we review this approach by considering the development of these paradigms in the laboratory setting over the last three decades, and their more recent translation to understanding choice behavior in humans. A strength of this effort-based approach to motivation is that it is capable of capturing the wide range of individual differences, and offers the potential to dissect motivation into its component elements, thus providing the basis for more accurate taxonomic classifications. Clinically, modeling approaches might provide greater sensitivity and specificity to diagnosing disorders of motivation, for example, in being able to detect subclinical disorders of motivation, or distinguish a disorder of motivation from related but separate syndromes, such as depression. Despite the great potential in applying effort-based paradigms to index human motivation, we discuss several caveats to interpreting current and future studies, and the challenges in translating these approaches to the clinical setting. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivational states influence effort-based decision making in rats: the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.

    Mai, Bettina; Sommer, Susanne; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Decision-making policies are subject to modulation by changing motivational states. However, so far, little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms that bridge motivational states with decision making. Here we examined whether dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) modulates the effects of motivational states on effort-based decision making. Using a cost-benefit T-maze task in rats, we examined the effects of AcbC DA depletions on effort-based decision making, in particular on the sensitivity of effort-based decision making to a shift from a hungry to a sated state. The results demonstrated that, relative to sham controls, rats with AcbC DA depletion in a hungry as well as in a sated state had a reduced preference for effortful but large-reward action. This finding provides further support for the notion that AcbC DA regulates how much effort to invest for rewards. Importantly, our results further revealed that effort-based decision making in lesioned rats, as in sham controls, was still sensitive to a shift from a hungry to a sated state; that is, their preferences for effortful large-reward actions became lower after a shift from a restricted to a free-feeding regimen. These finding indicate that AcbC DA is not necessarily involved in mediating the effects of a shift in motivational state on decision-making policies.

  14. New Orleans's Unique School Reform Effort and Its Potential Implications for Special Education

    Morse, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Four years following the decimation of the New Orleans Public Schools by Hurricane Katrina the city has been described as the center of a unique urban public school reform effort. This effort is a combination of events that transpired just before the storm and those that have occurred as a result of it. In particular some claim that the emerging…

  15. Neural substrates underlying effort, time, and risk-based decision making in motivated behavior.

    Bailey, Matthew R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    All mobile organisms rely on adaptive motivated behavior to overcome the challenges of living in an environment in which essential resources may be limited. A variety of influences ranging from an organism's environment, experiential history, and physiological state all influence a cost-benefit analysis which allows motivation to energize behavior and direct it toward specific goals. Here we review the substantial amount of research aimed at discovering the interconnected neural circuits which allow organisms to carry-out the cost-benefit computations which allow them to behave in adaptive ways. We specifically focus on how the brain deals with different types of costs, including effort requirements, delays to reward and payoff riskiness. An examination of this broad literature highlights the importance of the extended neural circuits which enable organisms to make decisions about these different types of costs. This involves Cortical Structures, including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), the Orbital Frontal Cortex (OFC), the Infralimbic Cortex (IL), and prelimbic Cortex (PL), as well as the Baso-Lateral Amygdala (BLA), the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc), the Ventral Pallidal (VP), the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) among others. Some regions are involved in multiple aspects of cost-benefit computations while the involvement of other regions is restricted to information relating to specific types of costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity to cognitive effort mediates psychostimulant effects on a novel rodent cost/benefit decision-making task.

    Cocker, Paul J; Hosking, Jay G; Benoit, James; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2012-07-01

    Amotivational states and insufficient recruitment of mental effort have been observed in a variety of clinical populations, including depression, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous rodent models of effort-based decision making have utilized physical costs whereas human studies of effort are primarily cognitive in nature, and it is unclear whether the two types of effortful decision making are underpinned by the same neurobiological processes. We therefore designed a novel rat cognitive effort task (rCET) based on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a well-validated measure of attention and impulsivity. Within each trial of the rCET, rats are given the choice between an easy or hard visuospatial discrimination, and successful hard trials are rewarded with double the number of sugar pellets. Similar to previous human studies, stable individual variation in choice behavior was observed, with 'workers' choosing hard trials significantly more than their 'slacker' counterparts. Whereas workers 'slacked off' in response to administration of amphetamine and caffeine, slackers 'worked harder' under amphetamine, but not caffeine. Conversely, these stimulants increased motor impulsivity in all animals. Ethanol did not affect animals' choice but invigorated behavior. In sum, we have shown for the first time that rats are differentially sensitive to cognitive effort when making decisions, independent of other processes such as impulsivity, and these baseline differences can influence the cognitive response to psychostimulants. Such findings could inform our understanding of impairments in effort-based decision making and contribute to treatment development.

  17. I endeavor to make it: effort increases valuation of subsequent monetary reward.

    Ma, Qingguo; Meng, Liang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Qiang

    2014-03-15

    Although it is commonly accepted that the amount of effort we put into accomplishing a task would exert an influence on subsequent reward processing and outcome evaluation, whether effort is incorporated as a cost or it would increase the valuation of concomitant reward is still under debate. In this study, EEGs were recorded while subjects performed calculation tasks that required different amount of effort, correct responses of which were followed by either no reward or fixed compensation. Results showed that high effort induced larger differentiated FRN responses to the reward and non-reward discrepancy across two experimental conditions. Furthermore, P300 manifested valence effect during reward feedback, with more positive amplitudes for reward than for non-reward only in the high effort condition. These results suggest that effort might increase subjective evaluation toward subsequent reward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adults with autism spectrum disorders exhibit decreased sensitivity to reward parameters when making effort-based decisions

    Damiano Cara R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient effort expenditure to obtain rewards is critical for optimal goal-directed behavior and learning. Clinical observation suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD may show dysregulated reward-based effort expenditure, but no behavioral study to date has assessed effort-based decision-making in ASD. Methods The current study compared a group of adults with ASD to a group of typically developing adults on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT, a behavioral measure of effort-based decision-making. In this task, participants were provided with the probability of receiving a monetary reward on a particular trial and asked to choose between either an “easy task” (less motoric effort for a small, stable reward or a “hard task” (greater motoric effort for a variable but consistently larger reward. Results Participants with ASD chose the hard task more frequently than did the control group, yet were less influenced by differences in reward value and probability than the control group. Additionally, effort-based decision-making was related to repetitive behavior symptoms across both groups. Conclusions These results suggest that individuals with ASD may be more willing to expend effort to obtain a monetary reward regardless of the reward contingencies. More broadly, results suggest that behavioral choices may be less influenced by information about reward contingencies in individuals with ASD. This atypical pattern of effort-based decision-making may be relevant for understanding the heightened reward motivation for circumscribed interests in ASD.

  19. Is it Worth the Effort? Novel Insights into Obesity-Associated Alterations in Cost-Benefit Decision-Making

    Mathar, David; Horstmann, Annette; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cost-benefit decision-making entails the process of evaluating potential actions according to the trade-off between the expected reward (benefit) and the anticipated effort (costs). Recent research revealed that dopaminergic transmission within the fronto-striatal circuitry strongly modulates cost-benefit decision-making. Alterations within the dopaminergic fronto-striatal system have been associated with obesity, but little is known about cost-benefit decision-making differences in obese com...

  20. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 2—External Validity and Correlates.

    Horan, William P; Reddy, L Felice; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Gold, James M; Marder, Steven R; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared W; Green, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prefrontal Cortical Inactivations Decrease Willingness to Expend Cognitive Effort on a Rodent Cost/Benefit Decision-Making Task.

    Hosking, Jay G; Cocker, Paul J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-04-01

    Personal success often necessitates expending greater effort for greater reward but, equally important, also requires judicious use of our limited cognitive resources (e.g., attention). Previous animal models have shown that the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are not involved in (physical) effort-based choice, whereas human studies have demonstrated PFC contributions to (mental) effort. Here, we utilize the rat Cognitive Effort Task (rCET) to probe PFC's role in effort-based decision making. In the rCET, animals can choose either an easy trial, where the attentional demand is low but the reward (sugar) is small or a difficult trial on which both the attentional demand and reward are greater. Temporary inactivation of PL and IL decreased all animals' willingness to expend mental effort and increased animals' distractibility; PL inactivations more substantially affected performance (i.e., attention), whereas IL inactivations increased motor impulsivity. These data imply that the PFC contributes to attentional resources, and when these resources are diminished, animals shift their choice (via other brain regions) accordingly. Thus, one novel therapeutic approach to deficits in effort expenditure may be to focus on the resources that such decision making requires, rather than the decision-making process per se. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  3. Extending decision making competence to special populations: a pilot study of persons on the autism spectrum.

    Levin, Irwin P; Gaeth, Gary J; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Yegorova, Vitaliya; Cederberg, Charles; Yan, Haoyang

    2015-01-01

    The area of decision making has much to offer in our effort to understand special populations. This pilot study is an example of just such a project, where we illustrate how traditional decision making tools and tasks can be used to uncover strengths and weaknesses within a growing population of young adults with autism. In this pilot project we extended accounts of autistic behavior such as those derived from "theory of mind" to predict key components of decision making in high-functioning young adults on the autism spectrum. A battery of tests was administered to 15 high-functioning college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), focusing on decision making competence (DMC) and other aspects of decision making related to known deficits associated with autism. Data from this group were compared to data from unselected college students receiving the same measures. First, as a test of a key social deficit associated with autism, the target group scored much lower on the Empathy Quotient scale. Traditional elements of decision making competency such as Numeracy and application of decision rules were comparable across groups. However, there were differences in thinking style, with the ASD group showing lesser ability and engagement in intuitive thinking, and they showed lower levels of risk taking. For comparisons within the ASD group, autobiographical reports concerning individual lifestyles and outcomes were used to derive a scale of Social Functioning. The lowest scoring individuals showed the lowest levels of intuitive thinking, the lowest perceived levels of others' endorsement of socially undesirable behaviors, and the lowest ability to discriminate between "good" and "bad" risks. Results are discussed in terms of interventions that might aid high-functioning young adults with ASD in their everyday decision making.

  4. Effortful semantic decision-making boosts memory performance in older adults

    Fu, L.; Maes, J.H.R.; Varma, S.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A major concern in age-related cognitive decline is episodic memory (EM). Previous studies indicate that both resource and binding deficits contribute to EM decline. Environmental support by task manipulations encouraging stronger cognitive effort and deeper levels of processing may facilitate compensation for these two deficits. To clarify factors that can counteract age-related EM decline, we assessed effects of cognitive effort (four levels) and level of processing (LoP, shallow/deep) duri...

  5. The role of the striatum in effort-based decision-making in the absence of reward.

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Demanet, Jelle; Boehler, Carsten N; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-02-05

    Decision-making involves weighing costs against benefits, for instance, in terms of the effort it takes to obtain a reward of a given magnitude. This evaluation process has been linked to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the striatum, with activation in these brain structures reflecting the discounting effect of effort on reward. Here, we investigate how cognitive effort influences neural choice processes in the absence of an extrinsic reward. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we used an effort-based decision-making task in which participants were required to choose between two options for a subsequent flanker task that differed in the amount of cognitive effort. Cognitive effort was manipulated by varying the proportion of incongruent trials associated with each choice option. Choice-locked activation in the striatum was higher when participants chose voluntarily for the more effortful alternative but displayed the opposite trend on forced-choice trials. The dACC revealed a similar, yet only trend-level significant, activation pattern. Our results imply that activation levels in the striatum reflect a cost-benefit analysis, in which a balance is made between effort discounting and the intrinsic motivation to choose a cognitively challenging task. Moreover, our findings indicate that it matters whether this challenge is voluntarily chosen or externally imposed. As such, the present findings contrast with classical findings on effort discounting that found reductions in striatum activation for higher effort by finding enhancements of the same neural circuits when a cognitively challenging task is voluntarily selected and does not entail the danger of losing reward.

  6. Is it Worth the Effort? Novel Insights into Obesity-Associated Alterations in Cost-Benefit Decision-Making.

    Mathar, David; Horstmann, Annette; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Cost-benefit decision-making entails the process of evaluating potential actions according to the trade-off between the expected reward (benefit) and the anticipated effort (costs). Recent research revealed that dopaminergic transmission within the fronto-striatal circuitry strongly modulates cost-benefit decision-making. Alterations within the dopaminergic fronto-striatal system have been associated with obesity, but little is known about cost-benefit decision-making differences in obese compared with lean individuals. With a newly developed experimental task we investigate obesity-associated alterations in cost-benefit decision-making, utilizing physical effort by handgrip-force exertion and both food and non-food rewards. We relate our behavioral findings to alterations in local gray matter volume assessed by structural MRI. Obese compared with lean subjects were less willing to engage in physical effort in particular for high-caloric sweet snack food. Further, self-reported body dissatisfaction negatively correlated with the willingness to invest effort for sweet snacks in obese men. On a structural level, obesity was associated with reductions in gray matter volume in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Nucleus accumbens volume positively correlated with task induced implicit food craving. Our results challenge the common notion that obese individuals are willing to work harder to obtain high-caloric food and emphasize the need for further exploration of the underlying neural mechanisms regarding cost-benefit decision-making differences in obesity.

  7. The Rule of Law Effort in Afghanistan: A Success Story in the Making

    2016-06-10

    jurisdiction, legitimate and transparent investigation and prosecution, secure incarceration, and rehabilitation and reintegration practices to prevent...and reintegration practices to prevent recidivism. Intentionally left blank i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I...would like to offer special thanks to my wife and family for their patience and understanding as I worked through this endeavor. I need to also

  8. Effortful semantic decision-making boosts memory performance in older adults

    Fu, L.; Maes, J.H.R.; Varma, S.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A major concern in age-related cognitive decline is episodic memory (EM). Previous studies indicate that both resource and binding deficits contribute to EM decline. Environmental support by task manipulations encouraging stronger cognitive effort and deeper levels of processing may facilitate

  9. Rewards boost sustained attention through higher effort: A value-based decision making approach.

    Massar, Stijn A A; Lim, Julian; Sasmita, Karen; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining sustained attention over time is an effortful process limited by finite cognitive resources. Recent theories describe the role of motivation in the allocation of such resources as a decision process: the costs of effortful performance are weighed against its gains. We examined this hypothesis by combining methods from attention research and decision neuroscience. Participants first performed a sustained attention task at different levels of reward. They then performed a reward-discounting task, measuring the subjective costs of performance. Results demonstrated that higher rewards led to improved performance (Exp 1-3), and enhanced attentional effort (i.e. pupil diameter; Exp 2 & 3). Moreover, discounting curves constructed from the choice task indicated that subjects devalued rewards that came at the cost of staying vigilant for a longer duration (Exp 1 & 2). Motivation can thus boost sustained attention through increased effort, while sustained performance is regarded as a cost against which rewards are discounted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effort-based decision making as an objective paradigm for the assessment of motivational deficits in schizophrenia.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Duncan, Mark; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Faulkner, Guy E; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Negative symptoms and motivational deficits are prevalent features of schizophrenia, and represent robust predictors of real-world functional outcomes. The standard for assessment of these symptoms is clinical interview and severity ratings on standardized rating scales. In the present study we examined the psychometric properties of a performance-based measure of motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Ninety-seven patients with schizophrenia were included in this investigation. Patients' willingness to expend effort for reward (i.e., motivation) was evaluated using an effort-based decision making paradigm where participants chose over a series of trials whether to expend a greater amount of effort for a larger monetary reward versus less effort for a smaller reward. Effort performance was evaluated twice, separated by a two-week interval. Patients with schizophrenia opted to expend greater effort for trials with higher reward value and greater likelihood of reward receipt. Patients did not find the task overly difficult and reported being motivated to perform well, underscoring the tolerability of the task for patients. Test-retest consistency was good and there was only minimal change in scores over time. Effort performance was not related to sociodemographic or clinical variables (e.g., positive symptoms); however, deficit syndrome patients exerted effort for reward at a significantly lower rate than nondeficit patients. The effort-based decision making task used in the present study represents an objective paradigm that can be used to evaluate motivational impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Such performance-based measures of motivation may also serve as viable endpoints in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Critical Analysis of Preservice Teachers' Efforts to Make Sense of Young Children's Sexual Acts towards Adults

    Alat, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Turkish early childhood education teacher candidates' efforts to make sense of sexual behaviors of both young girls and boys towards them or their colleagues during their field experience or in their daily experiences with young children. Semi-structured interviews with 13 female teacher candidates revealed that their…

  12. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  13. Is it worth the effort? Novel insights into obesity-associated alterations in cost-benefit decision-making

    David eMathar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit decision-making entails the process of evaluating potential actions according to the trade-off between the expected benefit (reward and the anticipated costs (effort. Recent research revealed that dopaminergic transmission within the fronto-striatal circuitry strongly modulates cost-benefit decision-making. Alterations within the dopaminergic fronto-striatal system have been associated with obesity, but little is known about cost-benefit decision-making differences in obese compared with lean individuals. With a newly developed experimental task we investigate obesity-associated alterations in cost-benefit decision-making, utilizing physical effort by handgrip-force exertion and both food and non-food rewards. We relate our behavioral findings to alterations in local grey matter volume assessed by structural MRI. Obese compared with lean subjects were less willing to engage in physical effort in particular for high-caloric sweet snack food. The amount of effort exertion was thereby negatively associated with subjects’ individual levels of chronic stress and punishment sensitivity. Further, self-reported body dissatisfaction negatively correlated with the willingness to invest effort for sweet snacks in obese men. On a structural level, obesity was associated with reductions in grey matter volume in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Nucleus accumbens volume positively correlated with task-induced implicit food craving. Our results challenge the common notion that obese individuals are willing to work harder to obtain high-caloric food and emphasize the need for further exploration of the underlying neural mechanisms regarding cost-benefit decision-making differences in obesity.

  14. Special problems in making geotechnical measurements in salt

    Verslvis, S.; Lindner, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The transfer of experience, theory, and instrumentation suitable for hard rock media has posed numerous problems which this paper will address. Foremost of these pertains to the time-dependent (creep) behavior of salt. The theoretical mechanism is elusive; creep laws formulated to predict this behavior represent the state of the art in regression analysis. Furthermore, long term experiments (1 year) that would be necessary to determine creep mechanism(s) are enormously expensive and tie-up test equipment. Second, tests for determining in situ stress are based on the theory of elasticity. However anelastic (non-recoverable) strains contribute a significant portion of the material behavior precluding back calculating in situ stresses. Another problem pertains to the rate-dependent behavior of salt. Loading and temperature gradients experienced in the laboratory are more severe than would be experienced in a repository. Significant differences in material behavior can be expected along with special problems with instrumentation

  15. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Forge, Arquillian, Swarm and Spring Boot: All play and no effort makes Simon a productive boy

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    During this live coding session, Simon will shine some light on a range productivity tools that make software development a pleasure rather than a chore. Simon will live code 2 applications; a Java EE application, with JBoss Forge which uses JPA, Bean Validation, REST and Angular. We’ll test this application using Arquillian from within JBoss Forge. We’ll also show how a Java EE microservice can be developed in Forge and run using JBoss Swarm. The second application will be developed on Spring Boot and using JRebel we’ll rapidly develop and run a Spring application. Attendees will learn how to write code productively using tools designed for developers.

  17. Infection of male rats with Toxoplasma gondii induces effort-aversion in a T-maze decision-making task.

    Tan, Donna; Vyas, Ajai

    2016-03-01

    Rats chronically infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii exhibit greater delay aversion in an inter-temporal task. Moreover T. gondii infection also results in dendritic atrophy of basolateral amygdala neurons. Basolateral amygdala is reported to bias decision making towards greater effortful alternatives. In this context, we report that T. gondii increases effort aversion in infected male rats. This host-parasite association has been widely studied in the context of loss of innate fear in the infected males. It is suggested that reduced fear towards predators reflects a parasitic behavioral manipulation to enhance trophic transmission of T. gondii. Observations reported here extend this paradigm away from a monolithic change in fear and towards a multi-dimensional change in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-ranking female Japanese macaques make efforts for social grooming.

    Kurihara, Yosuke

    2016-04-01

    Grooming is essential to build social relationships in primates. Its importance is universal among animals from different ranks; however, rank-related differences in feeding patterns can lead to conflicts between feeding and grooming in low-ranking animals. Unifying the effects of dominance rank on feeding and grooming behaviors contributes to revealing the importance of grooming. Here, I tested whether the grooming behavior of low-ranking females were similar to that of high-ranking females despite differences in their feeding patterns. I followed 9 Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata fuscata adult females from the Arashiyama group, and analyzed the feeding patterns and grooming behaviors of low- and high-ranking females. Low-ranking females fed on natural foods away from the provisioning site, whereas high-ranking females obtained more provisioned food at the site. Due to these differences in feeding patterns, low-ranking females spent less time grooming than high-ranking females. However, both low- and high-ranking females performed grooming around the provisioning site, which was linked to the number of neighboring individuals for low-ranking females and feeding on provisioned foods at the site for high-ranking females. The similarity in grooming area led to a range and diversity of grooming partners that did not differ with rank. Thus, low-ranking females can obtain small amounts of provisioned foods and perform grooming with as many partners around the provisioning site as high-ranking females. These results highlight the efforts made by low-ranking females to perform grooming and suggest the importance of grooming behavior in group-living primates.

  19. Low-ranking female Japanese macaques make efforts for social grooming

    Kurihara, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Grooming is essential to build social relationships in primates. Its importance is universal among animals from different ranks; however, rank-related differences in feeding patterns can lead to conflicts between feeding and grooming in low-ranking animals. Unifying the effects of dominance rank on feeding and grooming behaviors contributes to revealing the importance of grooming. Here, I tested whether the grooming behavior of low-ranking females were similar to that of high-ranking females despite differences in their feeding patterns. I followed 9 Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata fuscata adult females from the Arashiyama group, and analyzed the feeding patterns and grooming behaviors of low- and high-ranking females. Low-ranking females fed on natural foods away from the provisioning site, whereas high-ranking females obtained more provisioned food at the site. Due to these differences in feeding patterns, low-ranking females spent less time grooming than high-ranking females. However, both low- and high-ranking females performed grooming around the provisioning site, which was linked to the number of neighboring individuals for low-ranking females and feeding on provisioned foods at the site for high-ranking females. The similarity in grooming area led to a range and diversity of grooming partners that did not differ with rank. Thus, low-ranking females can obtain small amounts of provisioned foods and perform grooming with as many partners around the provisioning site as high-ranking females. These results highlight the efforts made by low-ranking females to perform grooming and suggest the importance of grooming behavior in group-living primates. PMID:29491896

  20. Dopamine antagonism decreases willingness to expend physical, but not cognitive, effort: a comparison of two rodent cost/benefit decision-making tasks.

    Hosking, Jay G; Floresco, Stan B; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-03-01

    Successful decision making often requires weighing a given option's costs against its associated benefits, an ability that appears perturbed in virtually every severe mental illness. Animal models of such cost/benefit decision making overwhelmingly implicate mesolimbic dopamine in our willingness to exert effort for a larger reward. Until recently, however, animal models have invariably manipulated the degree of physical effort, whereas human studies of effort have primarily relied on cognitive costs. Dopamine's relationship to cognitive effort has not been directly examined, nor has the relationship between individuals' willingness to expend mental versus physical effort. It is therefore unclear whether willingness to work hard in one domain corresponds to willingness in the other. Here we utilize a rat cognitive effort task (rCET), wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, and a previously established physical effort-discounting task (EDT) to examine dopaminergic and noradrenergic contributions to effort. The dopamine antagonists eticlopride and SCH23390 each decreased willingness to exert physical effort on the EDT; these drugs had no effect on willingness to exert mental effort for the rCET. Preference for the high effort option correlated across the two tasks, although this effect was transient. These results suggest that dopamine is only minimally involved in cost/benefit decision making with cognitive effort costs. The constructs of mental and physical effort may therefore comprise overlapping, but distinct, circuitry, and therapeutic interventions that prove efficacious in one effort domain may not be beneficial in another.

  1. Disruptions in effort-based decision-making and consummatory behavior following antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Robles, Cindee F; Johnson, Alexander W

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine is known to influence motivational processes, however the precise role of this neurotransmitter remains a contentious issue. In the current study we sought to further characterize dopamine signaling in reward-based decision-making and consummatory behavior in mice, via lateral ventricle infusion of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride. In Experiment 1, we examined effort-based decision-making, in which mice had a choice between one lever, where a single response led to the delivery of a low value reward (2% sucrose); and a second lever, which led to a higher value reward (20% sucrose) that gradually required more effort to obtain. As the response schedule for the high value reward became more strict, low dose (4μg in 0.5μl) central infusions of eticlopride biased preference away from the high value reward, and toward the lever that led to the low value reward. Similarly, a higher dose of eticlopride (8μg in 0.5μl) also disrupted choice responding for the high value reward, however it did so by increasing omissions. In Experiment 2, we assessed the effects of eticlopride on consumption of 20% sucrose. The antagonist led to a dose-dependent reduction in intake, and through an analysis of licking microstructure, it was revealed that this in part reflected a reduction in the motivation to engage in consummatory behavior, rather than alterations in the evaluation of the reward. These results suggest that disruptions in D2 receptor signaling reduce the willingness to engage in effortful operant responding and consumption of a desirable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the Association Between Negative Symptoms and Performance on Effort-Based Decision-Making Tasks: The Importance of Defeatist Performance Beliefs.

    Reddy, L Felice; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Marder, Stephen R; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared; Green, Michael F

    2017-11-13

    Effort-based decision-making paradigms are increasingly utilized to gain insight into the nature of motivation deficits. Research has shown associations between effort-based decision making and experiential negative symptoms; however, the associations are not consistent. The current study had two primary goals. First, we aimed to replicate previous findings of a deficit in effort-based decision making among individuals with schizophrenia on a test of cognitive effort. Second, in a large sample combined from the current and a previous study, we sought to examine the association between negative symptoms and effort by including the related construct of defeatist beliefs. The results replicated previous findings of impaired cognitive effort-based decision making in schizophrenia. Defeatist beliefs significantly moderated the association between negative symptoms and effort-based decision making such that there was a strong association between high negative symptoms and deficits in effort-based decision making, but only among participants with high levels of defeatist beliefs. Thus, our findings suggest the relationship between negative symptoms and effort performance may be understood by taking into account the role of defeatist beliefs, and finding that might explain discrepancies in previous studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  3. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  4. Juggling Roles and Making Changes: Suggestions for Meeting the Challenges of Being a Special Educator.

    Luckner, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Special educators experiencing stress are urged to take greater responsibility for their own well-being by maintaining a balanced lifestyle, planning for success, expanding their support network, creating a positive belief system, making learning a lifelong priority, and learning to cope with complexities and challenges. (DB)

  5. Dissociable contributions of anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala on a rodent cost/benefit decision-making task of cognitive effort.

    Hosking, Jay G; Cocker, Paul J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-06-01

    Personal success often requires the choice to expend greater effort for larger rewards, and deficits in such effortful decision making accompany a number of illnesses including depression, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Animal models have implicated brain regions such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in physical effort-based choice, but disentangling the unique contributions of these two regions has proven difficult, and effort demands in industrialized society are predominantly cognitive in nature. Here we utilize the rodent cognitive effort task (rCET), a modification of the five-choice serial reaction-time task, wherein animals can choose to expend greater visuospatial attention to obtain larger sucrose rewards. Temporary inactivation (via baclofen-muscimol) of BLA and ACC showed dissociable effects: BLA inactivation caused hard-working rats to 'slack off' and 'slacker' rats to work harder, whereas ACC inactivation caused all animals to reduce willingness to expend mental effort. Furthermore, BLA inactivation increased the time needed to make choices, whereas ACC inactivation increased motor impulsivity. These data illuminate unique contributions of BLA and ACC to effort-based decision making, and imply overlapping yet distinct circuitry for cognitive vs physical effort. Our understanding of effortful decision making may therefore require expanding our models beyond purely physical costs.

  6. Extending the study of decision making competence to special populations: A case study of persons on the autism spectrum

    Irwin eLevin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The area of decision making has much to offer in our effort to understand special populations. This pilot study is an example of just such a project, where we illustrate how traditional decision making tools and tasks can be used to uncover strengths and weaknesses within a growing population of young adults with autism. In this pilot project we extended accounts of autistic behavior such as those derived from theory of mind to predict key components of decision making in high-functioning young adults on the autism spectrum. A battery of tests was administered to 15 high-functioning college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, focusing on Decision Making Competence (DMC and other aspects of decision making related to known deficits associated with autism. Data from this group were compared to data from unselected college students receiving the same measures. First, as a test of a key social deficit associated with autism, the target group scored much lower on the Empathy Quotient scale. Traditional elements of decision making competency such as Numeracy and application of decision rules were comparable across groups. However, there were differences in thinking style, with the ASD group showing lesser ability and engagement in intuitive thinking, and they showed lower levels of risk taking. For comparisons within the ASD group, autobiographical reports concerning individual lifestyles and outcomes were used to derive a scale of Social Functioning. The lowest scoring individuals showed the lowest levels of intuitive thinking, the lowest perceived levels of others' endorsement of socially undesirable behaviors, and the lowest ability to discriminate between good and bad risks. Results are discussed in terms of interventions that might aid high-functioning young adults with ASD in their everyday decision making.

  7. Paddy farmer households’ participation and food security level in special effort program in Seputih Raman sub-district of Central Lampung Regency

    Rangga, K. K.; Syarief, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to study the participation of paddy farmers in the Special Effort program to increase paddy production, to study the level of household food security of paddy farmers, and to analyze the correlation between farmer participation and food security level of paddy farmers. The location was chosen purposively in Seputih Raman sub-district. The data were collected from December 2016 to February 2017. The population of this study was paddy farmers who participating in Special Effort program. The hypothesis was tested by using Spearman’s Rank correlation test. Farmer household’s food security was measured objectively based on the share of household’s food expenditure and subjectively based on the opinion, views, and attitudes or farmers’ opinions on food availability, food distribution, and household food consumption. This research showed that farmers’ participation in Special Effort program in Seputih Raman Sub Ditrict, Central Lampung Regency belonged to medium classification, household food security either objectively or subjectively was in food resistant condition of medium classification, and there was significant correlation between farmers’ participation and food security level of paddy farmer household.

  8. The church's missionary efforts among domestic workers with special reference to Johannesburg West / by Malatsi Samuel Mofokeng

    Mofokeng, Malatsi Samuel

    2007-01-01

    This research deals with the role of the church in its efforts to bring the gospel to domestic workers with reference to five church denominations in Johannesburg-West namely, the Methodist, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Anglican and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. Church leaders of the above mentioned church denominations used the integrated ministry by introducing programmes, projects and skills training along side the preaching of the gospel to empower domestic workers spiritua...

  9. Finally Making Good on the Promise of Qualitative Research in Special Education? A Response to the Special Issue

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…

  10. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  11. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 1—Psychometric Characteristics of 5 Paradigms.

    Reddy, L Felice; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Gold, James M; Lyons, Naomi; Marder, Stephen R; Treadway, Michael T; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared W; Green, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Impairments in willingness to exert effort contribute to the motivational deficits characteristic of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of 5 new or adapted paradigms to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This study included 94 clinically stable participants with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. The effort-based decision-making battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 5 paradigms included 1 that assesses cognitive effort, 1 perceptual effort, and 3 that assess physical effort. Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure (ie, practice effects), and (4) tolerability. The 5 paradigms showed varying psychometric strengths and weaknesses. The Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task showed the best reliability and utility as a repeated measure, while the Grip Effort Task had significant patient-control group differences, and superior tolerability and administration duration. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting effort and motivation paradigms for use in clinical trials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2015.

  12. 77 FR 59911 - Request To Make Special Program for the Law School Clinic Certification Patent Pilot Program

    2012-10-01

    ... publication fee set forth in 37 CFR 1.18(d). (8) The request to make special must be filed on behalf of a... Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) and also in the patent publication process. See MPEP 708.01 and 1309... will have special status in any appeal to the PTAB and also in the patent publication process...

  13. The Business of Co-Production: Assessing Efforts to Bridge Science and Decision-Making for Adaptation in California

    Webber, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    The last decades have seen scholars argue for a greater integration of science and decision-making in order to more effectively respond to climate change. It has been suggested that overcoming the gap between science, on the one hand, and policy-making and management, on the other, requires building bridges through methods of co-production, creating actionable science, or through boundary organizations. In this paper, we review attempts at co-production for policy-making and management in the context of climate change adaptation in California. Building on field research, including numerous interviews conducted with scientists and decision-makers who are co-producers of adaptation projects, we make three arguments. First, we show that an emphasis on co-production and science-informed climate change adaptation decision-making has bolstered a contract-oriented, and decentralized network-based model of producing climate science. Second, reviewing successes and failures in co-production - as reported in interviews - indicates that it is principally in cases of neatly defined, and spatially and temporarily narrow decision-making contexts, and with highly motivated decision-makers, that climate science is used. Finally, we suggest that the ideas of co-production and actionable science may have increased the institutional and organizational burden at the science-decision interface, lengthening the boundary-organization-chain rather than necessarily facilitating adaptive policy-making and management.

  14. Making sense in the edge of chaos : a framework for effective initial response efforts to large-scale incidents

    Renaud, Cynthia E.

    2010-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A review of response efforts to 9/11 revealed considerable challenges to resolving an event of this magnitude. To cope with these challenges, the federal government created the National Incident Management System (NIMS), an organizational structure intended to manage resources and channel communication between disparate agencies working together to solve a catastrophic crisis. Yet, first responders who have bee...

  15. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Hosking, Jay G; Lam, Fred C W; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-01-01

    Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET), wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each). As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest that its modest

  16. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  17. The Case for Increasing Workplace Decision-Making: Proposing a Model for Special Educator Attrition Research

    Tyler, Teresa A.; Brunner, C. Cryss

    2014-01-01

    The chronically high rate of special educator attrition across U.S. schools creates a dilemma for educational leaders because special educators provide direct services to students with special needs. Attrition exacerbates already high special educator shortages reported in most districts, and nearly one million schoolchildren with disabilities…

  18. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  19. Understanding Decision-Making in Specialized Domestic Violence Courts: Can Contemporary Theoretical Frameworks Help Guide These Decisions?

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2016-05-22

    This study fills a gap in the literature by exploring the utility of contemporary courtroom theoretical frameworks-uncertainty avoidance, causal attribution, and focal concerns-for explaining decision-making in specialized domestic violence courts. Using data from two specialized domestic violence courts, this study explores the predictors of prosecutorial and judicial decision-making and the extent to which these factors are congruent with theoretical frameworks often used in studies of court processing. Findings suggest that these theoretical frameworks only partially help explain decision-making in the courts under study. A discussion of the findings and implications for future research is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Using CNN Features to Better Understand What Makes Visual Artworks Special

    Anselm Brachmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goal of computational aesthetics is to understand what is special about visual artworks. By analyzing image statistics, contemporary methods in computer vision enable researchers to identify properties that distinguish artworks from other (non-art types of images. Such knowledge will eventually allow inferences with regard to the possible neural mechanisms that underlie aesthetic perception in the human visual system. In the present study, we define measures that capture variances of features of a well-established Convolutional Neural Network (CNN, which was trained on millions of images to recognize objects. Using an image dataset that represents traditional Western, Islamic and Chinese art, as well as various types of non-art images, we show that we need only two variance measures to distinguish between the artworks and non-art images with a high classification accuracy of 93.0%. Results for the first variance measure imply that, in the artworks, the subregions of an image tend to be filled with pictorial elements, to which many diverse CNN features respond (richness of feature responses. Results for the second measure imply that this diversity is tied to a relatively large variability of the responses of individual CNN feature across the subregions of an image. We hypothesize that this combination of richness and variability of CNN feature responses is one of properties that makes traditional visual artworks special. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of this perceptual quality of artworks and propose to study the same quality also in other types of aesthetic stimuli, such as music and literature.

  1. Predicting Motivation: Computational Models of PFC Can Explain Neural Coding of Motivation and Effort-based Decision-making in Health and Disease.

    Vassena, Eliana; Deraeve, James; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial PFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 1338-1344, 2011], hierarchical error representation [HER] model [Alexander, W. H., & Brown, J. W. Hierarchical error representation: A computational model of anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neural Computation, 27, 2354-2410, 2015]). Despite the broad explanatory power of these models, it is not clear whether they can also accommodate effects related to the expectation of effort observed in MPFC and DLPFC. Here, we propose a translation of these computational frameworks to the domain of effort-based behavior. First, we discuss how the PRO model, based on prediction error, can explain effort-related activity in MPFC, by reframing effort-based behavior in a predictive context. We propose that MPFC activity reflects monitoring of motivationally relevant variables (such as effort and reward), by coding expectations and discrepancies from such expectations. Moreover, we derive behavioral and neural model-based predictions for healthy controls and clinical populations with impairments of motivation. Second, we illustrate the possible translation to effort-based behavior of the HER model, an extended version of PRO

  2. Practice Makes Perfect and Other Curricular Myths in the Sport Specialization Debate

    Brylinsky, Jody

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a different focus on the specialization debate, one that changes the focus to the quality of sport instruction regardless of the level of specialization in training. It suggests that many of the negative consequences of early sport specialization may be avoided with appropriate coaching and sport skill instruction. Rather…

  3. An extra dimension to decision-making in animals: the three-way trade-off between speed, effort per-unit-time and accuracy.

    de Froment, Adrian J; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Levin, Simon A

    2014-12-01

    The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time

  4. 75 FR 29312 - Notice Regarding the Elimination of the Fee for Petitions To Make Special Filed Under the Patent...

    2010-05-25

    ... (primarily search and examination results) between the USPTO and its partner patent offices. Improving the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No.: PTO-2010-0031] Notice Regarding the Elimination of the Fee for Petitions To Make Special Filed Under the Patent Prosecution Highway...

  5. Embodied Making and Design Learning - Special Issue from the Learn X Design-conference DRS/CUMULUS, Chicago 2015

    Marte Sørebø Gulliksen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of FORMakademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the symposium Embodied Making and Design Learning at the DRS/CUMULUS-conference LearnXDesign in Chicago, Illinois, June 28–30, 2015. This special issue was developed as an initiative by the symposium conveners. The symposium was developed by researchers from research groups in Norway, Finland and Canada to explore various aspects of embodied making in relation to design learning. The symposium was a full-day event with four sessions, seven paper presentations, a roundtable discussion, a plenary discussion and a workshop. The symposium received positive feedback, attracting many participants and stimulating engaged discussions throughout the conference. This indicates a growing awareness of the topic of embodied making and design learning. This special issue features five articles that together highlight a variety of approaches and examples of current research endeavours in relation to the theme. 

  6. Influence of physical effort in improving the life quality children with Down syndrome in special schools Nuevo Amanecer and Alba Salazar in Los Rios province, Ecuador

    Juan Miguel Luperón Terry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These days some difficulty is evident to conduct physical education, because physical education is still a matter within the Ecuadorian educational program that many consider secondary. Schools Nuevo Amanecer and Alba Salazar hosting children with Down Syndrome (SD do not have the figure of professional physical training, so it is responsible for non-experts to develop the profession, which is coupled with the absence of programs adapted physical education for children with DS, and insufficient attention to physical efforts within the same classes to improve their potential. To carry out this research has used a sample of twenty people with Down syndrome between 8 and 16 years a total of 32 children between the existing two schools, with a level of mild mental disabilities and representing 65,5% of the target population. This approach is intended to achieve favorable results in the physical performance of them through specialized exercises Basketball from its physical potential as is the high degree of flexibility present, improve their attitude towards the different situations of life and integrating them to it. Basketball program tailored to children to enable them to enhance their physical and intellectual abilities that will enable the improvement of the quality of life in these children is proposed.

  7. Sexy is what you make it: organizational culture and U.S. Army Special Forces

    Hawk, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) are the most highly trained, best equipped, and most seasoned soldiers to which the United States can turn to achieve national security objectives. The future, however, will require more indirect application of SF, through special warfare operations (e.g., UW, FID, etc.), in a host of hostile and undefined areas around the globe. This manner of employment is a change in emphasis from the direct combat ...

  8. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis 'amotivational' hypotheses.

    Lawn, Will; Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Joye, Alyssa; Harvey, Lisa; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Moss, Abigail; Wall, Matthew B; Bloomfield, Michael Ap; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia Ja; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotally, both acute and chronic cannabis use have been associated with apathy, amotivation, and other reward processing deficits. To date, empirical support for these effects is limited, and no previous studies have assessed both acute effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as associations with cannabis dependence. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine acute effects of cannabis with CBD (Cann + CBD) and without CBD (Cann-CBD) on effort-related decision-making and (2) to examine associations between cannabis dependence, effort-related decision-making and reward learning. In study 1, 17 participants each received three acute vaporized treatments, namely Cann-CBD (8 mg THC), Cann + CBD (8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) and matched placebo, followed by a 50 % dose top-up 1.5 h later, and completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). In study 2, 20 cannabis-dependent participants were compared with 20 non-dependent, drug-using control participants on the EEfRT and the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT) in a non-intoxicated state. Cann-CBD reduced the likelihood of high-effort choices relative to placebo (p = 0.042) and increased sensitivity to expected value compared to both placebo (p = 0.014) and Cann + CBD (p = 0.006). The cannabis-dependent and control groups did not differ on the EEfRT. However, the cannabis-dependent group exhibited a weaker response bias than the control group on the PRT (p = 0.007). Cannabis acutely induced a transient amotivational state and CBD influenced the effects of THC on expected value. In contrast, cannabis dependence was associated with preserved motivation alongside impaired reward learning, although confounding factors, including depression, cannot be disregarded. This is the first well powered, fully controlled study to objectively demonstrate the acute amotivational effects of THC.

  9. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Make me special: Gender differences in consumers’ responses to loyalty programs

    V. Melnyk (Valentina); S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrent literature on loyalty programs emphasizes the importance of psychological rewards and special treatment. However, it is not clear if male and female customers respond to these incentives in a similar way. We explore the differential effect for female versus male consumers of two

  11. Creating History, Telling Stories, and Making Special: Portfolios, Scrapbooks, and Sketchbooks

    Delacruz, Elizabeth; Bales, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    All human communications are a form of storytelling about some aspect of the world. They are shaped by human personality and grounded in their historical contexts. This article considers commonalities and differences among three kinds of artful human communications that appeared to people as a special kind of storytelling: (1) preservice art…

  12. TPACK in Special Education: Preservice Teacher Decision Making While Integrating Ipads into Instruction

    Anderson, Susan; Griffith, Robin; Crawford, Lindy

    2017-01-01

    This study provides insight into preservice teachers' experiences with integrating technology into lessons with children who had mild learning disabilities. Participants included 14 junior early childhood education majors enrolled in a special education course with a fieldwork component. The researchers collected and analyzed lesson plans, journal…

  13. Sexy is What You Make it: Organizational Culture and U.S. Army Special Forces

    2014-06-01

    are an accumulation of a group’s learning as it pertains to behavioral, emotional, and cognitive elements of the group’s total psychological ...Organizational Performance in the Military (Summary). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship , 27 (21), Article 6. The future of U.S. Special Operations

  14. What Makes Health Care Special?: An Argument for Health Care Insurance.

    Horne, L Chad

    2017-01-01

    While citizens in a liberal democracy are generally expected to see to their basic needs out of their own income shares, health care is treated differently. Most rich liberal democracies provide their citizens with health care or health care insurance in kind. Is this "special" treatment justified? The predominant liberal account of justice in health care holds that the moral importance of health justifies treating health care as special in this way. I reject this approach and offer an alternative account. Health needs are not more important than other basic needs, but they are more unpredictable. I argue that citizens are owed access to insurance against health risks to provide stability in their future expectations and thus to protect their capacities for self-determination.

  15. Making a S.P.E.C.I.A.L. First Impression

    Dovico, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Teachers at all levels have reported a stark decline in students' ability to interact with others face-to-face in a technology-driven world. In the world of work, communicative soft skills have surfaced as both a concern and focal point for potential employers. Schools can teach these skills using an approach called S.P.E.C.I.A.L, which focuses on…

  16. What makes a place special? Interpretation of written survey responses in natural resource planning

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2000-01-01

    In an open-ended, written survey, I asked residents and visitors of the Black River area in northern Michigan to identify and describe places that were special to them. I conducted a thematic interpretation of the responses, using a set of indexing and cross-referencing marcos that I wrote in Word Perfect 5.1. The themes that emerged included the natural beauty ofthe...

  17. Introduction to the special issue: Intuition and affect in risk perception and decision making

    Gisela Boehm; Wibecke Brun

    2008-01-01

    (from the introduction) Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes a...

  18. Making decisions about liability and insurance a special issue of the journal of risk and uncertainty

    Kunreuther, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Two related trends have created novel challenges for managing risk in the United States. The first trend is a series of dramatic changes in liability law as tort law has expanded to assign liability to defendants for reasons other than negligence. The unpredictability of future costs induced by changes in tort law may be partly responsible for the second major trend known as the `liability crisis' - the disappearance of liability protection in markets for particularly unpredictable risks. This book examines decisions people make about insurance and liability. An understanding of such decision making may help explain why the insurance crisis resulted from the new interpretations of tort law and what to do about it. The articles cover three kinds of decisions: consumer decisions to purchase insurance; insurer decisions about coverage they offer; and the decisions of the public about the liability rules they prefer, which are reflected in legislation and regulation. For each of these three kinds of decisions, no...

  19. Characterizing ground motions that collapse steel special moment-resisting frames or make them unrepairable

    Olsen, Anna H.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Hall, John F.

    2015-01-01

    This work applies 64,765 simulated seismic ground motions to four models each of 6- or 20-story, steel special moment-resisting frame buildings. We consider two vector intensity measures and categorize the building response as “collapsed,” “unrepairable,” or “repairable.” We then propose regression models to predict the building responses from the intensity measures. The best models for “collapse” or “unrepairable” use peak ground displacement and velocity as intensity measures, and the best models predicting peak interstory drift ratio, given that the frame model is “repairable,” use spectral acceleration and epsilon (ϵ) as intensity measures. The more flexible frame is always more likely than the stiffer frame to “collapse” or be “unrepairable.” A frame with fracture-prone welds is substantially more susceptible to “collapse” or “unrepairable” damage than the equivalent frame with sound welds. The 20-story frames with fracture-prone welds are more vulnerable to P-delta instability and have a much higher probability of collapse than do any of the 6-story frames.

  20. School nursing for children with special needs: does number of schools make a difference?

    Kruger, Barbara J; Toker, Karen H; Radjenovic, Doreen; Comeaux, Judy M; Macha, Kiran

    2009-08-01

    Few recent studies have focused on the role of school nurses who predominantly care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The primary aim of this study was to explore differences related to (a) child health conditions covered, (b) direct care procedures, (c) care management functions, and (c) consultation sources used among nurses who spent the majority of their time caring for CSHCN compared to a mixed student population and among nurses who covered a single school versus multiple schools. A community-based interdisciplinary team developed a 28-item survey which was completed by 50 nurses (48.5% response) employed by health departments and school districts. Descriptive and comparative statistics and thematic coding were used to analyze data. Nurses who covered a single school (n = 23) or who were primarily assigned to CSHCN (n = 13) had a lower number of students, and more frequently (a) encountered complex child conditions, (b) performed direct care procedures, (c) participated in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) development, (d) collaborated with the Title V-CSHCN agency, and e) communicated with physicians, compared to nurses who covered multiple schools or a general child population. Benefits centered on the children, scope of work, school environment, and family relationships. Challenges included high caseloads, school district priorities, and families who did not follow up. The number of schools that the nurses covered, percent of time caring for CSHCN, and employer type (school district or health department) affected the scope of school nurse practice. Recommendations are for lower student-to-nurse ratios, improved nursing supervision, and educational support.

  1. Effortful echolalia.

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  2. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  3. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment - special observation period (hymex-sop1)

    Summa, Donato; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; De Rosa, Benedetto; Cacciani, Marco; Stelitano, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL), an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2), a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  4. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment – special observation period (hymex-sop1

    Summa Donato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL, an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2, a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  5. Make

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  6. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  7. There is something about Mary… and Ted! : Training in mixed-sex groups makes you work harder. A study about the effort when training with the opposite sex.

    Mujkic, Asia; Rantala, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In many sport associations, regardless of level, women and men rarely practice together. Previous studies indicate that work groups are generally more efficient when there is an even distribution between the sexes. Could that also be the case in sports? This study aims to investigate whether the sex composition of a training group affects the effort and performance of the participants. Eleven volunteers participated in the crossover study consisting of three different 150-meter sprint conditi...

  8. Global, regional and national nuclear risk management. Use of ALARA in decision-making on costly international cleanup effort of radioactive contamination

    Kuz'min, I.; Shaposhnikov, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the national risk management, it's found out that 'external' source of hazard situated at the territory of neighbor country contributes heavily to total public and environment risk of the country. In order to remove such an opportunity, it's necessary to establish for these purposes special international funds ('safety funds') intended for environment pollution international standards. They are used for helping to establish quantitative standards for contribution in such fund from different countries. The authors considered problem of the optimal international investment in risk reducing from radioactive waste dumping in water of oceans. Coordinated mechanism for management and control, international legislative and legal norms are discussed

  9. No Special Equipment Required: The Accessibility Features Built into the Windows and Macintosh Operating Systems make Computers Accessible for Students with Special Needs

    Kimball,Walter H.; Cohen,Libby G.; Dimmick,Deb; Mills,Rick

    2003-01-01

    The proliferation of computers and other electronic learning devices has made knowledge and communication accessible to people with a wide range of abilities. Both Windows and Macintosh computers have accessibility options to help with many different special needs. This documents discusses solutions for: (1) visual impairments; (2) hearing…

  10. Approaches to Aggregation and Decision Making-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [5].

    Phelps, Charles E; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Basu, Anirban; Drummond, Michael F; Towse, Adrian; Danzon, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    The fifth section of our Special Task Force report identifies and discusses two aggregation issues: 1) aggregation of cost and benefit information across individuals to a population level for benefit plan decision making and 2) combining multiple elements of value into a single value metric for individuals. First, we argue that additional elements could be included in measures of value, but such elements have not generally been included in measures of quality-adjusted life-years. For example, we describe a recently developed extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) that provides a good example of how to use a broader concept of utility. ECEA adds two features-measures of financial risk protection and income distributional consequences. We then discuss a further option for expanding this approach-augmented CEA, which can introduce many value measures. Neither of these approaches, however, provide a comprehensive measure of value. To resolve this issue, we review a technique called multicriteria decision analysis that can provide a comprehensive measure of value. We then discuss budget-setting and prioritization using multicriteria decision analysis, issues not yet fully resolved. Next, we discuss deliberative processes, which represent another important approach for population- or plan-level decisions used by many health technology assessment bodies. These use quantitative information on CEA and other elements, but the group decisions are reached by a deliberative voting process. Finally, we briefly discuss the use of stated preference methods for developing "hedonic" value frameworks, and conclude with some recommendations in this area. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Special on the Bio-based Economy. Making money with a green economy; Special Biobased Economy. Geld verdienen met een groene economie

    Waterval, R. (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    Bio-based is booming. Increasingly more businesses see a healthy business case in products that are not made with fossil raw materials, but with biomass. But where are the opportunities for the Netherlands? And which roles can the government, trade and industry and science play? This PM special contains interviews with and experiences of pioneering entrepreneurs and agricultural attaches in the Netherlands and abroad [Dutch] Biobased is booming. Steeds meer bedrijven zien een gezonde businesscase in producten die niet gemaakt zijn met fossiele grondstoffen maar met biomassa. Waar liggen de kansen voor Nederland? En welke rol is daarbij weggelegd voor de overheid, het bedrijfsleven en de wetenschap? In deze PM-special onder meer interviews met en ervaringen van pionerende entrepreneurs en landbouwattaches in binnen- en buitenland.

  12. The Principle of Justice Administered Only by the Court When Making a Pre-Trial Cooperation Agreement and Special Trial Order

    Suvorova A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problems of realization of the principle of justice administered only by the court in special conditions of judicial proceedings, suggests the ways of optimizing the procedure of making a pre-trial cooperation agreement.

  13. Decision-Making by School Psychologists: Use of the Representativeness Heuristic and Importance of Assessment Data in Determination of Special Education Eligibility

    Wilson, Sharise Mavis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the decision-making approach and types of data that school psychologists use in determining special education classification. There were three research objectives: (a) to investigate the types of conditions and measures needed to test the use of the representativeness heuristic and assessment data, (b) to…

  14. Special Education Teacher Evaluation: Why It Matters, What Makes It Challenging, and How to Address These Challenges

    Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie Lisa

    2014-01-01

    There is currently little consensus on how special education teachers should be evaluated. The lack of consensus may be due to several reasons. Special education teachers work under a variety of complex conditions, with a very heterogeneous population, and support student progress toward a very individualized set of goals. In addition, special…

  15. The difference biocultural "place" makes to community efforts towards sustainable development: Youth participatory action research in a marine protected area of Colombia

    McRuer, Jennifer; Zethelius, Margarita

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American concept of "(collective) biocultural heritage" arose from Indigenous knowledge and practices with respect to local natural resources and environment, including the food being hunted, the crops being grown, and the landscapes being created. The term is now used more widely to describe community practices, goals and priorities that are determined, maintained and managed by diverse cultural relationships with "place". The study presented in this article investigated biocultural place relationships in connection with well-being and sustainability. In the context of learning and action for sustainability in Isla Grande, an island in a marine protected area of Colombia, this study targeted the significance of place to the everyday lives of Afro-Colombian youth - from their perspective. Beyond aiming to merely observe and collect data, the methodology included a research design which actively involved local youth and incorporated the aspect of place. The authors describe and reflect on the processes, learning and action that emerged throughout the research, as well as the study's limitations. They discuss broad implications in terms of how place relationships influence research, and how research influences place relationships. Local implications include supporting the voice of youth in community efforts to re-imagine and transform place relationships in response to critical place issues such as climate change, top-down resource management, privatisation, commodification and growing environmental injustice.

  16. Do preschool special education services make a difference in kindergarten reading and mathematics skills?: A propensity score weighting analysis.

    Sullivan, Amanda L; Field, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool special education services by comparing reading and math outcomes for children who received special education services at preschool-age to a propensity-score-weighted sample of children who did not receive these services. Results indicated that the receipt of these special education services had a statistically significant moderate negative effect on children's kindergarten skills in both reading (d=-0.21) and mathematics (d=-0.29). These findings have implications for the implementation and evaluation of services for young children experiencing developmental delays or disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  19. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "It Makes History Alive for Them": The Role of Archivists and Special Collections Librarians in Instructing Undergraduates

    Krause, Magia G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the educational role of archivists and special collections librarians in providing instructional services aimed at undergraduate students. Twelve leading thinkers in teaching with primary sources are interviewed to provide insight on pedagogical strategies for undergraduates, assessment of instruction, and how archivists…

  1. Do Preschool Special Education Services Make a Difference in Kindergarten Reading and Mathematics Skills?: A Propensity Score Weighting Analysis

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Field, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool…

  2. Which Articles Make a Difference? Introduction to the Special 30th APS Anniversary Issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science.

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    This introduction to the special symposium on the top 30 most-cited articles in APS journals considers some of the factors that lead some articles to have huge impact. What is it that scientists can do to achieve the greatest impact for their work?

  3. Specialized (iso)eugenol-4-O-methyltransferases (s-IEMTs) and methods of making and using the same

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Cai, Yuanheng

    2017-01-31

    Specialized (iso)eugenol 4-O-methyltransferase (s-IEMT) enzymes having increased capacity for methylation of monolignols are disclosed. The s-IEMTs have unique activity favoring methylation of coniferyl alcohol versus sinapyl alcohol. Various s-IEMTs methylate ferulic acid. Means for producing the various s-IEMTs are provided. The s-IEMTs are useful for modification of lignin content and production of aromatic compounds.

  4. Introduction to a special section: Impacts and implications of future-oriented technology analysis for policy and decision-making

    Karel Haegeman; Jennifer C Harper; Ron Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of recent years place a premium, for governments and individuals, on being able to discern the possible shape of the future: what is likely to influence it, and what can be done to prepare for it. This special section is based on selected papers from the Third International Seville Seminar on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis, held 16–17 October 2008 at Seville, Spain, which addressed the challenge of increasing the impact of future-oriented technology analysis on policy and dec...

  5. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  6. Decision making under risk : a study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmer's marketing behavior

    Smidts, A.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  7. Decision making under risk. A study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmers' marketing behavior

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  8. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  9. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008

    Chemali ZN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeina N Chemali,1,2 Christina PC Borba,1,2 Tanya E Henderson,3 Markos Tesfaye41Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3International and Human Rights Law Consultants, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaAbstract: This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women's mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services.Keywords: global mental health, low income country, Africa, gender differences

  10. Specialized languages

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  11. The Death Penalty: Pancasila, with Efforts to Eradicated Drugs

    R., Anggun Ariena; Ky, Ade Oktariatas

    2015-01-01

    The rise of drugs criminal in Indonesia at this time, making Indonesia would be drugs emergency. Drugs is an extraordinary crime and need special attention in the eradication effort. Therefore it takes great strength to use legal action heaviest where Indonesia has a death penalty sentence. The purpose of the death penalty is to give hard effect for drugs criminal and as warning for the others. The reality of the death penalty in Indonesia shows the operation of the judicial system is not go...

  12. Efforts for improvement in radiotherapy of cancer using metronidazole with special regard to head and neck. Part of a coordinated programme on improvement of cancer therapy by the combination treatment of conventional radiation and physical and chemical means

    Patricio, M.B.

    1984-03-01

    A great effort has been expended in the search for means which would be of immediate practical interest to the radiotherapist in order to achieve improvement of the result of cancer treatment. These means include modifiers which are sensitizers to potentiate radiation effects on tumour cells without affecting normal tissue. We started a controlled therapeutic trial on locally advanced head and neck carcinomas using metronidazole. There was good tolerance to metronidazole although improvement of local tumour control with this drug was not observed. We also observed that irradiation with fractions daily gave a better tumour control than single fractions a day

  13. Estimation of inspection effort

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  14. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  15. Marketing: Realistic Tips for Planning and Implementation in Special Libraries.

    Kassel, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for special libraries to have a marketing plan in order to increase support and plan for the future. Topics include finding the time; budgets and marketing; promoting library services; the use of outside consultants; making market planning a continuous process; and marketing efforts at product shows. (LRW)

  16. Israeli Special Libraries

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  17. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  18. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  19. UMRSFFS Additional Mapping Effort

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. Editorial article for the special issue on data-based decision making around the world: From policy to practice to results

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Lai, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    This editorial article briefly examines the importance of data-based decision making. It discusses the definition as well as rationale for data-based decision making, its purposes, the use of data at different levels of the educational system, and possible promoting and hindering factors of

  1. Making the Outcomes of the Doha Development Round Favourable for Developing Countries: Reflections on a Feasible Proposal for a Special Safeguard Mechanism

    Francis Shasha Matambalya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In principle, there is consensus among World Trade organisation members (WTO on the need to establish Special Safeguard Mechanisms (SSM for use by developing countries. Building on a survey of literature, empirical studies, and exchange of ideas through participation in the international debate on the subject matter, this paper outlines the architecture of a pro-development SSM. The elaboration is based on ten dimensions: country eligibility, criteria for selection of special products, triggers of safeguard action, precondition for application of safeguard action, geographic coverage, permissible remedies, restrictions on the levels of compensation, time scale, other rules, and treatment of developing countries. Compared to the SSG, it allows trigger levels at lower volumes and higher prices. Also, it differentiates demand increase and import surges, maintains linkages of domestic producers to long-run world market dynamics, and allows the computation of the price trigger on consignment by consignment basis.

  2. Multidisciplinary Special Education Efforts: A Transactional-Ecological Approach.

    Buktenica, Norman A.

    The rationale and philosophy for multidisciplinary activities by school psychologists and educators are presented with an emphasis on the acquisition of information on the social context of children's behavior and needs. Multidisciplinary training teams (MDTT) established over an eight-year period in elementary schools in Nashville, Kentucky, are…

  3. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    2010-04-01

    ... enforced a subpoena or made use of its prompt judicial action authority within the past year; (2) The... the most recent three years, or is currently engaged in, at least one major fair housing systemic...

  4. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  5. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  6. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  7. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  8. Decision making.

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  9. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  10. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  11. A magnificent team effort

    CERN Bulletin

    During the last weekend and this week, the LHC has accomplished many tasks: it first circulated two beams in opposite directions, then made them collide in the heart of the four giant detectors and finally slightly increased their energy. Virtual champagne for the hundreds of people working night and day to repair the machine, prepare it for the restart and finally operate it.   This shot of delighted operators with their eyes glued to screens showing the first circulating beams in the LHC was taken by the CERN Photolab and has been published in newspapers around the world.  The LHC is making the headlines of the world's press but the real emotion these days can be seen in the eyes of the machine operators in the CERN Control Centre (CCC) and has spread all around CERN. Of course, this is just the beginning and the LHC will have to accomplish more challenging tasks but these first moments were undoubtedly very intense, partly due to the fact that last year’s incident i...

  12. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  13. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  14. The Business of Running a Special Library

    Waldron, Helen J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper, a lecture to library school students, presents in detail four elements that make a special library special," as background for a discussion of suggested approaches to follow in managing a special library. (Author/AB)

  15. Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: Do Special Care Units Make a Difference? A Secondary Data Analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project.

    Blumenfeld Arens, Olivia; Fierz, Katharina; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    In special care units (SCUs) for residents with advanced dementia, both personnel and organizations are adapted to the needs of residents. However, whether these adaptations have a preventive effect on elder abuse has not yet been explored. To describe the prevalence of observed emotional abuse, neglect, and physical abuse in Swiss nursing homes, to compare SCUs with non-SCUs concerning the frequency of observed emotional abuse, neglect, and physical abuse, and to explore how resident-related characteristics, staff outcomes/characteristics, and organizational/environmental factors relate to observed elder abuse. This is a secondary data analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP), a cross-sectional multicenter study. Data were collected from 2012 to 2013 and are based on observed rather than perpetrated elder abuse. We performed multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data with personnel nested within units and facilities. Of 4,599 care workers in 400 units and 156 facilities, 50.8% observed emotional abuse, 23.7% neglect, and 1.4% physical abuse. There was no significant difference between SCUs and non-SCUs regarding observed emotional abuse and neglect. Higher scores for 'workload' and sexual aggression towards care workers were associated with higher rates of emotional abuse and neglect. Verbal and physical resident aggression, however, were only associated with higher rates of emotional abuse. Negative associations were found between 'teamwork and resident safety climate' and both forms of abuse. Improving teamwork and the safety climate and reducing work stressors might be promising points of intervention to reduce elder abuse. More specific research about elder abuse in SCUs and the interaction between work climate and elder abuse is required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Making Fathers Count. Assessing the Progress of Responsible Fatherhood Efforts.

    Sylvester, Kathleen; Reich, Kathleen

    This report traces the history of the fatherhood field, reviews its accomplishments to date, and identifies areas in need of further work. It is intended for researchers, advocates, practitioners, and funders within the fatherhood field as well as leaders of social services organizations and public agencies that work with women and children but…

  17. What makes the hedonic experience of a meal in a top restaurant special and retrievable in the long term? Meal-related, social and personality factors.

    Muñoz, Francisco; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Schacht, Annekathrin; Stürmer, Birgit; Bröcker, Felix; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2018-06-01

    Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant variables have been examined in isolation without an integrative perspective. Here we investigated 80 guests enjoying a 23-course meal in a top gastronomy restaurant, in groups of four. Our main question concerned the factors driving the overall evaluation of the meal at its conclusion and after three months. To this aim we administered the Big Five Personality Inventory before the meal, dish-by-dish hedonic ratings, and a multi-dimensional Meal Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) at the end of the meal. Hedonic evaluations of the meal were collected immediately after the meal and three months later. Better immediate overall evaluations were predicted by both the number of peaks in dish-by-dish ratings and by positive ratings of the final dish. Both factors and the number of troughs were also critical for the long-term evaluation after three months. The MEQ dimensions overall interest, valence and distraction predicted immediate evaluations, while the long-term evaluations were determined by interest and high scores on the personality traits agreeableness and conscientiousness. High consistency of the hedonic ratings within quartets indicated the relevance of commensality for the meal experience. The present findings highlight the simultaneous relevance of food- and personality-related factors and commensality for a top gastronomy meal experience in the short and long-run. The uncovered relationships are of theoretical interest and for those involved in designing meals for consumers in various settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Cognitive Effort in Framing Effects

    Krzysztof Przybyszewski; Dorota Rutkowska

    2013-01-01

    Framing effects are a common bias in people making risky decisions. The account for this bias is found in the loss aversion derived from Prospect Theory. Most often in the decision making literature this is the effortful processes that are claimed to reduce framing effects in risky choice tasks i.e. investing of mental effort should de-bias the decision makers. However, in goal framing studies, effortful mental processes may produce those effects. In our experiment participants were primed wi...

  19. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  20. 20 CFR 416.903 - Who makes disability and blindness determinations.

    2010-04-01

    ... a child to whom paragraph (e) of this section does not apply, we will make reasonable efforts to ensure that a qualified pediatrician or other individual who specializes in a field of medicine appropriate to the child's impairment(s) evaluates the case of the child. [46 FR 29211, May 29, 1981, as...

  1. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  2. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  3. Special Operations Doctrine: Is it Needed

    2016-12-07

    AOB), eight Special Forces Operational Detachment-Alphas (SFODAs)2, and Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations teams working alongside two bat...Operations doctrine. Sixty years after the Army’s first special operations units were formed, the time had arrived for writing how Army special operations...Affairs, Psychological Operations, and Special Forces, the effort inte- grated the roles and missions of the Ranger Regiment, Special Mission Units, and

  4. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing

    Chai, G. R.; Cai, Z.; Su, Y. N.; Zong, S. L.; Zhai, G. Y.; Jia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Compared with traditional manufacturing mode, could networked manufacturing improve effort levels of the partners? What factors will affect effort level of the partners? How to encourage the partners to improve their effort levels? To answer these questions, we introduce network effect coefficient to build effort level model of the partners in networked manufacturing. The results show that (1) with the increase of the network effect in networked manufacturing, the actual effort level can go beyond the ideal level of traditional manufacturing. (2) Profit allocation based on marginal contribution rate would help improve effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing. (3) The partners in networked manufacturing who wishes to have a larger distribution ratio must make a higher effort level, and enterprises with insufficient effort should be terminated in networked manufacturing.

  6. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  7. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  8. Effort rights-based management

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  9. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  10. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  11. Specialized science.

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  12. Book Promotion Efforts in Select Nigerian Newspapers Okere ...

    Mrs Afam

    them make informed purchase decision. Hitherto, the ... for product promotion compared to the efforts of manufacturers of consumer goods and other .... The extent of promotion done by a publisher affects greatly the rate of order placed.

  13. Special geometry

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  14. Effort-Based Career Opportunities and Working Time

    Bratti, M.; Staffolani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluate the economic effects of the hypothesis of effort-based career opportunities, described as a situation in which a firm creates incentives for employees to work longer hours than bargained (or desired), by making career prospects depend on relative working hours. Firms' personnel management policies may tend to increase working time (or workers' effort) in order to maximize profits. Effort-based career opportunities raise working time, production and output per worker, and ...

  15. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  16. The Gap in Standards for Special Libraries.

    Dodd, James Beaupre

    1982-01-01

    The issue of standards for special libraries is discussed, highlighting surveys conducted concerning the diversity of special libraries and salaries of members of the Special Libraries Association (SLA). Efforts of SLA's Standards and Statistics Committee are noted. Twenty references are listed. (EJS)

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... of specific musical terms; attention to the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt and special devotion to ... Another factor that plays a role in making the poetry of Shahriar .... world, they start reading the masterpieces of world literature and ...

  18. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  19. "I put in effort, therefore I am passionate": Investigating the path from effort to passion in entrepreneurship

    Gielnik, Michael Marcus; Spitzmuller, Matthias; Schmitt, Antje; Klemann, Katharina; Frese, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical frameworks in entrepreneurship emphasize that entrepreneurial passion drives entrepreneurial effort. We hypothesize that the reverse effect is also true, and investigate changes in passion as an outcome of effort. Based on theories of self-regulation and self-perception, we hypothesize that making new venture progress and free choice are two factors that help to explain why and under which conditions entrepreneurial effort affects entrepreneurial passion. We undertook two stu...

  20. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  4. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  5. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  6. The Vatican and Unesco Link Efforts for World Literacy

    Ryan, Leo V., Brother

    1970-01-01

    The problem of functional literacy has been recognized as a moral issue and offers a special challenge to religious authorities. Founded at the Vatican level in March 1969, the Committee on Human Development was commissioned to promote and animate efforts in: (a) basic education; (b) leadership training; (c) vocational education; (d) opinion…

  7. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the selection of R&D contractors is substantially based on... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting research...

  8. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  9. Art Is Not Special

    Skov, Martin; Nadal, Marcos

    2018-01-01

    The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters...... a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species’ mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful. This assumption continues to relegate...... scientific aesthetics to the periphery of science and hampers a naturalized view of the human mind....

  10. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses' efforts.

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-03-01

    One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts' comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach's alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident.

  12. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards.

  13. Special relativity

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  14. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  15. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  16. Innovation Efforts in Education and School Administration: Views of Turkish School Administrators

    Akin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: In the current information era, nearly all organizations make efforts to make innovations in the fields of information, communication, technology, etc. Educational organizations are no exception to this trend. Moreover, it can be argued that educational institutions make a particular effort to rapidly keep pace with change. In…

  17. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Making and Changing Wills

    Cheryl Tilse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wills are important social, economic, and legal documents. Yet little is known about current will making practices and intentions. A comprehensive national database on the prevalence of will making in Australia was developed to identify who is or is not most likely to draw up a will and triggers for making and changing wills. A national survey of 2,405 adults aged above 18 years was administered by telephone in August and September 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the Australian adult population has a valid will, and the likelihood of will making increases with age and estate value. Efforts to get organized, especially in combination with life stage and asset changes trigger will making; procrastination, rather than a strong resistance, appears to explain not making a will. Understanding will making is timely in the context of predicted significant intergenerational transfers of wealth, changing demographics, and a renewed emphasis on retirement planning.

  19. International Specialization

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  20. Enhancing Teacher Efficacy in Special Education.

    McDaniel, Elizabeth A.; McCarthy, Holly DiBella

    1989-01-01

    A special education teacher's sense of teaching efficacy and personal teaching efficacy influences teacher motivation and effort, teacher-student interactions, and student achievement. Methods for enhancing teachers' sense of efficacy are suggested. (JDD)

  1. Special lecture

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  2. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  3. Special effects.

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  4. İl Özel İdarelerinde Yeniden Yapılan(amama Çabaları ve Uygulamada Karşılaşılan Sorunlar((InCapability of Re-Organization Efforts and Implementation Problems in The Special Provincial Administrations

    Sedat AZAKLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Osmanlı’nın son dönemine dayanan il özel idareleri, tarihsel süreç içinde defaatle yeniden yapılandırmalara konu olan bir yerel yönetim birimidir. İl özel idarelerinin görev ve yetki alanları dönemsel olarak daralma ve genişleme eğilimi gösterirken; bu durum kurumun önem ve mahiyetindeki değişiklikleri de beraberinde getirmiştir. Hatta bazı dönemlerde bu kurumların bir yerel yönetim olup olmadığı tartışılmış ve kapatılmasının daha rasyonel olacağı yönünde eleştirilere maruz kalmıştır. Sözü edilen eleştiriler güncelliğini korumaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı il özel idarelerinde reform çalışmalarının tarihsel gelişimini ortaya koymak ve Mahalli İdareler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün, Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetim Reformu Uygulamasının Devamına Destek Projesi (LAR II kapsamında gerçekleştirdiği çalıştayların sonuçlarına yer vererek uygulamada yaşanan sorunları ve çözüm önerilerini değerlendirmektir. Çalıştaylarda pratikte yaşanan sorunlara odaklanarak ‘yerelin nabzını yoklama’yı amaçlandığı için; bu çalışma da uygulayıcıların alanda yaşadıkları sorunlar ve çözüm önerilerini mevcut mevzuat çerçevesinde değerlendirmektedir. Çalışmada son olarak 6360 sayılı Kanun’un il özel idarelerine yansımaları değerlendirilmekte ve özel idare ile mülki idare ilişkilerinin geleceği, Yatırım İzleme ve Koordinasyon Başkanlığı ekseninde ele alınmaktadır. Çalışma, il özel idareleri hakkında bundan sonra yapılacak araştırmalara yol gösterme ve literatüre, özellikle uygulamada yaşanan sorunların çözümü noktasında katkıda bulunma çabasını taşımaktadır Special provincial administrations (SPAs are the local administration bodies, dated back to the late Ottoman era, that are subjected to the continuous re-organization in the historical process. While SPAs’ responsibilities and competence areas have tendency to shrink

  5. Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H; Hynes, Kathryn

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.

  6. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk

    2005-01-01

    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  7. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  8. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  9. Special energies and special frequencies

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  10. Special offers

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  11. Special Offers

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  12. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  13. Special graphites

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  14. [Limit of therapeutic effort in Spanish medical journals].

    Solís García Del Pozo, Julián; Gómez Pérez, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review articles concerning the limits of therapeutic effort that have been published in the past decade in journals directed at health professionals. Most of these articles are opinion pieces in which the influence of principlism is clear, even going so far as to justify the right to terminate life based on patient autonomy. It is time for personalistic bioethics to transmit its approaches in medical journals that are not specialized in bioethics.

  15. Mind the Gap: Integrating Special Collections Teaching

    Samuelson, Todd; Coker, Cait

    2014-01-01

    Instruction is a vital part of the academic librarian's public services mission, but the teaching efforts of special collections librarians can be overlooked due to the culture and particularities of teaching in an archival setting. This article documents the challenges special collections librarians face in integrating their teaching program into…

  16. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  17. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  18. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  19. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  20. Special Offers

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  1. Special Offers

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  2. Special relativity

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  3. Special relativity

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  4. Achievers, Confidence-Builders, Advocates, Relationship-Developers and System-Changers: What "Making a Difference" Means to Those Who Work with Children with Special Educational Needs -- A Typology of Rewards

    Mackenzie, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the rewards found that teachers gain satisfaction in a sense of vocation, "making a difference", and the emotional rewards of "care" and "love", especially in whole-class teaching. The meaning of "making a difference" often remains unexplored however, and this article is an attempt to…

  5. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  6. The Role of Student-Teacher Ratio in Parents' Perceptions of Schools' Engagement Efforts

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests a positive relationship between schools' efforts to engage parents and parents' involvement in their child's education. The authors investigated school socioeconomic status, school size, grade level, and student-teacher ratio as predictors of schools' efforts to engage parents of students receiving special education services. The…

  7. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  8. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

  9. Decision Making

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  10. Evaluating Utility in Diagnostic Decision Making.

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)

  11. Special offers

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  12. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  13. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  14. JENDL special purpose file

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-01-01

    In JENDL-3,2, the data on all the reactions having significant cross section over the neutron energy from 0.01 meV to 20 MeV are given for 340 nuclides. The object range of application extends widely, such as the neutron engineering, shield and others of fast reactors, thermal neutron reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. This is a general purpose data file. On the contrary to this, the file in which only the data required for a specific application field are collected is called special purpose file. The file for dosimetry is a typical special purpose file. The Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is making ten kinds of JENDL special purpose files. The files, of which the working groups of Sigma Committee are in charge, are listed. As to the format of the files, ENDF format is used similarly to JENDL-3,2. Dosimetry file, activation cross section file, (α, n) reaction data file, fusion file, actinoid file, high energy data file, photonuclear data file, PKA/KERMA file, gas production cross section file and decay data file are described on their contents, the course of development and their verification. Dosimetry file and gas production cross section file have been completed already. As for the others, the expected time of completion is shown. When these files are completed, they are opened to the public. (K.I.)

  15. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  16. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights.

  17. Model : making

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  18. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Holly Sullivan-Toole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation.

  19. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Algunos modos de historiar la educación especial en Colombia: una mirada crítica desde la historia de la práctica pedagógica Modes of making special education history in Colombia: a critical view about the history of pedagogic practices

    Alexander Yarza De Los Ríos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta el desprecio aparente hacia la historia en algunas investigaciones y en la mayoría de la formación de educadores especiales, se presenta un análisis sobre el lugar de la historia de la educación especial en el conjunto de historias de la educación y la pedagogía, y un estado del arte sobre los diferentes modos de historiar la educación especial en Colombia. Para finalizar, se propone un análisis crítico desde la historia de la práctica pedagógica posibilitando pensar los aportes de las distintos modos de historiar a futuras formas de investigación histórica que contribuyan a ponerle un alto al incremento y expansión de la des-memorización de la cultura, la historia, la pedagogía y, para nuestro caso, de la educación especial.Keeping in mind the apparent scorn toward the history in some investigations and in most special educator's formation, an analysis is presented on the place of the history of the special education in the group of education and pedagogy's histories, and a state of the art on the different ways to make history the special education in Colombie. To conclude, it intends a critical analysis from the history of the pedagogic practice facilitating to think the contributions from the different ways to make history to future forms of historical investigation that contribute to put a high one to the increment and expansion of the give-memorization of the culture, the history, the pedagogy and, for our case, of the special education.

  1. Steel making

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  2. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  4. Good Practices for Real-World Data Studies of Treatment and/or Comparative Effectiveness: Recommendations from the Joint ISPOR-ISPE Special Task Force on Real-World Evidence in Health Care Decision Making.

    Berger, Marc L; Sox, Harold; Willke, Richard J; Brixner, Diana L; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Goettsch, Wim; Madigan, David; Makady, Amr; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Tarricone, Rosanna; Wang, Shirley V; Watkins, John; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Real-world evidence (RWE) includes data from retrospective or prospective observational studies and observational registries and provides insights beyond those addressed by randomized controlled trials. RWE studies aim to improve health care decision making. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) created a task force to make recommendations regarding good procedural practices that would enhance decision makers' confidence in evidence derived from RWD studies. Peer review by ISPOR/ISPE members and task force participants provided a consensus-building iterative process for the topics and framing of recommendations. The ISPOR/ISPE Task Force recommendations cover seven topics such as study registration, replicability, and stakeholder involvement in RWE studies. These recommendations, in concert with earlier recommendations about study methodology, provide a trustworthy foundation for the expanded use of RWE in health care decision making. The focus of these recommendations is good procedural practices for studies that test a specific hypothesis in a specific population. We recognize that some of the recommendations in this report may not be widely adopted without appropriate incentives from decision makers, journal editors, and other key stakeholders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. EFFORTS AND INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BOLIVIAN LABOR MARKET

    Fátima Rico Encinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equitable distribution of income, along with human development indices, is among the factors that differentiate developed from developing countries. In this paper, efforts and other variables related to the circumstances of individuals were quantified and analyzed together with traditional determinants in order to explain inequality in the working population of Bolivia. We estimated econometric models by merging the extended Mincer equation with John Roemer’s theory of Inequality of Opportunity. We find that efforts are important determinants of the levels of wage inequality in the country as well as regional development, labor informality, gender and ethnicity. In this sense, the paper separates the part of wage inequality that may be attributed to situations that are beyond the control of individuals and that can be attributed to conscious decisions. Micro simulations determined that it would be possible to reduce inequality by as much as 21% if it gives people the chance to make similar efforts to improve their wages.

  6. Pocket money and child effort at school

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  7. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  8. EDITORIAL: Special issue on Graphene Special issue on Graphene

    Morpurgo, Alberto F.; Trauzettel, Björn

    2010-03-01

    Since the revolutionary experimental discovery of graphene in the year 2004, research on this new two-dimensional carbon allotrope has progressed at a spectacular pace. The impact of graphene on different areas of research— including physics, chemistry, and applied sciences— is only now starting to be fully appreciated. There are different factors that make graphene a truly impressive system. Regarding nano-electronics and related fields, for instance, it is the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties that yield very high room-temperature mobility values, due to the particular band structure, the material `cleanliness' (very low-concentration of impurities), as well as its stiffness. Also interesting is the possibility to have a high electrical conductivity and optical transparency, a combination which cannot be easily found in other material systems. For other fields, other properties could be mentioned, many of which are currently being explored. In the first years following this discovery, research on graphene has mainly focused on the fundamental physics aspects, triggered by the fact that electrons in graphene behave as Dirac fermions due to their interaction with the ions of the honeycomb lattice. This direction has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as Klein tunneling in a solid state system and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect due to a special type of Berry phase that appears in graphene. It has also led to the appreciation of thicker layers of graphene, which also have outstanding new properties of great interest in their own right (e.g., bilayer graphene, which supports chiral quasiparticles that, contrary to Dirac electrons, are not massless). Now the time is coming to deepen our knowledge and improve our control of the material properties, which is a key aspect to take one step further towards applications. The articles in the Semiconductor Science and Technology Graphene special issue deal with a diversity of topics

  9. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  10. Editorial. Making, Materiality and Knowledge

    Marte S. Gulliksen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This volume of FORMakademisk is a special issue which features articles based on presentations made at Making - an International Conference on Materiality and Knowledge, Notodden on September 24-27, 2012.  This FORMakademisk publication is accompanied by special issues from two other scientific journals, the New Zeeland–based Studies in Material Thinking (Freitas & Lutnæs, 2013 and the Nordic journal Techne A Series, published by NordFo (2013; Johansson & Porko-Hudd, forthcoming.

  11. Special Classes for Gifted Students? Absolutely!

    Burton-Szabo, Sally

    1996-01-01

    This article makes a case for special classes for gifted students and answers objections to special classes raised by the middle school movement and the cooperative learning movement. A sample "Celebration of Me" unit taught to gifted seventh graders which involved poetry, literature, personal development, art, music, and physical fitness is…

  12. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  13. Dopamine, Effort-Based Choice, and Behavioral Economics: Basic and Translational Research.

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yang, Jen-Hau; Rotolo, Renee; Presby, Rose

    2018-01-01

    Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease). Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.

  14. Dopamine, Effort-Based Choice, and Behavioral Economics: Basic and Translational Research

    John D. Salamone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease. Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.

  15. Make Sense?

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  16. Eight is enough. The 8 millennium development goals for cutting poverty are affordable and within reach... if we can renew the push to do it. The push includes a special global effort to build up science and technology in the poorest countries

    Sachs, J.D.; McArthur, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, a total of 147 Heads of State gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions - income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion - while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability, with quantitative targets set for the year 2015. The UN committed to reviewing progress towards the goals in 2005, recognising that by this time only a decade would be left to fulfil the MDGs. We are now at the 5-year juncture with a stark realisation: many of the poorest regions of the world, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, are far off-track to achieve the goals. Yet the MDGs are still achievable. The lives of hundreds of millions of people could be dramatically improved and millions could be saved every year, but only if the world takes bold steps in 2005. The UN Millennium Project, an independent advisory body of Secretary-General Kofi Annan, was launched in 2002 to identify practical steps for achieving the Goals. In the course of the project's work, it became clear that the scarcity of financial resources is a critical constraint in the poorest countries. Increased financing, linked to effective governance structures in low-income countries, can produce dramatic results.Reaching the MDGs will bring tremendous benefits worldwide. If the goals are achieved over the next ten years: More than 500 million people will be lifted out of poverty in 2015; More than 300 million people will no longer suffer from hunger; Roughly 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthdays, and about 20 million fewer will die compared with the current declining trajectory of child mortality. More than 2 million others will be saved. Safe drinking water will become accessible for another 350 million people, and the benefits of basic

  17. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  18. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  19. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  20. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  1. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  2. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  3. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  4. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  5. With this Special Edition

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With this Special Edition, the refereed Scientific Magazine, published in February 2017, presents a nourished and multidisciplinary theme, from the relationship of Environmental Education, in this ecological sharing man-environment; the social responsibility from the Management environment and the motivational values ​​conducive to the teaching performance in the different educational levels. Twenty-five (25 articles, generated from research production in university environments at the International level, are a signature of the quality of articles / essays presented in this Special Edition. Several reasons motivate the literary pen of our authors, adjusting to the rhythm of the times and the use of new technologies; and in correspondence with the care of the environment, this way of disseminating and making visible the scientific contents of humanistic and social court, support the care and protection of the forests, being an online production, in the Cloud. Thanks to the support of the Instituto Internacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico Educativo INDTEC, CA, Scientific Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who compose its different committees: Editorial Academic Committee, Academic Scientific Committee and the Arbitrators in the review and valuation of the quality of the articles. With these assets, the Scientific Magazine, opening to the general public and especially to the academic new intellectual horizons.

  6. Special Memories at INIS

    Pistillo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    INIS: a worldwide hub where nuclear information is preserved, validated, and made universally available. Within this special edition of the Newsletter, celebrating the 45th birthday of INIS, you will probably read this definition, and many more, of the International Nuclear Information System. However, INIS has some special aspects, not immediately visible to those who interact with the System and the INIS Secretariat, which make it unique in the scientific environment. In this article, I will try to share my experience with INIS and the memories that have stayed with me, even after my departure. I joined INIS in 2006 as an IT Systems Engineer. I must say that I found a very complex IT infrastructure with over 20 servers and several software applications which, given the small size of the INIS Unit, clearly reflected the multitude of activities INIS was (and still is) involved in. From the start, I felt that INIS was perceived in a different way by other people involved with Information Technology. In fact, since its birth in 1970, INIS has proven to be extremely innovative and open to embracing new technologies, compared with other parts of the Agency. For example, Livelink was proposed and installed for the first time by the INIS Unit before becoming the IAEA standard tool for enterprise document management, and presently, is uniquely and sharply customized to fulfill INIS’ critical weekly task of processing thousands of bibliographic and full text records

  7. Eukaryogenesis, how special really?

    Booth, Austin; Doolittle, W Ford

    2015-08-18

    Eukaryogenesis is widely viewed as an improbable evolutionary transition uniquely affecting the evolution of life on this planet. However, scientific and popular rhetoric extolling this event as a singularity lacks rigorous evidential and statistical support. Here, we question several of the usual claims about the specialness of eukaryogenesis, focusing on both eukaryogenesis as a process and its outcome, the eukaryotic cell. We argue in favor of four ideas. First, the criteria by which we judge eukaryogenesis to have required a genuinely unlikely series of events 2 billion years in the making are being eroded by discoveries that fill in the gaps of the prokaryote:eukaryote "discontinuity." Second, eukaryogenesis confronts evolutionary theory in ways not different from other evolutionary transitions in individuality; parallel systems can be found at several hierarchical levels. Third, identifying which of several complex cellular features confer on eukaryotes a putative richer evolutionary potential remains an area of speculation: various keys to success have been proposed and rejected over the five-decade history of research in this area. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, it is difficult and may be impossible to eliminate eukaryocentric bias from the measures by which eukaryotes as a whole are judged to have achieved greater success than prokaryotes as a whole. Overall, we question whether premises of existing theories about the uniqueness of eukaryogenesis and the greater evolutionary potential of eukaryotes have been objectively formulated and whether, despite widespread acceptance that eukaryogenesis was "special," any such notion has more than rhetorical value.

  8. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  9. A simplified, improved method for making amplifier equivalent noise charge measurements using a new generation digitizing oscilloscope

    Zimmerman, T.

    1990-10-01

    Historically a variety of methods have been used to measure the equivalent noise charge (ENC) of amplifier/shaper systems for high energy physics. Some of these methods require several pieces of special test equipment and a fair amount of effort. The advent of digitizing oscilloscopes with statistics capabilities makes it possible to perform certain types of noise measurements accurately with very little effort. This paper describes the noise measurement method of a time invariant amplifier/shaper and of a time variant correlated sampling system, using a Tektronix DSA602 Digitizing Signal Analyzer. 4 figs

  10. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  11. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  12. Making Connections

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  13. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  14. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  15. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  16. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  17. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  18. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Gilman, Jodi M; Treadway, Michael T; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  19. Introduction to the special issue

    Gorka Elordieta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years there has been an intense and increasing collaboration effort between researchers working on the Iberian languages, and this is particularly true in the realm of phonetics and phonology. The 'Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 'has played a role in contributing to stimulate such a collaborative research focusing on the Iberian languages: first with a Special Issue on 'Variation and Change in the Iberian Languages: the Peninsula and Beyond', and now with a Special Issue on the 'Prosody of Ibero-Romance and Related Languages'. In fact, to broaden its scope of coverage to the Iberian languages has become an explicit goal of the journal. As guest-editors of this issue, we are very pleased to be able to contribute to this objective, which we find an extremely fruitful one.

  20. Special graphites; Graphites speciaux

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [French] Ameliorer les proprietes du graphite nucleaire pour empilements et ouvrir de nouveaux domaines d'application au graphite constituent une part importante de l'effort entrepris en commun par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) et la compagnie PECHINEY. Des procedes nouveaux de fabrication de carbones et graphites speciaux ont ete mis au point: graphite forge, pyrocarbone, graphite de haute densite, agglomeration de poudres de graphite par craquage de gaz naturel, graphites impermeables. Les proprietes physiques de ces produits ainsi que leur reaction avec differents gaz oxydants sont decrites. Les premiers resultats d'irradiation sont aussi donnes. (auteurs)

  1. Introduction to the special issue

    Gisela Boehm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (from the introduction Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes and began to investigate intuitive --- as opposed to deliberate --- and emotional --- as opposed to cognitive --- aspects of decision making. In sum, decision research has seen a proliferation of approaches that look beyond rational, deliberate, and purely cognitive processes in decision making and investigate intuitive and emotional judgments in this area. This seemed like a good point in time to reflect the state of this emerging field in a special issue that addresses the question of how intuition and affect are related to each other and how they shape risk perception and decision making. This special issue is the result of a workshop that was held at the University of Bergen in November, 2006.

  2. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN

  3. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormanjieva, Olga; Abran, A.; Braungarten, R.; Dumke, R.; Cuadrado-Gallego, J.; Brunekreef, J.

    2009-01-01

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient

  4. Some aspects of the regulation for waste management with special emphasize on the batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators in Republic of Macedonia

    Andonov, Marko; Miseva, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of law in the field of environment undoubtedly experiences expansion. Republic of Macedonia as a state candidate for full membership of EU, in the recent several years makes significant efforts for harmonization of its legal regulation in the field of environment with the legal regulation of the Union. The Law on Waste Management has a special place in the subject problem. By passing and harmonization of the laws and subordinate regulation with acquies and according to ...

  5. Make Astrobiology Yours

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I will give the AbGradCon attendees an overview of astrobiology activities ongoing at NASA as well as a brief description of the various funding programs and careers that they can pursue. After this, I will present to them the case that the future of the field is theirs to determine, and give input on how to effectively make astrobiology and NASA responsive to the needs of the community. This presentation will leverage my experiences leading various efforts in the early career astrobiology community, where I have served as a conference organizer, primer lead editor, community blogger, and unofficial liaison to NASA headquarters.

  6. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  7. Logistics system as an effort of integration in the Mandalika Special Economic Zone and its surroundings

    Suheri, T.; Melinda, W. G.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as one of the maritime countries with its territory in the form of an archipelago. A SEZ with an integrated logistics system is very influential on the value of tourism, especially marine tourism. The creation of logistics activities in the Mandalika SEZ as a tourism area formed from the export and import of products as a form of tourism promotion will attract many domestic and foreign tourists. The importance of a logistics system for both people and goods can support the investment system in the area of Mandalika SEZ. The logistics system can provide agglomeration of facilities and infrastructure to support tourist activities in terms of cargo distribution both locally and globally. Mandalika SEZ requires an integrated logistics system to improve national competitiveness in the form of physical system support such as commodity availability and city/regional infrastructure as well as non-physical infrastructure such as service providers and regulation in order to be sustainable. The logistics system also plays a strategic role in synchronizing and harmonizing progress between economies and between regions in order to avoid an imbalance with the surrounding area. This study aims to find out the performance of the existing logistics systems in the Mandalika area and its surrounding areas in order to formulate policies to integrate the logistics systems within and outside the region. This research used content analysis methodology.

  8. Coherent efforts in relation to COPD patients with special emphasis on the quality and technological solutions

    Bagger, Bettan; Vestergaard*, Kitt; Andresen, Mette

    Keywords: COPD, quality, clinical pathways, daily life, competences, welfare technology Background: Focus in Health Service moves towards quality and hence focus is on results that create quality in healthcare services. Technologies are assumed to promote more consistent quality in health care......, Hospital Naestved investigate COPD patients’ and health professionals’ perspectives with respect to their assessments of quality in clinical pathways and daily life focusing on clinical pathways, interdisciplinary sharing of knowledge and use of technology. Identification of parameters will be important...... recruits informants. Methodology: qualitative in depth interviews A literature review has been done to identify COPD patients and health professionals’ assessment of parameters for quality in clinical pathways and daily life. The study is a phenomenological explorative study focusing upon the meaning...

  9. Noise Reduction Efforts for Special Operations C-130 Aircraft Using Active Synchrophaser Control

    Hammond, Daryl; McKinley, Richard; Hale, Bill

    1998-01-01

    .... A more complicated approach uses an active noise cancellation (ANC) system, which offers improved performance that can augment passive methods to significantly reduce both internal and external aircraft noise...

  10. Noise Reduction Efforts for Special Operations C-130 Aircraft Using Active Synchrophaser Control

    Hammond, Daryl; McKinley, Richard; Hale, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft noise often inhibits mission effectiveness. As a result, flight crews, ground maintenance personnel, and passengers suffer degraded voice communication, impaired performance, increased fatigue, and hearing loss...

  11. Poster COHERENT EFFORT FOR COPD PATIENTS  WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON WELFARE TECHNOLOGY

    Vestergaard*, Kitt; Bagger, Bettan; Bech, Lone

    and consistency of treatment programs for patients with COPD this project seeks to explore: Experiences among patients with COPD and health professionals of implementation of technology regarding own competences for using the technologies as well as its impact on the quality of care. Method: The study...... the brochures as especially good, one expressed "The brochures are really good, that's for sure. I use it in my work with our patients, "and" it was a very good knowledge boost “. They were as well very satisfied about the telephone consultation, "Telephone consultation with a single patient case, which...... was a bit difficult (...)I got really good help." The healthcare professionals who had used www.helbredsprofilen.dk found it very informative and useful, both for them selves as professionals, but also for the patients with COPD. They found that it provide something, that the other technologies don´t, “It...

  12. COHERENT EFFORT FOR COPD PATIENTS  WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON WELFARE TECHNOLOGY

    Vestergaard*, Kitt; Bagger, Bettan; Jensen, Lars Heegaard

    and consistency of treatment programs for patients with COPD this project seeks to explore: Experiences among patients with COPD and health professionals of implementation of technology regarding own competences for using the technologies as well as its impact on the quality of care. Method: The study...... the brochures as especially good, one expressed "The brochures are really good, that's for sure. I use it in my work with our patients, "and" it was a very good knowledge boost “. They were as well very satisfied about the telephone consultation, "Telephone consultation with a single patient case, which...... was a bit difficult (...)I got really good help." The healthcare professionals who had used www.helbredsprofilen.dk found it very informative and useful, both for them selves as professionals, but also for the patients with COPD. They found that it provide something, that the other technologies don´t, “It...

  13. 40 CFR 33.303 - Are there special rules for loans under EPA financial assistance agreements?

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Good Faith Efforts § 33.303 Are there special... identified loans comply with the good faith efforts described in § 33.301 and the contract administration...

  14. Judgment and decision making.

    Mellers, B A; Schwartz, A; Cooke, A D

    1998-01-01

    For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive that previously thought. For example, "rule following." Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are "good enough," though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.

  15. Making Yugoslavs

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    . By the time Aleksandar was killed by an assassin’s bullet five years later, he not only had failed to create a unified Yugoslav nation but his dictatorship had also contributed to an increase in interethnic tensions.   In Making Yugoslavs, Christian Axboe Nielsen uses extensive archival research to explain...... the failure of the dictatorship’s program of forced nationalization. Focusing on how ordinary Yugoslavs responded to Aleksandar’s nationalization project, the book illuminates an often-ignored era of Yugoslav history whose lessons remain relevant not just for the study of Balkan history but for many...

  16. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  17. Efforts to promote regional security dialogue and cooperation in the North Pacific

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Indifference to the new realities of the post-cold war era does nothing to preserve the traditional priorities laid down in the Final Document of the first special session on disarmament. On the contrary, such attitudes directly contribute to the trend towards marginalization which began when publics no longer feared the threat of a nuclear holocaust. It is believed that the expertise of forty years of multilateral arms control and disarmament efforts is directly relevant to the broader efforts of the international community to restore, maintain and promote international peace and security. Who can deny that confidence-building is central to preventive diplomacy? Or that the arms control component-from disarming to demobilization-is not equally central to peace operations whether they be traditional peace-keeping or post-conflict peace-building? Indeed the success or failure of the disarmament aspect of a peace operation is often critical to its overall success-Somalia surely being one recent sad example. The multilateral disarmament community must apply itself more directly and systematically to these broader problems - just as the United Nations Secretariat has increasingly begun to do - or risk indifference from Governments forced to make tough choices against a range of competing priorities. It is undeniably true that the post-cold war has significantly increased the potential for the international community to negotiate historic new multilateral disarmament treaties. And this window of opportunity must be utilized to the fullest. At the same time, due account must be taken of the hard fact that, for an increasing number of countries, expensive obligations in relation to advanced unconventional weapons which neither they nor their neighbours seek to possess may count for less than practical assistance in finding solutions to more parochial, but no less urgent, problems

  18. What influences patient decision-making in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multidisciplinary care? A study of patient perspectives.

    Hogden, Anne; Greenfield, David; Nugus, Peter; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2012-01-01

    Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are required to make decisions concerning quality of life and symptom management over the course of their disease. Clinicians perceive that patients' ability to engage in timely decision-making is extremely challenging. However, we lack patient perspectives on this issue. This study aimed to explore patient experiences of ALS, and to identify factors influencing their decision-making in the specialized multidisciplinary care of ALS. An exploratory study was conducted. Fourteen patients from two specialized ALS multidisciplinary clinics participated in semistructured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed for emergent themes. Decision-making was influenced by three levels of factors, ie, structural, interactional, and personal. The structural factor was the decision-making environment of specialized multidisciplinary ALS clinics, which supported decision-making by providing patients with disease-specific information and specialized care planning. Interactional factors were the patient experiences of ALS, including patients' reaction to the diagnosis, response to deterioration, and engagement with the multidisciplinary ALS team. Personal factors were patients' personal philosophies, including their outlook on life, perceptions of control, and planning for the future. Patient approaches to decision-making reflected a focus on the present, rather than anticipating future progression of the disease and potential care needs. Decision-making for symptom management and quality of life in ALS care is enhanced when the patient's personal philosophy is supported by collaborative relationships between the patient and the multidisciplinary ALS team. Patients valued the support provided by the multidisciplinary team; however, their focus on living in the present diverged from the efforts of health professionals to prepare patients and their carers for the future. The challenge facing health

  19. Personalized Clinical Decision Making in Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    Hess, Søren; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    and initial stages. This article outlines the potential use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in clinical decision making with special regard to preoperative evaluation and response assessment in gastric cancer (including the gastroesophageal junction), pancreatic cancer (excluding neuroendocrine tumors...

  20. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  1. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  2. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense...... efficiency innovation activities where market demand and policy efforts appear to have the most impact. The thesis also goes in depth with a single sector to describe the complexities of innovation processes in energy efficiency and the noticeable role of policy. Overall the doctoral thesis provides...

  3. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.

  5. Derin Anlatı Yapısı Olarak Romanın Var Olma Kaygısı ve “Suskunlar”ı Görünür Kılma Çabası Effort For Making “Suskunlar” Vivace And Visible With The Concern Of Existing As Deep Narrative Structure

    Salim DURUKOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elaine Scarry who says that first of all for the part of author, composing a fictional text which is worth reading and then for the part of reader, reading texts of these types require great imaginative construction explains through long, deep and detailed information and examples that the way of visualizing literary texts in “mental retina” of readers passes through sticking cinematographic reality with photocopy loyalty in her work called “Dreaming by the Book” in which she records types of creating images in our minds. The main concern propelling the writer who is also the professor of English literature to write such a book is the prediction that the bonds between people and books whose essence is based on our imagination have weakened and even ruptured; people who shape their life through means and arts based on visuality such as computer, cinema and theatre will lose their skill of imagination / phantasy.This book which is not commonly known or used for literature researches in country analyzes issues, imagination elements under titles such as Making Pictures, On Vivacity, On Solidity, The Place of Instruction, Imagining Flowers, Radiant Ignition, Rarity, Addition and Subtraction, Stretching, Folding and Tilting, Floral Supposition, Circling Back, Skating, Quickening with Flowers etc. Vivacity which is tried to be joined to fictional world through borrowing from real life or genres such as cinema and theatre is the reason or way of existence of every literary genre from poetry to novel since the epic ages up to now. Our essay will bring a breath of fresh air and perspective to literature researches since it is a study in which suggestions and inspirations of this book which has not been used in such kind of studies are applied on the novel “Suskunlar” written by İhsan Oktay Anar. This study gives a demonstration of book on literary basis while on the other hand compares content with image levels in literary work.

  6. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  7. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  8. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  9. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions

  10. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  11. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  12. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  13. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reasonable limits to radiation protection efforts

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that change in life expectancy (ΔLE) is an improved estimate for risks and safety efforts, reflecting the relevant social goal. A cost-effectiveness index, safety investment/ΔLE, is defined. The harm from low level radiation is seen as a reduction of life expectancy instead of an increased probability of contracting cancer. (author)

  15. Area Studies and Special Collections: Shared Challenges, Shared Strength

    Carter, Lisa R.; Whittaker, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Special collections and area studies librarians face similar challenges in the changing academic library environment, including the need to articulate the value of these specialized collections and to mainstream processes and practices into larger discovery, teaching, learning, and research efforts. For some institutions, these similarities have…

  16. Pediatricians Transitioning Practices, Youth With Special Health Care Needs in New York State.

    Davidson, Lynn F; Chhabra, Rosy; Cohen, Hillel W; Lechuga, Claudia; Diaz, Patricia; Racine, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    To assess current practices of New York State pediatricians as they transition youth with special health care needs to adult-oriented medical care. A survey of New York State pediatricians included 6 critical steps from 2002 consensus statement, 11 essential steps adapted from recent literature, and questions targeting age of starting transition and availability of transition policy. Of 181 respondents, only 11% have a transition policy. Most assist patients in transition process; identify an adult provider (92%); and create portable medical summary (57%). Only 3% start planning process at recommended age. No respondents are compliant with all 6 critical steps; subspecialists were more likely to report compliance to more than 4 steps. Participating pediatricians are making gains, yet effort is needed, to incorporate the essential steps into practice for transitioning youth with special health care needs. Recognition of barriers, use of electronic tools, and clarifying subspecialist's approach, may improve compliance with transition recommendations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Human aspects in software architecture decision making : a literature review

    Tang, A.; Razavian, M.; Paech, Barbara; Hesse, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite past efforts, we have little understanding and limited research efforts on how architects make decisions in the real-world settings. It seems that software architecture researchers make implicit assumption that decision making by software architects can be a rational and prescribed process.

  18. A neuronal model of a global workspace in effortful cognitive tasks.

    Dehaene, S; Kerszberg, M; Changeux, J P

    1998-11-24

    A minimal hypothesis is proposed concerning the brain processes underlying effortful tasks. It distinguishes two main computational spaces: a unique global workspace composed of distributed and heavily interconnected neurons with long-range axons, and a set of specialized and modular perceptual, motor, memory, evaluative, and attentional processors. Workspace neurons are mobilized in effortful tasks for which the specialized processors do not suffice. They selectively mobilize or suppress, through descending connections, the contribution of specific processor neurons. In the course of task performance, workspace neurons become spontaneously coactivated, forming discrete though variable spatio-temporal patterns subject to modulation by vigilance signals and to selection by reward signals. A computer simulation of the Stroop task shows workspace activation to increase during acquisition of a novel task, effortful execution, and after errors. We outline predictions for spatio-temporal activation patterns during brain imaging, particularly about the contribution of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate to the workspace.

  19. Developments in special geometry

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  20. Joint development effort Thermonuclear Fusion. Programme budgeting 1984

    1985-01-01

    The joint KfK and IPP project for the development of thermonuclear fusion device is established as the centerpiece of Federal German efforts in this field. It is meant to enhance the German contribution to the European programme and thus foster the chances of a joint European large-scale experiment to be started in the Federal Republic of Germany. IPP's tasks in the project are to study the physical principles and aspects, whereas KfK is responsible for the technological aspects. Work at IPP is focused on divertor experiments with the ASDEX series in order to go deeper into the problems that could not be solved by the JET experiments, namely those of the plasma boundary and control of impurities. Stellarator experiments are made in order to study the potentials of this toroidal confinement concept for steady-state operation. The IPP which always has been working in the plasma physics field devotes all activities to the joint effort. KfK has established a special project group for this purpose, PKF. The budgeting programme presented therefore covers the IPP entire working schedule, and that of PKF of the KfK. (orig./GG) [de

  1. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    Kamath, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  2. New Mexico district work-effort analysis computer program

    Hiss, W.L.; Trantolo, A.P.; Sparks, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program (CAN 2) described in this report is one of several related programs used in the New Mexico District cost-analysis system. The work-effort information used in these programs is accumulated and entered to the nearest hour on forms completed by each employee. Tabulating cards are punched directly from these forms after visual examinations for errors are made. Reports containing detailed work-effort data itemized by employee within each project and account and by account and project for each employee are prepared for both current-month and year-to-date periods by the CAN 2 computer program. An option allowing preparation of reports for a specified 3-month period is provided. The total number of hours worked on each account and project and a grand total of hours worked in the New Mexico District is computed and presented in a summary report for each period. Work effort not chargeable directly to individual projects or accounts is considered as overhead and can be apportioned to the individual accounts and projects on the basis of the ratio of the total hours of work effort for the individual accounts or projects to the total New Mexico District work effort at the option of the user. The hours of work performed by a particular section, such as General Investigations or Surface Water, are prorated and charged to the projects or accounts within the particular section. A number of surveillance or buffer accounts are employed to account for the hours worked on special events or on those parts of large projects or accounts that require a more detailed analysis. Any part of the New Mexico District operation can be separated and analyzed in detail by establishing an appropriate buffer account. With the exception of statements associated with word size, the computer program is written in FORTRAN IV in a relatively low and standard language level to facilitate its use on different digital computers. The program has been run only on a Control Data Corporation

  3. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  4. Novel technique of making thin target foil of high density material via rolling method

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Singh, R. P.; Singh, Gurjot; Chamoli, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The conventional rolling method fails to yield good quality thin foils of thicknesses less than 2 mg/cm2 for high density materials with Z ≥ 70 (e.g. gold, lead). A special and improved technique has been developed to obtain such low thickness good quality gold foils by rolling method. Using this technique thin gold foils of thickness in the range of 0.850-2.5 mg/cm2 were obtained in the present work. By making use of alcohol during rolling, foils of thickness 1 mg/cm2 can be obtained in shorter time with less effort.

  5. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  6. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  7. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  8. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  9. Evaluative language, cognitive effort and attitude change.

    van der Pligt, J.; van Schie, E.C.M.; Martijn, C.

    1994-01-01

    Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...

  10. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  11. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  12. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  13. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  14. Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference?

    Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen

    2001-12-01

    A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.

  15. The Tobacco Industry's Successful Efforts to Control Tobacco Policy Making in Switzerland

    Lee, Chung-Yol MD, MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette consumption among people 15 years or older peaked in Switzerland in the early 1970’s with 3,700 cigarettes per capita and per year, followed by a decline to 2,800 cigarettes per capita and per year in 1994. After a decline of the proportion of smokers from 37% in 1980 to 31% in 1992, this proportion has increased again to 33% in 1997. Women, particularly the young, and children and adolescents, have shown a continued increase in smoking prevalence, despite the focus of tobacco preve...

  16. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  17. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Submission of Conservation Efforts To Make...

    2012-03-01

    ... conservation plan or agreement, procedures for monitoring the effectiveness of the plan or agreement, and an...: Regular submission (extension of a currently approved collection). Affected Public: Business or other for... report for successful agreements. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 3,300. Estimated Total Annual Cost...

  18. Bottom up and Top Down: Making IT a Key Part of the Campus Sustainability Effort

    Cromwell, Dennis; Hanks, Kristin; Engel, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is regarded globally as a voracious consumer of energy. According to a 2007 research paper issued by the United Kingdom's Global Action Plan, IT accounts for 10 percent of the electrical usage in the U.K. In the United States, Stanford University estimates that IT accounts for 15 percent of its overall electrical use.…

  19. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Make and play

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Having worked with transposition of domain knowledge in digital and card games, we propose a novel approach for enabling groups of primary school pupils to express their shared understanding of a topic; the group can represent their knowledge by creating a trading card game (with custom cards...... and rules) instead of using diagrammatical formalisms. A kit and a special design method have been devised to simplify the creation of card games, bringing the task in within the capabilities of pupils. The process of designing card games represents in itself a form of group reflection in action....... The resulting card games serve as boundary objects among learners and instructors (or other participating adults, in informal contexts). The games reify the group knowledge, making it tangible and playable: each of these games can be seen as a simulation or a presentation of knowledge, for the benefit of new...

  1. Collaborative innovation effort and size in alliances

    Asikainen, Anna-Leena; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    of organisational and marketing innovations. Additionally, small firms were more likely (than large) to engage into alliances as a part of their strategy. On more general level our data also confirm that factors such as: number of highly educated employees, foreign ownership of a firm and presence of firm......This study presents quantitative investigation of the factors that influence the process of forming strategic alliances with a special focus on the role of innovation strategies and firm’s size in alliance building process. The empirical sample is based on a large scale data from the Community...

  2. Participation in decision making

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  3. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  5. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  6. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level

  7. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  8. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  9. Other Special Waste

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  10. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  11. Editorial: Nanoscience makes catalysis greener

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-09

    Green chemistry by nanocatalysis: Catalysis is a strategic field of science because it involves new ways of meeting energy and sustainability challenges. The concept of green chemistry, which makes the science of catalysis even more creative, has become an integral part of sustainability. This special issue is at the interface of green chemistry and nanocatalysis, and features excellent background articles as well as the latest research results. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  13. Editorial HPJ Special Issue Introduction

    Farfan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the

  14. NOVA making stuff: Season 2

    Leombruni, Lisa [WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, MA (United States); Paulsen, Christine Andrews [Concord Evaluation Group, Concord, MA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...

  16. Special Education in Jordan

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  17. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  18. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  19. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  20. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  1. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  2. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  3. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  4. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Special Education Doctoral Programs: A 10-Year Comparison of the Suppliers of Leadership Personnel

    Smith, Deborah Deutsch; Montrosse, Bianca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The first article in this special issue is about the doctoral programs, the suppliers of new doctoral graduates in special education. It focuses on one component of a larger effort, the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment (SEFNA) project, which investigated many aspects of the supply of new doctoral graduates as well as the demand for new…

  6. The Special Education Story: Obituary, Accident Report, Conversion Experience, Reincarnation, or None of the Above?

    Kauffman, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The current status of special education and possible futures are examined through a true news story of current "reform" efforts in Washington, D.C. schools and in imaginary future news stories reporting on special education as an obituary, an accident, a conversion experience, and a reincarnation. The author urges special educators to reject…

  7. The hidden cost of specialization

    Landini, Fabio; Nicoló, Antonio; Piovesan, Marco

    Given the advantages of specialization, employers encourage their employees to acquire distinct expertise to better satisfy clients’ needs. However, when the client is unaware of the employees’ expertise and cannot be sorted out to the most competent employee by means of a gatekeeper, a mismatch ...... to improve their expertise. Thus, we provide a new rationale for the use of team bonuses even when the production function depends on a single employee’s effort.......Given the advantages of specialization, employers encourage their employees to acquire distinct expertise to better satisfy clients’ needs. However, when the client is unaware of the employees’ expertise and cannot be sorted out to the most competent employee by means of a gatekeeper, a mismatch...... can occur. In this paper we attempt to identify the optimal condition so an employer can eliminate this mismatch and offer a team bonus that provides the first-contacted employee with an incentive to refer the client to the correct expert. We show that the profitability of this referral contract...

  8. Cutting agents for special metals

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  9. Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts

    Andrea A. Nehorayoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.

  10. 'Good-faith efforts' are enough to avoid punitive damages.

    1999-07-23

    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers who make "good faith efforts" to comply with Federal civil rights laws cannot be forced to pay punitive damages for their managers' discriminatory conduct. [Name removed], an employee of the American Dental Association, sued her employer when she was passed over for a promotion. [Name removed] alleged sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Evidence showed that the employer rewrote a job description to favor a male candidate. To recover punitive damages, an employee must demonstrate that the employer acted with malice or reckless indifference. The Americans with Disabilities Act specifically uses Title VII with regard to discrimination, including its terms for punitive damages.

  11. Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed

  12. Men’s Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood1

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H.; Hynes, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort. PMID:20221306

  13. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  14. DefenseLink Special: Veterans Day 2005

    our country, and for making a proud history. God bless you all. And God bless our wonderful country a special Veterans Day observance. Story * Command Sgt. Major Praises Women's Service Woman Vet Veterans Affairs * Center of Military History * White House: Honoring Our Veterans * Library of Congress

  15. Transition: New Challenge for Special Education.

    Dildy, Dennis R.

    Special education students who graduate or age-out of school are often not successful in making the transition from school to work. Transition services in Texas are grounded in federal civil rights legislation and a Texas Senate concurrent resolution which calls for preparing and supporting the successful transition of handicapped students to the…

  16. Special Issue: “Molecules against Alzheimer”

    Michael Decker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue, entitled “Molecules against Alzheimer”, gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.

  17. Efforts to Improve Writing Skills of High School Students

    Nurul Inayah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in English is one of the language skills that are taught in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Indonesian senior high schools. According to previous studies, most of the students consider writing is the most difficult of the four skills. This research was aimed at finding out the main difficulties in writing faced by the grade XI students at SMA Negeri 10 Fajar Harapan, Banda Aceh, and the efforts made by their teacher to overcome those problems. The design of this study was a descriptive qualitative study. To obtain the data, the writers used document collection and interviews. The results from the document collection showed that the highest percentages of problems faced by the students were in the aspect of language use and the least problems were in the aspect of content. The results from the interviews showed that the most common correcting efforts made by the teacher were giving written feedback for all aspects of writing i.e. language use, mechanics, vocabulary, organization, and content. Likewise, teachers need to develop systemized forms of feedback and make it clear to students what the feedback means and what they are to do with them to assist students in improving their writing skills.

  18. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    Kassab, Mohamed; Daneva, Maya; Ormandjieva, Olga

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient attention to this need. This paper presents a flexible, yet systematic approach to the early requirements-based effort estimation, based on Non-Functional Requirements ontology. It complementarily uses one standard functional size measurement model and a linear regression technique. We report on a case study which illustrates the application of our solution approach in context and also helps evaluate our experiences in using it.

  19. Special theory of relativity

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  20. Special Issue to publish

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  1. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs.

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W

    1988-12-01

    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  2. National participation in nuclear projects: An effort worth trying

    Albisu, F.

    1986-04-01

    National participation in nuclear power projects was a star subject in the seventies in dealings between supplying and receiving countries; around it international gatherings like ICONTT conferences, IAEA meetings, and others were almost institutionalized. The fact that many of those dealings, which were prosecuted for extended periods, are not being materialized into actual projects (suffice it to mention those of Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, China, etc.) has provided a slow shift of the title role in the international nuclear picture to the apparent main obstacles to that materialization, that is, financial and/or non-proliferation aspects. But, in fact, a growing, well planned participation by a country's industry, its organizations and its individuals in its nuclear programme is clearly the most important product (other than, obviously, power itself) that can be derived from such a programme. A product from which many other sectors benefit. This paper deals with significant aspects of the national participation effort, among other: existing industrial infrastructure, and its evaluation; technology transfer channels and its implications; situations where national participation may look less easy to implement: turnkey projects, shop-mounted or barge-installed blocks or complete plants, etc.; progressive participation along the project, and with subsequent projects; the role of the utility and the Government. Cases drawn from the experience of the author's company in several countries, and specially the case of Spain, are commented. (author)

  3. Reducing hazardous cleaning product use: a collaborative effort.

    Pechter, Elise; Azaroff, Lenore S; López, Isabel; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy

    2009-01-01

    Workplace hazards affecting vulnerable populations of low-wage and immigrant workers present a special challenge to the practice of occupational health. Unions, Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health (COSH) groups, and other organizations have developed worker-led approaches to promoting safety. Public health practitioners can provide support for these efforts. This article describes a successful multiyear project led by immigrant cleaning workers with their union, the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) Local 615, and with support from the Massachusetts COSH (MassCOSH) to address exposure to hazardous chemicals. After the union had identified key issues and built a strategy, the union and MassCOSH invited staff from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Occupational Health Surveillance Program (OHSP) to provide technical information about health effects and preventive measures. Results included eliminating the most hazardous chemicals, reducing the number of products used, banning mixing products, and improving safety training. OHSP's history of public health practice regarding cleaning products enabled staff to respond promptly. MassCOSH's staff expertise and commitment to immigrant workers allowed it to play a vital role.

  4. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  5. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  6. STAR Infrastructure Database: An effort to know each other

    Mora, J.C.; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Vesterbacka, Pia; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Barnett, Catherine; Beresford, Nick [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC-CEH (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Stockholm University (Sweden); Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Wilrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Vanhoudt, Nathalie [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Komperoed, Mari [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Effort over the last decade to make radioecology stronger and sustainable within Europe crystallized in the creation of the European Radioecology Alliance. The first step for this integrative effort was the establishment of a network of excellence (NoE) under the EU FP7 Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR www.star-radioecology.org) project which commenced in 2011. One of the project objectives was to share knowledge of European radioecological capabilities. To help achieve this, a register of these capabilities at each of the STAR laboratories has been created. An Infrastructure Database was designed and programmed using web 2.0 technologies on a 'wiki' platform. Its intended use was to identify what assets were held and where improvements could be made. Information collated includes an inventory of the radioanalytical or conventional equipment and methods, bio-informatics equipment and methods, sample and data archives held, and models and codes used. It also provides a summary of the radioecological expertise of the 170 radio-ecologists at STAR institutes whose knowledge is wide-ranging and encompasses: atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental radiation protection, environmental surveillance, foodstuffs, terrestrial, freshwater and marine radioecology, modelling, radiobiology and radionuclide analyses, emergency preparedness, education and training, amongst others. In 2013, the EU FP7 Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology (COMET, www.comet-radioecology.org) project, involving the STAR partners and additionally one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes, was initiated. The capabilities of these additional partners will be added to the database in 2014. The aim of the database was to gather information to: - avoid duplication of effort and thereby increase efficiency, - improve synergy and collaboration between the STAR project partners and others involved in

  7. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  8. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort

  9. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision-making

  10. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' ... development, human resources are the most important tool and capital of ... foster talent, to improve public and specialized awareness, and to ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... delivery system which are primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, ..... services are usually delivered by nurse practitioners, medical assistants, ... The quaternary care is a highly specialized care with a target to cure.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... quantitative method used, data analysis and findings of Telehealth ... The users' acceptance of wireless sensor devise (Motes) for ..... access to specialized health care: the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-09-10

    . Special ... is 4000 pps, in 1 ms there are 4 sampling intervals. Fig. .... Although this type of radar is simple, generally it is not very sensitive because of increased ... processing) to determine the true sign of Doppler frequency.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  16. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... special experience of urban environments in the development process. ... Internet and social networking, and eventually poor performance of the police .... was shown that different regions have different levels of fear of crime.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT ... CMOS technology with many special features that can overcome all the limitations in CMOS. QCA is of high speed, small size ... is done depending on position of single electrons. This shows that ...

  19. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  20. de Sitter special relativity

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... and 1340s, centralization and organizational unity in the early 1350s, ... appropriate productivity in specialized costs of welfare and social ..... and finally the lack of compliance with commitments by the government to the social.

  2. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  3. Partnering efforts at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Warren, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Before individuals or agencies can effectively work together to solve common problems, they must first agree on exactly what those problems are and establish common goals and methods that will lead to mutually acceptable solutions. Then, they must make a conscientious effort to form a cohesive team that focuses on the established goals and deemphasize traditional roles, which may in some instances be considered adversarial. This kind of teamwork/partnering process can be more difficult, though not impossible, to achieve in cases where there are traditional (real or imagined) adversarial relationships between the parties, i.e. regulator vs. regulated. The US Department of Energy Site Office (DOE) at Paducah, Kentucky, the Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection (KDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA) have made t strides toward teamwork and partnering at DOE's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. They have accomplished this in a number of ways, which will be discussed in greater detail but first and foremost, the agencies agreed up front that they had mutual goals and interests. These goals are to protect public health and the environment in a cost-effective and timely manner, taking care to make the wisest use of public resources (tax dollars); to evaluate and minimize risks, and to achieve ''Win-Win'' for all parties concerned

  4. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    McAfee, W J [comp.

    1979-06-01

    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations.

  5. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    McAfee, W.J.

    1979-06-01

    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations

  6. Specialized computer system to diagnose critical lined equipment

    Yemelyanov, V. A.; Yemelyanova, N. Y.; Morozova, O. A.; Nedelkin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents data on the problem of diagnosing the lining condition at the iron and steel works. The authors propose and describe the structure of the specialized computer system to diagnose critical lined equipment. The relative results of diagnosing lining condition by the basic system and the proposed specialized computer system are presented. To automate evaluation of lining condition and support in making decisions regarding the operation mode of the lined equipment, the specialized software has been developed.

  7. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  8. The Online Specialization Problem

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  9. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  10. Global Data Grid Efforts for ATLAS

    Gardner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two years computational data grids have emerged as a promising new technology for large scale, data-intensive computing required by the LHC experiments, as outlined by the recent "Hoffman" review panel that addressed the LHC computing challenge. The problem essentially is to seamlessly link physicists to petabyte-scale data and computing resources, distributed worldwide, and connected by high-bandwidth research networks. Several new collaborative initiatives in Europe, the United States, and Asia have formed to address the problem. These projects are of great interest to ATLAS physicists and software developers since their objective is to offer tools that can be integrated into the core ATLAS application framework for distributed event reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulation, and data analysis, making it possible for individuals and groups of physicists to share information, data, and computing resources in new ways and at scales not previously attempted. In addition, much of the distributed IT...

  11. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  12. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  13. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... tion visualization; insight; sense making; cognitive; data abstraction ..... The schema is re-documentation or prearranged collection of the information that is .... [14] Hamzah M, Sobey A, Koronios A.Supporting decision making ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... literally means: Notifying someone of something, waking up, making conscious, making aware ... motivating more power towards the desired direction and human ... punishment actually use for awakening and educating until ...

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... external factors affecting decision making about mutual investment, the result from ... and an important part of life that can make people more effectively. ... needed to research companies and analyze market information before.

  17. AEA special meeting report

    Office 2004 Test Drive User;Rob McLean

    makes sense and is more appropriate deserves deep evaluative attention. • A practical ... Discussion Point I – How does scale affect program design? What needs to be ... decision-making regarding scaling-up potential. Discussion leads:.

  18. A logic road from special relativity to general relativity

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X.; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in first-order logic. From this axiom system we "derive" an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.

  19. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  20. Determination of effective effort on hake Merluccius merluccius in a Mediterranean trawl fishery

    Francisco Alemany

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct control of fishing effort as a management tool is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where the lack of effective international management systems and the high diversity of the catches significantly increases the complexity of implementing TAC´s as an indirect control of fishing effort. However, its enforcement should be based on the precise knowledge of the relationship between the fishing effort and its corresponding fishing mortality. In this sense, the general aim of this study was to develop an approach for analysing this relationship. In order to estimate the annual effective fishing effort on hake, a relational data base including daily landings by vessel and species of trawl fleet based on the port of Palma, Mallorca island (western Mediterranean during the period 1983-1991 was built. Fishing mortalities were available from VPA. Fishing effort and fishing mortality were split by subfleets or métiers which were identified by cluster analysis. Significant linear relationships between the two parameters were obtained when fishing effort was considered as the number of days in which hake catch was higher than 10 kg multiplied by GRT of correspondent vessels. These CPUE values are mainly obtained when trawlers operate in the muddy bottoms of the shelf and on the upper slope, where hake populations are mostly distributed. On the other hand, no clear trends in catchability by métier were found during the period analysed.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... the protection. Notwithstanding the extensive efforts by the government to win the war ... adopted in this study as one of the factor that may influence people to whistle blow. .... immediate supervisor, friends and neighbor [33].

  2. Investigating decision support aids in online marketplaces based on the effort-accuracy co-existence framework

    Zhu, H.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Pavlou, P.A.; Liu, H.W.

    With the increasing prosperity of online marketplaces, millions of items are available on a single plat-form. Due to the limited cognitive capacity of human beings, consumers make purchase decisions in a way that balances both effort and accuracy, as contended by the effort-accuracy trade-off (EATO)

  3. Reliability of Clinician Rated Physical Effort Determination During Functional Capacity Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Trippolini, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Jansen, B.; Oesch, P.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Reneman, M. F.

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) can be used to make clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. During FCE the evaluator attempts to assess the amount of physical effort of the patient. The aim of this study is to analyze the reliability of physical effort determination using

  4. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  5. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  6. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded.

  7. What makes a leader?

    Goleman, D

    1999-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  8. When paranoia makes sense.

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2002-07-01

    On September 11, 2001, in the space of a few horrific minutes, Americans realized the fragility of trust. The country's evident vulnerability to deadly terrorism rocked our faith in the systems we rely on for security. Our trust was shaken again only a few months later with the stunning collapse of Enron, forcing us to question many of the methods and assumptions underpinning the way we work. These two crises are obviously very different, yet both serve as reminders of the perils of trusting too much. The abiding belief that trust is a strength now seems dangerously naive. This new doubtfulness runs contrary to most management literature, which has traditionally touted trust as an organizational asset. It's an easy case to make. When there are high levels of trust, employees can fully commit themselves to the organization because they can be confident that their efforts will be recognized and rewarded. Trust also means that leaders don't have to worry so much about putting the right spin on things. They can act and speak forthrightly and focus on essentials. In short, trust is an organizational superglue. Nevertheless, two decades of research on trust and cooperation in organizations have convinced social psychologist Roderick Kramer that--despite its costs--distrust can be beneficial in the workplace. Kramer has observed that a moderate form of suspicion, which he calls prudent paranoia, can in many cases prove highly beneficial to the distrustful individual or organization. In this article, he describes situations in which prudent paranoia makes sense and shows how, when properly deployed, it can serve as a powerful morale booster--even a competitive weapon--for organizations.

  9. What makes a leader?

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  10. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  11. Teachable Agents and the Protege Effect: Increasing the Effort towards Learning

    Chase, Catherine C.; Chin, Doris B.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Betty's Brain is a computer-based learning environment that capitalizes on the social aspects of learning. In Betty's Brain, students instruct a character called a Teachable Agent (TA) which can reason based on how it is taught. Two studies demonstrate the "protege effect": students make greater effort to learn for their TAs than they do…

  12. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    2010-10-04

    ... Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear... the hotel for meeting attendees. To ensure receiving the meeting rate, reservations must be made by October 6, 2010. For directions to the hotel or to make reservations, go to http://www.marriott.com/hotels...

  13. Contract mechanisms for coordinating a supply chain with price and sales-effort dependent demand

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain with a Buyer and a Supplier, where the endconsumer demand is influenced by two factors, namely the price of the product and the saleseffort made by the Buyer. It is assumed that the Buyer makes the sales-effort decision and incurs the associated cost.

  14. Special protective concretes

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  15. Optimizing and joining future safeguards efforts by 'remote inspections'

    Zendel, M.; Khlebnikov, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full-text: Remote inspections have a large potential to save inspection effort in future routine safeguards implementation. Such inspections involve remote activities based on the analysis of data acquired in the field without the physical presence of an inspector, shifting the inspectors' priorities further toward unannounced inspections, complementary access activities and data evaluation. Large, automated and complex facilities require facility resident and specific safeguards equipment systems with features for unattended and remotely controlled operation as well as being integrated in the nuclear process. In many instances the use of such equipment jointly with the SSAC/RSAC and the operator is foreseen to achieve affordable effectiveness with a minimum level of intrusiveness to the facility operation. Where it becomes possible to achieve independent conclusions by this approach, the IAEA would make full use of the SSAC/RSAC, involving State inspectors and/or facility operators to operate inspection systems under remotely controlled IAEA mechanisms. These mechanisms would include documented procedures for routine joint-use, defining arrangements for data sharing, physical security and authentication mechanisms, recalibration and use of standards and software, maintenance, repair, storage and transportation. The level of cooperation and willingness of a State to implement such measures requested and properly justified by the IAEA will demonstrate its commitment to full transparency in its nuclear activities. Examples of existing remote inspection activities, including joint-use activities will be discussed. The future potential of remote inspections will be assessed considering technical developments and increased needs for process monitoring. Enhanced cooperation with SSAC/RSAC within the framework of remote inspections could further optimize the IAEA's inspection efforts while at the same time maintaining effective safeguards implementation. (author)

  16. The Waqf of Money as a Community Economic Empowerment Efforts

    Diana Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waqaf is basically seen as one of the religious institutions in Islam which is relevant and functionally efforts to solve socio-economic problems and humanity, such as poverty alleviation, human resource development, and economic empowerment. The endowments are absolutely an important role in achieving a just social order. From the perspective of shapes, endowment money is seen as one of the solutions that can make endowments to be more productive. Because the money here will no longer to be used as a means of exchange, but more than it, we can explore it as a commodity to produce in the terms of economic development. Therefore, the cash money in the form of waqaf of money can result any benefit for the community. Appearances distribution of endowments can be used to productive activity in the era of economic downturn of the Islamic community in Indonesia. Now it should become the primary choice. In another sense, it is a productive waqaf endowment that must be a priority and dedicated its efforts to more fruitful. Thus, the sizes of different paradigms are done by the consumptive waqaf, because it gives a new hope for the majority of the Muslim community. Endowments are not willing to lead in worship of mahdhah which is directed to the consumptive waqaf. Using the findings of waqaf has been prioritized to give benefit in a very broad, including for economic empowerment, such as public facilities and worship activities, social facilities and educational activities as well as health, aid to poor people, displaced children, orphans, scholarship, progress and economic improvement for the people who needs the advancement of public welfare other non-contrary to the sharia business law.

  17. A myth for special relativity

    Epstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    A 'myth' for the special theory of relativity is presented as a series of questions and explanations of them. For example: Why can't one travel faster than light. The reason is that one can't go slower. There is only one speed. Everything is always moving at the speed of light; even if one is at rest in a chair. This is because one is moving through time. Other questions include; Why do clocks moving through space seem to run slower and slower as they travel faster and faster. If a spacecraft is moving through space at half the speed of light how fast would it be perceived moving through time. Why are there three space dimensions but only one time dimension. Why can movement be forward and backwards in space but only forward in time. Myths must explain what is found in nature and what is logically deduced from the myth must be found in nature. Supposing that the myth of special relativity is true makes calculations easier to do and the world easier to understand. (U.K.)

  18. Digital Storytelling – Special issue

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of Seminar.net the phenomenon of Digital Storytelling has often been suggested as a promising genre for teaching and learning in a variety of areas. Academically, the genre has attracted interest from scholars in media studies, political science, social work, health and education. In this issue we have sought attention from a huge number of academically inclined persons who either use the genre to teach with media, for teaching and learning about media, or studying how this specific way of working with media offers new possibilities for the articulation of the voice of the common people.When we invited authors for this special issue we did so expecting – and hoping for – contributions from a wide field of interests. We have landed 11 different manuscripts and have organised them according to a tentative order of themes they address: “Teaching and learning with Digital Storytelling”, “Community building”, “Genres of communication” and “Practical papers”.  Being a journal for lifelong learning, the educational use has gained the most interest. But also emerging new areas of use related to health, leisure, recreation, activism, community building, planning, professional communication, and reflection are reflected in the papers. We think the contributions together support our efforts for building the knowledge about digital storytelling as a genre and its potential in the media society. Scholarly publications in this field are generally mediated on paper. And there has been no shortage of superb exemplars of scholarly work these last couple of years: Story Circle: Digital Storytelling around the World, edited by John Hartley and Kelly McWilliams and Digital Storytelling, Mediatized Stories: Self-representations in New Media, edited by Knut Lundby, as well as a conference report, “Storytelling – Reflections in the Age of Digitalization” edited by Yvonne Gächter, Heike Ortner, Claudia Scwartz, Andreas

  19. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  20. Decision making and imperfection

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  1. Heuristic decision making.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  2. Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Regulation Efforts: Options 2 and 3

    Brown, Jason A.; Osterrieder, Robert A.; Lutz, Robert J.; Dingler, Maurice; Ward, Lewis A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has initiated efforts to incorporate risk-informed methods to redefine the scope of the existing 10 CFR 50 regulations (Option 2) and to change the technical requirements of the regulations (Option 3). The overall objectives of these efforts are to enhance plant safety, provide a framework for risk-informed regulations, add flexibility to plant operations, and reduce regulatory burden. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) has a variety of active programs in the risk-informed area, including a program in the Option 2 and Option 3 areas. These two programs will be summarized including the benefits and the technical approach. The purpose of Option 2 is to make changes to the overall scope of structures, systems and components (SSCs) covered by 10 CFR 50 requiring special treatment by formulating new risk-informed safety classification categories that are linked to current definitions of safety-related and important-to-safety. This initiative would permit possible changes to the current special treatment requirements based on risk insights. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has developed an Option 2 implementation guideline (NEI 00-04 Draft Revision B). The WOG has initiated a program to validate the NEI guideline and to provide an initial cost-benefit assessment of the revised categorization and treatment under Option 2 via trial application to two systems at both Surry Unit 1 and Wolf Creek. The WOG Option 2 program includes consideration of all of the components in the selected systems, regardless of whether or not they are modeled in the respective plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. As a result, quantitative risk measures are not available for many of the components being considered. In this case, the WOG program will provide valuable input to the NEI guideline. Additionally, the WOG program extends the use of both of the dominant methodologies for risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) to address repair and

  3. Identification of efforts required for continued safe operation of KANUPP

    Ghafoor, M.A.; Hashmi, J.A.; Siddiqui, Z.H.

    1991-01-01

    are committed to upgrade the safety as far as possible, towards current standards and criteria. We are already modernizing our operational safety practices. We also intend to update our safety analysis, to confirm the current standards and criteria which are applicable in the context of the original plant design, and implement corresponding equipment upgrades where feasible, or special procedures to compensate where possible. This paper identifies the diverse upgrading efforts required in these three major areas, i.e. obsolescence, ageing and safety. A cost-benefit criterion is envisaged to prioritize their implementation with the available resources, to keep Kanupp operating safely, even beyond its originally intended lifespan. (author)

  4. Identification of efforts required for continued safe operation of KANUPP

    Ghafoor, M A; Hashmi, J A; Siddiqui, Z H [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, Karachi (Pakistan)

    1991-04-01

    are committed to upgrade the safety as far as possible, towards current standards and criteria. We are already modernizing our operational safety practices. We also intend to update our safety analysis, to confirm the current standards and criteria which are applicable in the context of the original plant design, and implement corresponding equipment upgrades where feasible, or special procedures to compensate where possible. This paper identifies the diverse upgrading efforts required in these three major areas, i.e. obsolescence, ageing and safety. A cost-benefit criterion is envisaged to prioritize their implementation with the available resources, to keep Kanupp operating safely, even beyond its originally intended lifespan. (author)

  5. Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue.

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Nes, Lise Solberg

    2007-03-01

    Experimental research reliably demonstrates that self-regulatory deficits are a consequence of prior self-regulatory effort. However, in naturalistic settings, although people know that they are sometimes vulnerable to saying, eating, or doing the wrong thing, they cannot accurately gauge their capacity to self-regulate at any given time. Because self-regulation and autonomic regulation colocalize in the brain, an autonomic measure, heart rate variability (HRV), could provide an index of self-regulatory strength and activity. During an experimental manipulation of self-regulation (eating carrots or cookies), HRV was elevated during high self-regulatory effort (eat carrots, resist cookies) compared with low self-regulatory effort (eat cookies, resist carrots). The experimental manipulation and higher HRV at baseline independently predicted persistence at a subsequent anagram task. HRV appears to index self-regulatory strength and effort, making it possible to study these phenomena in the field as well as the lab.

  6. Obligatory Effort [Hishtadlut] as an Explanatory Model: A Critique of Reproductive Choice and Control.

    Teman, Elly; Ivry, Tsipy; Goren, Heela

    2016-06-01

    Studies on reproductive technologies often examine women's reproductive lives in terms of choice and control. Drawing on 48 accounts of procreative experiences of religiously devout Jewish women in Israel and the US, we examine their attitudes, understandings and experiences of pregnancy, reproductive technologies and prenatal testing. We suggest that the concept of hishtadlut-"obligatory effort"-works as an explanatory model that organizes Haredi women's reproductive careers and their negotiations of reproductive technologies. As an elastic category with negotiable and dynamic boundaries, hishtadlut gives ultra-orthodox Jewish women room for effort without the assumption of control; it allows them to exercise discretion in relation to medical issues without framing their efforts in terms of individual choice. Haredi women hold themselves responsible for making their obligatory effort and not for pregnancy outcomes. We suggest that an alternative paradigm to autonomous choice and control emerges from cosmological orders where reproductive duties constitute "obligatory choices."

  7. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  8. 20 CFR 632.253 - Special operating provisions.

    2010-04-01

    ...; (c) Provide labor market orientation to participants. This orientation may include, as appropriate: vocational exposure, counseling, testing, resume preparation, job interview preparation, providing labor... labor market orientation, skill training and remedial education, each grantee shall make maximum efforts...

  9. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...... arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted...... by the theory.Keywords: Outsourcing, Comparative advantage, Specialization, Wages.JEL Classification: F16, J31, C23....

  10. Access to patient-centered medical home among Ohio's Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Conrey, Elizabeth J; Seidu, Dazar; Ryan, Norma J; Chapman, Dj Sam

    2013-06-01

    Medical homes deliver primary care that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate and culturally effective. Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) require a wide range of support to maintain health, making medical home access particularly important. We sought to understand independent risk factors for lacking access. We analyzed Ohio, USA data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (2005-2006). Among CSHCN, 55.6% had medical home access. The proportion achieving each medical home component was highest for having a personal doctor/nurse and lowest for receiving coordinated care, family-centered care and referrals. Specific subsets of CSHCN were significantly and independently more likely to lack medical home access: Hispanic (AOR=3.08), moderate/high severity of difficulty (AOR=2.84), and any public insurance (AOR=1.60). Efforts to advance medical home access must give special attention to these CSHCN populations and improvements must be made to referral access, family-centered care, and care coordination.

  11. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  12. Instrument demonstration effort for the CLARREO mission

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo; Taylor, Joe; Girard, Frédéric; Larouche, Martin; Veilleux, James

    2017-11-01

    NASA and other national agencies ask the National Research Council (NRC) once every decade to look out ten or more years into the future and prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations. The latest such scientific community consultation referred to as the Decadal Survey (DS), was completed in 2007 [1]. DS thematic panels developed 35 missions from more than 100 missions proposed, from which the DS Executive Committee synthesized 17 missions, with suggested order presented in three time-phased blocks. The first block with aim for near term launch (2010-2013) included four missions. The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is one of them. The CLARREO mission was classified as a Small Mission to be contained in a 300 M US$ budgetary envelope. CLARREO will provide a benchmark climate record that is global, accurate in perpetuity, tested against independent strategies that reveal systematic errors, and pinned to international standards. The long term objective thus suggests that NOAA or NASA will fly the CLARREO instrument suite on an operational basis following the first scientific experiment The CLARREO missions will conduct the following observations: 1. Absolute spectrally-resolved measurements of terrestrial thermal emission with an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K in brightness temperature (3σ or 99% confidence limits.) The measurements should cover most of the thermal spectrum. 2. Absolute spectrally-resolved measurements of the solar radiation reflected from Earth. The measurements should cover the part of the solar spectrum most important to climate, including the near-ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared. 3. Independent measurements of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity using Global Positioning System (GPS) occultation measurements of atmospheric refraction. 4. Serve as a high accuracy calibration standard for use by the broadband CERES instruments on-orbit. Following

  13. What influences patient decision-making in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multidisciplinary care? A study of patient perspectives

    Hogden A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Hogden,1 David Greenfield,1 Peter Nugus,1 Matthew C Kiernan21Centre for Clinical Governance Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, University of New South Wales, 2Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, and Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS are required to make decisions concerning quality of life and symptom management over the course of their disease. Clinicians perceive that patients’ ability to engage in timely decision-making is extremely challenging. However, we lack patient perspectives on this issue. This study aimed to explore patient experiences of ALS, and to identify factors influencing their decision-making in the specialized multidisciplinary care of ALS.Methods: An exploratory study was conducted. Fourteen patients from two specialized ALS multidisciplinary clinics participated in semistructured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed for emergent themes.Results: Decision-making was influenced by three levels of factors, ie, structural, interactional, and personal. The structural factor was the decision-making environment of specialized multidisciplinary ALS clinics, which supported decision-making by providing patients with disease-specific information and specialized care planning. Interactional factors were the patient experiences of ALS, including patients’ reaction to the diagnosis, response to deterioration, and engagement with the multidisciplinary ALS team. Personal factors were patients’ personal philosophies, including their outlook on life, perceptions of control, and planning for the future. Patient approaches to decision-making reflected a focus on the present, rather than anticipating future progression of the disease and potential care needs.Conclusion: Decision-making for symptom management and quality of life in ALS care is enhanced when the

  14. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    Lammers, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  15. Special Libraries and Multitype Networks.

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history of multitype library networks; examines the reasons why special libraries and other network participants have resisted the inclusion of special libraries in these networks; and discusses the benefits to both special libraries and to other libraries in the network that would result from special library participation. (17…

  16. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  19. Special Libraries in Singapore.

    Leong, Alice

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishes five main categories of special libraries in Singapore: those of private organizations, foreign governments, government departments, statutory boards, and regional organizations. Statistical data are provided for library holdings, professional staff employment, and subject profiles, and suggestions for improving various aspects of…

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Special attention is paid to human capital agglomeration, which is regarded as a .... the innovation sector, on the periphery of the ... Agglomeration is an effective form of concentration of human capital, intellectual ... participants of social relations (public, entrepreneurs) or the formation of clusters, emerging.

  3. Special irradiation techniques

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... they have no special development plan and their authorities actually do not know about the ... Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban network, SWOT analysis, ... rural areas and can decrease regional differences in developing ... Small scale cities are necessary for integration of rural and urban.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.

  6. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  7. Special Operation. Module 20.

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... WORLD THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL ... It has been explored by many a Russian and foreign researcher. ... attempt to focus, instead of going back to the analysis of past experience, on the subject from ... intercultural interaction between various nations, was given special ...

  9. Procurement with specialized firms

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  11. Overview of Special Issue

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Harman, Donna; Allan, James; Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bennet, Paul; Callan, Jamie; Clarke, Charles; Diaz, Fernando; Dumais, Susan; Ferro, Nicola; Harman, Donna; Ruthven, Ian; Sakai, Tetsuya; Smucker, Mark D.; Zobel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of SIGIR Forum marks the 40th anniversary of the ACM SIGIR Conference by showcasing papers selected for the ACM SIGIR Test of Time Award from the years 1978-2001. These papers document the history and evolution of IR research and practice, and illustrate the intellectual impact

  12. Special Issue Editorial

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  13. Special Milk Program

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  14. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... such as the athletes. This is done through gene doping, ... reduced risk of injury and drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training ..... GJB2 gene among Malays with non-syndromic hearing loss. International ...

  16. 19 (Special Issue)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  17. Special Interest Groups.

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  18. Assertiveness with 'Special' Children.

    Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia

    The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations. D THAT USES A ... Clinical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Aoba ... Special Issue ..... advisable to run the prognosis results at least one hundred times with the Euclidean and ... They are some of the topics left for future research. 5.

  1. Document collection of the 28th technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning

    Kutsuna, Hideki; Iwai, Hiroki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Yasuyuki

    2014-02-01

    Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, in planning and carrying out our decommissioning technical development, has been establishing “Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning” which consists of the members well-informed, aiming to make good use of Fugen as a place for technological development which is opened inside and outside the country, as the central point in the energy research and development base making project of Fukui prefecture, and to utilize the outcome in our decommissioning to the technical development effectively. This report compiles presentation materials “The Current Situation of Fugen Decommissioning”, “The Current Status of the Cutting Test toward the Practical Use of Laser Cutting Technology and the Future Plan”, “Study on Radioactive Substance Osmosis for Basis Concrete of Equipment”, “Verification Tests of the Room-Temperature Vacuum Drying and the Evaluation Method of Residual Amount of Heavy Water in the Tritium Removal” and “Report on the FUGEN Efforts of R and D for Decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS - Applicability Test of Thermal and Mechanical Cutting Technology for the Dismantlement of the Internal Core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS -”, presented in the 28th Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning which was held on September 24, 2013. (author)

  2. A specialized vessel for specialized work

    De Vries, J.; De Beenhouwer, S.; Strong, R.; Eversdijk, B. [Tideway BV (Netherlands); Breen, L. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges associated with the construction and development of the Terra Nova Field, situated on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. In particular, the paper describes how pipelines were protected and stabilized in this harsh environment where the presence of icebergs is common in the springtime. Pipelines were covered with a berm of well-graded quarry stone. The job was executed by the specialized dynamically positioned fall-pipe vessel (DPFPV) called Seahorse. Tideway Marine of the Netherlands operates the Seahorse, which has 2 storage bunkers to carry a total of 18,000 metric tons of rock. Conveyor belts transport the stones from the storage bunkers to a fall-pipe, an open tubular hanging under the vessel which allows the rocks to be dumped in water depths ranging from 20 metres to 1,000 metres. This paper demonstrates that rock dumping is an effective and flexible solution to stabilize and protect pipelines. Dimensions and configuration of the rock can be optimized according to unique specifications of a project. The insulation properties of the rock reduce the amount of insulation foam required for hot flowlines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Safety enhancement efforts after Fukushima accident in Korea

    Lee, U.C., E-mail: uclee@nssc.go.kr [Nuclear Safety & Security Commission, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    On March 11 of 2011, a massive earthquake and powerful tsunami hit the north-eastern region of Japan and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was massively damaged. Korea which is located closest to Japan was not directly affected, however, its people were shocked. They were concerned over the possibility of being exposed to radiation as well as for the safety of domestic nuclear power plants. The Korean government recognized the need to take prompt and immediate actions to alleviate these concerns. The Korean government immediately implemented special safety inspection and derived 50 long and short-term improvement action items to ensure safety of NPPs under extreme hazard conditions. At present, stage 3 of implementation strategy is being implemented, with completion of 22 items including ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) as well as revision of 14 items including suitability review of action measures taken for investigation and research of maximum earthquake at NPP sites. The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission was conducted for two weeks during July 10 and 22, 2011, which happened to be the very first review mission to be carried out since the Fukushima disaster. A module on the policy issues related to the actions taken after the Fukushima accident was newly added to the mission. The mission highlighted positive aspects of Korea's safety regulatory program, praising its technical competence and effectiveness. Additionally it concluded that Korea has been responding to the accident in a timely and an effective manner. The follow-up review mission is scheduled in December of this year, expanding the scope to include radiation safety as well. The most noteworthy change in Korea since the Fukushima accident is independence of the regulatory body. Not only to enhance effectiveness and independence of the regulatory body but to secure nuclear safety, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was established on October 26

  4. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance.

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  5. Making ''unconventional'' energy resources conventional

    Beattie, D A; Bresee, J C; Cooper, M J; Herwig, L O; Kintner, E E

    1977-01-01

    Three ''unconventional'' energy technologies - geothermal, solar and fusion - looked upon in the United States as possessing significant potential for the large scale production of energy. Both fusion and solar energy promise virtually inexhaustible supplies in the long term while geothermal resources offer a relatively near term prospect for more modest, but still significant, energy contributions. Realizing energy production from any of these technologies will require: (1) a great deal of scientific information and/or engineering development; (2) a significant effort to achieve and insure attractive economics; and (3) the development of adequate industrial capacity and technological infrastructure. Here the status of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration's technology development programs in geothermal, solar and fusion energy systems is reviewed. Recent advances in overcoming significant technological barriers are discussed and future directions are described. Special needs and unique opportunities for contributions to each technology are also set forth.

  6. A Collaborative Effort to Assess Environmental Health in ...

    The Region 3 “Making a Visible Difference in Communities” (MVD) initiative for Southeast Newport News, VA has taken a community-centric, place-based approach to identifying and delivering service to the area’s residents and the city as a whole. Beginning with a CARE (Community Action for a Renewed Environment) Level 1 cooperative agreement (a grant with substantial government involvement and required outputs) in 2011, Region 3 funding helped to establish the Southeast CARE Coalition (“the Coalition”), and quickly formed a bond with the organization. Two years later, Region 3, the US EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the Coalition embarked on a scientific, socio-demographic Regional Sustainable Environmental Science (RESES) research project to assess local pollutant sources and their potential impacts to the community. These efforts helped EPA select Newport News as an MVD community, resulting in an expanded partnership that now includes the City of Newport News. Through this association and the MVD designation, the partners have identified and prioritized environmental and other concerns (e.g., improving air and water quality, adapting to extreme weather, promoting equitable development, improving transportation). Newport News has recently held workshops and training on topics such as environmental health, asthma, weather events, and equitable development, and continues to improve the community’s health, its knowledge of the relevant e

  7. The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.

    Labonté, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Economic events of the past year are beginning to create hardships for tens of thousands of Canadians. There are likely to be health effects as well, to the extent that unemployment and poverty rates rise. Conditions, however, will be much worse for those living in poorer countries. High-income countries are committing trillions of dollars in countercyclical spending and banking bail-outs. Poorer countries need to do the same, but lack the resources to do so. Yet foreign aid and fairer trade are widely expected to be among the first high-income country victims of the recession fallout as nations turn inwards and protectionist. This is neither good for global health nor necessary given the scale of untaxed (or unfairly taxed) wealth that could be harnessed for a truly global rescue package. Policy choices confront us. The Canadian public health community must hold our political leadership accountable for making those choices that will improve health globally and not further imperil the well-being of much of the world's population in efforts to secure our own future economic revival.

  8. Regional dialogue and multilateral arms control efforts today

    Graham, T. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The significance of arms control and non-proliferation tasks is stressed emphasising what has been done, and-more important-what must still be done. Although tangible developments at the regional level may seem at times to be slow in coming, it is important to remember that the United States-Soviet transition from voluntary declarations to detailed arms control agreements with intrusive verification regimes spanned the entire length of cold war. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. The experience of the United States and the former Soviet Union amply demonstrates that mere existence of regular dialogue can reduce tension by providing a platform for communication among military and Government participants even when political crisis prevents diplomatic contacts at senior levels. The international community should be encouraged by the progress that has been made to date to address regional instabilities. Such steps are an integral part of the international effort, carried out both at the United Nations and elsewhere, to adopt acceptable levels of conventional military forces and to eliminate weapons of mass destruction. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. World changes, while potentially dangerous and certainly challenging, offer the hope of replacing antagonism with cooperation, creating a progressively more democratic global environment, preventing proliferation, and dampening regional conflicts. Continuing to make effective use of the entire mix of arms control and confidence-building tools will help to realize these hopes

  9. Korean efforts for education and training network in nuclear technology

    Han, Kyong-Won; Lee, Eui-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been a backbone for Korea's remarkable economic growth, and will continue its essential role with 18 nuclear power plants in operation, 2 more units under construction, 6 more units in planning. Korea is operating its own designed nuclear power plants, such as KSNP, 1400, as well as self-design and operation of 30 MW Hanaro research reactor. Korea makes strong efforts to develop future nuclear technology. They are the System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor, SMART, Korea Advanced Liquid Metal reactor, KALIMER, Hydrogen Production reactor, and Proliferation-resistant Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In parallel, Korea is establishing an Advanced Radiation Technology R and D Center and a High Power Proton Accelerator Center. International, next generation nuclear power technologies are being developed through projects such as the IAEA Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle, INPRO, Generation IV International Forum, GIF, and International thermonuclear Experimental reactor, ITER. In the new millennium, Korea expects that radiation technology combined with bio, nano, and space technology will sustain our civilization. About 21,000 qualified nuclear human resources are engaged in power and non-power fields such as design and manufacturing of equipment, plant operation and maintenance, safety, RI production, R and D, etc. However, it is recognized that the first generation of nuclear work force is getting older and retired, less of our youth are studying nuclear science and engineering. Korean Government has established a promotion program on nuclear human resources development, which is needed until 2010. For the sustainable development of nuclear science and technology, it calls for more qualified human resources. We ought to encourage our youth to become more interested in nuclear studies and careers. Korea is making strong efforts to support nuclear education and training for young generations. It is believed that internationally accepted advanced

  10. Gestures Specialized for Dialogue.

    Bavelas, Janet Beavin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explored how hand gestures help interlocutors coordinate their dialogue. Analysis of dyadic conversations and monologues revealed that requirements of dialogue uniquely affect interactive gestures. Gestures aided the speaker's efforts to include the addressee in the conversation. Gestures also demonstrated the importance of social processes in…

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... proven from the numerous efforts and strategies that have been planned and ... establishment of the Muslim Friendly Hospitality Services (MFHS) .... also must ensure that the supplier also understands the real concept of Halal food. .... Member States, Tourism Management Perspectives, 19 (2016), 144-149.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... climate impacts can challenge efforts to maintain water quality through effective .... connected to a vacuum pump e) Dried membrane filter ... Based on Department Irrigation and Drainage of Malaysia (DID), the ... close to the Equator Line resulting in relatively high temperatures impacting more solar rays.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... and provide and take different drugs based on their own [often false] diagnosis ... and in some cases, the information and statistics given by these ... Some efforts have been made to reform the existing model; however, ... 53 million patients have consulted with their doctors on the possibility of changing their.

  14. Building capability throughout a change effort: leading the transformation of a police agency to community policing.

    Ford, J Kevin

    2007-06-01

    This case describes a change effort to move a police agency to become a community policing organization. The community policing effort was seen as a means to make a transformational change to become a learning organization with the goal of improving the delivery of police services. The case describes the steps taken to meet the new vision of community policing as well as the steps taken to deal with the challenges or realities of trying to make change happen. The lens for this case is the leadership role across the stages of change (exploration, planning, implementation, monitoring and institutionalization) in building capacity within the organization to sustain the change effort. The capacity building focused on incorporating systems thinking into the mindset of the members of the organization, breaking down the command and control mindset by building a new norm around high involvement of committed teams, and developing skill sets to support continuous learning and improvement in order to align organizational systems. A key lesson learned is that effective leaders do not just prepare an organization prior to a change effort. They must have the patience to constantly build the capacity for change among organizational members throughout the various stages of the change effort.

  15. Special Operations Forces Reference Manual. Fourth Edition

    2015-06-01

    activities that support an adversary’s ability to negatively affect U.S. interests. CTF support can assist SOF in the execution of core activities in...the split team concept making up two six-man teams. Assistant Detachment Operations Sergeant Methods of Infiltration Special Forces soldiers possess...Twelve ODAs per SFG can infil- trate and exfiltrate by surface swim techniques. Unless specifically identified, the only teams with designated specialty

  16. Making nuclear 'normal'

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  17. Shared decision making

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  18. Parental advocacy styles for special education students during the transition to adulthood.

    Rehm, Roberta S; Fisher, Lucille T; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Chesla, Catherine A

    2013-10-01

    In an ethnographic study of planning for the transition to adulthood, we explored parental advocacy styles in special education settings for youth and young adults with chronic health conditions and developmental disabilities. Of 61 parents, 43 were satisfied with outcomes in negotiations for school services for their children. We identified three parental advocacy styles for these parents: (a) high-profile parents, who insisted on specific, wide-ranging services for their children that often resulted in conflict with educators; (b) strategic parents, who negotiated for selected goals and were willing to compromise, and (c) grateful-gratifier parents, who formed close relationships with educators and trusted them to make appropriate decisions. Eighteen parents were overwhelmed, burned out, or unfocused, and generally dissatisfied with outcomes of educational planning meetings. Professional efforts to enhance parental advocacy can target development of skills and strategies that have worked for successful negotiators.

  19. Differing professional opinions: 1987 Special Review Panel

    1987-11-01

    In mid-1987, the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission appointed a Special Review Panel to review the existing NRC policy for expressing differing professional views and to recommend possible improvements to the policy, if warranted. Through its own efforts and those of three subpanels and three consultants, the Panel developed recommendations for changes and improvements in five major areas. This report presents those recommendations, along with a detailed explanation of the Panel's findings, copies of the reports of the subpanels and consultants, and the results of a survey of NRC non-clerical employees on the issue

  20. Special event planning for the emergency manager.

    Gaynor, Peter T

    2009-11-01

    In the domain of emergency management and homeland security there is a lack of a formal planning process at the local level when it comes to special event planning. The unique nature of special event planning demands an understanding of the planning process for both traditional and non-traditional planning partners. This understanding will make certain that local governments apply due diligence when planning for the safety of the public. This paper offers a practical roadmap for planning at the local level. It will address those 'special events' that are beyond routine local events but not of a sufficient scale to be granted National Special Security Event status. Due to the infrequency of 'special events' in most communities, it is imperative that deliberate planning takes place. Upon conclusion, the reader will be able to construct a planning process tailored to the needs of their community, guide both traditional and non-traditional planning partners through the planning process, determine priorities, explore alternatives, plan for contingencies, conduct a confirmation brief, facilitate operations and assemble an after-action report and improvement plan.